WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmosphere revitalization technology

  1. First Human Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In two previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of the technology in a representative environment with simulated human metabolic loads. The next step in developmental testing at JSC was to replace the simulated humans with real humans; this testing was conducted in the spring of 2008. This first instance of human testing of a new Orion ARS technology included several cases in a sealed Orion-equivalent free volume and three cases using emergency breathing masks connected directly to the ARS loop. Significant test results presented in this paper include comparisons between the standard metabolic rates for CO2 and water vapor production published in Orion requirements documents and real-world rate ranges observed with human test subjects. Also included are qualitative assessments of process flow rate and closed-loop pressure-cycling tolerability while using the emergency masks. Recommendations for modifications to the Orion ARS design and operation, based on the test results, conclude the paper.

  2. Sorbent-Based Atmosphere Revitalization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C (Inventor); Miller, Lee A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system using treatment beds each having a bed housing, primary and secondary moisture adsorbent layers, and a primary carbon dioxide adsorbent layer. Each bed includes a redirecting plenum between moisture adsorbent layers, inlet and outlet ports connected to inlet and outlet valves, respectively, and bypass ports connected to the redirecting plenums. The SBAR system also includes at least one bypass valve connected to the bypass ports. An inlet channel connects inlet valves to an atmosphere source. An outlet channel connects the bypass valve and outlet valves to the atmosphere source. A vacuum channel connects inlet valves, the bypass valve and outlet valves to a vacuum source. In use, one bed treats air from the atmosphere source while another bed undergoes regeneration. During regeneration, the inlet, bypass, and outlet valves sequentially open to the vacuum source, removing accumulated moisture and carbon dioxide.

  3. Indigenous Language Revitalization, Promotion, and Education: Function of Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu

    2016-01-01

    Within the last two decades, there has been increased interest in how technology supports Indigenous language revitalization and reclamation efforts. This paper considers the effect technology has on Indigenous language learning and teaching, while conceptualizing how language educators, speakers, learners, and technology users holistically…

  4. How Technology Can Revitalize Historic Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    In an excerpt from "The Wired Tower," a college president offers his perspective on the revolutionary and evolutionary changes that higher education will experience as a result of information technology and warns against a rush into the digital economy that could destroy higher education's reason for being. (EV)

  5. Evaluation of an Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Conrad, Ruth E.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Knox, James C.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Takada, Kevin C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    An Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) suitable for deployment aboard deep space exploration mission vehicles has been developed and functionally demonstrated. This modified ARS process design architecture was derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) basic ARS. Primary functions considered in the architecture include trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, carbon dioxide reduction, and oxygen generation. Candidate environmental monitoring instruments were also evaluated. The process architecture rearranges unit operations and employs equipment operational changes to reduce mass, simplify, and improve the functional performance for trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. Results from integrated functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during previous testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture and a similarly evolved process architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  6. A closed-loop air revitalization process technology demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay; Luna, Bernadette; Kliss, Mark

    Demonstrating a sustainable, reliable life support system process design that possesses the capability to close the oxygen cycle to the greatest extent possible is required for extensive surface exploration of the Moon and Mars by humans. A conceptual closed-loop air revitalization system process technology demonstrator that combines the CO2 removal, recovery, and reduction and oxygen generation operations in a single compact envelope is described. NASA has developed, and in some cases flown, process technologies for capturing metabolic CO2 from air, reducing CO2 to H2O and CH4, electrolyzing H2O to O2, and electrolyzing CO2 to O2 and CO among a number of candidates. Traditionally, these processes either operate in parallel with one another or have not taken full benefit of a unit operation-based design approach to take complete advantage of the synergy between individual technologies. The appropriate combination of process technologies must capitalize on the advantageous aspects of individual technologies while eliminating or transforming the features that limit their feasibility when considered alone. Such a process technology integration approach also provides advantages of optimized mass, power and volume characteristics for the hardware embodiment. The conceptual air revitalization system process design is an ideal technology demonstrator for the critically needed closed-loop life support capabilities for long duration human exploration of the lunar surface and extending crewed space exploration toward Mars. The conceptual process design incorporates low power CO2 removal, process gas drying, and advanced engineered adsorbents being developed by NASA and industry.

  7. Multimedia Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Practical Educational Tools and Applications Used within Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reports findings from a study documenting the use of multimedia technology among Indigenous language communities to assist language learners, speakers, instructors, and institutions learn about multimedia technologies that have contributed to Indigenous language revitalization, education, documentation, preservation, and…

  8. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the atmospheric revitalization pressure control subsystem FMEA/CIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiidi, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the atmospheric Revitalization Pressure Control Subsystem (ARPCS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL proposed Post 51-L updates based upon the CCB/PRCB presentations and an informal criticality summary listing. A discussion of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. These discrepancies were flagged as issues, and recommendations were made based on the FMEA data available at the time. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ARPCS hardware.

  9. Carbon dioxide removal system for closed loop atmosphere revitalization, candidate sorbents screening and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, E. M.; Knox, J. C.; Bardot, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the difficulty and expense it costs to resupply manned-spacecraft habitats, a goal is to create a closed loop atmosphere revitalization system, in which precious commodities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are continuously recycled. Our aim is to test other sorbents for their capacity for future spacecraft missions, such as on the Orion spacecraft, or possibly lunar or Mars mission habitats to see if they would be better than the zeolite sorbents on the 4-bed molecular sieve. Some of the materials being tested are currently used for other industry applications. Studying these sorbents for their specific spacecraft application is different from that for applications on earth because in space, there are certain power, mass, and volume limitations that are not as critical on Earth. In manned-spaceflight missions, the sorbents are exposed to a much lower volume fraction of CO2 (0.6% volume CO2) than on Earth. LiLSX was tested for its CO2 capacity in an atmosphere like that of the ISS. Breakthrough tests were run to establish the capacities of these materials at a partial pressure of CO2 that is seen on the ISS. This paper discusses experimental results from benchmark materials, such as results previously obtained from tests on Grade 522, and the forementioned candidate materials for the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) system.

  10. Update: Partnership for the Revitalization of National Wind Tunnel Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the lack of funding and focus on force measurement over the past several years, focusing specifically on strain-gage balances. NASA partnered with the U.S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem and established the National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) project. This paper provides an update on the team's status for revitalizing the government's balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the these critical measurement devices.

  11. SMARTE: RESTORING THE ENVIRONMENT, REVITALIZING COMMUNITIES - NOV. 13, 2006 - TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE THEATRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools -electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and...

  12. Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) for Long Duration Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project focuses on key physico-chemical process technologies for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS) that increase reliability, capability, and consumable...

  13. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  14. Evaluation of Sorbents for Acetylene Separation in Atmosphere Revitalization Loop Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Barton, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art carbon dioxide reduction technology uses a Sabatier reactor to recover water from metabolic carbon dioxide. In order to maximize oxygen loop closure, a byproduct of the system, methane, must be reduced to recover hydrogen. NASA is currently exploring a microwave plasma methane pyrolysis system for this purpose. The resulting product stream of this technology includes unreacted methane, product hydrogen, and acetylene. The hydrogen and the small amount of unreacted methane resulting from the pyrolysis process can be returned to the Sabatier reactor thereby substantially improving the overall efficiency of the system. However, the acetylene is a waste product that must be removed from the pyrolysis product. Two materials have been identified as potential sorbents for acetylene removal: zeolite 4A, a commonly available commercial sorbent, and HKUST-1, a newly developed microporous metal. This paper provides an explanation of the rationale behind acetylene removal and the results of separation testing with both materials

  15. Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

    2010-03-01

    NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon

  16. Contribution of the Science, the Technology and the Innovation of the Universidad de Oriente to the Local Economic Revitalizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Salvador Soulary–Carracedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to design a methodology to evaluate the contribution of the science, the technology and the innovation of universities to the local economic revitalizing. The scientific novelty resides in a sequence of procedures, based on administration, statistical and mathematical modeling methods that constitutes a tool for the qualitative improvement of this relationship. The application of the methodology in the Universidad de Oriente allowed to verify that if the optimal structure of scientific projects is implemented it would increase, in the year 2017, the economic impact of the scientific projects in 5% like average, what would improve the efficiency in the use of the financial and human resources, as well as the relevancy of its results. Also, the partial implementation of the proposed plan of actions, it has impacted positively on the detected problems denoting a more favorable situation that the one evaluated initially. 

  17. Revitalize the US silicon/ferrosilicon industry through energy-efficient technology. Part 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H.R.; Welborn, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    It is concluded that silicon metal and ferrosilicon can be very effectively produced in a DC submerged arc furnace. Specific energy consumption factors measured were favorable to the technology. Significant energy savings over conventional AC practice are likely. Hollow electrode feeding of the furnace does not appear feasible. Electrode consumption was 0.144 lbs/lb so silicon while making metal, much of which occurred above the burden pile. Silicon loss to fume averaged 19.5% of the silicon charge. In this furnace, 50% FeSi was more difficult to produce than silicon metal, and the furnace could not be run with full burden; it was operated successfully about 3/4 full. In the silicon metal portion, the furnace was operated in a fully submerged mode for several 3-day test campaigns. The industry must seriously consider the identified benefits of DC plasma arc technology for retrofit or new added silicon capacity.

  18. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2004-12-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays.

  19. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  20. Technologies for ECLSS Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Bryce L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) evolution are presented. Topics covered include: atmosphere revitalization including CO2 removal, CO2 reduction, O2 generation, and trace contaminant control; water recovery and management including urine processing, hygiene water processing, and potable water processing; and waste management. ECLSS technology schematics, process diagrams, and fluid interfaces are included.

  1. Programming of Urban Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliński, Tadeusz

    2016-12-01

    The planning stage of the investment-construction process is of a crucial importance. Its overall impact on the costs, construction time and the quality of design solutions is huge. However, in practice, little attention is given to this pre-design stage, except for public buildings or other buildings of particular importance. In consequence, the results of investment and construction activities are unsatisfactory. Therefore, the issue has been given careful consideration in this paper. The paper discusses the issue of programming urban revitalization, emphasizing its socio-economic importance. To illustrate the complexity of revitalization projects planning, the author draws attention to social, economic, technical and organisational factors, such as public participation, reorganization and revaluation of land use planning, rationalization of energy use, organization and management of revitalization processes, as well as technical progress. Summarising the paper, the author concludes that in order to improve the quality of life of town residents and to protect material national heritage, it is indispensable to continuously revitalize subsequent town areas.

  2. Revitalizing Communities in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzl, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.

  3. Maintenance and Revitalization of Gallo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, J. Shaun

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the current state of maintenance and revitalization of eastern Brittany’s Oïl language variety, Gallo. Following a description of the sociolinguistic context of regional languages in France today, this chapter focuses on maintenance and revitalization efforts for Gallo. Gallo...... promotion organizations comprising teachers, linguists, enthusiasts, and activists are working hard at a local and regional level to ensure that there is a greater awareness of the existence of this language variety and to foster an appreciation of the importance of its maintenance and revitalization...

  4. Revitalization Areas By Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Single Family Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by...

  5. Atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, E.J.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    Fluidization states, bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, and the basics of pressurized fluidized bed combustion are outlined. PFBC demonstration plants, cogeneration, operational units and possible new plants, growth of PFBC capacity, sulphur capture, sulphation, phase composition of ashes, and actual performance in reduction of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are described. Problems occurring during operation show that turbines need to be protected and that hot gas filters degrade and are unreliable. It is concluded that the future of PFBC depends on Asian development and that the technology may be stimulated by stricter pollution controls. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Indigenous education and heritage revitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and

  7. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  8. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  9. Improvement of Cooling Technology through Atmosphere Gas Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard, Michel; Dosogne, Edgaar; Crutzen, Jean Pierre; Raick, Jean Mare [DREVER INTERNATIONAL S.A., Liege (Belgium); Ji, Ma Jia; Jun, Lv; Zhi, Ma Bing [SHOUGANG Cold Rolling Mill Headquarter, Beijin (China)

    2009-12-15

    The production of advanced high strength steels requires the improvement of cooling technology. The use of high cooling rates allows relatively low levels of expensive alloying additions to ensure sufficient hardenability. In classical annealing and hot-dip galvanizing lines a mixing station is used to provide atmosphere gas containing 3-5% hydrogen and 97-95% nitrogen in the various sections of the furnace, including the rapid cooling section. Heat exchange enhancement in this cooling section can be insured by the increased hydrogen concentration. Driver international developed a patented improvement of cooling technology based on the following features: pure hydrogen gas is injected only in the rapid cooling section whereas the different sections of the furnace are supplied with pure nitrogen gas: the control of flows through atmosphere gas management allows to get high hydrogen concentration in cooling section and low hydrogen content in the other furnace zones. This cooling technology development insures higher cooling rates without additional expensive hydrogen gas consumption and without the use of complex sealing equipment between zones. In addition reduction in electrical energy consumption is obtained. This atmosphere control development can be combined with geometrical design improvements in order to get optimised cooling technology providing high cooling rates as well as reduced strip vibration amplitudes. Extensive validation of theoretical research has been conducted on industrial lines. New lines as well as existing lines, with limited modifications, can be equipped with this new development. Up to now this technology has successfully been implemented on 6 existing and 7 new lines in Europe and Asia.

  10. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    2016-03-01

    The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. More information about the instrument can be found through the manufacturer’s website. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. Calibrated sky radiance spectra are produced on cycle of about 141 seconds with a group of 6 radiance spectra zenith having dwell times of about 14 seconds each interspersed with 55 seconds of calibration and mirror motion. The ASSIST data is comparable to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data and can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  11. Outer planet atmospheric entry probes - An overview of technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodich, N. S.; Reynolds, R. T.; Grant, T. L.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Entry probe systems for characterizing, by in situ measurements, the atmospheric properties, chemical composition, and cloud structure of the planets Saturn, Uranus, and Jupiter are examined from the standpoint of unique mission requirements, associated subsystem performance, and degree of commonality of design. Past earth entry vehicles (PAET) and current planetary spacecraft (Pioneer Venus probes and Viking lander) are assessed to identify the extent of potential subsystem inheritance, as well as to establish the significant differences, in both form and function, relative to outer planet requirements. Recent research results are presented and reviewed for the most critical probe technology areas, including: science accommodation, telecommunication, and entry heating and thermal protection. Finally presented is a brief discussion of the use of decision analysis techniques for quantifying various probe heat-shield test alternatives and performance risk.

  12. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  13. Revitalizing the Live Lecture Class With Instructor-Created Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Alpert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the lecture class as a format for higher education is under attack more than ever. This article addresses the research question of how lectures can be modernized and revitalized through new uses of digital technology—in particular, video. Critics of lecturing have for a long time observed that lecture classes can be weak on student engagement and motivation to attend class. This article introduces one way to help modernize and revitalize the live lecture class session, a new conceptualization of the instructor-created video. Instructor-created videos are defined and distinguished from current hybrid and alternative forms of technology integration that are proliferating in higher education such as flipped and blended classrooms. Many, if not most, videos used in lectures are “third party videos” (made by others, whereas instructor-created videos are “first party videos.” The author develops and defines the concept of VIDS (Videos Instructor Designed and Starring. VIDS examples illustrate the concept from the author’s experience in a course with 158 students. Student feedback based on survey results is positive. Suggestions for making better videos are offered based on the implementation experience. The VIDS innovation is discussed within the context of the “crisis of the lecture” and offered as one tool to help modernize and revitalize the live lecture class.

  14. Brownfields and Land Revitalization Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains resources provided by EPA's Brownfields and Land Revitalization program that can be used for the assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment of...

  15. Cold atmospheric plasma - A new technology for spacecraft component decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Hoeschen, Till; Linsmeier, Christian; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) based on the Surface Micro-Discharge (SMD) technology was investigated for inactivation of different bacteria and endospores. The used technique was developed to serve as an alternative method for the decontamination of spacecraft components based on the COSPAR planetary protection policy where currently the dry heat microbial reduction method is the only applicable way to satisfy the required demands. However it is known, that dry heat can thermally damage sophisticated components installed on the device. Therefore, the development of a low temperature sterilization system is one of the high priority issues for upcoming space missions in the extraterrestrial field. In the study presented here, the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus megaterium 2c1 and Bacillus thuringiensis E24 - were inactivated by exposing them indirectly i.e. only to the reactive gases produced by the SMD electrode at room temperature. The results showed a 5 log inactivation for E. coli after 10 min of exposure. In contrast D. radiodurans proved to be more resistant resulting in a reduction of 3 log after exposure of 30 min. More than 6 log reductions were achieved for B. safensis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium 2c1 after 90 min of exposure. Furthermore the applicability of the used CAP system for spacecraft decontamination according to the planetary protection policy was investigated. This included also the investigation of the inactivation homogeneity by the plasma gas, the control of the temperature at the area of interest, the measurement of the O3 density in the treatment region and the detailed investigation of the effects of the exposure on different materials.

  16. Need for Linear Revitalization - Gdynia Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Bojarska, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss the need of defining and implementation of the linear revitalization - the new approach related to the revitalization processes. The results of the preliminary investigations indicate that this kind of revitalization seems to be an important tool supporting city management and planning, especially in cases of cities fragmentation - causing lack of physical, social, economic and ecological cohesion. The problems which may occur in such situations could be, in author’s opinion, solved with the use of linear revitalization. Linear revitalization relates to various linear city structures, which need a renewal. The article presents the idea of new attitude, character of specific actions related to degraded linear structures, draft classification, as well as the potential benefits to the city structure which could be reached due to the linear revitalization implementation. The theoretical deliberations are supplemented by the description and assessment of the chosen case study from Gdynia in Poland. The Kwiatkowskiego Route in Gdynia, playing important role in the city traffic as the external connection, creates the barrier in the city structure, causing many negative effects. Author presents specific problems related to chosen example, and the ways to solve them and to connect city structure. The main conclusion of the study is that the presented approach may be, in author’s opinion, the beginning of the discussion related to the linear revitalization, which may become an important and effective tool of sustainable city development. It may help overcoming physical barriers, and minimise functional, economic, social, mental and environmental conflicts caused by city fragmentation.

  17. Advanced Technologies for Coordinated In Situ Atmospheric Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a great need for better understanding of the continuity of atmospheric processes on multiple scales ranging from several kilometers to the order of a meter....

  18. Revitalization Of The 1970s Within The ‘Old Town’ In Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żwirek Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected issues in the revitalization of the façades of buildings located in the historic ‘Old Town’ part of the city of Kraków. The subjects of the revitalization were the façades of an office building and a multi-level garage, both built in the 1970s in the administrative district of the ‘Old Town’ in Krakow. The criteria that guided the project heads in the choice of technology and technical solutions used in the revitalization project are also presented. The paper discusses the problems associated with the implementation of a new aluminium façade on the exterior walls, which were characterized by very large inaccuracies, significantly exceeding tolerance values.

  19. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...

  20. The Atmospheric Pollution caused by the Technological Liquid Gas Evaporation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-18

    and controlled gas exhaust into the atmosphere, mostly from industrial chimneys, is theoretically pretty well worked out giving details connected...secially vertexes. It is- o-.-amriified on tK’. :icture by Ynearv- of lii,:eninF7 the - hapie of the diffusinp cloud1 to the z=?m scinon Fi.&.2. The

  1. Harvesting Atmospheric Ions Using Surface Electromagnetic Wave Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Wai Yip Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, this paper discloses the use of flowing water for capturing atmospheric ions into a DC electricity. The proposed methodology can be employed to neutralize the positively charged pollutants in air, which are believed to be harmful to our health. Methodology: Atmospheric ions can be collected by a negatively charged antenna which comprises a dielectric layer sandwiched between a top aluminium layer and a bottom lead plate. The top aluminium layer is used to collect the ambient protons, whilst the bottom lead plate is negatively charged by a negative static electricity extracted from flowing water. The voltage has been measured between the top aluminium layer and the bottom lead plate with and without any sunlight. Results: Without any UV light or other electromagnetic disturbance, the generated voltage has rapidly increased from 200 mV to 480 mV within 5 seconds if the bottom lead plate is connected to the negative ion source. Without the negative ion source, however, the output voltage fell to around 10 mV and any significant voltage rise can be observed even in the presence of an UV light. Conclusions: Capturing atmospheric ions is technically feasible. Measured results suggest that, when used in conjunction with a negative ion source, the proposed device can harvest atmospheric ions without any UV light.

  2. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  3. Using home networks to create atmospheres in the home: Technology push or (latent) user need?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper-Hoyng, L.L.M.L.; Beusmans, J.W.F.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmosphere Controller is an implementation of home networking technology that could make life at home a totally new experience. An atmosphere is created by combining light (intensity and colour), music and wallpaper projection. To find out if is this type of experience fits into everyday life of

  4. Revitalizing Technical and Vocational Education Training for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (TVET) in education curricula, agricultural education and the rural poor was discussed. The paper concludes that to solve the problem of widespread poverty, unemployment and national food deficit, priority should be given to revitalizing technical and vocational education and training with top priority given to a functional ...

  5. Revitalizing Technical and Vocational Education Training for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revitalizing Technical and Vocational Education Training for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development Through Agricultural Education. ... and training with emphasis on agricultural education to improve the economic status of the country and welfare of the people, trigger entrepreneurship which would eventually ...

  6. 2D-piirtotoimintojen toteutus Revit-mallinnusohjelmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Piironen, Perttu

    2013-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tavoitteena oli mallintaa Revit Architecture-ohjelmalla kaksikerroksinen kivirunkoinen paritalo. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli perehtyä ohjelman 2D-piirustusominaisuuksiin, sekä pääpiirustusten viimeistelyyn ja tulostamiseen oikeassa mittakaavassa. Paritalo suunniteltiin Jyväskylässä sijaitsevalle kaupungin vuokratontille. Työssä selvitettiin paritalon mallintamisen vaiheet Revit Architecture -ohjelmalla. Lisäksi piirrettiin vaiheittain perustusleikkaus Revit Architecturen 2...

  7. Consumers` perception on the use of innovative technologies in creating store atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Octavia Sirbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of competitiveness in retail sales generates the diversification of purchase options, increase of consumers’ demands and, implicitly, the change of their purchasing behaviour. In this context, the selection made by consumers regarding the stores where to purchase from represents a complex decision-making process, conditioned upon the functional and psychological characteristics, among which store atmosphere plays a special part. Moreover, in order to obtain some competitive advantages within an environment that generates specific emotional effects on the buyers, the sellers allocate significant investment resources aimed at implementing some innovative technologies to create store atmosphere. Starting from these considerations, our research aims to identify consumers’ perception of the use of innovative technologies in creating store atmosphere. This paper was performed on the basis of an original questionnaire and, for the specialty literature in Romania, it represents the first research elaborated on this subject. The direct research has been conducted by means of a questionnaire-based survey to which 492 persons answered during September-November 2014. The research intended to establish the criteria for stores selection and the role atmosphere plays in this choice, as well as the identification of interest and level of knowledge of some innovative technologies in this field. The research results emphasise the fact that over 75% of respondents have a positive perception on the use of innovative technologies in order to generate a pleasant atmosphere and they are interested in the advantages they bring to the purchasing process.

  8. Economics, Youth Unemployment & Neighborhood Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Michael S.

    This document consists of summaries of five separate forums relating to youth employment problems and local development. Each forum consisted of presentations by three individuals from varied backgrounds. Forum participants examined the following trends associated with the youth unemployment problem: (1) the technological structure of business and…

  9. Getting There From Here: Revitalizing Child Welfare Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, James R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that revitalization of child welfare training is more complex than development of better training curriculum and materials. Reviews factors affecting training and questions the overall concept of child welfare training centers. If child welfare careers become more attractive, training programs will revitalize themselves. (JAC)

  10. Book Review: The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review: The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. ... Red books list everything endangered; green books revitalize the endangered. That is exactly what Hinton and ... (William Wilson and Kauanoe Kamanā write touchingly about “Mai Loko Mai O Ka 'I'ini” – Proceeding from the Dream. It tells about the ...

  11. Management of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Perry, Jay; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project is working to further optimize atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring system architectures. This paper discusses project management strategies that tap into skill sets across multiple engineering disciplines, projects, field centers, and industry to achieve the project success. It is the project's objective to contribute to system advances that will enable sustained exploration missions beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) and improve affordability by focusing on the primary goals of achieving high reliability, improving efficiency, and reducing dependence on ground-based logistics resupply. Technology demonstrations are achieved by infusing new technologies and concepts with existing developmental hardware and operating in a controlled environment simulating various crewed habitat scenarios. The ARREM project's strengths include access to a vast array of existing developmental hardware that perform all the vital atmosphere revitalization functions, exceptional test facilities to fully evaluate system performance, and a well-coordinated partnering effort among the NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed.

  12. Revitalization - an organizational program for the individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Progressive devitalization is a malady that afflicts many workers resulting in tremendous costs to organizations. This malady has long been recognized by management but little has been done to treat it. A new approach to the problem has been insitituted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the form of a group program called Revitalization. Early results have been very encouraging. The program will continue to be designed and improved in the hope of bringing more productivity to the organization and self-esteem to the individual.

  13. Thirsty Walls: A New Paradigm for Air Revitalization in Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John; Brennecke, Joan; Weislogel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide removal systems on submarines are compact and reliable. They use solubility chemistry. They spray a Carbon Dioxide adsorbing chemical directly into the air stream, and allow the liquid to settle. Carbon Dioxide removal systems on ISS are large and need repair. They use adsorption chemistry. They force air through a bed packed with granular zeolite, and heat the bed to desorb the Carbon Dioxide. The thermal cycles cause the zeolite to dust. New advances in additive manufacturing, and a better understanding of uid behavior in microgravity make it possible to expose a liquid directly to air in a microgravity environment. It is now practical to use submarine style solubility chemistry for atmosphere revitalization in space. It is now possible to develop space systems that achieve submarine levels of reliability. New developments in Ionic Liquid research make it possible to match the solubility performance characteristics of MEA used on submarines - with Ionic Liquids that do not release chemical vapors into the air. "Thirsty Walls" provide gentle, passive contact between ventilation air and Air Revitalization functions of temperature control, relative humidity control, and Carbon Dioxide removal. "Thirsty Walls" eliminates the need of large blowers and compressors that need to force air at high velocities through restrictive Air Revitalization hardware.

  14. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  15. Revitalization of Lightweight Cladding of Buildings and Its Impact on Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, Pavel; Nečasová, Barbora; Kovářová, Barbora; Novotný, Michal

    2017-12-01

    The presented study reveals that the revitalization of lightweight claddings installed before 1990 can have a positive impact on the environment and on the reduction of greenhouse gases in particular. The main focus is placed on the revitalization of a structural system known as OD-001, commonly called the ‘Boleticky panel’ system, which was frequently utilised all around the Czech Republic in the period before 1990. Only revitalization methods utilizing contemporary structural designs and current materials were verified during this study. The ‘Boleticky panel’ system was the type of façade cladding most frequently installed on administrative buildings in what was then Czechoslovakia. It is a panel system where load-bearing structure of the panel itself consists of closed profiles that are suspended from the building’s load-bearing structure. This type of system saw a great deal of use for more than 20 years. From today’s point of view, its thermal and technical properties are completely unsatisfactory and the gradual structural degradation of such systems, with a direct impact on their mechanical resistance, has been monitored over the last few years. However, these defects can be completely eliminated by the selection of a suitable type of revitalization. Cladding revitalization can be divided into three main categories. Each category represents a different level of impact on the structure of the above described cladding system. The first category only involves the replacement of windows, while the second consists in the replacement both of the windows and the existing panel sections. The third category of revitalization entails the complete removal of the existing cladding system and its replacement with a new one. The Life Cycle Assessment method (LCA) was used for environmental impact assessment. The aims and intentions of this method are not to search for the most economical or technically perfect product, service or technology, but to find the

  16. Research on diversity receive technology for wireless optical communication using PPM in weak turbulence atmosphere channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-an

    2014-09-01

    In order to mitigate atmospheric turbulence, the free space optical (FSO) system model with spatial diversity is analyzed based on intensity detection pulse position modulation (PPM) in the weak turbulence atmosphere. The slot error rate (SER) calculating formula of the system without diversity is derived under pulse position modulation firstly. Then as a benchmark, independent of identical distribution, the average slot error rates of the three linear combining technologies, which are the maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SelC), are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of system is the best improved by MRC, followed by EGC, and is poor by SelC, but SelC is simpler and more convenient. Spatial diversity is efficient to improve the performance and has strong ability on resistance to atmospheric channel decline. The above scheme is more suitable for optical wireless communication systems.

  17. CubeSat infrared atmospheric sounder (CIRAS) NASA InVEST technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared sounders measure the upwelling radiation of the Earth in the Midwave Infrared (MWIR) and Longwave Infrared (LWIR) region of the spectrum with global daily coverage from space. The observed radiances are assimilated into weather forecast models and used to retrieve lower tropospheric temperature and water vapor for climate studies. There are several operational sounders today including the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua, the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi NPP and JPSS, and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp spacecraft. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) is a NASA In-flight Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST) program to demonstrate three new instrument technologies in an imaging sounder configuration. The first is a 2D array of High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector (HOT-BIRD) material, selected for its high uniformity, low cost, low noise and higher operating temperatures than traditional materials. The detectors are hybridized to a commercial ROIC and commercial camera electronics. The second technology is a MWIR Grating Spectrometer (MGS) designed to provide imaging spectroscopy for atmospheric sounding in a CubeSat volume. The MGS employs an immersion grating or grism, has no moving parts, and is based on heritage spectrometers including the OCO- 2. The third technology is a Black Silicon infrared blackbody calibration target. The Black Silicon offers very low reflectance over a broad spectral range on a flat surface and is more robust than carbon nanotubes. JPL will also develop the mechanical, electronic and thermal subsystems for the CIRAS payload. The spacecraft will be a commercially available CubeSat. The integrated system will be a complete 6U CubeSat capable of measuring temperature and water vapor profiles with good lower tropospheric sensitivity. The low cost of CIRAS enables multiple units to be flown to improve temporal coverage or measure 3D

  18. Root Canal Filling after Revascularization/Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Cruz, Álvaro; Díaz, Mariana; Jiménez, Ana Laura; Solís, Rodrigo; Bernal, Cesar

    Revascularization/revitalization therapy is considered an alternative procedure for management of teeth with an immature apex and necrotic pulp, mainly when root development is interrupted in the early phases of formation. However, this clinical treatment protocol should be considered a permanent procedure? A maxillary central incisor with a previous and successful RR treatment was intentionally filled with a biocompatible material with the periapical tissues due to the patient's lack of adherence to the follow-up protocol. The 20-month follow-up showed absence of clinical, radiological and tomographic signs and symptoms of an endodontic re-infection. This case demonstrates that once the increased thickening of the canal walls, incrementing the root length, apical closure and the total resolution of the apical lesion are observed, the main canal of a previously treated tooth with an RR procedure can be filled.

  19. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  20. Research on demodulation technology of atmospheric laser communication system base on CPolSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    xin, zhou; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhi; Liu, Dan; Fang, Han-han; Zheng, Min

    2013-08-01

    In order to reduce the impacts of atmospheric turbulence and background light etc. factors to atmospheric laser communication system performance, the atmospheric laser communication system using circular polarization modulation technology is adopted and researched. This system uses polarization shift keying modulation (PloSK), which is a new standard digital modulation technique in optical communication field. In this modulation, two rotation states of the circle polarization light (left handed and right handed) representation logic signal ' 0 ' and ' 1 ', are used to information loaded and data transmission. In the receiver, the modulation optical signal is detected with dual differential probe method. Under the OptiSystem system simulation environment, several direct detection system model based on OOK intensity modulation, single rode circular polarization modulation and circular polarization modulation with balanced detection is constructed, and compares and analysis of the various communication system performance. The results show that: at the same parameter conditions, bit error rate of CPolSK system with balanced detection lower about two orders of magnitude than the OOK system and single rode CPolSK system, the eye diagram and the waveform chart are also significantly better than OOK system's. It can be seen, based on circular polarization shift keying (CPolSK) laser communication system with dual differential detection is superior on anti-interference of atmospheric interference, and reducing error rate, and will be easy to implement.

  1. Cultural Development Strategies and Urban Gay Tourism Revitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jose M Prat Forga; Gemma Cànoves

    2015-01-01

    Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain) by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents finding...

  2. Review of current concepts of revascularization/revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Tuğba; Sönmez, Hayriye

    2015-08-01

    This review focuses on the current concepts on revascularization/revitalization therapy. Revascularization/revitalization procedures performed under current protocols have reportedly achieved successful clinical and radiographical outcomes for immature permanent teeth with non-vital pulps; however, randomized prospective studies are needed to develop evidence-based methodologies for regenerative endodontic treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The debate on globalization and international revitalization of labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labour. The main question is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labour movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization.......The Article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labour. The main question is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labour movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization....

  4. Current Research in Lidar Technology Used for the Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Rodríguez-Gómez, Alejandro; Sicard, Michaël

    2017-06-20

    Lidars are active optical remote sensing instruments with unique capabilities for atmospheric sounding. A manifold of atmospheric variables can be profiled using different types of lidar: concentration of species, wind speed, temperature, etc. Among them, measurement of the properties of aerosol particles, whose influence in many atmospheric processes is important but is still poorly stated, stands as one of the main fields of application of current lidar systems. This paper presents a review on fundamentals, technology, methodologies and state-of-the art of the lidar systems used to obtain aerosol information. Retrieval of structural (aerosol layers profiling), optical (backscatter and extinction coefficients) and microphysical (size, shape and type) properties requires however different levels of instrumental complexity; this general outlook is structured following a classification that attends these criteria. Thus, elastic systems (detection only of emitted frequencies), Raman systems (detection also of Raman frequency-shifted spectral lines), high spectral resolution lidars, systems with depolarization measurement capabilities and multi-wavelength instruments are described, and the fundamentals in which the retrieval of aerosol parameters is based is in each case detailed.

  5. Draft algorithm for Danube River Revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIERLĂ MARIAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more scientific communities, decisional factors and the most of the inhabitants had realised that there is no future without revering the nature by its all component. The most important component of the Planet Earth is water, in all its conditions and locations. The fresh water is one of the main forms of the water thathas high value for the entire humanity. Most of the fresh waters are stoked into lakes which are permanently or temporary supplied by permanent and respective temporary rivers. In the past, people did not consider water as important as it is in present days and did not take care of its quality and quantity. Therefore, there were built a lot of industrial pollutant plants on immediate proximity, hydro-technical works that changed its shapes and courses, maleficent water consumption entities (e.g. for irrigations, for residential purpose, industrial etc.. All these works did serious changes in the natural (equilibrate water bodies status in order to alter its natural functions. To win back these natural functions the affected water bodies should be restored. This paper presents an attempt to draw a set of rules to be followed in solving the problem of rivers revitalization, as a study case is about the Danube River. These rules involve scientific specialists, decisional factors and social communities. The beneficiary of the results by applying this set of rules is the entire socio-ecologic system.

  6. Waste Bank Revitalization in Palabuhanratu West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikun, Budi Prasetyo; Handayani, Dwi Siwi; Laksana, Muhamad Permana

    2018-02-01

    Palabuhanratu Village has three waste banks, one of them was established since 2010, the others built in 2016. However, waste processing from the source is still not optimal, it's only reduced waste about 5% of the total waste generated to the final waste disposal site. The performance of waste banks is still minimal, because one waste bank can not serve the entire area of the village. Furthermore, organic waste processed by some communities of Palabuhanratu Village to be compost can not be a mass movement, due to the lack of public knowledge. The purpose of this research is to know the existing condition of waste management in Palabuhanratu Village and to formulate the revitalization of existing waste bank. The research used survey research method by using questionnaire, in depth interview, and observation. Analytical technique using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The findings of the research indicate that the residents of Palabuhanratu Village who often do waste sorting from the source only from the residents of RT 01 / RW 33. The number of existing temporary waste disposal site in Palabuhanratu Village is still lacking, so it requires addition up to 5 units that integrated with waste bank in this village.

  7. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations in Data Sparse Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions of the World, surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with support from USAID, has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The project is focused on improving weather observations for environmental monitoring and early warning alert systems on a regional to global scale. Instrumentation that has been developed use innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The goal of the project is to make the weather station designs, software, and processing tools an open community resource. The weather stations can be built locally by agencies, through educational institutions, and residential communities as a citizen effort to augment existing networks to improve detection of natural hazards for disaster risk reduction. The presentation will provide an overview of the open source weather station technology and evaluation of sensor observations for the initial networks that have been deployed in Africa.

  8. Experience with novel technologies for direct measurement of atmospheric NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueglin, Christoph; Hundt, Morten; Mueller, Michael; Schwarzenbach, Beat; Tuzson, Bela; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant that has a large impact on human health and ecosystems, and it plays a key role in the formation of ozone and secondary particulate matter. Consequently, legal limit values for NO2 are set in the EU and elsewhere, and atmospheric observation networks typically include NO2 in their measurement programmes. Atmospheric NO2 is principally measured by chemiluminescence detection, an indirect measurement technique that requires conversion of NO2 into nitrogen monoxide (NO) and finally calculation of NO2 from the difference between total nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NO. Consequently, NO2 measurements with the chemiluminescence method have a relatively high measurement uncertainty and can be biased depending on the selectivity of the applied NO2 conversion method. In the past years, technologies for direct and selective measurement of NO2 have become available, e.g. cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS), cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy and quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometry (QCLAS). These technologies offer clear advantages over the indirect chemiluminescence method. We tested the above mentioned direct measurement techniques for NO2 over extended time periods at atmospheric measurement stations and report on our experience including comparisons with co-located chemiluminescence instruments equipped with molybdenum as well as photolytic NO2 converters. A still open issue related to the direct measurement of NO2 is instrument calibration. Accurate and traceable reference standards and NO2 calibration gases are needed. We present results from the application of different calibration strategies based on the use of static NO2 calibration gases as well as dynamic NO2 calibration gases produced by permeation and by gas-phase titration (GPT).

  9. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  10. The revitalization of U.S. dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Dominick P

    2008-02-01

    Revitalization of dental education in the United States is an imperative, but it depends mainly on the willingness of dental school faculty to make great changes. My remarks address a system of education of dental professionals in relation to other health professionals whose vision seems at times to have surpassed ours. I advocate for a revitalization of our profession in order to stand at the fore when it comes to ensuring the health and well-being of the public. Thanks to advances in molecular medicine, health care is being transformed from a system of treating disease to one that provides predictive, preemptive, and personalized care. This presentation makes recommendations for rethinking the current system of dental education in order to elevate dentistry to its rightful place as a vibrant health care leader. Dental education needs to be a source of new knowledge, discovery, and innovation to sustain its legacy as a learned profession. Graduates must be lifelong learners who can critically evaluate science and technology for the good of their patients. Future dentists should be providers of primary care, yet data suggest that the organizational structure to support this vision is lacking. The accreditation system, interrelated with licensure and National Boards, needs to set a better floor. While independence is an admirable goal, I see too much variation in the accreditation system. We must overcome fears and politics to upgrade the profession as pharmacy did when it introduced the Pharm.D. degree. With that came a change in the entire system of pharmacy education and clinical practice and recognition of pharmacists as members of an interdisciplinary health care team. Dentistry and dental education are doing a lot that is good, but we must and can do even better if the profession is to thrive as a respected member of the health professions delivering high-quality, evidence-based care to the public. Dental students, faculty, and practitioners must have command

  11. Atmospheric lidar: legislative, scientific and technological aspects; Lidar atmosferico. Aspetti legislativi, scientifici e tecnologici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The Atmospheric Lidar is one of the systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing under development at the ENEA Research Center of Frascati. This technical report addresses the legislative, scientific and technological aspects that are the basis for the identification of the requirements, the definition of the architecture and the fixation of the specifications of the Atmospheric Lidar. The problems of air pollution are introduced in section 2. A summary of the Italian laws on that topic is then given. Section 4 provides a survey of the atmospheric measurements that can be achieved with the lidar. The sensitivity in the monitoring of pollutants is discussed in section 5. The other systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing are shortly described in section 6. The last section is devoted to conclusions and perspectives. [Italian] Il lidar atmosferico e' uno dei sistemi del Laboratorio Mobile di Telerilevamento Laser in corso di realizzazione presso il Centro Ricerche di Frascati dell'ENEA. Questo rapporto tecnico discute gli aspetti legislativi, scientifici, tecnologici che sono alla base dell'individuazione dei requisiti, della definizione dell'architettura e della fissazione delle specifiche del Lidar atmosferico. La problematica dell'inquinamento dell'aria e' introdotta nella sezione 2. Segue un riassunto della legislazione italiana su tale tematica. La sezione 4 offre una panoramica delle misure atmosferiche realizzabili con il Lidar. La sensibilita' nel monitoraggio di inquinanti e' discussa nella sezione 5. Gli altri sistemi del Laboratorio Mobile di Telerilevamento Laser sono descritti brevemente nella sezione 6. L'ultima sezione e' dedicata alle conclusioni e alle prospettive.

  12. Mesoscale atmospheric modelling technology as a tool for creating a long-term meteorological dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Vladimir; Kislov, Alexander; Rivin, Gdaly; Varentsov, Mikhail; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Chumakov, Mikhail

    2017-11-01

    A detailed hydrodynamic simulation of major meteorological parameters for the last 30 years (1985 – 2014) has been performed for the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sakhalin Island. The regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model COSMO-CLM was used for this long-term simulation with horizontal resolutions of ~13.2, ~6.6 and ~2.2 km. This dataset was created to help in the investigation of statistical characteristics and physical mechanisms of formation of extreme weather events (primarily wind speed extremes) on small spatio-temporal scales. The detailed meteorological information thus obtained could be used to take into account the coast configuration, mountain systems, and other important mesoscale features of the terrain. This paper describes a proposed downscaling technology for long-term simulations with three “nested domains”. The results of verification of the dataset and estimation of extreme wind velocities are presented.

  13. Advanced Life Support Technologies and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Improving the efficiency of the recovery of water from spacecraft solid and liquid wastes is possible through use of emerging technologies such as the heat melt compactor and brine dewatering systems. Another significant consumable is that of food. Food production systems based on higher plants may not only contribute significantly to the diet, but also contribute to atmosphere revitalization, water purification and waste utilization. Bioreactors may be potentially utilized for wastewater and solid waste management. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  14. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  15. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  16. Revitalized! A Pilot Program in Arts/Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Terrell J.; And Others

    This book describes "Revitalize," an arts and aging program developed for the Fine Arts Council of Florida. The rationale behind the program, research involved in its structures, the evolution of ideas, the selection of the Neighborly Center, Inc. as a partner agency, the designation of sites for the program, the choice of artists, and the intent…

  17. Critical Culturally Sustaining/Revitalizing Pedagogy and Indigenous Education Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Lee, Tiffany S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Teresa L. McCarty and Tiffany S. Lee present critical culturally sustaining/revitalizing pedagogy as a necessary concept to understand and guide educational practices for Native American learners. Premising their discussion on the fundamental role of tribal sovereignty in Native American schooling, the authors underscore and…

  18. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions in Africa (and other global locations), surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The US National Weather Service (NWS) International Activities Office (IAO) in partnership with University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to provide observations for environmental monitoring, and early warning alert systems that can be deployed at weather services in developing countries. Instrumentation is being designed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The initial effort is focused on designing a surface network using GIS-based tools, deploying an initial network in Zambia, and providing training to Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) staff. The presentation will provide an overview of the project concepts, design of the low cost instrumentation, and initial experiences deploying a surface network deployment in Zambia.

  19. Fighting global warming by greenhouse gas removal: destroying atmospheric nitrous oxide thanks to synergies between two breakthrough technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Tingzhen; de Richter, Renaud; Shen, Sheng; Caillol, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Even if humans stop discharging CO2 into the atmosphere, the average global temperature will still increase during this century. A lot of research has been devoted to prevent and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one of the technologies that might help to limit emissions. In complement, direct CO2 removal from the atmosphere has been proposed after the emissions have occurred. But, the removal of all the excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 will not be enough, due to the fact that CO2 outgases from the ocean as its solubility is dependent of its atmospheric partial pressure. Bringing back the Earth average surface temperature to pre-industrial levels would require the removal of all previously emitted CO2. Thus, the atmospheric removal of other greenhouse gases is necessary. This article proposes a combination of disrupting techniques to transform nitrous oxide (N2O), the third most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of current radiative forcing, which is harmful for the ozone layer and possesses quite high global warming potential. Although several scientific publications cite "greenhouse gas removal," to our knowledge, it is the first time innovative solutions are proposed to effectively remove N2O or other GHGs from the atmosphere other than CO2.

  20. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  1. A Study of Oceans and Atmospheric Interactions Associated with Tropical Cyclone Activity using Earth Observing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Warith; Reddy, Remata

    From October 22nd to 30th, 2012 Hurricane Sandy was a huge storm of many abnormalities causing an estimated 50 billion dollars in damage. Tropical storm development states systems’ energy as product of warm sea surface temperatures (SST’s) and tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP). Advances in Earth Observing (EO) technology, remote sensing and proxy remote sensing have allowed for accurate measurements of SST and TCHP information. In this study, we investigated rapid intensification of Sandy through EO applications for precipitable water vapor (PWAT), SST’s and TCHP during the period of October 27th. These data were obtained from NASA and NOAA satellites and NOAA National Buoy data center (NDBC). The Sensible Heat (Qs) fluxes were computed to determine available energy resulting from ocean-atmosphere interface. Buoy 41010, 120 NM east of Cape Canaveral at 0850 UTC measured 22.3 °C atmospheric temperatures and 27 °C SST, an interface of 4.7 °C. Sensible heat equation computed fluxes of 43.7 W/m2 at 982.0 mb central pressure. Sandy formed as late-season storm and near-surface air temperatures averaged > 21 °C according to NOAA/ESRL NCEP/NCAR reanalysis at 1000 mb and GOES 13 (EAST) geostationary water vapor imagery shows approaching cold front during October 27th. Sandy encountered massive dry air intrusion to S, SE and E quadrants of storm while travelling up U.S east coast but experienced no weakening. Cool, dry air intrusion was considered for PWAT investigation from closest sounding station during Oct. 27th 0900 - 2100 UTC at Charleston, SC station 72208. Measured PWAT totaled 42.97 mm, indicating large energy potential supply to the storm. The Gulf Stream was observed using NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) MODIS SST analysis. The results show 5 °C warmer above average than surrounding cooler water, with > 25 °C water extent approximately 400 NM east of Chesapeake Bay and eddies > 26 °C. Results from sensible heat

  2. Innovative processes and technologies for modified atmosphere packaging of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew Deas; Stanley, Roger A; Eyles, Alieta; Ross, Tom

    2017-09-11

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology has been commercially viable since the 1970s. Currently, MAP is extensively used worldwide to preserve the quality and extend the shelf-life of whole fresh fruits and vegetables, but is also increasingly used to extend the shelf-life of minimally processed fresh fruit and vegetables. This review discusses new processes and technologies that can be used to improve quality preservation and consumer acceptability of minimally processed produce where high respiration rates and challenging degradation processes operate. New packaging innovations are enabling producers and retailers to further maintain quality for longer. Innovative approaches to extend shelf-life include active MAP with differentially permeable films, films that incorporate antimicrobial properties, edible coatings that confer barriers properties, and the use of non-traditional gases to modify respiration. Intelligent packaging using integrated sensor technologies that can indicate maturity, ripeness, respiration rate and spoilage are also appearing. This review demonstrates that preservation technologies and associated packaging developments that can be combined with modified atmosphere are constantly evolving technology platforms. Adoption of combinations of technology improvements will be critical in responding to commercial trends towards more minimally processed fresh-cut and ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable products, which require specialized packaging solutions.

  3. Cultural Development Strategies and Urban Gay Tourism Revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Prat Forga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.

  4. Advanced Exploration Systems Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J.; Abney, M.; Conrad, R.; Garber, A.; Howard, D.; Kayatin, M.; Knox, J.; Newton, R.; Parrish, K.; Roman, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In September 2011, the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was commissioned by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems program to advance Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) and Environmental Monitoring Subsystem (EMS) technologies for enabling future crewed space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ARREM project's period of performance covered U.S. Government fiscal years 2012-2014. The ARREM project critically assessed the International Space Station (ISS) ARS and EMS architectures and process technologies as the foundation for an architecture suitable for deep space exploration vehicles. The project's technical content included technical tasks focused on improving the reliability and life cycle cost of ARS and EMS technologies as well as reducing future flight project developmental risk and design, development, test, and evaluation costs. Targeted technology development and maturation tasks, including key technical trade assessments, were accomplished and integrated ARS architectures were demonstrated. The ARREM project developed, demonstrated, and tested leading process technology candidates and subsystem architectures that met or exceeded key figures of merit, addressed capability gaps, and significantly improved the efficiency, safety, and reliability over the state-of-the-art ISS figures of merit. Promising EMS instruments were developed and functionally demonstrated in a simulated cabin environment. The project's technical approach and results are described and recommendations for continued development are provided.

  5. Brand Revitalization: Don’t Let Your Brands Turn Into Sleepyheads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kolbl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand revitalization is a process, which is often necessary when the brand’s offer of products as well as associated attention from consumers decline. Even so, the core of a brand needs to be clearly defined, in order for brand revitalization to be successfully implemented. Marketing managers need to be able to recognize the acute, as well as the latent signs of brand aging, and need to implement brand revitalization elements and strategies that are most suitable for a certain brand. The goal of the paper is presenting brand revitalization through the practical example of two Slovenian brands, which both went through the process of brand revitalization. With the review of secondary data, as well as interviews with the brand’s marketing managers, the paper proposes main steps and serves as a guideline to other managers, when going through brand revitalization.

  6. Algorithm Of Revitalization Programme Design For Housing Estates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostańska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Demographic problems, obsolescence of existing buildings, unstable economy, as well as misunderstanding of the mechanism that turn city quarters into areas in need for intervention result in the implementation of improvement measures that prove inadequate. The paper puts forward an algorithm of revitalization program for housing developments and presents its implementation. It also showed the effects of periodically run (10 years three-way diagnostic tests in correlation with the concept of settlement management.

  7. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent a...

  8. Revitalizing urban waterfronts: identifying indicators for human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Nam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.

  9. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  10. A Survey of the Rapidly Emerging Field of Nanotechnology: Potential Applications for Scientific Instruments and Technologies for Atmospheric Entry Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Nanotechnology is well funded worldwide and innovations applicable to Solar System Exploration are emerging much more rapidly than thought possible just a few years ago. This presentation will survey recent innovations from nanotechnololgy with a focus on novel applications to atmospheric entry science and probe technology, in a fashion similar to that presented by Arnold and Venkatapathy at the previous workshop forum at Lisbon Portugal, October 6-9, 2003. Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that builds systems, devices and materials from the bottom up, atom by atom, and in so doing provides them with novel and remarkable macro-scale performance. This technology has the potential to revolutionize space exploration by reducing mass and simultaneously increasing capability. Thermal, Radiation, Impact Protective Shields: Atmospheric probes and humans on long duration deep space missions involved in Solar System Exploration must safely endure 3 significant hazards: (i) atmospheric entry; (ii) radiation; and (iii) micrometeorite or debris impact. Nanostructured materials could be developed to address all three hazards with a single protective shield, which would involve much less mass than a traditional approach. The concept can be ready in time for incorporation into NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle, and possible entry probes to fly on the Jupiter Icy Moons

  11. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  12. From Documenting to Revitalizing an Endangered Language: Where Do Applied Linguists Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Susan D.; Tucker, Benjamin V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the distance between documenting and revitalizing endangered languages and indicates critical points at which applied linguistics can play a role. We look at language documentation, language revitalization and their relationship. We then provide some examples from our own work. We see the lack of applied linguistics as a…

  13. Histologic study of a human immature permanent premolar with chronic apical abscess after revascularization/revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Patricia; Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Lin, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    Histologic studies of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization are available; however, specimens from human studies are lacking. The nature of tissues formed in the canal of human revascularized/revitalized teeth was not well established. An immature mandibular premolar with infected necrotic pulp and a chronic apical abscess was treated with revascularization/revitalization procedures. At both the 18-month and 2-year follow-up visits, radiographic examination showed complete resolution of the periapical lesion, narrowing of the root apex without root lengthening, and minimal thickening of the canal walls. The revascularized/revitalized tooth was removed because of orthodontic treatment and processed for histologic examination. The large canal space of revascularized/revitalized tooth was not empty and filled with fibrous connective tissue. The apical closure was caused by cementum deposition without dentin. Some cementum-like tissue was formed on the canal dentin walls. Inflammatory cells were observed in the coronal and middle third of revascularized/revitalized tissue. In the present case, the tissue formed in the canal of a human revascularized/revitalized tooth was soft connective tissue similar to that in the periodontal ligament and cementum-like or bone-like hard tissue, which is comparable with the histology observed in the canals of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Objectives at the Crossroads: Critical Theory and Self-Determination in Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous language revitalization is a popular focus of critical theorists. From the perspective of sociolinguists, critical theory interrogates language policies to name and shame inequalities and propose solutions to correct injustices and emancipate the disadvantaged. From a broader perspective, language revitalization policy also resides…

  15. Language Revitalization in Native North America – Issues of Intellectual Property Rights and Intellectual Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous po...

  16. Concept Of Revitalization Of Selected Military Facilities Of Dragoons Barracks In Olsztyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagroba Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Revitalization is a complex program to restore the functioning of the neglected urban areas in terms of spatial, economic and social. Revitalization activities on post-military facilities are stopping negative phenomena, such as degradation of space, social pathology or lack of proper functioning of the area, adapted to modern needs.

  17. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  18. Revitalization of Endangered Languages: Quechua in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín M. Coronel-Molina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Big Picture According to contemporary linguistic research, currently there are nearly seven thousand languages in the world; it is believed that more than half of these will disappear in the next century. These languages are called «endangered languages», «sleeping languages», «tongues in agony», «moribund languages», etc. The vast majority of languages that fall into these categories are the indigenous languages. Therefore, it is essential to revitalize and document them to prevent their...

  19. WIYN bench upgrade: a revitalized spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, M.; Barden, S.; Blanche, P.-A.; Blanco, D.; Corson, C.; Crawford, S.; Glaspey, J.; Habraken, S.; Jacoby, G.; Keyes, J.; Knezek, P.; Lemaire, P.; Liang, M.; McDougall, E.; Poczulp, G.; Sawyer, D.; Westfall, K.; Willmarth, D.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the redesign and upgrade of the versatile fiber-fed Bench Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The spectrograph is fed by either the Hydra multi-object positioner or integral-field units (IFUs) at two other ports, and can be configured with an adjustable camera-collimator angle to use low-order and echelle gratings. The upgrade, including a new collimator, charge-coupled device (CCD) and modern controller, and volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHG), has high performance-to-cost ratio by combining new technology with a system reconfiguration that optimizes throughput while utilizing as much of the existing instrument as possible. A faster, all-refractive collimator enhances throughput by 60%, nearly eliminates the slit-function due to vignetting, and improves image quality to maintain instrumental resolution. Two VPH gratings deliver twice the diffraction efficiency of existing surface-relief gratings: A 740 l/mm grating (float-glass and post-polished) used in 1st and 2nd-order, and a large 3300 l/mm grating (spectral resolution comparable to the R2 echelle). The combination of collimator, high-quantum efficiency (QE) CCD, and VPH gratings yields throughput gain-factors of up to 3.5.

  20. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  1. Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR: Instrument Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Shinozuka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

  2. Coping with Atmospheric Turbulence in the Selection of Laser Hardening Technology for FCS Targeting Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, Timothy M

    2004-01-01

    ... by frequency-agile battlefield lasers at both long and short range. Evidently, the selection of sensor protection technologies for incorporation into the final targeting system will be based on their optical limiting performance under field conditions...

  3. European Society of Endodontology position statement: Revitalization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Krastl, G; Simon, S; Van Gorp, G; Meschi, N; Vahedi, B; Lambrechts, P

    2016-08-01

    This position statement represents a consensus of an expert committee convened by the European Society of Endodontology (ESE) on revitalization procedures. The statement is based on current clinical and scientific evidence as well as the expertise of the committee. The goal is to provide suitably trained dentists with a protocol including procedural details for the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis as well as a patient consent form. Revitalization is a biologically based treatment as an alternative to apexification in properly selected cases. Previously published review articles provide more detailed background information and the basis for this position statement (Journal of Endodontics, 39, 2013, S30; Journal of Endodontics, 39, 2013, 319; Journal of Endodontics, 40, 2014, 1045; Dental Traumatology, 31, 2015, 267; International Endodontic Journal, 2015, doi: 10.1111/iej.12606). As controlled clinical trials are lacking and new evidence is still emerging, this position statement will be updated at appropriate intervals. This might lead to changes to the protocol provided here. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350

  5. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20 th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.

  6. Technology Activities for Life Skills Support Students. [and] CNC for Lower-Achieving Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Michael J.; Smith, Clayton

    1995-01-01

    Ressel shows how providing technology education to special needs students can reaffirm belief in technology education and revitalize desire to teach. Smith suggests that breaking down processes into special steps allows these students to be successful. (JOW)

  7. Probing the sky with radio waves from wireless technology to the development of atmospheric science

    CERN Document Server

    Yeang, Chen-Pang

    2013-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century, engineers and experimental scientists generally knew how radio waves behaved, and by 1901 scientists were able to manipulate them to transmit messages across long distances. What no one could understand, however, was why radio waves followed the curvature of the Earth. Theorists puzzled over this for nearly twenty years before physicists confirmed the zig-zag theory, a solution that led to the discovery of a layer in the Earth's upper atmosphere that bounces radio waves earthward-the ionosphere. In Probing the Sky with Radio Waves,

  8. Integrating atmospheric and volcanic gas data in support of climate impact studies using semantic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, K.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; McGuinness, D.

    2008-05-01

    In support of a NASA-funded scientific application (SESDI; Semantically Enabled Science Data Integration Project; (http://sesdi.hao.ucar.edu/) that needs to share volcano and climate data to investigate statistical (e.g. height of the tropopause) relationships between volcanism and global climate, we have generated a volcano and plate tectonic ontologies and leveraged and re-factored the existing SWEET (Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology) ontoloy. To fulfil several goals we have developed set of packages for integrating the relevant ontologies (which are shared and reused by a broad community of users) to provide access to the key solid-earth (volcano) and atmospheric related databases. We present details on how ontologies are used in this science application setting, the methodologies employed to create the ontologies, register them to the underlying data and the implementation for use by scientists. SESDI is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project involving the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates Consulting, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  9. Removing biofilms from microstructured titanium ex vivo: a novel approach using atmospheric plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupf, Stefan; Idlibi, Ahmad Nour; Marrawi, Fuad Al; Hannig, Matthias; Schubert, Andreas; von Mueller, Lutz; Spitzer, Wolfgang; Holtmann, Henrik; Lehmann, Antje; Rueppell, Andre; Schindler, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The removal of biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants is a still unresolved challenge. This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra): 1.96 µm) were exposed to human oral cavities for 24 and 72 hours (n = 149 each) to produce biofilms. Biofilm thickness was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (n = 5 each). Plasma treatment of biofilms was carried out ex vivo using a microwave-driven pulsed plasma source working at temperatures from 39 to 43°C. Following plasma treatment, one group was air/water spray treated before re-treatment by second plasma pulses. Vital microorganisms on the titanium surfaces were identified by contact culture (Rodac agar plates). Biofilm presence and bacterial viability were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Morphology of titanium surfaces and attached biofilms was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Total protein amounts of biofilms were colorimetrically quantified. Untreated and air/water treated biofilms served as controls. Cold plasma treatment of native biofilms with a mean thickness of 19 µm (24 h) to 91 µm (72 h) covering the microstructure of the titanium surface caused inactivation of biofilm bacteria and significant reduction of protein amounts. Total removal of biofilms, however, required additional application of air/water spray, and a second series of plasma treatment. Importantly, the microstructure of the titanium discs was not altered by plasma treatment. The combination of atmospheric plasma and non-abrasive air/water spray is applicable for complete elimination of oral biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants and may enable new routes for the therapy of periimplant disease.

  10. Removing biofilms from microstructured titanium ex vivo: a novel approach using atmospheric plasma technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rupf

    Full Text Available The removal of biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants is a still unresolved challenge. This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra: 1.96 µm were exposed to human oral cavities for 24 and 72 hours (n = 149 each to produce biofilms. Biofilm thickness was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (n = 5 each. Plasma treatment of biofilms was carried out ex vivo using a microwave-driven pulsed plasma source working at temperatures from 39 to 43°C. Following plasma treatment, one group was air/water spray treated before re-treatment by second plasma pulses. Vital microorganisms on the titanium surfaces were identified by contact culture (Rodac agar plates. Biofilm presence and bacterial viability were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Morphology of titanium surfaces and attached biofilms was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Total protein amounts of biofilms were colorimetrically quantified. Untreated and air/water treated biofilms served as controls. Cold plasma treatment of native biofilms with a mean thickness of 19 µm (24 h to 91 µm (72 h covering the microstructure of the titanium surface caused inactivation of biofilm bacteria and significant reduction of protein amounts. Total removal of biofilms, however, required additional application of air/water spray, and a second series of plasma treatment. Importantly, the microstructure of the titanium discs was not altered by plasma treatment. The combination of atmospheric plasma and non-abrasive air/water spray is applicable for complete elimination of oral biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants and may enable new routes for the therapy of periimplant disease.

  11. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS): Demonstrating key technologies for a future constellation to improve temporal sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperspectral infrared sounding of the atmosphere has become a vital element in the observational system for weather forecast prediction at National Weather Prediction (NWP) centers worldwide. The NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument was the pathfinder for the hyperspectral infrared observations and was designed to provide accurate atmospheric temperature and water vapor profile information in support of weather prediction. AIRS was launched in 2002 and continues to operate well. The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi NPP satellite was launched in 2011 to continue the AIRS measurement record. CrIS also continues to operate well and additional sensors are planned for launch promising to continue the hyperspectral infrared measurements in support of NWP into the late 2030's. The high cost of IR sounders makes it costly to launch them into multiple orbits to improve temporal sampling, or into GEO, although EUMETSAT is planning a GEO IR Sounder to launch in the early 2020's. JPL NASA is offering an alternate hyperspectral IR sounder architecture for the future involving CubeSats. The latest technology in large format focal plane assemblies, wide field optics and active cryocoolers enables a reduction in size, mass and cost of the legacy sounders and offer new configurations. Lessons learned from AIRS and CrIS indicate that temperature and water vapor sounding in the lower troposphere can be achieved with only the MWIR portion of the spectrum. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) employs only an MWIR spectrometer to achieve lower tropospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, but with comparable spatial, spectral and radiometric sensitivity in this band as AIRS and CrIS. CIRAS operates from 4.08-5.13 µm with 625 channels and spectral resolution of 1.2-2.0 cm-1. CIRAS employs an immersion grating spectrometer making the optics incredibly compact, and HOT-BIRD detectors enabling good uniformity and operability over the large

  12. Information Technology and Educational Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Langdon

    2009-01-01

    Waves of enthusiasm for technological innovations that promise to revitalize teaching and learning are at least a century old. Unfortunately, the record of accomplishment for the many varieties of hardware and software introduced into schools over the decades is remarkably thin. Today's promoters of technology in education tend to forget similar…

  13. Creation of Drifter Technology for the Ocean and the Atmosphere Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 70s, 20th century, the tools for studying the World Ocean (besides the already existing research vessels equipped with celestial navigation were expanded with automatic buoys and remote sensing technologies. The first idea was to create the global observing system on basis of large quantity of surface mooring buoys, equipped with hydrological and meteorological equipment. The evaluation of this suggestion revealed the fact that such tool was too expensive. It was decided to construct a network on the basis of drifting buoys which are significantly cheaper. The article shows the results of scientific and practical efforts to perform a step by step development of the drifter technology, which is the main instrument for global observation in the Ocean now. The cycle of works executed from 1973 to 2016 provided a creation of a world-class drifter technology for solution of different scientific and practical challenges. The research results are actively used for the needs of the Russian Federation and the global drifter program. The prospect of future works is related to the national challenges on the research of the Arctic and other World Ocean regions, participation in national and international projects on calibration of satellite onboard systems for the Earth remote sensing and also to validation of numerical simulation results for refining the marine environment variability forecast.

  14. Review of dust transport and mitigation technologies in lunar and Martian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Curtis, Jennifer Sinclair; Gaier, James R.

    2015-09-01

    Dust resuspension and deposition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in all lunar and Martian missions. The near-term plans to return to the Moon as a stepping stone to further exploration of Mars and beyond bring scientists' attention to development and evaluation of lunar and Martian dust mitigation technologies. In this paper, different lunar and Martian dust transport mechanisms are presented, followed by a review of previously developed dust mitigation technologies including fluidal, mechanical, electrical and passive self-cleaning methods for lunar/Martian installed surfaces along with filtration for dust control inside cabins. Key factors in choosing the most effective dust mitigation technology are recognized to be the dust transport mechanism, energy consumption, environment, type of surface materials, area of the surface and surface functionality. While electrical methods operating at higher voltages are identified to be suitable for small but light sensitive surfaces, pre-treatment of the surface is effective for cleaning thermal control surfaces, and mechanical methods are appropriate for surfaces with no concerns of light blockage, surface abrasion and 100% cleaning efficiency. Findings from this paper can help choose proper surface protection/cleaning for future space explorations. Hybrid techniques combining the advantages of different methods are recommended.

  15. NEO-RENAISSANCE AND REVITALIZATION OF VOTIC – WHO CARES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Kuusk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the reason for the decline of the Votic language and neo-renaissance and revitalization of the Votic.The reason for the decline of the Votic language are the small number of people, traditionally sparse population and the assimilation – the speakers of Votic have always lived in the sphere of influence of the Russian language and culture. The reasons for neo-renaissance are the collapse of the Soviet Union, a general trend to look for one’s roots, enthusiastic votophiles and the local activities. In the earlier times Votic national movement originated from local people, but recently there has been interest in the Votic affairs on the state level.The plans for the near future are under common title the Votic project.

  16. Revitalization of ethnic identity among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.

  17. Revitalizing the Library OPAC: Interface, Searching, and Display Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Mi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of academic library users has drastically changed in recent years. Internet search engines have become the preferred tool over the library online public access catalog (OPAC for finding information. Libraries are losing ground to online search engines. In this paper, two aspects of OPAC use are studied: (1 the current OPAC interface and searching capabilities, and (2 the OPAC bibliographic display. The purpose of the study is to find answers to the following questions: Why is the current OPAC ineffective? What can libraries and librarians do to deliver an OPAC that is as good as search engines to better serve our users? Revitalizing the library OPAC is one of the pressing issues that has to be accomplished.

  18. Workers' Housing Estates In Postindustrial Cities - Modernization Or Revitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweł, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a part of the results on the physiognomy of a postindustrial city under conditions of economic transformation in Poland. The study area encompasses industrial centers located in the region of the Central Industrial District (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy - COP) in the Świętokrzystkie and Mazowieckie voivodeships (districts). The specific urban structure of the industrial city and unemployment among its inhabitants resulting from ownership transformations generate various problems. The workers' neighborhoods and colonies, which sprouted up so quickly at the beginning of the XX century, were a supply base for the rapidly developing industrial centers. Their clear urban structure and cultural potential they possess predispose them to developing necessary repair programs. Thus, the article draws attention to this form of settlement on the one hand, and on the other characterizes the activities assumed by gminas (municipalities) in the scope of modernizing and revitalizing these areas.

  19. Cirebon Language Revitalization In Cirebon City through Cirebon Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Setya Sukmayani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Law of the Republic of Indonesia no. 4 Year 2009 about the language states that the local government must develop, foster, and protect the local languages and literature in order to continue to fulfill their position and function in the life of society in accordance with the development of the era performed gradually, systematically and sustainably by local governments under the coordination of linguistic institutions, and to remain part of Indonesia's cultural treasures. Based on the Cirebon preliminary observation result, it is threatened with extinction because its speakers are fewer and rarely even do not use Cirebon language in their daily intercourse, although in the last few years there are lessons in Cirebon - Dermayu. This is because the lesson is just as a science. That is, even though the learners’ report is good value, eg 9 (nine, but in the daily association does not use Cirebon language. Therefore, researchers intend to examine the Cirebon language with the title - Cirebon Language Revitalization Through Cirebon Language Learning. This research generally aims to obtain a deep picture and understanding of Cirebon language revitalization in Cirebon City, while its long-term goal is to obtain findings about efforts to preserve the Cirebon language in order to remain functional for life in the city of Cirebon in the midst of the widespread use of Language Indonesia as the national language in the country of the Republic of Indonesia, so as to assist the government in developing, fostering and protecting local languages and literature in accordance with the laws described above. The method used in this research is Ethnography with Spradley research procedure. The results of this study are expected to be a reference in improving the textbook Language Cirebon and refine the policy to preserve the language of Cirebon in order to explore the noble values of local wisdom it contains.

  20. Revitalizing primary health care--another utopian goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Sujan B

    2010-01-01

    The quest for greater efficiency, fairness and responsiveness to the expectation of the people that system serve have brought about three generations of health system reforms in the twentieth century. The first generation saw the founding of national health care systems and extension to middle income nations of social insurance systems in the 1940s and 1950s. By the late 1960s the rising costs of hospital based care, its usage by better off, inaccessibility by the poor and rural population of even the most basic services heralded second generation reforms promoting primary health care as a means of achieving the affordable universal coverage. It included the best public health strategy that is prevention and the highest ethical principle of public health that is equity. It was expected the best system for reaching households with essential and affordable care, and the best route towards universal coverage. The primary health care approach though adopted universally did not materialize its notion of translating ethos of Health for All by 2000. Overall, primary health care movement by the end of 20th century became lifeless. Since the Declaration of Alma-Ata, fundamental changes have occurred affecting health service delivery, such as economic development and financing approaches, globalization of trade and knowledge, and the shift to privatization. This is the time to develop a new vision, taking into consideration the many changes affecting global health and the strategic developments in health of recent years. With this recognition, the third generation of reforms now underway in many countries is driven by the idea of responding more to demand, assuring access for the poor and emphasizing financing rather than just provision within the public sector. The key concern is: how to translate ethos of revitalizing in the reality. Otherwise the revitalizing concept will turn into utopian goal so like HFA by 2000 strategy.

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on fresh produce by cold atmospheric gas plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A; Noriega, E; Thompson, A

    2013-02-01

    Cold atmospheric gas plasma treatment (CAP) is an alternative approach for the decontamination of fresh and minimally processed food. In this study, the effects of growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by Nitrogen CAP were examined. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAP treatment for decontaminating lettuce and strawberry surfaces and potato tissue inoculated with S. Typhimurium was evaluated. It was found that the rate of inactivation of S. Typhimurium was independent of the growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime. Under optimal conditions, a 2 min treatment resulted in a 2.71 log-reduction of S. Typhimurium viability on membrane filters whereas a 15 min treatment was necessary to achieve 2.72, 1.76 and 0.94 log-reductions of viability on lettuce, strawberry and potato, respectively. We suggest that the differing efficiency of CAP treatment on the inactivation of S. Typhimurium on these different types of fresh foods is a consequence of their surface features. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface structures of contaminated samples of lettuce, strawberry and potato revealed topographical features whereby S. Typhimurium cells could be protected from the active species generated by plasma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of atmospheric ammonia data in the context of developing technologies, changing climate, and future policy evidence needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Tang, Sim; Bealey, Bill; Roberts, Elin; Stephens, Amy; Galloway, Megan; Greenwood, Sarah; Sutton, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko; Leaver, David

    2017-04-01

    Ambient ammonia measurements have been undertaken both in the atmosphere to understand sources, concentrations at background and vulnerable ecosystems and for long term monitoring of concentrations. As a pollutant which is projected to increase concentration in the coming decades with significant policy challenges to implementing mitigation strategies it is useful to assess what has been measured, where and why. In this study a review of the literature, has shown that ammonia measurements are frequently not publically reported and in general not reposited in the open data centres, available for research. The specific sectors where measurements have been undertaken are: agricultural point source assessments, agricultural surface exchange measurements, sensitive ecosystem monitoring, landscape/regional studies and governmental long term monitoring. Less frequently ammonia is measured as part of an intensive atmospheric chemistry field campaign. Technology is developing which means a shift from chemical denuder methods to spectroscopic techniques may be possible, however chemical denuding techniques with off-line laboratory analysis will likely be an economical approach for some time to come. This paper reviews existing datasets from the different sectors of research and integrates them for a global picture to allow both a long term understanding and facilitate comparison with future measurements.

  3. Root Maturation in Teeth Treated by Unsuccessful Revitalization: 2 Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižka, Radovan; Buchta, Tomáš; Voborná, Iva; Harvan, Luboš; Šedý, Jiří

    2016-05-01

    This article deals with the unusual course of failed revascularization/revitalization cases. Up to this date the evidence of success and failure rates of revascularization/revitalization treatment is scarce. These case reports present "unsuccessful" revascularization/revitalization treatment of permanent immature teeth with apical periodontitis. Although the teeth were treated by protocol suggested by the American Association of Endodontists and the symptoms disappeared, maturation of teeth continued, and periapical lesion was reduced, the teeth went symptomatic during the follow-up. Subsequently, regular root canal treatment was performed. Despite chronic infection that was probably left inside the root canal after a disinfection protocol, the secondary aims of the treatment were achieved even when the primary ones were not. The possible causes of failures of revascularization/revitalization treatment and their prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  5. Dance With the One That Brought You: Revitalizing Antisubmarine Warfare to Counter Chinese Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Navy needs to revitalize ASW, or risk losing the ability to gain sea control in strategic areas of the East Asian Littoral and South China Sea due to a rising Chinese diesel-electric submarine threat...

  6. Mesoscale atmospheric modelling technology as a tool for the long-term meteorological dataset development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Vladimir; Kislov, Alexander; Rivin, Gdaly; Varentsov, Mikhail; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Chumakov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    The detailed hydrodynamic modelling of meteorological parameters during the last 30 years (1985 - 2014) was performed for the Okhotsk Sea and the Sakhalin island regions. The regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model COSMO-CLM used for this long-term simulation with 13.2, 6.6 and 2.2 km horizontal resolutions. The main objective of creation this dataset was the outlook of the investigation of statistical characteristics and the physical mechanisms of extreme weather events (primarily, wind speed extremes) on the small spatio-temporal scales. COSMO-CLM is the climate version of the well-known mesoscale COSMO model, including some modifications and extensions adapting to the long-term numerical experiments. The downscaling technique was realized and developed for the long-term simulations with three consequent nesting domains. ERA-Interim reanalysis ( 0.75 degrees resolution) used as global forcing data for the starting domain ( 13.2 km horizontal resolution), then these simulation data used as initial and boundary conditions for the next model runs over the domain with 6.6 km resolution, and similarly, for the next step to 2.2 km domain. Besides, the COSMO-CLM model configuration for 13.2 km run included the spectral nudging technique, i.e. an additional assimilation of reanalysis data not only at boundaries, but also inside the whole domain. Practically, this computational scheme realized on the SGI Altix 4700 supercomputer system in the Main Computer Center of Roshydromet and used 2,400 hours of CPU time total. According to modelling results, the verification of the obtained dataset was performed on the observation data. Estimations showed the mean error -0.5 0C, up to 2 - 3 0C RMSE in temperature, and overestimation in wind speed (RMSE is up to 2 m/s). Overall, analysis showed that the used downscaling technique with applying the COSMO-CLM model reproduced the meteorological conditions, spatial distribution, seasonal and synoptic variability of temperature and

  7. ANITA: The European Technology Demonstrator for Trace Gas Monitoring in the International Space Station Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gijsbert; Mosebach, Herbert; Honne, Atle

    2005-12-01

    The accumulation of toxic or otherwise harmful trace gases in a spacecraft cabin is a very serious concern in terms of health and safety of the crew. Much progress has been made in developing techniques for monitoring the air quality on board and in near-real-time. The technique developed in Europe has reached the state of an in-flight technology demonstrator. ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) Spectrometry. ANITA is calibrated to identify and quantify quasi online more than 30 contaminants at low ppm (part per million) or sub-ppm detection limits.ANITA is a European Space Agency (ESA) - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cooperative programme.ANITA will be launched with Jules Verne, the maiden flight of the Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) currently scheduled for June 2007.

  8. Reflecting The Past Atmospheres Within Modern Lifestyle (Arsitektur Kontekstual)

    OpenAIRE

    Jos, Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting The Past Atmosphere within Modern Lifestyle refers to reflecting the atmosphere of the former environment with the modern lifestyle. The title is derived from the author’s idea to alert the communities within the site to appreciate the environment conditions which surround them and also the history that influenced the venue. With the main focus to revitalize the Deli Riverfront, the project was designed because the citizens who live around the river often use the river as a waste d...

  9. Regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex with revitalization/revascularization therapy: challenges and hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L M; Ricucci, D; Huang, G T-J

    2014-08-01

    The concept of regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in clinical endodontics in the past decade. One aspect of this discipline is the application of revitalization/revascularization therapies for infected and/or necrotic immature pulps in permanent teeth. Following the publication of a case report (Iwaya et al. ), investigators have been rigorously examining the types of tissues formed in the canals as well as exploring strategies to regenerate the pulp-dentine complex in revitalized teeth. This review will provide an update on the types of tissues generated in the canals after revitalization/revascularization therapy in both animal and human studies. The understanding of the role of stem cells and microenvironment in the process of wound healing resulting in either regeneration or repair will be thoroughly discussed. Stem cells and microenvironmental cues introduced into the canal during revitalization/revascularization procedures will be examined. In addition, requirement of a sterile microenvironment in the canal and vital tissue generation in revitalization/revascularization therapy will be emphasized. The challenges that we face and the hopes that we have in revitalization/revascularization therapy for regenerative endodontics will be presented. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CONSTRUCTION THE BRIDGE PIER AS PARAMETRIC OBJECT USING AUTODESK REVIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Hladka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to solve the following tasks: 1 to investigate the possibilities of Autodesk Revit to create parametric objects; 2 to create an information model of the bridge pier with the possibility of changing the model size without changing geometry of the object; 3 to trace the complexity and feasibility of using parametric models when designing the elements of bridges. Methodology. The studies were carried out using spatial modeling in the Autodesk Revit system. The ratio of the parameters of the object was set, the relationship between individual geometric elements was determined and the changes that were made to the model with the change of the specified parameters were checked. Findings. Support model of two types has been created: for railway bridges and for road bridges. Both types of models change the dimensions and the number of constituent elements in accordance with the entered parameters. The performed work confirms the possibility of creating information parametric models of complex form and the expediency of using them in the design of bridges and not only. Originality. Creation of information models is a modern and relevant topic. But both in the literature and in Internet resources, parametrization is considered on the example of simple objects. The model proposed in the article consists of several dependent geometric bodies; therefore, it opens the topic of objects parameterization more fully and in detail, in comparison with the existing sources. As for the creation of parametric models of the bridge elements - such information is not found in the literature, that is, it is proposed for the first time. Practical value. Parametrization of spatial models allows significantly to accelerate and simplify the process of designing any objects due to the use of typical parametric models in many projects. Especially it concerns the design of bridges, since the standard elements for them, such as support or span are not

  11. Technology advancement of an oxygen generation subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. K.; Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An oxygen generation subsystem based on water electrolysis was developed and tested to further advance the concept and technology of the spacecraft air revitalization system. Emphasis was placed on demonstrating the subsystem integration concept and hardware maturity at a subsystem level. The integration concept of the air revitalization system was found to be feasible. Hardware and technology of the oxygen generation subsystem was demonstrated to be close to the preprototype level. Continued development of the oxygen generation technology is recommended to further reduce the total weight penalties of the oxygen generation subsystem through optimization.

  12. Possibility of utilization of direction construction in river revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Synková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directing and concentrating structures are used mainly on water coursers with unstable channel and major sediment transport or in areas with major bank erosion. The main purpose of these structures is to redirect water flow from the stressed and very often eroded bank to the centre of the channel or other parts of the channel, where the water flow may be used e.g. for dispersion of unsuitable deposit before its eventual stabilization by natural succession.Another important goal is to achieve a desired change of the stream channel by using the transporting power of the water flow and targeted depositing of sediment. In the area of the deflecting structure (deflector, so-called hydraulic shadow also appears where sediment deposits. The objective is to achieve depositing of sediments at desired places of the stream.It is possible to design a whole range of suitable or less suitable types of flow deflectors. In our article, we will particularly focus on problems of revitalization of a water course; that is design of structures from biological or biotechnical elements for channel stabilization.

  13. A renewed focus on primary health care: revitalize or reframe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Susan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The year 2008 celebrated 30 years of Primary Health Care (PHC policy emerging from the Alma Ata Declaration with publication of two key reports, the World Health Report 2008 and the Report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Both reports reaffirmed the relevance of PHC in terms of its vision and values in today's world. However, important challenges in terms of defining PHC, equity and empowerment need to be addressed. This article takes the form of a commentary reviewing developments in the last 30 years and discusses the future of this policy. Three challenges are put forward for discussion (i the challenge of moving away from a narrow technical bio-medical paradigm of health to a broader social determinants approach and the need to differentiate primary care from primary health care; (ii The challenge of tackling the equity implications of the market oriented reforms and ensuring that the role of the State in the provision of welfare services is not further weakened; and (iii the challenge of finding ways to develop local community commitments especially in terms of empowerment. These challenges need to be addressed if PHC is to remain relevant in today's context. The paper concludes that it is not sufficient to revitalize PHC of the Alma Ata Declaration but it must be reframed in light of the above discussion.

  14. Nighttime Lights, Socioeconomic Development, and Revitalization Policies in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    Nighttime lights are typically used as a proxy for population and economic growth, yet they can also reveal socioeconomic decline. We use two night light datasets to infer socioeconomic patterns and trends in the Russian Far East, Northeast China, and North Korea, a cross-border region impacted by the 1991 collapse of the USSR. First, using the annual stable light composites from the DMSP/OLS satellites, we find that generally, nighttime lights declined in the Russian Far East, increased in Northeast China, and fluctuated in North Korea between 1992 and 2012. By 2012, lighting in most of the Russian Far East had not recovered to 1992 levels. In Northeast China, a government revitalization program may have increased lighting during the mid-2000s, suggesting sensitivity of remotely sensed nighttime lights to regional development policies. Yet caveats with DMSP/OLS data include low spatial and radiometric resolutions, saturation, and blooming. The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Suomi NPP satellite, however, launched in October 2011, has higher quality, enabling improved monitoring of socioeconomic trends in the region. For our second night lights dataset, we use both nightly images and monthly DNB composites to make inferences regarding socioeconomic activities at finer spatial and temporal resolutions from 2012-2015. Cross-border activity in particular emerges in finer detail, allowing us to examine specific transport corridors and sites of industrial and natural resource production that involve both Russian and Chinese partners.

  15. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  16. Testimony presented to the Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1976-03-01

    This report contains the basis for oral testimony to the House Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere in November 1975. The subject of the hearings was ''Effects and Costs of Long-term Exposure to Low Levels of Manmade Pollutants'' and the purpose of the hearings was to increase the awareness of low-level pollution and its impacts on human health, agriculture and climate. This report contains information related to impacts of low-level pollutants on human health. I have attempted to point out the major adverse health effects (e.g., carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic) that may result from chronic exposure to low-level pollutants. Also addressed are important questions such as what do we know about dose-response relations for chronic exposure to pollutants and how can we establish comparisons with knowledge obtained from exposure to ionizing radiations. The report also considers the wisdom of extrapolating from health effects data obtained from acute, high-level exposures to chronic, low-level exposure conditions. Lastly, a few examples of the societal costs related to low-level pollutant exposure are presented. (auth)

  17. US-German Cooperation For Further Development Of Decision Support Systems For Sustainable Contaminated Site Revitalization - Berlin, Germany, Sept. 24, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic) is a web-based decision support tool developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields and Land Revital...

  18. In the Name of Language: School-Based Language Revitalization, Strategic Solidarities and State Power in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the mobilization dynamics of a school-based minority language revitalization initiative in the French Basque Country, known as the Ikastola Movement. Bringing the study of language revitalization into dialogue with social movement theory, I discuss how the solidarity of Basque

  19. In the Name of Language: School-Based Language Revitalization, Strategic Solidarities, and State Power in the French Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Kai A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the mobilization dynamics of a school-based minority language revitalization initiative in the French Basque Country, known as the Ikastola Movement. Bringing the study of language revitalization into dialogue with social movement theory, I discuss how the solidarity of Basque language activists was influenced by state-level…

  20. The Nation State v. Indianist Revitalization Dialectic in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early in 2006, the republic of Bolivia has been ruled by the first indigenous president in that country’s history: the Aymara Evo Morales, union leader and first name in the ballot of the so-called “Movement for Socialism” (MAS. His political rise, electoral victory and government program have drawn considerable attention from international mass media and been the subject of valuable political and sociological analyses. From the perspective of comparative anthropology, the process can be understood as an instance, in the Andean cultural context, of what Anthony Wallace called a “revitalization movement,” triggered by the convergence, at a juncture of crisis begun in 1997, of a number of historical conditions of variable duration in Bolivia as a national project.

    Desde comienzos de 2006, la república de Bolivia cuenta con el primer presidente indígena de su historia: el aymara Evo Morales, dirigente sindical y cabeza de lista del llamado “Movimiento al Socialismo” (MAS. Su ascensión política, victoria electoral y programa de gobierno han llamado mucho la atención de los medios informativos internacionales y han sido objeto de valiosos análisis políticos y sociológicos. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología comparada, el proceso se ajusta bien, en el contexto cultural andino, a lo que Anthony Wallace llamara un “movimiento de revitalización”, desencadenado por la convergencia, en un periodo de crisis iniciado en 1997, de varias condiciones estructurales de duración histórica variable en Bolivia como proyecto nacional.

  1. Strategies for Revitalizing Organizations: Regaining the Competitive Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysmith, C. Robert

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, the United States has lost competitive stature in the world. Challenged daily by a technically sophisticated and vitalized global economy, industry and Government are examining quality and productivity initiatives with which to meet the foreign competitive challenge. At stake are our quality of life and our standard of living for the remainder of this century and beyond. Being competitive is an ongoing process, tuned to an awareness and understanding of the dynamics of the world marketplace and to the changing nature of the work environment. Solutions to America's quality and productivity problems do not exist independently within any organization or industry or at any given level of society. Success depends on commitment, partnership, meshing of goals and responsibilities, mutual respect and understanding, and a desire to be first. A change in organizational management culture is required. Traditional authoritarian management practices must give way to enlightened leadership initiatives that stress employee involvement and participation. There must be a lessening of adversarial relationships between management and labor and between industry and Government. Quality and productivity are understood to be the end result of an integrated process which begins with vigorous, committed leadership and ends with a satisfied customer. The essential elements in the revitalization process are organized in this report into seven strategies which represent the major findings of the Second NASA Symposium on Quality and Productivity. Each strategy is then broken down into its principal themes which are presented as recommendations. No one strategy can stand apart from any other; all are interrelated and work together.

  2. Sistema de treinamento para melhora visual: RevitalVision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almodin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação de pacientes submetidos a sessões sequenciais do RevitalVision (RV e relatar seu benefício na melhora da acuidade visual (AV. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 10 pacientes submetidos a sessões sequenciais do RV. A terapia foi realizada em um ritmo de 3 sessões por semana durante um período de 2 a 3 meses, sendo concluída depois de 20 a 40 sessões. Os principais critérios de inclusão foram pós-cirurgia de catarata (sem complicações com LIO multifocal e até +3,00 D, astigmatismo < -1,00 D, ambliopia, glaucoma, pós-transplante de córnea, síndrome de Axenfeld Rieger, catarata congênita e pós-lasik. RESULTADOS: A amostra de dez pacientes foi composta por 30% do sexo feminino, 70% masculino em uma média de 29 anos e de 38,6 sessões por paciente. Houve significância estatística em relação à AV pré e pós as sessões sequenciais do RV (p = 0,0135, assim como melhora da sensibilidade ao contraste. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se melhora da AV e da sensibilidade ao contraste nos pacientes submetidos após as sessões do RV.

  3. Re-Vitalizing Worthiness: A theory of overcoming suicidality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gordon, RPN, Reg. Fam. Ther. & Sup. (FTAI, MSc, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of suicide and suicidality have risen in many countries in recent years and in Ireland this trend has been particularly evident among young men (NOSP, 2005, focusing attention on how best to respond to this group. Although mental health professionals have been identified as a key group to respond to the suicidal person, it has been suggested that they are ill-prepared for working in this area (Maltsberger & Goldblatt, 1996; Ting et al., 2006; Cutcliffe & Stevenson, 2007. This study aimed to address these issues by developing a theoretical understanding of suicidality among young men to inform professional practice. Using Classic Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with 17 young men who had been suicidal and had been in contact with the mental health services. The substantive theory that emerged, re-vitalizing worthiness in overcoming suicidality, describes the psychosocial process that young men go through to resolve their main concern, which centres on their painful pull between life and death. Overcoming suicidality involves moving from a death orientation to a life orientation while incorporating the inevitability of death into their new sense of being. This transition entails identity re-configuration whereby young men emerge as individuals of value who are deserving of life. The process is influenced significantly by personal insights and interpersonal interactions that influence their suicide trajectories and life pathways. The theory contributes to the fields of suicidology and mental health by providing a theoretical understanding of overcoming suicidality and identifying professional and social practices that facilitate and impede this process.

  4. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juchimiuk Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields, ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  5. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchimiuk, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields), ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  6. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  7. Study Possibilities of Present-Day Ethnic Revitalization of German Woodsmen in the Little Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nováková Katarína Slobodová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the influence of macro-social processes and issues of assimilation, acculturation, ethnic and linguistic revitalization on the example of one particular group of German woodsmen in the social context of Western Slovakia. It attempts to analyse how historical and political changes during the 20th century influenced changes in the structure, system of values and hierarchy of ethnic group and whether that helped or prevented the assimilation of the group’s members. The article also attempts to indicate the possibilities of today’s ethnic and linguistic revitalization.

  8. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right.

  9. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  10. Design Criteria in Revitalizing Old Warehouse District on the Kalimas Riverbank Area of Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Titi Sunarti Darjosanjoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neglected warehouse buildings along the Kalimas River have created a poor urban façade in terms of visual quality. However the city government is planning to encourage tourism activities that take advantage of Kalimas River and its surrounding environment. If there is no good plan in accordance with the concept of local identity for old city of Surabaya, it will reduce it as a tourist attraction. In reference to the issue above, design criteria needs to be compiled for revitalizing the old warehouse district, which is expected to revive the identity of this district and be able to support the city’s tourism. This study was conducted by recording field observations, and the data was analyzed using the character appraisal method. The character appraisal analysis method is presented in the form of street picture data, which is divided into determined segments. The results show that there are five components including place attachment, sustainable urban design, green open space design, ecological riverfront design, and activity support that should be considered in the revitalization of the warehouse district. Those components are divided into two parts: building and open space at the riverbank. There are 13 design criteria for building at the riverbank, while there are 14 design criteria for open space at the riverbank. These design criteria can enrich the warehouse district’s revitalization by improving the visual quality of the urban environment.Keywords: design criteria; warehouse district; riverbank; Surabaya; revitalization.

  11. Community biomass handbook. Volume 3: How wood energy is revitalizing rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan. Bihn

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended to help people better understand how wood energy is helping to revitalize rural Alaskan communities by reducing energy costs, creating jobs, and helping to educate the next generation. The village of Koyukuk shows how modern wood energy systems can meet the challenges of remote rural Alaska. To fully succeed, however, these...

  12. Middle School Educators Describe the Process of Revitalization after Having Experienced Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Angela W.

    2017-01-01

    The need to understand burnout and revitalization among educators is increasing. In the United States, approximately 46% of all new educators leave the profession within the first five years, and many blame burnout as the reason they leave the profession. While many researchers study to understand the burnout phenomenon, few press on to understand…

  13. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-05-01

    Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.

  14. Understanding the preconditions for revitalizing bicycle transport in Beijing, with a reference study from Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli

    With the aim of supporting the development of comprehensive policies for revitalizing bicycle transport in Beijing, this thesis has applied the socio-ecological model to guide the inquiry into the domains: individual, social environment, physical environment and policy. These four domains were...

  15. On the Directionality and Maintenance of Language Policy in Revitalization Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    This paper examines efforts to save rapidly declining indigenous languages around the world. The entire process of language preservation and revitalization is a massive undertaking that requires immense long-term planning and support. These problems extend well beyond the linguistic concerns of the language itself. Language policy is inherently…

  16. Not Just "Situaciones de la Vida": Professionalization and Indigenous Language Revitalization in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Swinehart, Karl F.

    2012-01-01

    Within discourses of language endangerment, life stages such as child language acquisition, adolescent language shift, and the death of community elders figure prominently, but what of the role of other, intermediate life stages during adulthood and professional life in the course of language obsolescence or revitalization? Drawing from long-term…

  17. Revitalization Of The 1970s Within The ‘Old Town’ In Kraków

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paweł Żwirek; Jakub Fiszer

    2015-01-01

    ...’ part of the city of Kraków. The subjects of the revitalization were the façades of an office building and a multi-level garage, both built in the 1970s in the administrative district of the ‘Old Town’ in Krakow...

  18. THE IMPACT OF SELECTED PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON THE GEOMETRY OF THE WELD POOL WHEN WELDING IN SHIELS GAS ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bradáč

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on welding with a consumable electrode in a gas shield atmosphere and its main aim is to show the influence of selected processes and technological parameters on the geometry of the weld pool in terms of theoretical and experimental views. For this purpose, the parametric areas defined by the change of the welding current and welding rate were determined. Apart from the influence of these parametric areas, the influence of other technological input variables, including the wire diameter and preheating temperature, was also studied. The experimentally obtained geometric data of the weld pool can be used for technological welding procedures WPS and especially for simulation calculations to obtain a more accurate numerical model of the heat source. This makes it possible to get accurate simulation results and to better understand the impact of other variables that influence the welding process. This all helps to the optimization of the welding process for several applications.

  19. POLLUTANT EMISSION TO THE ATMOSPHERE AND HIGH-TECHNOLOGY ON THE EX AMPLE OF JAWORZNO III POWER STATION IN JAWORZNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wierzbińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper technologies of pollution elimination from waste gases in Jaworzno Power Station III are presented. Mixture of coal and biomass (9:1 is combusted there. In waste gases there are dust and gaseous pollutants which are eliminated using high-technology filters and technologies of desulfurization, NOx elimination and deslagging. Changes in pollution quantities before and after Power Station modernization are presented on graphs.

  20. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  1. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  2. Putting Technology to Work in Science - How to Select Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and their Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Amit; Lange, Manfred; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2010-05-01

    The Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute is aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the Mediterranean. The APAESO platforms will offer the unique potential to determine physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations, atmospheric dynamics, surface morphology, vegetation and land use patterns as well as ocean surface properties (biology, waves, currents) and to carry out archaeological site reconnaissance and contaminant detection at high spatial resolution. The first phase of APAESO was dedicated to the preliminary design and the selection of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as the backbone of the APAESO infrastructure. Selection of a UAV suitable for the many research objectives as outlined above is challenging because the UAV technology is new and rapidly evolving. This notwithstanding, a very large number of systems, mostly utilized for defense purposes, are currently available. The major challenge in the selection process lies in considering the trade-off between different platform characteristics (e.g. payload weight, endurance, max. altitude for operation and price) and in optimizing the potential performance of the UAV. Based on the required characteristics for the UAV platform, a survey of possible UAVs and suitable sensors was prepared based on various data sources. We used an elimination process in order to consider only a few models for the final selection process out of about 1000 commercially available UAV models that were initially investigated. The presentation will discuss the main scientific objectives that determine the specification of the UAV platform, major considerations in selecting best available technology for our needs and will briefly describe the next phases of the project.

  3. 78 FR 69629 - Revitalization of the AM Radio Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... comment as to the potential adverse effects, if any, of MDCL control technology implementation on other AM... technologies have reported significant savings on electrical power costs and few, if any, perceptible effects on station coverage area and audio quality. Based on the absence of either reported negative effects...

  4. ‘Slow’ Revitalization on Regional Scale, the Example of an Integrated Investment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Belzyt, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The study arose from question about the future of towns, as well as the possibility of their development. The paper is an attempt to look at the direction in which many towns around the world aim, connecting to a networks, and especially the network of Cittaslow. The author asked a few questions - whether the Cittaslow network actually helps towns to use their inner potential, build their brand and improve the quality of residents’ lifes? The starting point for the case study method adopted in the paper is a discussion of examples of urban networks as a background for a wider Cittaslow characteristic. For this purpose, there was conducted literature and in situ research on the Cittaslow towns, the query of documents related to Polish Cittaslow, own photographic documentation was collected and a series of talks were carried out in different offices and municipalities. The database constructed in this way, allowed the analysis and conclusions. An important part of the research was the synthesis of information on the integrated project which has been taken in 14 Polish Slow Cities. “The Cross-Local Programme of Revitalization of Cittaslow Town Network in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship” is a unique action on the scale of the entire international Cittaslow network. Each of the participating towns tried to exploit through revitalization its own unique potential for real growth and improve the quality of life of its residents. Through the joint action, even the smallest town could more easily obtain significant funding. The involvement of regional government and understanding of the idea was also crucial. Cittaslow network, although not perfect, may in the long term strengthen linkages and exchange of experience between the slow towns and not lead to their unification. Furthermore, as shown by the example of Polish “The Cross-Local Programme of Revitalization of Cittaslow Town Network in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship”, belonging to the Cittaslow network

  5. Understanding the preconditions for revitalizing bicycle transport in Beijing, with a reference study from Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli

    including individual, social environment, physical environment, and policy, which enabled me to suggest a comprehensive strategy for policy making for bicycle transport revitalization in Beijing. Thirdly, infrastructure planning principles and experiences in Beijing and Copenhagen were compared, which......Rapid urbanization and the growth in the number of motorized vehicles has dramatically marginalized cycling in Chinese cities since the end of the 1990s. The deterioration in air quality and the urban environment is severely challenging urban livability and public health. The cities are seeking...... effective policies to alleviate these problems, while revitalizing bicycle transport has become one of the cores of mobility policy. Being the capital city, Beijing has a significant influence on other Chinese cities. Previously, Beijing had a strong bicycle culture, but today it is under severe pressure...

  6. Exploring and revitalizing Indigenous food networks in Saskatchewan, Canada, as a way to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Fidji; Hancherow, Anna; Norton, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    The project discussed in this paper was designed to expand research and instigate revitalization of Indigenous food networks in Saskatchewan, Canada, by exploring the current state of local Indigenous food networks, creating a Facebook page, organizing volunteer opportunities and surveying workshop participants regarding their knowledge and interest in Indigenous foods. The survey included Likert scale questions and qualitative questions. Project activities and survey results are discussed using statistical and qualitative analysis of the themes. Results indicate that participants are very interested in learning more about, and having greater access to, traditional foods and suggest that supporting Indigenous food networks may be an appropriate response to food insecurity in communities. Elders and community members are vital players in Indigenous foods exploration and revitalization in Saskatchewan by passing on traditional education. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Specifics of Formal and Legal Issues in Processes of Revitalizing Post-Industrial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochański, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The article deals with issues from the initial phase of the investment process connected with revitalizing postindustrial buildings: planning and programming investments in the functional and financial scope, as well as designing. The described formal and legal aspects are the result of a study of a few projects concerning the adaptation of buildings to serving a new function in Zielona Góra and Żaganie. The conclusions drawn from an individual view into each of the described problems are no different than when designing new buildings. It is not until we look into the whole preparation and design process, and gathering all experiences from the formal-legal sphere, that allows us to notice that, in the case of revitalizing postindustrial buildings and their adaptation to serve modern-day functions, a multifaceted but also specific approach is required.

  8. Specifics of Formal and Legal Issues in Processes of Revitalizing Post-Industrial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochański Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues from the initial phase of the investment process connected with revitalizing postindustrial buildings: planning and programming investments in the functional and financial scope, as well as designing. The described formal and legal aspects are the result of a study of a few projects concerning the adaptation of buildings to serving a new function in Zielona Góra and Żaganie. The conclusions drawn from an individual view into each of the described problems are no different than when designing new buildings. It is not until we look into the whole preparation and design process, and gathering all experiences from the formal-legal sphere, that allows us to notice that, in the case of revitalizing postindustrial buildings and their adaptation to serve modern-day functions, a multifaceted but also specific approach is required.

  9. Evaluation of possibilities of revitalized HPP Zvornik in island operation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of revitalized units in HPP Zvornik for islanding, with proposed parameters and characteristics. For the selected scenario and specific disturbances, dynamic response of aggregates have been identified for sufficiently long period, by using the computer program Primcont. Achieved results show the ability of HPP Zvornik islanding, for one scenario considered. However, the complexity of this problem requires its general quantitative treatment, which was emphasized at the end of the paper.

  10. The experience of other countries in the revitalization of streets and trails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrinel-Alexandra Voinea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many cities have realized that investment in the revitalization of streets and pedestrian walkways and care for conservation of monuments and historical sites, not only can boost economic profile of the area, but can bring the city in world tourist route. The objective of these trails is to make life of the pedestrians more pleasant, encouraging them to do shopping and so local economy increase.

  11. Decline and approaches to revitalization in small cities: the case of Saga, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munetoshi Yamashita

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of urban geography has primarily focused on large cities, but geographic trends affecting smaller urban areas also merit the attention of researchers. The local economies of smaller municipalities in Japan, for example, have been more seriously damaged by the recession of the last decade than the economies of larger cities. Typically, store vacancies have increased in small cities as a result of the recession. Moreover, the population of small cities is aging rapidly, obscuring their prospects for the future. This paper examines the outcome of changes in the case of the small city of Saga, Ja-pan, with particular attention to the decline of its urban center and its unsuccessful efforts at downtown revitalization. As the center of Saga Prefecture in southwestern Japan, the city of Saga performs communication, education, administrative, and cultural functions that are significant in the local and regional economy. As in other small cities in Japan, the down-town of Saga has declined with the regional economy in recent years. The outlook for Saga's urban environment is serious, with increasing urban problems anticipated. In re-sponse, downtown revitalization and redevelopment efforts have been undertaken, but these have been unsuccessful. This study concludes that a lack of both public participation and clear policy purpose were contributing factors in the failure of Saga’s revitalization efforts.

  12. Decline and approaches to revitalization in small cities: the case of Saga, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munetoshi Yamashita

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of urban geography has primarily focused on large cities, but geographic trendsaffecting smaller urban areas also merit the attention of researchers. The local economies ofsmaller municipalities in Japan, for example, have been more seriously damaged by therecession of the last decade than the economies of larger cities. Typically, store vacancieshave increased in small cities as a result of the recession. Moreover, the population of smallcities is aging rapidly, obscuring their prospects for the future.This paper examines the outcome of changes in the case of the small city of Saga, Japan,with particular attention to the decline of its urban center and its unsuccessful efforts atdowntown revitalization. As the center of Saga Prefecture in southwestern Japan, the city ofSaga performs communication, education, administrative, and cultural functions that aresignificant in the local and regional economy. As in other small cities in Japan, the downtownof Saga has declined with the regional economy in recent years. The outlook forSaga's urban environment is serious, with increasing urban problems anticipated. In response,downtown revitalization and redevelopment efforts have been undertaken, but thesehave been unsuccessful. This study concludes that a lack of both public participation andclear policy purpose were contributing factors in the failure of Saga’s revitalization efforts.

  13. Revitalization of Coastal Area Pasie Nan Tigo Padang City for Hazard Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryani Haryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal neighborhood of Pasie Nan Tigo, city of Padang after the earthquake of 2007 and 2009 is threatened by various disasters. Therefore, the efforts should be made in comprehensive way to reduce the risk of the disasters through community participation. The study conducted by Haryani (2013 on the mitigation efforts in coastal areas shows that the environmental revitalization with active disaster mitigation model needed to be done before the disaster occurred. The method used in the revitalization of disaster mitigation in coastal areas is the Active Hazard Mitigation Model (non-physical with community participation and Passive Mitigation Models (physical with community empowerment. The results of the study are that the communities of the coastal areas, Pasir Nan Tiga have a better knowledge and understanding on the threat of coastal disasters and on the disaster mitigation. In addition, the communities also have a better knowledge on the importance of revitalizing the market place and settlements after the earthquake. The results of the implementation of passive mitigation models to the community empowerment are: (a basic map / forum administration, (b a map of evacuation routes, (c a map of problems mainly related to the disaster, (d a disaster vulnerability map of Pasie Nan Tigo Village, and (e trees-barriers to avoid erosion / abrasion in the coastal neighborhood of Pasie Nan Tigo, city of Padang.

  14. A Sustainable Historic Waterfront Revitalization Decision Support Tool for Attracting Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keyvanfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterfront revitalization would be an effective strategy to preserve heritages, conserve the contaminated or abandoned site and inspire the identity and authenticity. However, there is no decision support tool to quantify and evaluate the sustainability accreditation of waterfronts in tourism attraction. This research aimed to identify the most potential waterfront typology in tourism attraction and develop the waterfront sustainable revitalization (SWR index assessment model. The SWR index can assist policy makers and urban developers to analyze the heritage waterfronts using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. The research found out the historic waterfront has the highest potential in tourism attraction among other typologies. And, pollution moderator is mostly important sub-criterion in tourism absorption (WC2.2 = 0.1294; followed by Identity (WC1.2 = 0.1272 and Safety and well-being (WC1.3 = 0.1043. The SWR index can be applied in any waterfronts in heritage cities around the world, while this research implemented it as a case study in Bandar Maharani, Muar, Malaysia. It resulted Bandar Maharani was ranked as grade C; means, usable waterfront to which extent environmental, social and physical revitalization are needed. The SWR index can be coupled with other decision-making methods in future, to reduce its inconsistencies and increasing accuracy.

  15. Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, S; Morio, M; Bartke, S; Rohr-Zänker, R; Finkel, M

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: (i) subsurface remediation and site preparation costs, (ii) market-oriented economic appraisal, and (iii) the expected contribution of planned future land use to sustainable community and regional development. For the assessment, focus is set on the early stage of the brownfield redevelopment process, which is characterized by limited data availability and by flexibility in land use planning and development scope. At this stage, revealing the consequences of adjustments and alterations in planning options can foster efficiency in communication between the involved parties and thereby facilitates the brownfield revitalization process. Results from the case-study application indicate that the integrated assessment provides help in the identification of land use options beneficial in both a sustainable and an economical sense. For the study site it is shown on one hand that brownfield redevelopment is not automatically in line with sustainable regional development, and on the other hand it is demonstrated that additional contributions to sustainability are not intrinsically tied to increased costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Debate on Globalization and International Revitalization of Labor. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fleming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labor. The main question in this discussion is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labor movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization. This question also relates to discussions of changes in division of work, the concept of work, working class, commodification, decommodification, and new centers of global production—all related to different paradigms or new concepts. The reason or need for reconceptualizing comes from the great transformation of capitalism in forms of neoliberal globalization, in a different direction than predicted by Polanyi. That is, instead of increased public sector decommodification (not profit- or market-oriented production and national regulation, embedding capitalist markets, as seen after 1945, the last three decades have witnessed a countertransformation and large-scale recommodification by privatizing, disembedding, and deregulating global markets. As a consequence, inequality in income and working life conditions has increased in most countries and been used to press trade unions. Western industrial unions have been declining as many industries and labor-intensive, low-paid jobs moved to developing countries. Most blue-collar jobs are now in Asia, especially China, with about one-third of its employment blue collars. Is the center of global capital-labor contradictions and dynamics moving to the South, with a possibility of a new revitalization of labor and international solidarity? We discuss different optimistic and pessimistic views on a possible international revitalization of labor.

  17. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  18. Revisit, revamp and revitalize your business plan: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, David

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic imaging department has a pivotal role within the hospital and its pillar services. Understanding this role and also understanding the population served helps to further define and justify the "what" and "why" of the business plan. Understand the market capacity and how market needs can be satisfied. Develop a "go-to-market" strategy, which is the part of the business plan where it is decided how to share that message with the market. In the aftermath of healthcare reform and the economic recession, investing in new imaging technology has never been under greater scrutiny. A three step process for developing support is provided.

  19. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  20. Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Maere, Hannelore; De Mey, Eveline; Paelinck, Hubert; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    The microbiota associated with a highly-perishable Belgian artisan-type cooked ham was analyzed through plating and (GTG)(5)-fingerprinting of isolates throughout its processing chain. The raw tumbled meat was characterized by the presence of a versatile microbiota around 4.8 log(cfu g(-1)), consisting of lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Pasteurisation of the ham logs reduced bacterial counts below 2 log(cfu g(-1)) and subsequent manipulations selected for leuconostocs and carnobacteria. Also, B. thermosphacta and several Enterobacteriaceae were found at this stage. During storage in an intermediate high-care area for 2 days, a selection towards certain Enterobacteriaceae (Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter spp., and Pantoea agglomerans) and lactic acid bacteria (mainly vagococci and Streptococcus parauberis) was observed. B. thermosphacta, Leuconostoc carnosum and carnobacteria were also detected, but only after allowing bacterial outgrowth by incubating the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks. After a mild post-pasteurisation process and subsequent handling, incubation of the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks led to outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp.). B. thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Leuc. carnosum, and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) were also found. After slicing and packaging under modified atmosphere, the microbiota of the refrigerated end-product consisted of leuconostocs, carnobacteria, and B. thermosphacta.

  1. From the Logic of Elimination to the Logic of the Gift: Towards a Decolonial Theory of Tlingit Language Revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger William A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Tlingit language revitalization is approached through theories of decolonization, critiques of colonialism, and philosophies of liberation. Instructional programs for the endangered Tlingit language are urgently necessary, but the residual structures of colonialism make the successful implementation and reception of such programs extremely difficult. Patrick Wolfe’s notion of the “logic of elimination” is used to demonstrate the persistent nature of colonialism in the Tlingit context. Through that lens, the dispossession of Tlingit territory, culture, and language by the settler-colonial system can be viewed as ongoing processes rather than concluded past events. Concrete examples are used to demonstrate the empirical effects of colonial elimination campaigns in the Tlingit context. The work of Nelson Maldonado-Torres is also enlisted, as he articulates a notion of decolonization predicated on “the logic of the gift.” I bring together these “logics” of (de colonization to advance a speculative theory of revitalization as a movement from the logic of elimination to the logic of the gift. This has implications for language revitalization in general and Tlingit language revitalization in particular. I argue that revitalization must begin in an affirmation of the Tlingit language based on critical, militant, and loving acts of listening.

  2. Electrochemical Behavior of CoNiCrAlY/ZrO2-Y2O3 Coated Layers with Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Technology in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jong; Woo, Yong-Bin; Lee, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jae-Yong

    2013-11-01

    Application of surface treatment has become common for protecting machine parts from oxidation, abrasion and corrosion induced by external environment. In particular, thermal spraying techniques are widely employed to improve wear, corrosion and thermal resistance. And compared to other methods they are simple and cost effective. However, the presence of porosity in the thermal spray coating can be highly detrimental because it provides access to penetration of corrosive matters, lowering corrosion resistance. Therefore, this research evaluate the electrochemical behavior under marine environment for aluminum-bronze alloy coated with MCrAlY and yttria-stabillized zirconia (YSZ) by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) coating technology. Further application of carbon-based sealer removed voids and defects in the coating. The result reveled that, in case the voids and defects are completely removed, excellent corrosion resistance can be archived by application of good coating material along with formation of compact sealing layer.

  3. MO-C-BRB-00: President’s Symposium: Revitalizing Scientific Excellence: Turning Research Into Clinical Reality Through Translational Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    between medical physicists, radiologists, oncologists, industry representatives, and other stakeholders. The mission of QIBA is to improve the accuracy and practicality of quantitative image-based biomarkers by increasing precision across devices, patients, and time, an essential step in incorporating quantitative imaging biomarkers into radiology practice. Validated quantitative imaging biomarkers are necessary to support precision medicine initiatives, multimodality / multiparametric applications in medicine, treatment planning and response assessment, and radiogenomics applications. Current applications in the QIBA portfolio extend to cancer diagnosis and treatment, pulmonary diseases, and neurological disorders. The overall goal of this symposium is to illustrate the bidirectional exchange between medical research and clinical practice. Revitalizing scientific excellence in clinical medical physics challenges practitioners to identify clinical limitations, which then drive research innovation; research funded by the NIH and other agencies develops technological solutions to these limitations, which are translated to the care environment to ultimately improve clinical practice in radiology and radiation oncology.

  4. Executive Summary of the reVITALize Initiative: Standardizing Gynecologic Data Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Howard T; Johnson, Julia V; Lemieux, Lauren A; Currigan, Sean M

    2017-04-01

    Effective care coordination across the women's health continuum is critically important. Unlike obstetric care, which tends to be more episodic and limited to pregnant and postpartum women, women receive health care, whether around pregnancy or for nonobstetric issues, in a variety of care settings by members of multiple health disciplines. Having access to standardized clinical data is imperative to providing optimal patient care. The reVITALize Gynecology Data Definitions Initiative leads a national multidisciplinary movement to offer standard gynecologic data definitions for use in written and verbal clinical communication, electronic health record data capture, quality improvement, and clinical research.

  5. Integration of Environmental Sensors with BIM: case studies using Arduino, Dynamo, and the Revit API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para

  6. [Mycology in the 21st century: crisis and revitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Although they are key players in the biosphere and have important roles in human industry, agriculture and health, fungi are largely understudied and, more disturbingly, often underrepresented in biology classes at all levels. Nevertheless, it is most likely that mycology will soon undergo a renewal of interest. Firstly, because fungi are becoming more prominent in human concerns, as their impact on human, animal and ecosystem health are increasing, animal and plant biologists become more aware of their importance. Moreover, mycologists have organized to make their discipline more visible and to enable large scale scientific projects, such as the global analyses of fungal phylogeny and of their genome structure, function and evolution. This, combined with the next generation of sequencing technologies, now permits an in depth and global understanding on how fungi are organized and how they function. It also enables the development of strategies that will help to fight fungi when they negatively interfere with human concerns, as in human mycosis, or to use them in industries such as in renewable energy usage. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  7. Recent Advances That May Revitalize Mobile Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabinis, Peter D.; Dutta, Santanu

    2003-07-01

    The struggling Mobile Satellite Services industry recently received a much needed stimulus. Following a lengthy technical debate, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorized the use of Ancillary Terrestrial Components (ATCs) by Mobile Satellite System (MSS) operators in order to expand and improve the reliability of MSS services in populous areas. This paper discusses an innovative architecture that will enable Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV) to launch its hybrid network, comprising satellite and ancillary terrestrial connectivity, enabling its users to communicate from everywhere using one device. MSV's network will be based on mainstream mass-market technologies (GSM and/or CDMA) and will thus derive the benefits of high production volume on its end-user devices. As such, MSV's terminal equipment will be aesthetically indistinguishable from cellular/PCS-only products, and very cost competitive. The aggregate level of co-channel and adjacent channel interference that may be generated by the ATC, as it terrestrially reuses the available satellite-link frequencies, has been shown to be insignificant by both MSV and the FCC. The hybrid system architecture that is contemplated by MSV including its frequency reuse by space and terrestrial elements is discussed.

  8. Finding, keeping, and revitalizing the meaning in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Anne; Seger, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The culture of medicine is undergoing revolutionary change. Physicians are pulled in many directions involving the practice of medicine, the business of medicine, and the technology of medicine. Financial incentives and career promotions may be dependent upon such things as patient satisfaction scores, as well as adherence to guidelines for admissions and diagnostic testing. Of course, these metrics are monitored closely by hospitals, insurance companies, and the federal government. The resultant seemingly endless paperwork, deadlines, and multiple demands may result in a sense of time famine for physicians. Unfortunately, these expectations and demands can subsequently diminish the passion for medicine. Moreover, physicians are at high risk for significant physical and emotional exhaustion, often leading to a sense of demoralization. Physicians can ultimately lose sight of their reasons for choosing the field of medicine. Indeed, they can lose the inspiration and "meaning" derived from work in medicine all together. How, then, does one buffer oneself against such perils, and maintain the original passion and meaning in a chosen career of service to others? This article will describe one program's approach to promoting resilience and maintaining meaning during the residency training years through the establishment of a Meaning in Family Medicine Group. The conceptual background, approach to curriculum development, goals and objectives, resident feedback, and suggestions about how to carry this curriculum beyond the residency training years will be discussed.

  9. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  10. Clinical, radiographic, and histological observation of a human immature permanent tooth with chronic apical abscess after revitalization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Emi; Ricucci, Domenico; Albert, Jeffrey; Alobaid, Adel S; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Huang, George T-J; Lin, Louis M

    2013-08-01

    Revitalization procedures have been widely used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. The treatment procedures appear to be capable of encouraging continued root development and thickening of the canal walls. The nature of tissues formed in the canal space and at the root apex after revitalization has been shown histologically in several animal studies; similar studies in humans were recently reported. A 9-year-old boy had a traumatic injury to his upper anterior teeth. Tooth #9 suffered a complicated crown fracture with a pulp exposure, which was restored with a composite resin. The tooth developed a chronic apical abscess. Revitalization procedures were performed on tooth #9 because it was an immature permanent tooth with an open apex and thin canal walls. Twenty-six months after revitalization, the tooth had a horizontal crown fracture at the cervical level and could not be restored. The tooth was extracted and processed for routine histological and immunohistochemical examination to identify the nature of tissues formed in the canal space. Clinically and radiographically, the revitalization of the present case was successful because of the absence of signs and symptoms and the resolution of periapical lesion as well as thickening of the canal walls and continued root development. The tissue formed in the canal was well-mineralized cementum- or bone-like tissue identified by routine histology and immunohistochemistry. No pulp-like tissue characterized by the presence of polarized odontoblast-like cells aligning dentin-like hard tissue was observed. The tissues formed in the canal of revitalized human tooth are similar to cementum- or bone-like tissue and fibrous connective tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainable revitalization of brownfield lands – possibilities of interim utilization in the form of urban community gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorján Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our PhD researches include brownfield revitalization,1 the application of the methods of interim utilizations on greeneries,2 and the formation background and potential of community gardens.3 We compared our systems of criteria in hope of extensive research conclusions. In order to trace the urban development possibilities in Budapest, we analysed brownfield revitalizations where the interim utilizations included allotment gardens, too. We concluded that such developments are likely to create environmental and social added value. Early results of the valorization process are important by themselves, but the perpetuation of interim land utilization holds even greater values.

  12. Moss mites (Acari: Oribatida in soil revitalizing: a chance for practical application in silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oribatida (known as moss mites or beetle mites increase the breakdown of organic material in the soil. The paper analyses the dynamics of their abundance and number of species after various treatments enriching the soil in 4 study areas: afforested post-agricultural area in the Tuchola Forest, afforested degraded post-military training area in Bydgoszcz-Jachcice, and forest nurseries at Białe Błota and Bielawy. The results show that in post-agricultural and degraded soils at the initial stages of forest succession, the density and number of species of oribatid mites were low, even after phyto-land-improvement (afforestation and lupin as green manure. In the forest nurseries, however, we recorded a positive effect of soil revitalizing after mulching with forest ectohumus (i.e. organic surface layer of the soil. The inoculation of soils with forest mesofauna appeared more effective in nursery plantations of silver birch (Betula pendula and small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata, as compared with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris. Thus to revitalize degraded soils effectively and to accelerate forest succession, apart from phytoland- improvement, it is advisable also to reintroduce mesofauna, e.g. with the use of forest ectohumus.

  13. Revitalization of open apex teeth with apical periodontitis using a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. REVITALIZING THE SUNAN KUDUS’ MULTICULTURALISM IN RESPONDING ISLAMIC RADICALISM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Said

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article’s main focus is on exploring Sunan Kudus’multiculturalism in Java with special focus on revitalizing them in responding Islamic radicalism in Indonesia. In this writing the authors use the semiotic and phenomenological approaches and supported by the oral history. Semiotics in this case can be a form of deconstruction of the understanding that was considered to be established. So it will be able to find the cultural capital with does not separate the spiritualism of Sunan Kudus. Some important conclusions are: First, the presence of Sunan Kudus in has brought the mission of Walisong to transmit a peaceful Islam in Java through a cultural approach, according to prominent local situation and conditions of each. Second, Sunan Kudus has built a successful political integration with the rights of democratic participation that considers tolerance and equality for citizens even though dealing with the different religious communities such as Hindu and Confucianism so that awakened a ‘social system’ with democratic civility, known as “Kudus Darussalam”. Third, the values and spirit of multiculturalism of Sunan Kudus are a cultural capital that will be the habitus of the community and strengthen democratic civility to the level of actions (behaviors, when reconstructed through a systematic educational values in responding the Islamic radicalism in the name of democracy. Keywords: Revitalizing, Sunan Kudus’ multiculturalism, Islamic radicalism

  15. Community Revitalization by Geotourism: Tourism Study with Geoscience in Wakayama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Konomatsu, M.; Furukubo, A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents our community-revitalization project in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kii Peninsula, especially its southern part, has many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. Those geoheritages have been considered just as on-site educational tools, and not received enough attentions as contents for geotours. UNESCO defines that a Geopark is a geographical area where geological heritage sites are part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development. UNESCO also describes that it is necessary to also include and highlight sites of ecological, archaeological, historical and cultural value within each Geopark. In many societies, natural, cultural and social history are inextricably linked and cannot be separated. We plan to have the region registered as a geopark by Japan (or Global) Geopark Network. In the context of community-revitalization, a "regional brand" has drawn attention for its potential to attract tourists. A Geopark may contribute to establish a regional brand.

  16. Revitalization of the shared commons: education for sustainability and marginalized cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, George E.

    2010-06-01

    Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more affluent society with more resources and educational opportunities? In the case of the Tal and Alkaher study (Cult Stud Sci Edu, 2009), asymmetric power differences between the dominant Israeli society and the minority Arab population yielded different environmental narratives and perceptions of students involved in learning about a mediated conflict in national park land. Similarly, marginalized indigenous cultures in Malawi, Africa share common lands with the dominant European landowners but have distinctly different environmental narratives. Although indigenous ways of living with nature contribute to the sustainability of the environment and culture, African funds of knowledge are conspicuously absent from the Eurocentric school science curriculum. In contrast, examples of experiential learning and recent curriculum development efforts in sustainability science in Malawi are inclusive of indigenous knowledge and practices and are essential for revitalizing the shared commons.

  17. [Experimental study on pulp revitalization of Beagle dog's immature permanent teeth after pulpectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-zhen; Ouyang, Yong; Liao, Zhi-qing

    2011-08-01

    To observe the process of pulp revitalization of immature permanent teeth after pulpectomy. Thirty-two single-rooted teeth with open apices from 4 Beagle dogs aged 4 months were included in the study. The pulpal tissues of 8 front teeth with single root of each dog were removed, and a blood clot was produced to the level of the cementoenamel junction followed by a double seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and composite resin. At day 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively after operation, the dog was sacrificed, and then longitudinal paraffin sections were made for histologic investigation. After 7 days, about one thirth of the pulp chamber had an ingrowth of new tissue. After 14, 21, 28 days, there were more and more new tissue in the chamber. This new tissue consisted of well-organized and well-vascularized connective tissue. Hard tissue was too observed in the root canal. In some cases, the newly generated hard tissue even deposited against the canal dentinal walls. The pulp of immature permanent teeth can revitalize after removal of the original pulp tissue under suitable conditions.

  18. Urban, Suburban, and Rural Contexts of School Districts and Neighborhood Revitalization Strategies: Rediscovering Equity in Education Policy and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Robert Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the debate about school reform and homeownership-based strategies for neighborhood revitalization. It is based on an analysis of school districts in New York State using data from the American Community Survey (ACS) and the New York State Education Department (NYSED). Findings indicate that the relationship between schools…

  19. 5 CFR 842.107 - Employees covered under the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. The following categories of employees of the District... employee is a former Federal employee appointed with a break in service of 3 days or less. ...

  20. Multi-physics modelling contributions to investigate the atmospheric cosmic rays on the single event upset sensitivity along the scaling trend of CMOS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, G; Regis, D; Cheminet, A; Gatti, M; Lacoste, V

    2014-10-01

    Particles originating from primary cosmic radiation, which hit the Earth's atmosphere give rise to a complex field of secondary particles. These particles include neutrons, protons, muons, pions, etc. Since the 1980s it has been known that terrestrial cosmic rays can penetrate the natural shielding of buildings, equipment and circuit package and induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Recently, research has shown that commercial static random access memories are now so small and sufficiently sensitive that single event upsets (SEUs) may be induced from the electronic stopping of a proton. With continued advancements in process size, this downward trend in sensitivity is expected to continue. Then, muon soft errors have been predicted for nano-electronics. This paper describes the effects in the specific cases such as neutron-, proton- and muon-induced SEU observed in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. The results will allow investigating the technology node sensitivity along the scaling trend. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  2. A Study of Islamic and Arab Markets' Role in Revitalizing Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yasser Lotfy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market places have occupied a major role in most cities around the world, being a site for more than just economic interactions, but rather a cultivating agent for social and cultural growth. The Arab and Islamic cities have a proud history of market places, most of the times being the main core of the city, with urban development encompassing it, and till the present day market places are in the heart of most communities. The modern city brought with it a devaluing of the traditional market places, making it a tourist attraction as in the case of "khan el Khalil",or leaving it to rust like "bab el louq" market. Those markets while playing a big role historically, modern city planning moved the services and markets into other form, thus becoming less important, abandoned, or even demolished at cases. The issue at hand deals with how the contemporary urban planning affected market places, with emphasis on closed markets (Bab el-loukwhich can be said to be the successor of the ancient Bazaar or Wekala.  Bal el-Louk market was once in the heart of Cairo and vital part of its community life, but now the market after more than a 100 years, is in ruins, but hope is not yet all lost, since the market can still be revived and revitalized. To tackle this issue a combination of comparative and field studies must occur. On the one hand, comparative studies with markets in the US or closed markets in European cities such as Paris or Copenhagen would be done to find the necessary elements and goals that would make those markets vital, and the necessary steps to revitalize our own forgotten markets. The other study would have to deal with the current condition of bab el louk market in Cairo, finding out the reason behind its demise, the owners and users feedback on said market, and the opportunities for change. With the results of the studies, general recommendations would be made for the revitalization of the Egyptian marketplaces, using an urban framework

  3. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  4. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  5. Re-evaluating Traditional Predictors of Incoming Knowledge in Astronomy 101 and Implications for Course Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Harbour, C.; Forrester, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    A wide range of incoming knowledge is seen in students taking introductory astronomy courses. Using the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) as a pre-course measure of incoming knowledge, an evaluation was completed to discover any explanation for this variation. It would be reasonable to suggest that this could result from the variety we see in student's motivation, self-efficacy, general scholastic achievement, their high school science experience, or even whether one or more of their parents is in a STEM field. In this re-evaluation, there was no correlation seen between the above and the student's pre-test scores. Instead, the only predictor of pretest scores was student's exposure to astronomy through informal learning opportunities. This leads to important implications for faculty revitalizing their courses to improve student learning.

  6. Revitalization of religion and religiousness in Serbia: Reality or a myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has three parts: in the first part the authors discusses two theoretical ways of interpreting revival and revitalization of religion in Serbia. The first way takes religion as a public institution and implies mutual support of religious and non-religious factors, while the other way describes independent, internal religious revival emerging from the very core of religion and church as a divine institution and individual spiritual needs of believers for religiousness (terminal faith. In the second part, the author points to two different interpretations of empirical data on attachment to religion and church in Serbia accumulated in the last thirty years. The third part compares socio-demographic characteristics of religious people from twenty-five years ago and characteristics of contemporary believers.

  7. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  8. Revisiting the Service Physical Education Program at the Tertiary Level: Basis For A Revitalized Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilou M. Orlanda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the service Physical Education Program at Batangas State University system based on the assessments of the administrators, faculty and students on its implementation in consideration of its program components and attitudes of PE teachers towards the subject with the proposed revitalized Physical Education program as an output. Using descriptive research design of research and statistical tools such as percentage, weighted mean, and f-test, the result showed a great extent of the implementation of the service Physical Education program at BSU system in terms of attainment of objectives, curriculum, teaching effectiveness of faculty, and adequacy of facilities, equipment, supplies, and instructional materials. Positive attitudes towards PE except on the concerns on reducing the time allocation for the subject and that it should be mainly sports and play were among the findings. In addition, the objectives of the PE program are believed to be the best indicators while the least indicator is the facilities, equipment and supplies.

  9. Revitalization of Public Spaces as a High Priority Strategy for European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Kozlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, public spaces have been suffering from a progressive dystrophy. Prevalence of private cars in the absence of a good alternative to public transport and fragmentation of the city in the absence of its proper complex organization do a lot of harm to the city’s image.Many foreign cities started to value urban public spaces and to revitalize them about forty years ago. Examples of successful cities and various inspiring decisions encourage us to create a city structure as a place where people meet. Each city has an individual approach, but common features of the cities are: aspiration to create a comfort environment for a human being, a strong leader who can realize this idea and sequential and decisive actions to create a humane city for people.

  10. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  11. Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph M.; Mosher, Kira I.; Abbey, Rachelle J.; McBride, Alisha A.; James, Michelle L.; Berdnik, Daniela; Shen, Jadon C.; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin S.; Tingle, Martha; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Angst, Martin S.; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation1, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation2, 3, 4 and downregulated in the aged brain5, 6, 7, 8. In addition to revitalizing other aged tissues9, 10, 11, 12, 13, exposure to factors in young blood counteracts age-related changes in these central nervous system parameters14, 15, 16, although the identities of specific cognition-promoting factors or whether such activity exists in human plasma remains unknown17. We hypothesized that plasma of an early developmental stage, namely umbilical cord plasma, provides a reservoir of such plasticity-promoting proteins. Here we show that human cord plasma treatment revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2), a blood-borne factor enriched in human cord plasma, young mouse plasma, and young mouse hippocampi, appears in the brain after systemic administration and increases synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in aged mice. Depletion experiments in aged mice revealed TIMP2 to be necessary for the cognitive benefits conferred by cord plasma. We find that systemic pools of TIMP2 are necessary for spatial memory in young mice, while treatment of brain slices with TIMP2 antibody prevents long-term potentiation, arguing for previously unknown roles for TIMP2 in normal hippocampal function. Our findings reveal that human cord plasma contains plasticity-enhancing proteins of high

  12. Revitalizing sociology: urban life and mental illness between history and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such. The paper threads this argument through one empirical case: the relationship between urban life and mental illness. In its first section, it shows how this relationship enlivened both early psychiatric epidemiology, and some forms of the new discipline of sociology; it then traces the historical division of these sciences, as the sociological investment in psychiatric questions waned, and 'the social' become marginalized within an increasingly 'biological' psychiatry. In its third section, however, the paper shows how this relationship has lately been revivified, but now by a nuanced epigenetic and neurobiological attention to the links between mental health and urban life. What role can sociology play here? In its final section, the paper shows how this older sociology, with its lively interest in the psychiatric and neurobiological vicissitudes of urban social life, can be our guide in helping to identify intersections between sociological and biological attention. With a new century now underway, the paper concludes by suggesting that the relationship between urban life and mental illness may prove a core testing-ground for a 'revitalized' sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  13. Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Abbey, Rachelle J; McBride, Alisha A; James, Michelle L; Berdnik, Daniela; Shen, Jadon C; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin S; Tingle, Martha; Hinkson, Izumi V; Angst, Martin S; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2017-04-27

    Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation and downregulated in the aged brain. In addition to revitalizing other aged tissues, exposure to factors in young blood counteracts age-related changes in these central nervous system parameters, although the identities of specific cognition-promoting factors or whether such activity exists in human plasma remains unknown. We hypothesized that plasma of an early developmental stage, namely umbilical cord plasma, provides a reservoir of such plasticity-promoting proteins. Here we show that human cord plasma treatment revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2), a blood-borne factor enriched in human cord plasma, young mouse plasma, and young mouse hippocampi, appears in the brain after systemic administration and increases synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in aged mice. Depletion experiments in aged mice revealed TIMP2 to be necessary for the cognitive benefits conferred by cord plasma. We find that systemic pools of TIMP2 are necessary for spatial memory in young mice, while treatment of brain slices with TIMP2 antibody prevents long-term potentiation, arguing for previously unknown roles for TIMP2 in normal hippocampal function. Our findings reveal that human cord plasma contains plasticity-enhancing proteins of high translational value for targeting ageing- or disease

  14. A model of the mechanisms of language extinction and revitalization strategies to save endangered languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Valijärvi, Riitta-Liisa; Goldstein, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Why and how have languages died out? We have devised a mathematical model to help us understand how languages go extinct. We use the model to ask whether language extinction can be prevented in the future and why it may have occurred in the past. A growing number of mathematical models of language dynamics have been developed to study the conditions for language coexistence and death, yet their phenomenological approach compromises their ability to influence language revitalization policy. In contrast, here we model the mechanisms underlying language competition and look at how these mechanisms are influenced by specific language revitalization interventions, namely, private interventions to raise the status of the language and thus promote language learning at home, public interventions to increase the use of the minority language, and explicit teaching of the minority language in schools. Our model reveals that it is possible to preserve a minority language but that continued long-term interventions will likely be necessary. We identify the parameters that determine which interventions work best under certain linguistic and societal circumstances. In this way the efficacy of interventions of various types can be identified and predicted. Although there are qualitative arguments for these parameter values (e.g., the responsiveness of children to learning a language as a function of the proportion of conversations heard in that language, the relative importance of conversations heard in the family and elsewhere, and the amplification of spoken to heard conversations of the high-status language because of the media), extensive quantitative data are lacking in this field. We propose a way to measure these parameters, allowing our model, as well as others models in the field, to be validated.

  15. Prospects for Policy Advances in Science and Technology in the Gulf Arab States: "The Role for International Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, David P.; Moran, George W.; Siddiqi, Afreen; Richardson, Joshua E.; Anadon, Laura D.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) policies in the Gulf Arab States are as diverse as the individual economies and political processes that characterize its member states. During the past decade, a number of expert review groups have argued that science and technology policy needs to be reformed and revitalized in the Gulf…

  16. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  17. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  18. Revitalization of Industrial Hemp Cannabis sativa L. Var. sativa in Slovenia: a Study of Green Hemp Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijavec Tatjana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of industrial hemp as a source of highly valuable textile fi bres is briefly presented through its use for textiles and composites and its increasing cultivated areas in the 21st century. On the territory of present Slovenia, about 160 ha of agricultural area was cultivated with hemp before WWII, then it quickly began to decline and at the end of the 1970s, it was no longer cultivated. Revitalization of industrial hemp in Slovenia with fi eld experiments started already in the years 2000/2001 for producing seeds, whereas hemp fi bres were used only as an insulation for buildings. The textile technological properties of hemp fi bres from diff erent varieties grown in Slovenia have not been examined till now. They are important for using hemp fibres in highly valuable textile products. The properties of green hemp fi bres extracted mechanically from non-retted hemp stems of Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa (varieties: Novosadska, Juso-11, Bialobrzeskie, Unico- B and Beniko were determined. All the analysed varieties except Beniko had stem height over 200 cm. The highest yield of green fibres was 33.1% (Novosadska. The analysed green fibres’ content was 1.24–3.26% of ash, 7.77–8.50% of moisture regain, 10.69–13.92% of water-soluble substances and 8.45–10.83% of pectin. Through a biodegradation process of retting green hemp fibres in tap water at temperature 35°C, 9.01– 18.89% of dry mass was removed after ten days. Average linear density of green hemp fi bres was very high, around 200 tex. Tenacity of fi bres’ bundles was in the range of 167–272 MPa, but tenacity of elementary fibres was 548–672 MPa. From the curves of specific stress-strain, it is seen that green hemp fibres from all five varieties had similar superstructure. All analysed green hemp fibres had high linear density and low mechanical properties. For textile application, they should be further processed into finer fibres in order to increase their

  19. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  20. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  1. Gurjun-Oil Tree: Buddhist Way and the Conservation and Revitalization of Gurjun-Oil Trees in Isan Cultural Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Chatchawan Kaewsaen; Katharat Hengtragoon; Terdchai Pantachi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This research aimed at investigating the background of gurjun-oil trees in Iran cultural forests, the present situation and difficulties of gurjun-oil tress and the Buddhist way concerning the conservation and revitalization of them in Iran cultural forests. Approach: A qualitative research was applied to find the data in 7 forest areas of the province of Yasothon, Roi ET, Sisaket, Ubonratchathani, Burirum, Mahasarakham and Kakasin. The sample of 147 people was selected by ...

  2. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Adaptive compensation of atmospheric phase distortions using the spatial spectrum of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, A. V.; Zimin, Yu A.; Tolmachev, Alexei I.

    1987-10-01

    A theoretical investigation is reported of an algorithm for adaptive compensation of atmospheric phase distortions using the spatial spectrum of images. This algorithm can be used to reconstruct images of incoherently illuminated objects of arbitrary shape.

  3. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  4. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  5. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  6. Social and Architectural Aspects of Revitalization of Historic Urban Centers: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Gražulevičiutė-Vileniškė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and architecture of many European cities has started their development during the Middle Ages or even earlier. The historic cores gradually had become centers of contemporary cities and are constantly evolving. They are affected by the tendencies of destruction, initiatives and movements of preservation are also taking place there. The comprehensive works of rehabilitation of Lithuanian historic urban centers were carried out during the period of soviet occupation. The insularity of the Soviet empire, ideological reasons and the absence of the private property has determined certain architectural expressions and solutions for the social problems. After the restoration of the country‘s independence the problems and tendencies typical to Western city centers, such as commercialization and gentrification, started to appear in Lithuanian historic urban cores. This justifies the aim of the article which is to analyze the tendencies of revitalization of historic city centers in Western countries with the main attention to the social and architectural aspects.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Shibli Nu’mani’s Contribution to Revitalization of ‘Ilm al-Kala > m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejri Gasman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is an attempt to explicate Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’scontribution of ‘ilm al-Kala > m which to Muslim is a pivotal matter in terms ofboth its doctrine and practice. This study attempts at examining Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’sviews in dealing with religious problems in his community, and how hepropagated his ideas in revitalization of ‘ilm al-Kala > m. It seeks to discover severalaspects of Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’s thoughts of ‘ilm al-Kala > m, such as the coherentrelationship of religion and science, Islamic culture, Islamic legal system, Islamiceducational system, Islamic political science, reason and revelation, prophecy,and tawh } i > d. This study concludes that Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’s understanding of ‘ilm-al-Kala > m is in line with the teaching of ahl al-sunnah wa al-jama > ’ah, and he was verymuch influenced by Ima>m al-Ghaza>li>’s and Jala>l al-Din Ru>mi>’s thoughts. Healso succeeded in harmonizing traditional and modern system of thoughts aswell as synthesizing the theologian’s approach with the s } u > fi > tradition

  8. Revitalization of Public Space: From “Non-Places” to Creative Playgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekaterina Lavrinec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss a mechanism of revitalization of public spaces, focusing on creative tactics, which are used by groups of enthusiasts and public artists. The author argues that creative public actions, such as flash mobs and performances, take part in forming the identity of the place and could be considered as an act of place-making. Referring to the idea that a space is constituted through practices (Merleau-Ponty, de Certeau, Lefebvre, Augé, three components, crucial for “place making” are distinguished: actualization of bodily experience, shared emotional experience, and emerging new solidarities (temporal communities of citizens, who are involved in active reinterpretation of public space. creative public actions reveal a potential of the place by establishing a distance from routine scenarios and by performing alternative use of spatial elements, and it is a periodicity of actions and reorganization of spatial elements that produces long-term impact on the public space. Although applying a distinction between “non-places” and “empty spaces”, which was proposed by Z. Bauman (2000, it could be found, that a short-term playful intervention into spaces, which are “public, but not civic” (such as supermarkets, airports and train stations, could be the most effective tool for initiating interaction among passers-by and reforming the “emotional scape” of the place. 

  9. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  10. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  11. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  12. What Can the Federal Government Do To Decrease Crime and Revitalize Communities? Panel Papers from the Department of Justice Symposium (Washington, D.C., January 5-7, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    These panel papers address various ways to meet the needs of changing communities in achieving the goal of reducing crime and revitalizing communities. Weeding out crime and seeding target areas with social services and economic revitalization calls for a range of strategies, as identified by the panelists. The following papers are included: (1)…

  13. Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Kerry, Rout George; Das, Gitishree; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been functioning as a co-evolution between plants and microbes showing antagonistic and synergistic interactions with microorganisms and the soil. Microbial revitalization using plant growth promoters had been achieved through direct and indirect approaches like bio-fertilization, invigorating root growth, rhizoremediation, disease resistance etc. Although, there are a wide variety of PGPR and its allies, their role and usages for sustainable agriculture remains controversial and restricted. There is also variability in the performance of PGPR that may be due to various environmental factors that might affect their growth and proliferation in the plants. These gaps and limitations can be addressed through use of modern approaches and techniques such as nano-encapsulation and micro-encapsulation along with exploring multidisciplinary research that combines applications in biotechnology, nanotechnology, agro biotechnology, chemical engineering and material science and bringing together different ecological and functional biological approaches to provide new formulations and opportunities with immense potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Native Skywatchers - Revitalization of Ojibwe & D(L)akota Star Knowledge - Collaborative Work with Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette S.; Gawboy, Carl; Rock, Jim; Tibbetts, Jeff; Wilson, William; O'Rourke, Charlene

    2015-08-01

    In Ojibwe culture we look towards the Evening Star and honor Ikwe’ Anung - the Woman’s Star. In D(L)akota culture in addition to seeing the dragon, Draco in the northern circumpolar skies, we recognize Wakiyan - the Thunderbird, located at the center of the precession circle. Woven into the native star knowledge are important and insightful understandings of astronomical patterns and phenomenon that are too valuable to be forgotten. This living relationship with the cosmos is a core part of the cultural history and present day heritage of native people.Native Skywatchers is an indigenous led initiative to revitalize and rebuild the star knowledge of the Ojibwe and D(L)akota peoples. Right now is a critical time; much has been lost. At the same time, there is a tremendous demand and excitement for this knowledge.Growing momentum is due in part to the MN State K-12 Science Standards (2009) that requires educators to teach how: “Men and women throughout the history of all cultures, including Minnesota American Indian tribes and communities, have been involved in engineering design and scientific inquiry.” Specifically Benchmark 3.1.3.2.1 states, “For example: Ojibwe and Dakota knowledge and use of patterns in the stars to predict and plan”.This important work has many branches: interdisciplinary connections in science and culture, formal and informal science education, artwork and art programming, history and heritage, outreach and community wellness.The focus of this presentation will be collaborative work done with educators. The aim has been expanding the work from cultural heritage into classroom curriculum while preserving the cultural integrity. This has been accomplished by two primary factors: 1.) the development of resources such as: native star maps, planispheres, constellation guidebooks, artwork, curriculum; 2.) dissemination and exchange with regional educators, including the state office of the Minnesota Department of Education.

  15. Role of Sports Facilities in the Process of Revitalization of Brownfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraszkiewicz, Karolina; Nyka, Lucyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives an evidence that building a large sports facility can generate beneficial urban space transformation and a significant improvement in the dilapidated urban areas. On the basis of theoretical investigations and case studies it can be proved that sports facilities introduced to urban brownfields could be considered one of the best known large scale revitalization methods. Large urban spaces surrounding sport facilities such as stadiums and other sports arenas create excellent conditions for designing additional recreational function, such as parks and other green areas. Since sports venues are very often located on brownfields and post-industrial spaces, there are usually well related with canals, rivers and other water routes or reservoirs. Such spaces become attractors for large groups of people. This, in effect initiate the process of introducing housing estates to the area and gradually the development of multifunctional urban structure. As research shows such process of favourable urban transformation could be based on implementing several important preconditions. One of the most significant one is the formation of the new communication infrastructure, which links newly formed territories with the well-structured urban core. Well planned program of the new sports facilities is also a very important factor. As research shows multifunctional large sports venues may function in the city as a new kind of public space that stimulates new genres of social relations, offers entertainment and free time activities, not necessarily related with sport. This finally leads to the creation of new jobs and more general improvement of a widely understood image of the district, growing appreciation for the emerging new location and consequently new investments in the neighbouring areas. The research gives new evidence to the ongoing discussion on the drawbacks and benefits of placing stadiums and sports arenas in the urban core.

  16. Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF utilizing Choukroun′s method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth.

  17. Mapping urban revitalization: using GIS spatial analysis to evaluate a new housing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Douglas D; Larsen, Courtney; Brown, Barbara B

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal, multimethod study uses geographical information system (GIS) software to evaluate the community-wide impact of a neighborhood revitalization project. Unsystematic visual examination and analysis of GIS maps are offered as a complementary tool to quantitative analysis and one that is much more compelling, meaningful, and effective in presentation to community and nonscientific professional audiences. The centerpiece of the intervention was the development of a new, middle-class housing subdivision in an area that was declining physically and economically. This represents three major urban/housing policy directions: (1) the emphasis on home ownership for working-class families, (2) the deconcentration of poverty through development of mixed-income neighborhoods, and (3) the clean up and redevelopment of contaminated, former industrial brownfields. Resident survey responses, objective environmental assessment observations, and building permit data were collected, geocoded at the address level, and aggregated to the block level on 60 street blocks in the older neighborhoods surrounding the new housing in two waves: during site clearing and housing construction (Time 1: 1993-95) and three years post-completion (Time 2: 1998-99). Variables mapped include (a) Time 1-2 change in self-reported home repairs and improvements, (b) change in the assessed physical condition of yards and exteriors of 925 individual residential properties, (c) change in residents' home pride, and (d) a city archive of building permits at Time 2. Physical conditions improved overall in the neighborhood, but spatial analysis of the maps suggest that the spillover effects, if any, of the new housing were geographically limited and included unintended negative psychological consequences. Results argue for greater use of GIS and the street block level in community research and of psychological and behavioral variables in planning research and decisions.

  18. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  19. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  20. Atmospheric humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  1. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  2. Phase equilibria between iron and slag in carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide/water atmospheres relevant to a novel flash ironmaking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohassab Ahmed, Mohassab Yousef

    In an effort to develop a novel flash ironmaking process, to be called the Sohn process in this dissertation, with the potential of steelmaking in a single continuous process, the phase equilibria involved and the chemistry of selected slag systems were investigated. The Sohn process is an ecofriendly flash ironmaking process for producing iron from iron oxide concentrates in a flash reactor using fuels and reductants that help reduce energy consumption and minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Amongst the proposed reductants and fuels are H2, natural gas, and coal gas. The molten bath (iron-slag bath) is expected to equilibrate with gas atmospheres of mainly H2/H 2O, CO/CO2/H2/H2O, and CO/CO2 corresponding to H2, natural gas/coal gas (NG/CG), and coke/coal (blast furnace, BF), respectively. The latter was investigated to allow comparison with the blast-furnace conditions. The slag composition was selected to resemble that of the blast furnace, which consisted of the CaO-MgO-SiO2-Al 2O2-FeO-MnO-P2O5 system with CaO/SiO 2 in the range 0.8 to 1.4. The temperature range was 1550 to 1650°C encompassing a wide range of expected ironmaking temperatures for the Sohn process. The oxygen partial pressure was maintained in the reducing range 10-10 to 10-9 atm in the three gas atmospheres. It was found that H2O dramatically affects the chemistry of the slag and strongly affects the phase equilibria in the slag as well as the equilibrium distribution of elements between slag and molten metal. It was found that the slags under H2O-containing (H2 and NG/CG) atmospheres had a moderately higher degree of polymerization as compared to that under the blast furnace conditions. H2O in the gas atmosphere also increased the activity coefficient of FeO in the slag and accordingly lowered the FeO content. The FeO content in the slag of H 2 (FeO wt% = 10) and NG/CG (11) was significantly less than under the BF (16) conditions. On the other hand, the average MgO solubility (22 wt%) under the

  3. “Indigenizing” Food Sovereignty. Revitalizing Indigenous Food Practices and Ecological Knowledges in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Coté

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food sovereignty movement initiated in 1996 by a transnational organization of peasants, La Via Campesina, representing 148 organizations from 69 countries, became central to self-determination and decolonial mobilization embodied by Indigenous peoples throughout the world. Utilizing the framework of decolonization and sustainable self-determination, this article analyzes the concept of food sovereignty to articulate an understanding of its potential for action in revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledge in the United States and Canada. The food sovereignty movement challenged the hegemony of the globalized, neoliberal, industrial, capital-intensive, corporate-led model of agriculture that created destructive economic policies that marginalized small-scale farmers, removed them from their land, and forced them into the global market economy as wage laborers. Framed within a larger rights discourse, the food sovereignty movement called for the right of all peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the right to define their own food and agricultural systems. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty moves beyond a rights based discourse by emphasizing the cultural responsibilities and relationships Indigenous peoples have with their environment and the efforts being made by Indigenous communities to restore these relationships through the revitalization of Indigenous foods and ecological knowledge systems as they assert control over their own foods and practices.

  4. Revitalization of Pharmaceutical Supply Management as an Effort to Increase Outpatient Customer Satisfaction in One of Private Hospital in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital pharmacies are required to provide appropriate pharmaceutical preparation. Therefore, hospital needs good pharmacy management system. The aims of this study was to analyze customer satisfaction and revitalization of pharmaceutical management in hospital A to improve customer satisfaction. This study was used cross sectional study with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative approach used survey method with questionnaires and data was analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS. The results showed that the response to the IFRS employees of pharmaceutical management in hospital A had a very good categories (88.7% and customer responses to pharmaceutical supply management in hospital A in the category satisfied (75.1%. A qualitative approach using interviews with the head of the hospital pharmacy as well as the head unit of the outpatient pharmacy services and pharmacy warehouse. Pharmaceutical management in hospital A is appropriate to the standards by the government, but still needs improvement in pharmaceutical management. Therefore, revitalization of pharmaceutical management is needed as an effort to increase customer satisfaction.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Influence of atmospheric fluctuations of the induced temperature on the characteristics of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakh, Viktor A.; Smalikho, I. N.

    1987-10-01

    The expression for the function representing the second-order mutual coherence of a laser beam propagating in a turbulent atmosphere under thermal self-interaction conditions is derived in the aberration-free approximation. An analysis is made of the width of a beam, its wind refraction, and the radius of coherence as a function of the initial coherence of the radiation, of conditions of diffraction on the transmitting aperture, and of fluctuations of the wind velocity. It is shown that on increase in the power the coherence radius of cw laser radiation first increases because of thermal defocusing and then decreases due to the appearance (because of fluctuations of the wind velocity) of induced temperature inhomogeneities in air in the beam localization region. The conditions under which fluctuations of the induced temperature have a significant influence on the coherence of the radiation are determined.

  6. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... essential dynamic parameters when designing atmospheres. This research is based on the development of the novel research artefact Kidkit, designed for children, who are going to meet a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries in a Neuro–Intensive Care Unit. Sounds from hospital equipment have important...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...

  7. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  8. Effects of a high O2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere technology on the browning of postharvest white mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) in relation to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Sun, Han; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Wang, Xiangyou

    2017-07-01

    Browning is one of the main problems in senescence of mushrooms, and it is also one of the most important attributes accounting for the loss of the quality and reduction in market value. In order to study the relationship between the energy metabolism and the browning of white mushroom under high O2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere (HO-DCA), mushrooms were stored in 100% O2 (SCA1), 80% O2 + 20% CO2 (SCA2), 100% O2 for three days and then transferred into the treatment of 80% O2 + 20% CO2 (HO-DCA) at 2 ± 1 ℃ and air as control. In this study, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, energy charge level, sensory evaluation, browning of surface and flesh, cell membrane integrity, exogenous ATP, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and genes encoding PPO of the white mushroom were investigated. These were all closely related to the browning of products. The optimal storage condition of the HO-DCA treatment could delay the browning of pericarp and flesh tissues of the mushrooms, inhibit PPO activity and reduce the relative expression levels of the three genes encoding PPO. Meanwhile, it maintained moderate POD activity, good sensory properties and cell membrane integrity in a certain extent and thus slowed down the senescence of mushrooms. Results indicated that there was a positive correlation between the ATP content and whitening index ( r = 0.901). In addition, HO-DCA maintained a higher ATP level, prolonged the storage time to 28 days and it might be an ideal strategy for preserving the quality of mushroom during storage.

  9. Atmospheric Physics Background – Methods – Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), this book presents more than 50 chapters highlighting results of the institute’s research. The book provides an up-to-date, in-depth survey across the entire field of atmospheric science, including atmospheric dynamics, radiation, cloud physics, chemistry, climate, numerical simulation, remote sensing, instruments and measurements, as well as atmospheric acoustics. The authors have provided a readily comprehensible and self-contained presentation of the complex field of atmospheric science. The topics are of direct relevance for aerospace science and technology. Future research challenges are identified.

  10. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION INSIDE INERT ATMOSPHERE SILOS. E. S. Ajayi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 3, July 2016. 643 also resist heat flow from solar radiation from outside. This is usually achieved by painting the silo wall with white paint. Some of the advantages of inert atmosphere storage ...

  11. The Corrosivity of the Mauritian Atmosphere

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    technology. Atmospheric corrosion is the major contributor to this cost (Natesan et.al, 2005). To prevent such losses in Mauritius, it has become important to classify the corrosivity of the Mauritian atmosphere in order to facilitate the task of selecting materials, protection systems, maintenance intervals, e.t.c. Therefore,.

  12. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  13. Atmospheric attenuation relative to earth-viewing orbital sensors. [atmospheric moisture effects on microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. C.; Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Earth viewing space missions offer exciting new possibilities in several earth resources disciplines - geography, hydrology, agriculture, geology, and oceanography, to name a few. A most useful tool in planning experiments and applying space technology to earth observation is a statistical description of atmospheric parameters. Four dimensional atmospheric models and a world wide cloud model are used to produce atmospheric attenuation models to predict degradation effects for all classes of sensors for application to earth sensing experiments from spaceborne platforms. To insure maximum utility and application of these products, the development of an interaction model of microwave energy and atmospheric variables provides a complete description of the effects of atmospheric moisture upon microwaves.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma for surface modification

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Rory A

    2012-01-01

    This Book's focus and intent is to impart an understanding of the practical application of atmospheric plasma for the advancement of a wide range of current and emerging technologies. The primary key feature of this book is the introduction of over thirteen years of practical experimental evidence of successful surface modifications by atmospheric plasma methods. It offers a handbook-based approach for leveraging and optimizing atmospheric plasma technologies which are currently in commercial use. It also offers a complete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrial plasma process

  15. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  16. Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies could enable lower-cost analysis for planetary science including atmospheric studies, mineralogical investigations, and...

  17. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...

  18. Methane LIDAR Laser Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to develop laser technology intended to meet NASA's need for innovative lidar technologies for atmospheric measurements of methane. NASA and the...

  19. Development and use of a digital signage system for revitalizing regional shopping districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Takata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, regional shopping districts are on the decline because residents prefer suburban-type large-scale shopping stores. Such issues can be addressed in the context of the “Smart City”, of which functions depend on the information and communication technology (ICT. We established the “KIT Digital Signage Project,” which aims to help the regional stores around the Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT. In our project, we developed a digital signage system that is low-cost and easy to introduce in small stores. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the effect of our system. During the experiment, store-advertising movies were shown on digital signage terminals, which were placed in each store. The total average watching time and audience rate of our system were 24 s and 50%, respectively. In addition, we investigated the educational aspects of our project. The students in our project could master movie production in a shorter time when compared against learning it as an ordinary classroom subject. The future plans of our project are also discussed.

  20. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  1. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Atmospheric Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucka Knizova, Petra; Lastovicka, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The Earth atmosphere and ionosphere is complicated and highly variable system which displays oscillations on wide range scales. The most important factor influencing the ionosphere is certainly the solar and geomagnetic activity. However, the processes even in distant regions in the neutral atmosphere cannot be simply neglected. This contribution reviews aspects of ionospheric variability originating in the lower laying atmosphere. It focuses especially on the generation and propagation of the atmospheric waves from their source region up to the heights of the ionosphere. We will show the role of infrasound, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Particularly gravity waves are of high importance for the ionosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental results will briefly be reviewed.

  2. Revitalization of the Public Sphere: A Comparison between Habermasian and the New Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Public sphere” is an important component of modern polity. Civil society brings the state in touch with the needs of the citizens through the medium of public sphere. However, Habermas argues that “public sphere” experienced refeudalization owing to various factors i.e. propaganda, cultural industry, market and state intervention. The “public” was condemned to be mere spectator again. This article argues that modern technologies enabled new public sphere (NPS can help restore public status as participant in the democratic process. By employing interpretivist approach the article compares the Habermasian ideal of public sphere with NPS and constructs a matrix, depicting the various related aspects between the two models for highlighting the revival of the public sphere.

  3. Finding Atmospheric Composition (AC) Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard F..; Falke, Stefan; Fiakowski, Ed; Kempler, Steve; Lynnes, Chris; Goussev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not all

  4. Effect of Temperature, Concentration and Contact Time of Sodium Hypochlorite on the Treatment and Revitalization of Oral Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo del Carpio-Perochena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Increasing the temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl enhances its dissolution and antibacterial properties. However, the high resistance of multi-species biofilms could restrict the effect of the solution regardless of its temperature, enabling the long-term recovery of the surviving bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate if the increase of temperature of NaOCl improves its antibacterial and dissolution ability on oral biofilms and if the post-treatment remaining bacteria were capable of growing in a nutrient-rich medium. Materials and methods. Forty dentin blocks were infected intra-orally for 48 hours. Then, the specimens were treated with 1% and 2.5% NaOCl at room temperature (22ºC and body temperature (37ºC for 5 and 20 min. The percentage of live cells and the biovolume were measured pre- (control and post-treatment and after the biofilm revitalization. Four confocal ‘stacks’ were chosen from random areas of each sample. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Statistical significance was defined at P 0.05. The 1%-NaOCl for 5min was not able to significantly kill the bacteria, regardless of its temperature and contact time (P >0.05. Conclusion. The temperature variation of the NaOCl was not relevant in killing or dissolving bacterial biofilms. Twenty-four hours of reactivation did not appear to be enough time to induce a significant bacterial growth.

  5. Fostering Multi-Functional Urban Agriculture: Experiences from the Champions in a Revitalized Farm Pond Community in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Jiun Chou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture (UA with its multi-functional roles has recently become a globally important topic, as it is considered as an approach to address the emerging challenges to societies seeking greater sustainability. In Taiwan, the Hakka community of Gaoyuan in Taoyuan City, where a traditional farm pond was recently transformed into a public, multi-functional UA resource, is widely regarded as the first successful bottom-up, community-led, farm-pond-based UA in Taiwan, yet its actual performance is rarely explored in any depth. Little work has been done to provide details on the socio-ecological benefits of UA in the community redevelopment process. Through in-depth interviews, fieldwork, and participant observation, this specific qualitative study aims to explore the community champions’ experiences in the transformation leading to a revitalized community. First, by linking nearby nature to people, a green network of diverse spaces, low-impact landscaping, and an agricultural-community-like pondscape, the specific landscape character that makes UA in Gaoyuan distinctive is formed. Second, through active engagement, participation, and the agency of local people, the UA implementation process features cooperative working, mutual learning, and experience-sharing. Third, UA plays a crucial role in building social cohesion that promotes people’s participation in community affairs, and strengthens the community’s social network, which involves agricultural life, crop production, the ecological environment, and community care. It is revealed that the farm-pond-based UA with its multi-functional roles acts as a catalyst for the Gaoyuan community’s progress toward sustainability. The desired end-state of the agricultural landscape, as a synthesis of natural features and human interventions, is a more sustainable, characteristic, well-maintained and united place to fulfill people’s needs and enhance people’s overall health and well-being.

  6. Analysis of visitor sense on the revitalization of the sea front: the model of Linear Park Boardwalk, Itapema - Santa Catarina - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Martins da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourist destinations related to sun and beach need a management of coastal areas in accordance with the principles of sustainability from the perspective of developing, in a systemic way, their economic and environmental functions. In this context, the study examines the environmental perception of visitors to the city of Itapema (SC on the revitalization of the sea front , since the implementation of the Linear Park Boardwalk, as a result of the implementation of Orla project on the city. The methods adopted for research are based on the interpretive paradigm, which addresses a subjective view of social phenomena, methodologically supporting the case study method. The main contribution of the research was developed through semi structured interviews with nine informants, were subsequently analyzed using the method of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD. The results demonstrated the satisfaction of visitors (tourists and excursionists to the revitalization of the sea front and the structure of the Linear Park Boardwalk. Their evidences revealed the recovery of the sea front as a public recreational space, favoring tourist - recreational activities in beach space, safely, sociability and mobility. Local aspects cited as the sea front structure to enjoyment of leisure by different age groups, observing the landscape, preservation of vegetation and enhance the image of the municipality were also confirmed in the study as positive points. It is considered from the study that the coastal cities should revitalize natural environment and ensured for the well being of residents and visitors, guided by existing state and federal level management programs, such as the Orla Project.

  7. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  8. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  9. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  10. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  11. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  12. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  13. Lunam 2000 (Lunar Atmosphere Mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Fornasier, Sonia; Lazzarin, Monica; Marchi, Simone; Rampazzi, Francesca; Verani, Stefano; Cremonese, Gabriele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Dolci, Mauro; Benn, Chris R.; Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeff; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Wilson, Jody

    LUNAM 2000 is a small mission dedicated to the coronagraphic imaging in the Na yellow doublet and to UV spectroscopy in the range 2800-3400 Å of the lunar atmosphere. These studies are possible only from Space. The scientific return of LUNAM 2000 has a wider appeal for the study of transient atmospheres of other celestial bodies, in particular of Mercury. The mission is in low Earth-orbit (about 350 km); a sun-synchronous or other orbits are under investigation. The payload has very small weight, dimensions and power requests, and is essentially made with off-the-shelf components. It can be built and launched in less than 3 years from the approval. This time frame nicely overlaps that of the European technological Mission SMART 1 and can greatly add to its scientific return. Furthermore, LUNAM 2000 can give very important information to define a mission to Mercury such as Bepi Colombo.

  14. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  15. Tourism as revitalizing factor of farms- example of Cvetni salaš (Flowery farm and Majkin salaš (Grandma′s farm in Palić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Vanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Farms are cultural and ambience special feature of pannonian plain and, in the sense of cultural heritage, they are the protective symbol of Northern Bačka. Farm or "salaš" on Serbian language, represents green oasis made of house, farm buildings, sweep and the endless cultivated plain, but also represents the way of living. As a specific creation of folk architecture and as a special ethnographic museum, with preserved old tools, pottery, folk costume and folk customs, usually situated in preserved natural ambience, farms are attractive for tourists. Unfortunately, they have never been used enough in tourist presentation. The best results in tourist valorization are achieved with farms near towns Subotica and Sombor. These farms require relatively small investments for tourist arrangement and farmers are interested in developing tourism, which can contribute in different ways to revitalization of farms. Farms should create tourist offer, based on unique experience of the plain, authentic ambience, tradition, healthy food. In many European countries, tourism has been recognized as an appropriate tool to revitalize rural areas and to ensure their sustainable development. In this paper, there is going to be presented tourist arrangement and offer of Cvetni salaš (Flowery farm and Majkin salaš (Grandma’s farm, which are situated on Palić, settlement with long tourist tradition.

  16. Research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Activities of the Goddard Space Flight Center are described in the areas of planets and interplanetary media, comets, astronomy and high-energy physics, solar physics, atmospheres, terrestrial physics, ocean science, sensors and space technology, techniques, user space data systems, space communications and navigation, and system and software engineering. Flight projects and mission definition studies are presented, and institutional technology is described.

  17. REVITALIZATION OF DEGRADED AREAS OF THE TUZLA BASIN AND FORMING ARTIFICIAL LAKES IN THE FUNCTION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SENADA NEZIROVIĆ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tuzla basin is located in the central part of the region of north-eastern Bosnia. It covers an area of 1,405 km² consisting of five municipalities:Tuzla, Ţivinice, Lukavac, Banovići and Kalesija. It is surrounded by mountains Majevica, Ozren, Konjuh and Javornik. It has a favorable geo-traffic position because it represents the intersection of roads leading to Belgrade,Orašje, Sarajevo and Doboj. The area of Tuzla basin has significant resources of coal and rock salt on the basis of which was developed chemical industry.The period of industrialization has considerably affected the economic situation of the entire region, and particularly the development of the central places of the Tuzla basin. Intensive exploitation of rock salt has significantly influenced the subsidence in the metropolitan area of Tuzla and turned it into an unordered wetlands. After the end of coal mining in the abandoned mining pits in the area of the municipalities of Ţivinice, Tuzla and Banovići were formed lake depressions. In order to improve and protect the environment, there were implemented several environmental projects which reconstructed coastal areas of lakes in the area of Ţivinice, Tuzla, Lukavac and Banovići, and in the metropolitan area of Tuzla there were built three artificial salt lakes in the function of the city outdoor pool.The paper places particular emphasis on the promotion of values of artificial lakes created by revitalization of degraded areas in the Tuzla basin and future directions in the development of the same. Moreover, considerable attention is given to the system of planned realisation of environmental projects for the improvement of environment in the towns of Tuzla, Ţivinice, Lukavac, Banovići and solving environmental problems.The aim of this study is to point out the proper management and use of hydrographic resources in the function of tourism development in the area of the Tuzla basin.

  18. REVITALIZATION OF THE GEOLOGICAL SITES IN THE RURAL AREAS - CASE STUDY OF THE MIECHÓW UPLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gonera

    2017-08-01

    of country. By this approach it will be possible the revitalization stratotype outcrops and the economic development of rural areas by mineral business – parallel to ongoing agricultural circumstances and benefits.

  19. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  20. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  1. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Showman, Adam P.; Cho, James Y-K.; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-wate...

  2. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...

  3. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  4. Photochemistry of planetary atmospheres. [Mars atmospheric composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The atmospheric composition of Mars is presented, and the applicability of laboratory data on CO2 absorption cross sections and quantum yields of dissociation is discussed. A summary and critical evaluation are presented on the various mechanisms proposed for converting the photodissociation products CO and O2 back to CO2.

  5. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  6. Revitalizing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.

    2017-01-01

    The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…

  7. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine

    2014-01-01

    impact of supersetting initiatives. The supersetting approach is an ecological approach, which places the individual in a social, environmental and cultural context, and calls for a holistic perspective to change potentials and developmental processes with a starting point in the circumstances of people...... approach is based on ecological and whole-systems thinking, and stipulates important principles and values of integration, participation, empowerment, context and knowledge-based development....... in local community settings and on the strengths of social interaction and local ownership as drivers of change processes. Interventions based on a supersetting approach are first and foremost characterised by being integrated, but also participatory, empowering, context-sensitive and knowledge...

  8. Faculty Retirement Transitions Revitalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ummersen, Claire; Duranleau, Lauren; McLaughlin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost ten years since the American Council on Education (ACE) began to raise awareness of the importance of workplace flexibility in faculty careers and to encourage colleges and universities to support faculty in better integrating their professional and personal lives. With the generous support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ACE…

  9. Controlled Atmosphere Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere (CAS) stunning includes several variations of gaseous mixtures given to induce an anaesthetic state before slaughter poultry. One method of multi phase CAS is to unload the birds out of the crate on a conveyor belt and subject the birds to an atmosphere of 30% O2, 40% CO2 and

  10. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...

  11. The Power of Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    composed of bubbles of affects – that is, the particles that are charged with power and normativity. References Grtiffero, T. (2014 (2010)). Atmospheres: Aesthetics of Emotional Spaces. Ashgate Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, A. (2013). Atmospheres of law: Senses, affects, lawscapes, in Emotion, Space...

  12. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful....... The potentials and implications are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design....

  13. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  14. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  15. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  16. Further studies on marine fish stored under modified atmosphere packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cann, D.C; Smith, G.L; Houston, N.C

    1983-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, modified atmosphere packaging of fish products (MAP) has been introduced without the necessary technological support, leading to the use of a wide variety of gas mixes and conflicting reports as to its...

  17. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  18. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    in the size range 1 nm–10 μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean–atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased...... and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using...... aircraft and satellite remote sensing. The application of a flux-based approach in assessment of O3 effects on vegetation at regional scales is an important policy linked development secured through improved quantification of fluxes. The coupling of monitoring, modelling and intensive flux measurement...

  19. Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented understanding of how the Earth’s atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind.

  20. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of tomatoes; controlling gas and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelo, R.G.; Horst, J.

    1996-01-01

    Modified atmosphere (MA) packaging technology is a modern technique of which the application is steadily growing. Its essence is to reduce the decay of perishable produce by creating a special atmosphere around the produce. The MA factors influencing the quality behaviour of the produce are oxygen

  1. The West End Revitalization Association (WERA)'s right to basic amenities movement: voice and language of ownership and management of public health solutions in Mebane, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Omega R; Bumpass, Natasha G; Wilson, Omari M; Snipes, Marilyn H

    2008-01-01

    The West End Revitalization Association (WERA) cultivated strategies for assessing environmental hazards, managing stakeholder participation, and implementing corrective actions in three low-income African American communities in Mebane, North Carolina. The community voices evolved into language to drive WERA's "Right to Basic Amenities Movement" as a way to address health, legal, and quality-of-life disparities. The sustainability of this movement depends on communicating a solutions process with funding equity. Disparities are a way of life for impacted residents: dusty dead-end streets, contaminated drinking water, failed backyard septic tanks, and putrid odors. WERA organized on "common knowledge" for effective use of public health statutes and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. WERA's board, staff, and volunteers exercised their voices in the language of government, public health, university research, and legal agencies. WERA's best practices and lessons learned may influence public policy in comparable communities in North Carolina and throughout the nation.

  2. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS and liquid-cooled TSAC testing conducted during the period of March 3 to April 18, 2003. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  3. Brand Revitalization: Penciptaan Brand Image Produk Green Sands Bebas Alkohol melalui Marketing Communication (Advertising dan Public Relation pada PT Multi Bintang Indonesia Tb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooky Tri Adhikara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available PT Multi Bintang Indonesia is a beverages production company, and one of its products are Green Sands. In early 2002, Green Sands revitalize to Green Sands Alcohol-Free and communicated through several promotional tools, including advertising and public relations. This study examines what brand image embedded on the consumers, and what is the level of influence of advertising and public relations toward the creation of brand image of products Green Sands Alcohol-Free. The research methods used in this study is test Cochran, multiple regression, and cobwebs. The result, brand image that is embedded in consumer brand is cool and trendy and unique and refreshing taste. Advertising and public relations by creating a brand image is only 7.2%, the rest from other factors. Brand image is embedded in the customers had not yet reached the desired scale of the company. 

  4. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai

    2017-10-01

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  5. Revitalization and ITS Impact on Public. Space Organization A Case Study of Manchester in UK, Lyon in France and Łódź in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kazimierczak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Process of deindustrialization of downtowns in most of well-developed Western European countries has been undertaken since 1960’s while in post-socialist countries just from last 25 years, after political and economic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe.  As far as urban structure is concerned, a new type of inner-city sites has appeared as a consequence of the collapse of industrial activities in second half of 20th century.  In vast majority of cases newly developed morhological units (e.g. run-down post-industrial have been unavailable to the public. As a reult, “classical” public space organization of European cities has been significantly changed. However, revitalization of post-industrial urban areas creates opportunities to reorganize public space according to current inhabitants and other urban space users’ needs. All transitions undertaken as a part of re-developement of brownfields sites are focused on impovements in physical and functional dimension of urban space quality to increase the standard of living condition. According to the concept of smat cities it is relaeted to “smart living” in sustainable urban environment. As a matter of fact, post-socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe where interval of central planning was present in second half of 20th century and “classical” capitalist cites of Western Europe represent different patterns of public space transitions due to distinct historical development process of central space. In the paper a comparative study of Manchester, Lyon and Łódź is presented. The aim of the research is to indicate the reorganization of historically shaped public space structre in central space of analyzed cities after revitalization of post-industrial urban areas and new central space creation.

  6. The Perception upon Landscape Revitalization of Industrial Spaces. Case Study – The Industrial Units Belvedere Cigarette Factory and S.C. Mefin Sinaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA E. HUZUI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Romanian cities are confronted with difficulties regarding the insertion of redundant industrial objectives in the present urban landscape. This study focuses on two industrial units that have created a certain place identity through time, both undergoing a conversion process, due to relict or underused industrial structures. These industrial units are reclaimed by the increasingly public demand for new construction spaces that are more adapted to the cultural, social, economic and ecological context. Belvedere Cigarette Factory was an important factory in Bucharest because it initiated the tobacco manufacturing in the Romanian capital city. The buildings of the cigarette factory, which were constructed from the late 19th century until the early 20th century, are considered heritage objectives. Currently, some factory buildings and annexes are demolished and in their place shopping and entertainment spaces have been built. S.C. MEFIN S.A. Sinaia was established on a pre-existing industrial unit in 1953 and in 2007 it was decided to be integrated into the services sector (tourist accommodation, commercial spaces, sports and leisure in order to raise the attractiveness of the area. However, the transformation of this unit cannot be dissociated from the community`s preferences regarding the area`s revitalization (Stan A, 2009, p. 201. The methods applied in this study are the case study research and the survey that allows the comparison of the reuse perception of the industrial units. The need to return these productive areas to the urban context recognizes people (residents as active participants in the revitalization process of industrial landscapes.

  7. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  8. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  9. Discovery of atmospheric neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Tokyo Univ., Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Cosmic ray particles entering the atmosphere interact with the air nuclei produce neutrinos. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrino anomaly observed in Kamiokande is now understood as due to neutrino oscillations by high statistics measurements of the atmospheric neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande. The studies of the atmospheric neutrinos have matured into detailed studies of neutrino masses and mixings. (author)

  10. Has Web 2.0 Revitalized Informal Learning? The Relationship between Web 2.0 and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D.; Lee, J.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is becoming increasingly self-directed and often occurs away from schools and other formal educational settings. The development of a myriad of new technologies for learning has enabled people to learn anywhere and anytime. Web 2.0 technology allows researchers to shed a new light on the importance and prevalence of informal learning.…

  11. Atmospheric Transport Modeling Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, Carl A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, Aiken, SC (United States); Addis, Robert P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide DOE and other federal agency emergency managers with an in-depth compilation and description of atmospheric dispersion models available to DOE and other Federal sites.

  12. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  13. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  14. Our Changing Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearing, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about two major variables involved in certain types of chemical pollution that seem to be changing the structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Discusses the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer. (TW)

  15. Consumo literario en lenguas indígenas: experiencias de revitalización desde el Sur de México\\Literary consumption in indigenous languages: revitalization experiences from Southern Mexico\\Consumo literário em línguas indígenas: experiências de revitalização desde o Sul do México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorena Córdova Hernández

    2016-01-01

      This article analyzes, from several ethnographic experiences in Southern Mexico, the way in which agents for language revitalization design the programs or projects of literacy in indigenous languages...

  16. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  17. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  18. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  19. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showman, A. P.; Cho, J. Y.-K.; Menou, K.

    2010-12-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from solar system studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and simple scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics are given particular attention, as these close-in planets have been the subject of most of the concrete developments in the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. We then turn to the basic elements of circulation on terrestrial planets as inferred from solar system studies, including Hadley cells, jet streams, processes that govern the large-scale horizontal temperature contrasts, and climate, and we discuss how these insights may apply to terrestrial exoplanets. Although exoplanets surely possess a greater diversity of circulation regimes than seen on the planets in our solar system, our guiding philosophy is that the multidecade study of solar system planets reviewed here provides a foundation upon which our understanding of more exotic exoplanetary meteorology must build.

  20. Atmospheric Change on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We propose to use SOFIA with HIPO and FLITECAM (FLIPO) to measure the parameters of Pluto's atmosphere (temperature, pressure, possible particulate haze) by observing a stellar occultation by Pluto on 15 November 2014. Due to its highly elliptical orbit and seasonally variable obliquity, Pluto's atmosphere is predicted to condense onto its surface within the next ~10 years and possibly within the next few years and thus frequent observations are critical. Detection of the occultation central flash will allow measurement of the structure of Pluto's lower atmosphere and atmospheric oblateness. We will use FLIPO to measure the refracted starlight contemporaneously at visible and infrared wavelengths; this approach is needed to differentiate between two competing explanations for the deficiency in the observed light refracted from Pluto's lower atmosphere (strong thermal gradients versus variable particulate extinction). Only an airborne platform such as SOFIA has the flexibility to place a large telescope in the center of the shadow path of this brief event while at the same time nearly eliminating the possibility of missing time-critical observations due to unfortunate weather systems. Occultation predictions will be updated throughout the period preceding the observations with the goal of achieving sufficient prediction accuracy at the event time to place SOFIA directly in the path of Pluto's central flash. This SOFIA observation will be combined with our ongoing ground-based observing program whose goal is to measure the temporal variability of Pluto's atmosphere in response to its changing seasonal obliquity (and resulting ice migration) and recession from the sun. For the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt, this Pluto occultation event represents the last chance, prior to the spacecraft closest approach to the Pluto/Charon system (July 2015), to provide input to the mission for encounter planning, as well as context and supporting atmospheric

  1. French memorandum for revitalizing European energy policy with a view to sustainable development; Memorandum de la France pour une relance de la politique energetique europeenne dans une perspective de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    During the European Council at Hampton Court (October 2005), the European Heads of State or Government expressed the desire to see Europe's energy policy revitalized, given the new and increasingly tough challenges facing Europe and the world today, in particular concerning energy security on the one hand, and the need to combat climate change on the other. These guidelines were confirmed and clarified by the European Council on 15 and 16 December 2005, which particularly 'stressed the importance of an integrated approach to climate change, energy and competitiveness objectives, and underlined the fact that strategies to invest in cleaner and more sustainable energy, both within the EU and more widely, can support a range of policy objectives, including energy security, competitiveness, employment, air quality and reduced greenhouse gas emissions'. To make a contribution to the debate around these strategic questions ongoing in many arenas, and pending the publication of new documents announced by the Commission and the Presidency of the Council concerning European energy policy, France wishes to make known its point of view and propose areas for action in order to promote solutions to encourage the creation of safer and more sustainable energy systems both within the EU and with our partners, which would be accessible to all. This involves: - guaranteeing that the energy we produce, import and consume for our economic and social development remains available and economically accessible to all, both today and in the future; - progressing towards sustainable use of energy in that it must take account of environmental impacts and the depletion of fossil resources; - developing employment by promoting energy efficiency, renewable energies and other low greenhouse gas emitting technologies. After a reminder of the context and stakes (part 1), suggestions are made with regard to policies (part 2) and means, concerning the various types of consumption on

  2. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize community values and ecosystem services for habitat restoration and neighborhood revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers ind...

  3. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-02-01

    This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

  4. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmcommunication, the results of both organic and inorganic analyses of aerosol samples from these two sites will be presented, compared and discussed. Results of this work are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC

  5. The Radiometer Atmospheric Cubesat Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B.; Bryk, M.; Clark, J.; Donahue, K.; Ellyin, R.; Misra, S.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Statham, S.; Steinkraus, J.; Lightsey, E. G.; Fear, A.; Francis, P.; Kjellberg, H.; McDonald, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing the Radiometer Atmospheric CubeSat Experiment (RACE) since 2012, which consists of a water vapor radiometer integrated on a 3U CubeSat platform. RACE will measure 2 channels of the 183 GHz water vapor line, and will be used to validate new low noise amplifier (LNA) technology and a novel amplifier based internal calibration subsystem. The 3U spacecraft is provided by the University of Texas at Austin's Satellite Design Laboratory. RACE will advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the 183 GHz receiver subsystem from TRL 4 to TRL 6 and a CubeSat 183 GHz radiometer system from TRL 4 to TRL 7. Measurements at 183 GHz are used to retrieve integrated products and vertical profiles of water vapor. Current full scale satellite missions that can utilize the technology include AMSU, ATMS, SSMIS and Megha-Tropiques. The LNAs are designed at JPL, based on a 35 nm indium phosphide (InP) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT) technology developed by Northrop Grumman. The resulting single chip LNAs require only 25 mW of power. Current pre-launch instrument performance specifications include an RF gain of over 30 dB and a room noise figure of noise figure is dominated by the insertion loss of the Dicke switch which at these frequencies are > 5dB. If a coupler based calibration system is shown to be sufficient, future receiver systems will have noise figures noise figure variation over temperature is approximately 0.55 dB/K. The NEDT of the system is power consumption by eliminating the need for a local oscillator. A 2012 NASA CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) selection, RACE is manifested for launch on the Orbital 3 (Orb-3) mission scheduled for October 2014. RACE will be deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) by NanoRacks.

  6. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology.......The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its...

  8. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  9. The Revitalization of Women’s Entrepreneurship Spirit In Micro Enterprises With Islamic Microfinance Institution (IMI (Study on The Contribution of BMTs Agam Madani in Agam sub-province, West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesi Eka Puteri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the contribution of Islamic Microfinance Institutions (IMI in the process of empowerment of women microenterprises, and recommended a related policy.Method – This study is a field research in 2012, which focused in BMTs Agam Madani at Agam district. The data is sourced from the observation, documentation and questionnaires from 60 women micro-entrepreneurs samples who receive working capital financing. This paper uses simple regression model in order to observe relationship between working capital and the increasing of revenue. This model is to measure the amount of the multiplier effect in working capital-to increasing of revenue.Result – This paper found that IMI is a good model to develop society more prosperous by developing BMTs in each district. These BMT has thousands of micro enterprises member and could revitalized the spirit of entrepreneurship of minangkabau’s women. A research to 60 women’s micro entrepreneur samples showed the positive significant influence between lending to revenue. A multiplier effect equal to 0.068.The small number of multiplier effect implied that many factors determining their revenue, not lending only.Conclusion – This finding could explain that IMI could empower micro entrepreneur woman. This finding also recommend few strategies: 1 Revitalization of BMTs as micro catalyst by revitalization of structure of organization, products variation, human resource compentence, sharia monitoring, public cooperation and implementating local cultural value 2 Revitalization of government role as fasilitator, coordinator, initiator and mediator in developing micro sector. Keywords : Women’s Entrepreneurship, Micro Enterprises, Islamic Microfinance Institution, BMTs Agam Madani 

  10. Atmospheric Infrared Radiance Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-27

    ATMOSPHERIC VARIABILITY ON INFRARED RADIANCE PREDICTIONS - T. C. Degges 53 5. ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE - C.H. HLmphrey, C.R. Philbrick, S.M. Silverman , T.F. Tuan...variations similar to those shown in Figure 2. In arctic and subarctic regions, sudden warmings and coolings of the winter stratosphere and mesosphere... Silverman \\Jr I",rre. (;.L~~sIalmratorN Hanscom Air Force Base, Manss. T.F. Tuan Universitv of Cincinnati Cincinnati, (tio M. Anapol S.S.G.. Inc. Waltham

  11. Atmosphere and Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventzel Riis, Nina

    2012-01-01

    -between of the materials. This is what we identify as atmosphere, an enveloping phenomenon that surrounds and affects our sensuous system and well-being when we approach, enter, stay or move in a building. When we leave the building again we carry this atmospheric multi-sensory experience with us without adequate methods...... to describe and document it. In this paper I will introduce both new and traditional approaches to document the architectural heritage with the final conclusion to describe both tangible and intangible values, it requires an objective and geometrical approach as well as a subjective and phenomenological...

  12. Analysis and Risk Evaluation on the Case of Alteration, Revitalization and Conversion of a Historic Building in Gdańsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyl, Beata; Kristowski, Adam; Miszewska-Urbańska, Emilia

    2017-10-01

    Each investment plan, including the one concerning a building, is exposed to the consequences of various types of threats taking place. Therefore, in the case of some large-scale, atypical and complicated building ventures, some actions included in the procedure of risk management should be taken (identifications, analysis, measurements, control and supervision of the risk). This will allow for the risk to be eliminated or limited. While preparing a building venture, an investor does not possess full information about the course of events on each stage of investment completion. The identification of the above-mentioned unknowns, subjecting them to quantification and specifying the method of dealing with them, allows an investor to increase the effectiveness of the intended plan. The enterprise discussed in this article and analyzed in the context of risk, concerns alteration, revitalization and conversion for office purposes of two buildings located in Gdańsk at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street. These buildings are situated on the area of historical urban layout of Gdańsk, in the northern-eastern part of Stare Przedmieście District (Old Suburb), about 800 meters south from Dlugi Targ Street and 200 meters west from The Old Motława River. The investor is “Gdańskie Melioracje Ltd.”, a limited liability company, which belongs to the Council of Gdańsk. In order to increase the effectiveness of the intended investment venture, while organizing the investment process, the investor commissioned preparation of an analysis and risk evaluation connected with the above-mentioned intention. Based on an on-site visit, the opinions of experts, who have been involved in the process of the preparation of the investment, studies of the available monographies about the technical condition of the buildings at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street and their own experiences, the authors identified 54 types of relevant risks, which have been systematized into 10 subject groups (among others

  13. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  14. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  15. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the announcement of new evidence for muon neutrino disappearance observed by the super-Kamiokande experiment, the more than a decade old atmospheric neutrino anomaly moved from a possible indication for neutrino oscillations to an apparently inescapable fact. The evidence is reviewed, and new indications ...

  16. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  17. Is that Innovation? : Assessing Examples of Revitalized Economic Dynamics among Clusters of Small Producers in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; de Groot, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether innovation is within reach for small enterprises in developing economies by studying four cases of new technologies, products and business practices in traditional craft in Northern Vietnam. The paper starts with reviewing definitions of innovation since

  18. Lessons Learned from Conducting a K-12 Project to Revitalize Achievement by Using Instrumentation in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, Vikram; Iskander, Magued

    2014-01-01

    A student's first introduction to engineering and technology is typically through high school science labs. Unfortunately, in many high schools, science labs often make use of antiquated tools that fail to deliver exciting lab content. As a result, many students are turned off by science, fail to excel on standardized science exams, and do not…

  19. Research and technology report, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center programs of research and technology for 1981 in various areas of aerospace science are reviewed. Each activity reviewed has a high probability of application to current or future programs or is an application of the results of current programs. Projects in atmospheric and magnetospheric science, solar physics, astronomy, and space technology are included.

  20. Closing the transatlantic technology gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Looks at how Europe can catch up with the United States in several critical areas of aerospace technology. Creation of a business-friendly atmosphere for civil aviation manufacturers; Promotion of cooperation between aerospace research institutes; Sponsorship of technology demonstrator programs at

  1. Applications of theoretical methods in atmospheric science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Goodsite, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    in addressing an issue of primary concern: understanding photochemical reaction rates at the various conditions found in the atmosphere. Atmospheric science includes both atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, meteorology, climatology and the study of extraterrestrial atmospheres....

  2. Histologic characterization of regenerated tissues in canal space after the revitalization/revascularization procedure of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Thibodeau, Blayne; Trope, Martin; Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to treat an immature tooth with an infected pulp space and apical periodontitis in such a way as to heal and promote the ingrown of new vital tissue into the pulp space. However, the type of new-grown tissue is unclear. Based on the samples of a previously reported study, we further investigated histologically the types of tissues that had grown into the canal space. The canal dentinal walls were thickened by the apposition of newly generated cementum-like tissue termed herein "intracanal cementum (IC)." One case showed partial survival of pulp tissue juxtaposed with fibrous connective tissue that formed IC on canal dentin walls. The IC may also form a bridge at the apex, in the apical third or midthird of the canal. The root length in many cases was increased by the growth of cementum. The generation of apical cementum or IC may occur despite the presence of inflammatory infiltration at the apex or in the canal. These cementum or cementum-like tissues were similar to cellular cementum. Bone or bone-like tissue was observed in the canal space in many cases and is termed intracanal bone (IB). Connective tissue similar to periodontal ligament was also present in the canal space surrounding the IC and/or IB. Our findings explained in part why many clinical cases of immature teeth with apical periodontitis or abscess may gain root thickness and apical length after conservative treatment with the revitalization procedure.

  3. Revitalization of the Role of Recently Madrasah Teacher: Modern Learning Perspective and Utilization of ICT in the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Purwowidodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The era of globalization requires strength of human resources (HR formidable and qualified to play in the global arena. Teaching and learning scenario need to be prepared carefully in a learning curriculum to improve the quality standards of education, efforts to the implementation of technology, especially information and communications technology (ICT in the learning system at the school by using the internet in teaching and learning is expected to be able to be implemented more easily, quickly, efficiently, and effectively. By utilizing of ICT teachers can create animations or simulations to help students learn abstract concepts, dynamic, and complex. Students can learn, by identifying, developing, organizing, and using all sorts of learning resources. Madrasah teachers also no longer are used as the only one reference of all knowledge but rather as a facilitator or consultant in the learning process and Results in Madrasah.

  4. NASA ATP Force Measurement Technology Capability Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2008-01-01

    The Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) initiated a strategic planning effort to re-vitalize the force measurement capability within NASA. The team responsible for developing the plan included members from three NASA Centers (Langley, Ames and Glenn) as well as members from the Air Force s Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC). After visiting and discussing force measurement needs and current capabilities at each participating facility as well as selected force measurement companies, a strategic plan was developed to guide future NASA investments. This paper will provide the details of the strategic plan and include asset management, organization and technology research and development investment priorities as well as efforts to date.

  5. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  6. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    , the notion of atmosphere is presented as parallactic for designing experience in architectural fields, since it transgresses formal and material boundaries of bodies, opening a new gap that exposes the orthodox space-body-environment relationships to questions. It leads to the dissolution...... of the architectural ‘object’ and its fixity and offers a new understanding of context and space – approached as a field of dynamic relationships. It calls for a re-evaluation of perceptual experience, offering to architecture an expanded domain in which architecture manifests itself, including qualities – besides...... poetics and beauty – that architecture has long resisted. That is, it defines space as a contingent construction, performative and intensely affective. Accordingly, the intention is to critically analyse what the term atmosphere entails in architecture, and to expand its notion in terms of affective...

  7. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency supported this work with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region and the work is part of the Danish contribution to Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP......This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  8. Frontiers in Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Meleux, Frederik; Rouïl, Laurence

    2013-04-01

    The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA). Besides the technical challenge, which demonstrated the robustness of the selected air quality model, we discuss the added value in terms of air pollution modelling and decision support. The comparison with in-situ observations shows that model biases are significantly improved despite some spurious added spatial variability attributed to shortcomings in the emission downscaling process and coarse resolution of the meteorological fields. The increased spatial resolution is clearly beneficial for the detection of exceedances and exposure modelling. We reveal small scale air pollution patterns that highlight the contribution of city plumes to background air pollution levels. Up to a factor 5 underestimation of the fraction of population exposed to detrimental levels of pollution can be obtained with a coarse simulation if subgrid scale correction such as urban increments are ignored. This experiment opens new perspectives for environmental decision making. After two decades of efforts to reduce air pollutant emissions across Europe, the challenge is now to find the optimal trade-off between national and local air quality management strategies. While the first approach is based on sectoral strategies and energy policies, the later builds upon new alternatives such as urban development. The strategies, the decision pathways and the involvement of individual citizen differ, and a compromise based on cost and efficiency must be found. We illustrated how high performance computing in atmospheric science can contribute to this

  9. Haze in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Summers, M. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Strobel, D. F.; Young, L. A.; Lavvas, P.; Kammer, J. A.; Lisse, C. M.; Parker, A. H.; Young, E. F.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.

    2017-07-01

    Haze in Pluto's atmosphere was detected in images by both the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) and the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) on New Horizons. LORRI observed haze up to altitudes of at least 200 km above Pluto's surface at solar phase angles from ∼20° to ∼169°. The haze is structured with about ∼20 layers, and the extinction due to haze is greater in the northern hemisphere than at equatorial or southern latitudes. However, more haze layers are discerned at equatorial latitudes. A search for temporal variations found no evidence for motions of haze layers (temporal changes in layer altitudes) on time scales of 2 to 5 hours, but did find evidence of changes in haze scale height above 100 km altitude. An ultraviolet extinction attributable to the atmospheric haze was also detected by the ALICE ultraviolet spectrograph on New Horizons. The haze particles are strongly forward-scattering in the visible, and a microphysical model of haze is presented which reproduces the visible phase function just above the surface with 0.5 μm spherical particles, but also invokes fractal aggregate particles to fit the visible phase function at 45 km altitude and account for UV extinction. A model of haze layer generation by orographic excitation of gravity waves is presented. This model accounts for the observed layer thickness and distribution with altitude. Haze particles settle out of the atmosphere and onto Pluto's surface, at a rate sufficient to alter surface optical properties on seasonal time scales. Pluto's regional scale albedo contrasts may be preserved in the face of the haze deposition by atmospheric collapse.

  10. DREAMING OF ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, I. P., E-mail: ingo@star.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  11. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  12. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  13. Evolution of the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J F

    1998-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres depend fundamentally upon their geochemical inventory, temperature and the ability of their gravitational field to retain gases. In the case of Earth and other inner planets, early outgassing released mainly carbon dioxide and water vapour. The secondary veneer of comets and meteorites added further volatiles. Photodissociation caused secondary changes, including the production of traces of oxygen from water. Earth's gravity cannot retain light gases, including hydrogen. but retains oxygen. Water vapour generally does not pass the cold trap at the stratopause. In the archaean, early evolution of life, probably in hydrothermal vents, and the subsequent development of photosynthesis in surface waters, produced oxygen, at 3500 Ma or even earlier, becoming a significant component of the atmosphere from about 2000 Ma. Thereafter banded iron formations became rare, and iron was deposited in oxidized red beds. Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen have varied during the Phanerozoic: major changes may have caused extinctions. particularly the Permian/Triassic. The declining greenhouse effect due to the long-term decrease in carbon dioxide has largely offset increasing solar luminosity, and changes in carbon dioxide levels relate strongly to cycles of glaciation.

  14. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  15. Grander system: a new technology to reduce surface tension of adhesive systems in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo de Paiva; Cruz, Nilson; Brayner, Ricardo; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara

    2014-01-01

    Reduced surface tension of liquids results in higher surface wetting ability and diffusivity by the substrate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Grander Technology in reducing the surface tension of adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems (self-etch and total-etch) were modified by physical contact with the Grander system Flexible unit to revitalize water, for 48 h. Surface tension of adhesive systems and water in normal and grander-modified conditions was measured with a goniometer. The results showed a reduction of surface tension for all conditions grander-modified between 3-15%. Grander Technology was effective in reducing the surface tension of the Single Bond and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems. Clinical significance. Grander technology was employed to restructure the molecular structure of water-based adhesive systems, which can increase their wetness capacity and therefore ensure a greater diffusibility.

  16. Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Volume I reviews current understanding of autoxidation, largely on the basis of the reactions of oxygen with characterised chemicals. From this flows the modern mechanism of antioxidant actions and their application in stabilisation technology.

  17. Atmospheric Climate Experiment Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, K.

    ACE+ is an atmospheric sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe atmospheric parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global atmosphere from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in Atmospheric Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS atmospheric occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about atmosphere physics and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the atmosphere and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and

  18. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  19. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  20. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; Díaz, I.; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  1. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz, Iván; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  2. the Martian atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2011-01-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...

  3. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  4. Chemical detoxification of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in a microwave discharge plasma reactor at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    This report focuses on the application of plasma technology to hazardous waste treatment. Microwave sustained plasmas are used to thermal degrade trichloroethylene and trichloroethane at atmospheric pressure. (JL)

  5. Atmospheric Composition Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-26

    9fI urpAt .~~~ — 7. A THOR(a) 9. CON I RACT OR GRANT HUM BER(.) ! ~~~~~~~~ /otis 7 ~~ ~~F 1962~~~ 4~~~~~~ 1 H 9. FoRMING ORGANIZATION NAN NO...objective of the Upper Atmosphere Re- search Program is the acquisition of 1- nowledge of the ohysica] and chemica ) properties and phenomena of the vitally

  6. Atmospheric gas phase reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Ulrich

    This chapter introduces the underlying physicochemical principles and the relevance of atmospheric gas phase reactions. In particular, reaction orders, the concept of elementary reactions, definition of and factors determining reaction rates (kinetic theory of chemical reactions), and photochemical reactions are discussed. Sample applications of the pertinent reaction pathways in tropospheric chemistry are presented, particularly reactions involving free radicals (OH, NO3, halogen oxides) and their roles in the self-cleaning of the troposphere. The cycles of nitrogen and sulfur species as well as the principles of tropospheric ozone formation are introduced. Finally, the processes governing the stratospheric ozone layer (Chapman Cycle and extensions) are discussed.

  7. MOBILE ATMOSPHERIC SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric quality dramatically deteriorates over the past decades around themetropolitan areas of China. Due to the coal combustion, industrial air pollution, vehicle waste emission, etc., the public health suffers from exposure to such air pollution as fine particles of particulates, sulfur and carbon dioxide, etc. Many meteorological stations have been built to monitor the condition of air quality over the city. However, they are installed at fixed sites and cover quite a small region. The monitoring results of these stations usually do NOT coincide with the public perception of the air quality. This paper is motivated to mimic the human breathing along the citys transportation network by the mobile sensing vehicle of atmospheric quality. To obtain the quantitative perception of air quality, the Environmental Monitoring Vehicle of Wuhan University (EMV-WHU has been developed to automatically collect the data of air pollutants. The EMV-WHU is equipped with GPS/IMU, sensors of PM2.5, carbon dioxide, anemometer, temperature, humidity, noise, and illumination, as well as the visual and infrared camera. All the devices and sensors are well collaborated with the customized synchronization mechanism. Each sort of atmospheric data is accompanied with the uniform spatial and temporal label of high precision. Different spatial and data-mining techniques, such as spatial correlation analysis, logistic regression, spatial clustering, are employed to provide the periodic report of the roadside air quality. With the EMV-WHU, constant collection of the atmospheric data along the Luoyu Road of Wuhan city has been conducted at the daily peak and non-peak time for half a year. Experimental results demonstrated that the EMV is very efficient and accurate for the perception of air quality. Comparative findings with the meteorological stations also show the intelligence of big data analysis and mining of all sorts of EMV measurement of air quality. It is

  8. Rectenna related atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible meteorological effects arising from the existence and operations of a solar power satellite (SPS) system rectenna are examined. Analysis and model simulations in some chosen site situations and meteorological conditions indicate that the meteorological effects of the construction and operation of a rectenna are small, particularly outside the boundary of the structure. From weather and climate points of view, installation of an SPS rectenna seems likely to have effects comparable with those due to other nonindustrial land use changes covering the same area. The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation in the troposphere would have negligible atmospheric effects.

  9. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  10. THE UTILIZATION OF WEB-BASED TECHNOLOGY AS PREDICTOR OF FACULTY INSIGHTS OF SUPPORT FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ELEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed GHAEMI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last three decades higher education institutions have been forced to undergo thorough transformation and revitalization. Parallel to society, a factor that has played a crucial role in transforming higher education is the advance of information technology (IT. The potential for use of IT in education has been increasingly recognized and higher education faculties have begun to use this technology in different ways in their teaching. Instructors today regularly include electronic technologies that extend instructional resources to their students: threaded discussion boards, websites, chat rooms, email, newsgroups, etc. Moreover, because the use of mobile technologies that join with web-based resources is becoming a more common practice, the lines differentiating web-based and face-to-face classroom teaching are becoming less distinguishable.

  11. Kinetics of Tomato Peroxidase Inactivation by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Based on Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Patrick; Pankaj, Shashi; Misra, N

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology is an emerging nonthermal food technology for microbiological decontamination of food and bio-materials. This study demonstrates the applicability of in-package cold plasma technology as a novel means to inactivation of enzymes. The kinetics of inactivation of tomato peroxidase as a model enzyme was studied at 30, 40 and 50kV, for up to 5’ of atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatments. The enzyme activity was found to decrease wi...

  12. The impact of aviation on the atmosphere - an overview on atmospheric research within the programme ``Pollutants from Air Traffic``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-01

    `Pollutants from Air Traffic: Effects and Prevention` (`Schadstoffe in der Luftfahrt: Wirkung und Vorsorge`) is a German research programme which was performed over the years 1992-1997. The programme is composed of an atmospheric science part and an engine technology part. It deals with the long-term effects of pollutants from air traffic on the atmosphere. This paper gives an overview on the programme and summarises the knowledge on the impact of aircraft emissions on the state of the atmosphere. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  13. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  14. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for earth tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Walter

    2016-04-05

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  15. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for Earth tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Walter, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de

    2016-07-15

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  16. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for Earth tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  17. Atmospheric mercury—An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, William H.; Munthe, John

    This paper presents a broad overview and synthesis of current knowledge and understanding pertaining to all major aspects of mercury in the atmosphere. The significant physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of this element and its environmentally relebant species encountered in the atmosphere are examined. Atmospheric pathways and processes considered herein include anthropogenic as well as natural sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere, aerial transport and dispersion (including spatial and temporal variability), atmospheric transformations (both physical and chemical types), wet and dry removal/deposition processes to Earth's surface. In addition, inter-compartmental (air-water/soil/vegetation) transfer and biogeochemical cycling of mercury are considered and discussed. The section on numerical modelling deals with atmospheric transport models as well as process-oriented models. Important gaps in our current knowledge of mercury in the atmospheric environment are identified, and suggestions for future areas of research are offered.

  18. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  19. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-ping Long

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.

  20. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Feng, Guang-Cai; Long, Jiang-Ping

    2008-09-03

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.

  1. The Atmospheric Fate of Organic Nitrogen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borduas, Nadine

    Organic nitrogen compounds are present in our atmosphere from biogenic and anthropogenic sources and have impacts on air quality and climate. Due to recent advances in instrumentation, these compounds are being detected in the gas and particle phases, raising questions as to their source, processing and sinks in the environment. With their recently identified role as contributors to aerosol formation and growth, their novel large scale use as solvents in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and their emissions from cigarette smoke, it is now important to address the gaps in our understanding of the fate of organic nitrogen. Experimentally and theoretically, I studied the chemical atmospheric fate of specific organic nitrogen compounds in the amine, amide and isocyanate families, yielding information that can be used in chemical transport models to assess the fate of this emerging class of atmospheric molecules. I performed kinetic laboratory studies in a smog chamber to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for reaction with the hydroxyl radical of monoethanolamine, nicotine, and five different amides. I employed online-mass spectrometry techniques to quantify the oxidation products. I found that amines react quickly with OH radicals with lifetimes of a few hours under sunlit conditions, producing amides as oxidation products. My studies on amides revealed that they have much longer lifetimes in the atmosphere, ranging from a few hours to a week. Photo-oxidation of amides produces isocyanates and I investigated these mechanisms in detail using ab initio calculations. Furthermore, I experimentally measured isocyanic acid's Henry's Law constant as well as its hydrolysis rate constants to better understand its sinks in the atmosphere. Finally, I re-examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of organic nitrogen molecules for improved model parameterizations.

  2. Caustics of atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.

    2015-04-01

    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  3. Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric capture and gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure C02 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as welL To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from un-reacted carbon oxides (C02- CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents, zeolites, and new technologies. This paper and presentation will summarize the results of an extensive literature review and laboratory evaluations of candidate technologies for the capture and separation of C02 and other relevant gases.

  4. Hypothetical high-level cognitive functions cannot be localized in the brain: another argument for a revitalized behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, William R

    2004-01-01

    A key epistemological difference between behaviorism and cognitivism concerns their respective attitudes toward the analysis of so-called cognitive processes into functional modules. Behaviorists generally say it is not possible. Cognitivists argue that this is an achievable goal. The question has been concretized by recent developments in brain imaging technology. A consideration of the matter suggests that technical and conceptual difficulties abound in the effort to localize "high-level cognitive functions" in narrowly circumscribed regions of the brain. Some of the most serious involve the ambiguous definition of the putative mental components that are to be localized and the generally unacknowledged nonlinear complexity of both psychological processes and the brain. In addition, the imaging techniques themselves are replete with technical difficulties that raise additional questions about this particular application, even though these wonderful machines can make extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology. The cumulative implication of these difficulties is that the cognitive approach to the study of scientific psychology has once again set out on a search for a chimera. New approaches to behaviorism may be required to set psychology back on the correct track.

  5. Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, A

    2000-01-01

    Future experiments focusing on atmospheric neutrino detection are reviewed. One of the main goals of these experiments is the detection of an unambiguous oscillation pattern (nu_mu reappearance) to prove the oscillation hypothesis. Further goals include the discrimination of nu_mu - nu_tau and nu_mu - nu_sterile oscillations, and the detection of a potential small nu_mu - nu_e contribution. The search for matter effects in three or more flavour oscillations can be used to constrain hybrid oscillation models and potentially measure the sign of delta m^2. The detectors and measurement techniques proposed to achieve these goals are described, and their physics reach is discussed.

  6. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    photosynthetically fixing it into their tissues.  To calculate the atmospheric conductance or mass transfer  coefficient in vegetated fields of  maize  we used...uptake through aerodynamic and leaf boundary layers and the stomata of  maize  at  field scale as determined by continuous stable isotope measurements... digestion  with specific homing endonucleases (Figure 4).  Completion of the triple vector construction of mmoX, Y and Z in E. coli was confirmed by PCR

  7. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by

  8. Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

    2005-11-01

    In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

  9. Radiofrequency identification technology and sea turtles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study investigated the compatibility of various PIT tag scanner technologies and available PIT tag frequencies, as well as testing the read depth potential of...

  10. Analysis on complex structure stability under different bar angle with BIM technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiongjue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sun Valley, the landmark building of World Expo in Shanghai, which has free surface with single-layer reticulated shell structure, is a typical complex structure. CAD/CAM integrated information system to design is used for the complex structure; however, it is a very rigorous process to be used widely. The relevant technology of the Sun Valley is not open to the public at present, so we try to use BIM technology to model the Sun Valley, including architecture modelling and structure analysis. By analysis of the Sun Valley structure using this method, it is proved that the problems in modelling may be solved by writing some script codes in Rhino software and the stability of the model can also be analyzed. The new approach is viable and effective in combination with different softwares such as Rhino, Revit, and Midas in solution of the complex shaped surfaces’ structure for modelling and calculation.

  11. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  13. CMOS sensors for atmospheric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, Jérôme; Burt, David; Jerram, Paul; Mayer, Frédéric; Walker, Andrew; Simpson, Robert; Johnson, Steven; Hubbard, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    Recent European atmospheric imaging missions have seen a move towards the use of CMOS sensors for the visible and NIR parts of the spectrum. These applications have particular challenges that are completely different to those that have driven the development of commercial sensors for applications such as cell-phone or SLR cameras. This paper will cover the design and performance of general-purpose image sensors that are to be used in the MTG (Meteosat Third Generation) and MetImage satellites and the technology challenges that they have presented. We will discuss how CMOS imagers have been designed with 4T pixel sizes of up to 250 μm square achieving good charge transfer efficiency, or low lag, with signal levels up to 2M electrons and with high line rates. In both devices a low noise analogue read-out chain is used with correlated double sampling to suppress the readout noise and give a maximum dynamic range that is significantly larger than in standard commercial devices. Radiation hardness is a particular challenge for CMOS detectors and both of these sensors have been designed to be fully radiation hard with high latch-up and single-event-upset tolerances, which is now silicon proven on MTG. We will also cover the impact of ionising radiation on these devices. Because with such large pixels the photodiodes have a large open area, front illumination technology is sufficient to meet the detection efficiency requirements but with thicker than standard epitaxial silicon to give improved IR response (note that this makes latch up protection even more important). However with narrow band illumination reflections from the front and back of the dielectric stack on the top of the sensor produce Fabry-Perot étalon effects, which have been minimised with process modifications. We will also cover the addition of precision narrow band filters inside the MTG package to provide a complete imaging subsystem. Control of reflected light is also critical in obtaining the

  14. Atmospheric Capture On Mars (and Processing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to enable such missions, as first proposed by Prof. Robert Ash in 1976. This presentation will review progress in the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. For many years, NASA, commercial companies, and academia have been developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Other gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 for processing elements. Significant progress has been demonstrated in CO2 collection via adsorption by molecular sieves, freezing, and direct compression. Early stage work in adsorption in Ionic Liquids followed by electrolysis to oxygen is also underway. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and could be captured as well. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (CO2-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, and (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction.

  15. On the operation of switch-less transversely excited atmosphere ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the operation of switch-less transversely excited atmosphere CO2 lasers in the oscillator and amplifier configurations. GAUTAM C PATIL, PALLAVI RAOTE, J PADMA NILAYA and D J BISWAS∗. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,. Mumbai 400 085, India. *Corresponding author.

  16. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Liechti, F.; Vansteelant, W.M.G.

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging

  17. Exploring the Atmosphere with Lidars -R-ES-ONAN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for scientific studies of the atmosphere, environmental monitoring, measurement of air quality parameters, remote sensing of oceans and rivers, remote assessment of vegetation, etc. Developments in laser technology such as second harmonic generation, high power ...

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry from Space: Present Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the unqualified successes of the earth observation program is NASA's continuing monitoring of the ozone layer from space. This activity began in the early 70's with research instruments and continues to this day with the TOMS instrument series and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In the near future, NASA will be launching the EOS Aura spacecraft (launch mid-2003) which will continue our study of the chemical processes that produce stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, Aura will begin the first global study of lower atmospheric air pollution including urban ozone, aerosols, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Atmospheric air pollution measurements from earth orbit involve the development of very high precision spectrometer technologies that have never been flown in space. Farther into the future, lower atmospheric ozone and aerosols may be monitored by space based lidars in low earth orbit, by sensors in geostationary orbit and by continuous limb observations instrument from the Lagrange point L2.

  19. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  20. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  1. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  2. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  3. The sustainability of the concept of the idea of a 'Garden city' in the process of country revitalization: An example of the settlement of Kulpin in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlešić Majda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sense of satisfying the need and intention to renew life in the country, an adequate solution of landscape and spatial arrangement of these locations represents a very important segment. For all that, it is crucial to keep those characteristics of space that are the ones that, from the aspect of local inhabitants, increase the feeling of belonging there and, through many generations, influence on people's identity formation. At the same time in order to enable the country revitalization, it is necessary to make it attractive enough and adjust it to more and more sophisticated needs of particularly, younger intellectuals, who are missing mostly in the country. One of the possible models for achieving the arrangement that will keep and attract new population, but still keep the identity of a settlement is the application of the idea and concept of a garden city. The idea of a garden city, although it dates from the antique times, got materialized by the end of the 19th century in England, while here it has passed unnoticed. The crucial motive of Howard Ebenezer's idea was to organize the existing functions of a town i.e. a settlement in general, on principles of organic growth. The very name 'garden city' did not denote something particular related to the very notions and categories of garden of a city. The idea referred to rational and tidy approach to the complex system typical precisely of a garden. Organizing the space defined by the idea of a garden city brings about harmony and uniqueness despite differences and enables its sustainability despite needs of growth, just like in a garden. Until all parameters of space get established, especially the ones that express its authenticity, in the sense of the non-existence of a precise solution, the openness of the idea enables its application on different locations. The village of Kulpin, one of 'street shaped villages' in Vojvodina, with its precise organizational space structure belongs to

  4. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  5. RESTORATION AND SUSTAINABLE VALORIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND REGIONAL POLICY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA. CASE STUDY OF REVITALIZATION OF THE ORADEA FORTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dodescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents cultural heritage, cultural tourism potential of North-West Region of Romania face to face with restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage as a major domain of intervention of regional policy in Romania. Due to Romanian regionalization form, the Regional Operational Programme (ROP is currently the only programme of regional policy in Romania in 2007-2013. One of the major domains of intervention of ROP 2007-2013 in Romania was restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage. The first paper specific objective is to explore projects contracted until 31.12.2013 in the field of restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage in North-West Region of Romania and their regional development relevance in the context of existing regional development strategies. The second paper specific objective is to present a model of restoration of cultural heritage in a sustainable way throughout the case study of Revitalization of the Oradea Fortress in order to introduce it in the tourism circuit - that could become an example for other cultural sites around the region and a succes story in the field of cultural tourism based of ROP 2007-2013 experience. Exploring rich cultural heritage of the North-West Region face to face with poor condition of cultural heritage sites and investments required in order to introduce them in touristic circuit, the paper concludes that all contracted projects are relevant for sustainable valorization of regional cultural heritage and cultural tourism potential in the context of existing regional development strategies, but they contributed only partially to regional specific needs. Also, the paper concludes that number of ROP 2007-2013 projects implemented in the field of cultural heritage is surprisingly small, area of interest of these projects is rather narrow and analyzes the most important causes for these gaps. Based on the case study presented, the paper

  6. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  7. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  8. Atmospheres of hot alien Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogi, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents observations of exoplanets orbiting very close to their parent star, with a particular focus on a novel technique for characterizing their atmospheres. This is based on the use of high-resolution spectroscopy from the ground. The first detection of the atmosphere of a

  9. atmospheric transparency under harmattan conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-20

    May 20, 2006 ... air, the transparency of the atmosphere is also strongly dependent on the elevation angle of the sun. Hence, to contrast the atmospheric transmission characteristics in the two harmattan conditions, measurements made at the same solar elevation (42. °) and optical air mass (m, = 1.5) have been used.

  10. Laser Doppler technology applied to atmospheric environmental operating problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, E. A.; Bilbro, J. W.; Dunkin, J. A.; Jeffreys, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser Doppler ground wind data were very favorably compared with data from standard anemometers. As a result of these measurements, two breadboard systems were developed for taking research data: a continuous wave velocimeter and a pulsed Doppler system. The scanning continuous wave laser Doppler velocimeter developed for detecting, tracking and measuring aircraft wake vortices was successfully tested at an airport where it located vortices to an accuracy of 3 meters at a range of 150 meters. The airborne pulsed laser Doppler system was developed to detect and measure clear air turbulence (CAT). This system was tested aboard an aircraft, but jet stream CAT was not encountered. However, low altitude turbulence in cumulus clouds near a mountain range was detected by the system and encountered by the aircraft at the predicted time.

  11. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  12. High pressure gas laser technology for atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a fixed frequency chirp-free and highly stable intense pulsed laser made for Doppler wind velocity measurements with accurate ranging is described. Energy extraction from a high pressure CO2 laser at a tunable single mode frequency is also examined.

  13. Modeling chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide in microreactors at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konakov, S.A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a multiphysics mathematical model for simulation of silicon dioxide Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and oxygen mixture in a microreactor at atmospheric pressure. Microfluidics is a promising technology with numerous applications in chemical synthesis

  14. Recent Advances in Atmospheric Vapor-Phase Deposition of Transparent and Conductive Zinc Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Poodt, P.; Roozeboom, F.

    2014-01-01

    The industrial need for high-throughput and low-cost ZnO deposition processes has triggered the development of atmospheric vapor-phase deposition techniques which can be easily applied to continuous, in-line manufacturing. While atmospheric CVD is a mature technology, new processes for the growth of

  15. Chasing Neoproterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen Ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Dahl, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric oxygen has been considered a necessary condition for the evolution of animal life for over half a century. While direct proxies for atmospheric oxygen are difficult to obtain, a number of indirect proxies have been giving us a ghost image of rising atmospheric oxygen at the close of the Precambrian. In this context, redox sensitive elements and isotopes represent the hallmark for a significant reduction in anoxic areas of the world ocean, implicating a significant rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Neoproterozoic. Here, we test to what degree redox sensitive elements in ancient marine sediments are proxies of atmospheric oxygen. We model the redox-chemical evolution of the shelf seas and ocean using a combination of 3D high resolution shelf sea models and a simpler global ocean biogeochemical model including climate weathering feedbacks, a free sea level and parameterized icecaps. We find that ecosystem evolution would have resulted in reorganization of the nutrient and redox balance of the shelf-ocean system causing a significant increase in oxygenated areas that permitted a boosting of trace metal concentrations in the remaining anoxic areas. While this reorganization takes place there is limited net change in the modelled atmospheric oxygen, warning us against interpreting changing trace metal concentrations and isotopes as reflecting a rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  16. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  17. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  18. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  19. Scientific investigations of atmospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Research was performed in atmospheric, dynamical, and thermodynamical processes and in other disciplines necessary to accomplish the following tasks: develop procedures for combining generalized radiative transfer codes with dynamic atmospheric model codes; perform diagnostic analysis of atmospheric processes to gain a better understanding of the evolution and development of mesoscale circulation systems and their precipitation structures; and to develop algorithms and software necessary to graphically display diagnostic sets on the MSFC McIDAS and EADS to facilitate scientific study and sensor capability evaluation. Research activities during this reporting period are detailed.

  20. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  1. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform...... technologies results in emerging changes in the organisation's social networks and roles and how these changes affect the organisation's use of new technology (Barley 1986; 1990: Compton, White & DeWine 1991; Orlikowski 2000,)....

  2. Venus: Jet-setting atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain

    2017-09-01

    A fast equatorial jet in the Venusian cloud layer has been revealed by the Akatsuki orbiter by tracking cloud movement in near-infrared images. The findings suggest that the Venusian atmosphere is more variable than previously thought.

  3. Revitalization of Nuclear Powered Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    developing a response in the event a nuclear aircraft crashed . For this, marines would fly in a chase plane, and in the event of a crash would...September 17, 1955 the first of 47 test flights were made. These test flight never used the nuclear reactor to propel the aircraft , but tested the...2 Nuclear Powered Aircraft History

  4. Sedco Forex revitalizing semisubmersible fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Dev

    1994-01-01

    ... with the constraints of today's tough economy. We have reorganized Sedco Forex into a more efficient operation, with half our previous number of personnel and a program of doubling and cross-training. In addition, we are considering getting out of land rigs and are moving from drillships to semisubmersibles. "Furthermore, as a worldwide charter drilling c...

  5. Carpeting/Flooring: Revitalizing Carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Alison; Hill, Michael

    2003-01-01

    With properly specified fiber and a comprehensive maintenance program, school carpets can retain their appearance longer. Discusses carpet characteristics; proper carpet installation; effective preventive-maintenance programs (keep outside areas clean, use soil barriers, protect desk areas, maintain HVAC systems, and specify eating, drinking, and…

  6. Historical Lessons for Squadron Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    possess in order to succeed when reality makes traditional methods unattainable. When people-centric factors of climate are poor , strong operational...culture, climate , and leading change may have benefited the 9 BS commander in 1995. The Air Force should include these aspects of 65 leadership...their necessity in affecting change , and their mention in General Goldfein’s letter. The study uses organization charts and considers preceding or

  7. Revitalizing and Refocusing Our Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappan, Glenda

    1999-01-01

    Presents remarks adapted from the Presidential address from the 1999 annual meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Argues that the mathematics classroom teacher must create an environment that supports students' interests and mathematics growth at many different levels and ways in which to achieve this. Considers…

  8. Research and technology, fiscal year 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Advanced studies are reviewed. Atmospheric sciences, magnetospheric physics, solar physics, gravitational physics, astronomy, and materials processing in space comprise the research programs. Large space systems, propulsion technology, materials and processes, electrical/electronic systems, data bases/design criteria, and facilities development comprise the technology development activities.

  9. Fungistatic Effects of Controlled Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Neil A.; Wankier, Bartley N.; Salunkhe, D. K.; Mcgill, J. N.

    1966-01-01

    The fungistatic effects of controlled atmospheres composed of increased CO2 and decreased O2 was studied in a manner such that the condition of stored fruit was not a factor in the growth of the fungi. Varying concentrations of O2 and CO2 were used. The fungi used were Botrytis alli, Rhizopus nigricans, and Penicillium expansum. The results showed that controlled atmospheres, within the limits of concentrations usable for fruit storage, are effective fungistatic agents. PMID:5951331

  10. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  11. Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry Atmospheric turbulence is the main vertical transport mechanism in the atmospheric boundary layer. The surface fluxes related to this turbulent transport are the sensible (

  12. Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Cold Environments (LATICE): The role of Atmosphere - Biosphere - Cryosphere - Hydrosphere interactions in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stordal, F.; Berntsen, T.; Westermann, S.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Etzelmuller, B.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Hamran, S. E.; Lande, T. S.; Bryn, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the high latitudes more rapidly and significantly than any other region of the Earth because of feedback processes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. A warmer climate has already led to thawing of permafrost, reducing snow cover and a longer growing season; changes, which in turn influence the atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Still, many studies rely on one-way coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface, thereby neglecting important interactions and feedbacks. The observation, understanding and prediction of such processes from local to regional and global scales, represent a major scientific challenge that requires multidisciplinary scientific effort. The successful integration of earth observations (remote and in-situ data) and model development requires a harmonized research effort between earth system scientists, modelers and the developers of technologies and sensors. LATICE, which is recognized as a priority research area by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Oslo, aims to advance the knowledge base concerning land atmosphere interactions and their role in controlling climate variability and climate change at high northern latitudes. The consortium consists of an interdisciplinary team of experts from the atmospheric and terrestrial (hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere) research groups, together with key expertise on earth observations and novel sensor technologies. LATICE addresses critical knowledge gaps in the current climate assessment capacity through: Improving parameterizations of processes in earth system models controlling the interactions and feedbacks between the land (snow, ice, permafrost, soil and vegetation) and the atmosphere at high latitudes, including the boreal, alpine and artic zone. Assessing the influence of climate and land cover changes on water and energy fluxes. Integrating remote earth observations with in-situ data and

  13. Network of LAMP systems for atmospheric monitoring in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapragada, Bhavani Kumar; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    2012-07-01

    A systematic knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is required for understanding many atmospheric processes such as dynamics of boundary layer, pollution transport, modification of cloud microphysics etc. At present, the information on the particle distribution in the atmosphere is far from sufficient to estimate properly the load of aerosols in the atmosphere. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has been demonstrated to be a reliable remote sensing technique to obtain altitude profiles of atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering. A LIDAR network is being implemented by National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a Department of Space unit, in India for the measurement and monitoring of the atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Towards this, the technology of boundary layer lidar (BLL) (Bhavani Kumar, 2006) has been exploited. Several industrial grade BLL systems are being fabricated at a private industry in India through technological transfer from NARL. The industrial BLL lidar is named as LAMP, stands for LIDAR for Atmospheric Measurement and Probing. Five LAMP systems have already been fabricated and deployed at several locations of the country for continuous monitoring of aerosols and clouds under the Indian Lidar network (I-LINK) programme. The LAMP system employs a single barrel construction so that no realignment is required in future. Moreover, the network lidar system employs several features like rotation facility about the elevation (EL) axis, a provision of front window for environmental protection to the telescope optics and a silica gel pocket for desiccation (for transmit and receive assembly) and a provision of nitrogen purging to overcome the humidity effects. The LAMP system is an autonomous system equipped with a diode pumped Nd-YAG laser, a PMT for the detection of the backscattered photons, and a PC based photon counting electronics for recording the photon returns. In this paper, a report describing

  14. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2003 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A; Sketchley, J

    2005-01-20

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate overcame significant challenges in 2003 to deliver a wealth of scientific and programmatic milestones, and move toward closer alignment with programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We acted aggressively in enabling the PAT Directorate to contribute to future, growing Lawrence Livermore missions in homeland security and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We made heavy investments to bring new capabilities to the Laboratory, to initiate collaborations with major Laboratory programs, and to align with future Laboratory directions. Consistent with our mission, we sought to ensure that Livermore programs have access to the best science and technology, today and tomorrow. For example, in a move aimed at revitalizing the Laboratory's expertise in nuclear and radiation detection, we brought the talented Measurement Sciences Group to Livermore from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, after its mission there had diminished. The transfer to our I Division entailed significant investment by PAT in equipment and infrastructure required by the group. In addition, the move occurred at a time when homeland security funding was expected, but not yet available. By the end of the year, though, the group was making crucial contributions to the radiation detection program at Livermore, and nearly every member was fully engaged in programmatic activities. Our V Division made a move of a different sort, relocating en masse from Building 121 to the NIF complex. This move was designed to enhance interaction and collaboration among high-energy-density experimental scientists at the Laboratory, a goal that is essential to the effective use of NIF in the future. Since then, V Division has become increasingly integrated with NIF activities. Division scientists are heavily involved in diagnostic development and fielding and are poised to perform equation-of-state and high-temperature hohlraum experiments in 2004

  15. Brown dwarf Atmosphere Monitoring (BAM): Characterizing the Coolest Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    Using the G141 WFC3/IR grism, we propose a HST spectrophotometric monitoring study of the coolest variable brown dwarf (~650K) identified as part of our Brown dwarf Atmosphere Monitoring (BAM) program. The proposed observations will enable exploration of the dynamic atmospheric evolution of a benchmark T8.5 binary brown dwarf system, which we have discovered to exhibit the second-largest amplitude variation amongst all currently known brown dwarf variables. The close binarity of this system requires the exquisite stability of the HST point spread function to enable resolved monitoring of both components and to discriminate the source of the variability - the second component is a planetary mass object based on evolutionary models. This BAM follow-up study is designed to characterize both the longitudinal and vertical structure of the atmospheric properties of this system via multi-wavelength observations covering the entire spectral range of the WFC3/IR detector. Additionally, by monitoring the target over two separate epochs we will measure the evolution of atmospheric features giving rise to the flux variations. The proposed program will provide a comprehensive dataset serving as a benchmark comparison to directly imaged planets, intensely irradiated Hot Jupiters, and synthetic atmospheric models incorporating different physical processes.

  16. Being technological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    SETI's essential premises involve evolution in multiple domains: cosmology, biology, culture and technology. Comparatively little has been written about the last of these, technology, in relation to SETI's targets, but it is a crucial variable and well worth deep examination. In particular, it would seem prudent to consider carefully our assumptions about hypothetical extraterrestrial societies which have developed technology that SETI could detect, or which could detect, at interstellar distances, the existence of intelligent life on Earth. This paper contributes to that effort by reflecting upon our habits of projecting terracentric assumptions onto hypothetical worlds, exploring dominant narratives about technological development and presenting varied philosophical theories about the nature of technology. It highlights the cultural aspects of technology here on Earth, particularly their role in the development of radio technology. In the end, it is clear that technology need not develop along a prescribed, linear path; projections about extraterrestrial societies which rely on this assumption need to be reconsidered.

  17. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  18. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  19. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  20. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  1. Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  2. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  3. Earthing Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the conditions under which new technologies emerge in the Anthropocene and raise the question of how to conceptualize sustainable technologies therein. To this end, we explore an eco-centric approach to technology development, called biomimicry. We discuss opposing

  4. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  5. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  6. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  8. PASCAL - Planetary Atmospheres Spectral Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Laurence; Gordon, Iouli

    2010-05-01

    Spectroscopic observation of planetary atmospheres, stellar atmospheres, comets, and the interstellar medium is the most powerful tool for extracting detailed information concerning the properties of these objects. The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database1 has traditionally served researchers involved with terrestrial atmospheric problems, such as remote-sensing of constituents in the atmosphere, pollution monitoring at the surface, identification of sources seen through the atmosphere, and numerous environmental issues. A new thrust of the HITRAN program is to extend this longstanding database to have capabilities for studying the above-mentioned planetary and astronomical systems. The new extension is called PASCAL (Planetary Atmospheres Spectral Catalog). The methodology and structure are basically identical to the construction of the HITRAN and HITEMP databases. We will acquire and assemble spectroscopic parameters for gases and spectral bands of molecules that are germane to the studies of planetary atmospheres. These parameters include the types of data that have already been considered for transmission and radiance algorithms, such as line position, intensity, broadening coefficients, lower-state energies, and temperature dependence values. Additional parameters beyond what is currently considered for the terrestrial atmosphere will be archived. Examples are collision-broadened halfwidths due to various foreign partners, collision-induced absorption, and temperature dependence factors. New molecules (and their isotopic variants), not currently included in the HITRAN database, will be incorporated. That includes hydrocarbons found on Titan but not archived in HITRAN (such as C3H4, C4H2, C3H8). Other examples include sulfur-bearing molecules such as SO and CS. A further consideration will be spectral bands that arise as opportunities to study exosolar planets. The task involves acquiring the best high-resolution data, both experimental and theoretical

  9. Atmosphere in a Test Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  10. A theory of atmospheric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, T A; Schrag, D P

    2017-05-01

    Geological records of atmospheric oxygen suggest that pO 2 was less than 0.001% of present atmospheric levels (PAL) during the Archean, increasing abruptly to a Proterozoic value between 0.1% and 10% PAL, and rising quickly to modern levels in the Phanerozoic. Using a simple model of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, iron, and phosphorous, we demonstrate that there are three stable states for atmospheric oxygen, roughly corresponding to levels observed in the geological record. These stable states arise from a series of specific positive and negative feedbacks, requiring a large geochemical perturbation to the redox state to transition from one to another. In particular, we show that a very low oxygen level in the Archean (i.e., 10 -7 PAL) is consistent with the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis and a robust organic carbon cycle. We show that the Snowball Earth glaciations, which immediately precede both transitions, provide an appropriate transient increase in atmospheric oxygen to drive the atmosphere either from its Archean state to its Proterozoic state, or from its Proterozoic state to its Phanerozoic state. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic explanation for the apparent synchronicity of the Proterozoic Snowball Earth events with both the Great Oxidation Event, and the Neoproterozoic oxidation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  12. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    This research program studies atmospheric trace gas concentrations and altitude distributions, particularly for those gases that are important in stratospheric chemistry and radiative balance. Measurements are made with infrared remote sensing instruments, either ground based or balloon-borne. Most of the ground based instruments are part of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), including a very high spectral resolution solar absorption spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory and similar system at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (operated in collaboration with the New Zealand NIWA). Additionally, we are deriving stratospheric constituent data from the spectra obtained at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. We have an atmospheric emission spectrometer system at the South Pole (with additional support from NSF), and an identical NSF support instrument at Eureka, NWT, Canada. Our balloon-borne instruments include a very high resolution solar absorption spectrometer system, a smaller, slightly lower resolution solar spectrometer system, a high resolution atmospheric emission spectrometer, and several medium resolution emission spectrometers (CAESRs) that are usually flown piggyback. During the past year, we participated in the MANTRA balloon flight from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with the high resolution solar spectrometer system. Several of our instruments were extensively compared to (UARS) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observations, and so provide a data set with known connections to UARS. In the longer term, the data can be used to relate UARS data to (EOS) Earth Observing System and (ADEOS) Advanced Airborne Earth Observing System.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

    La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

  14. Generation of nano roughness on fibrous materials by atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, I.; Scapinello, M.; Stefan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric plasma technology finds novel applications in textile industry. It eliminates the usage of water and of hazard liquid chemicals, making production much more eco-friendly and economically convenient. Due to chemical effects of atmospheric plasma, it permits to optimize dyeing and laminating affinity of fabrics, as well as anti-microbial treatments. Other important applications such as increase of mechanical resistance of fiber sleeves and of yarns, anti-pilling properties of fabrics and anti-shrinking property of wool fabrics were studied in this work. These results could be attributed to the generation of nano roughness on fibers surface by atmospheric plasma. Nano roughness generation is extensively studied at different conditions. Alternative explanations for the important practical results on textile materials and discussed.

  15. Improved controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Wu, Yuehua; Jacobsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    ) is monitored by an oxygen sensor. We present here some examples of its capabilities demonstrated by high temperature topography with simultaneously ac electrical conductance measurements during atmosphere changes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures, and measurements of the surface......To locally access electrochemical active surfaces and interfaces in operando at the sub-micron scale at high temperatures in a reactive gas atmosphere is of great importance to understand the basic mechanisms in new functional materials, for instance, for energy technologies, such as solid oxide...... fuel cells and electrolyzer cells. Here, we report on advanced improvements of our original controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope, CAHT-SPM. The new microscope can employ a broad range of the scanning probe techniques including tapping mode, scanning tunneling microscopy...

  16. Airborne bacteria in the atmosphere: Presence, purpose, and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Wenke; Moretti, Serena; Denys, Siegfried; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Numerous recent studies have highlighted that the types of bacteria present in the atmosphere often show predictable patterns across space and time. These patterns can be driven by differences in bacterial sources of the atmosphere and a wide range of environmental factors, including UV intensity, precipitation events, and humidity. The abundance of certain bacterial taxa is of interest, not only for their ability to mediate a range of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, such as cloud formation and ice nucleation, but also for their implications -both beneficial and detrimental-for human health. Consequently, the widespread importance of airborne bacteria has stimulated the search for their applicability. Improving air quality, modelling the dispersal of airborne bacteria (e.g. pathogens) and biotechnological purposes are already being explored. Nevertheless, many technological challenges still need to be overcome to fully understand the roles of airborne bacteria in our health and global ecosystems.

  17. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  18. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    , - in short modernity - have taken away from human existence. What old technology has removed now comes back through new technology promoting a better humanity. The present article investigates how digital technology and affects are presented and combined, with examples from everyday imagery, e.g. TV...... or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization......Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...

  19. Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-08-01

    Like watching a balloon borne by the breeze, a Lagrangian model tracks a parcel of air as it flows through the atmosphere. Whether running forward or backward in time, Lagrangian models offer a powerful tool for tracking and understanding the fates, or origins, of atmospheric flows. In the AGU monograph Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere, editors John Lin, Dominik Brunner, Christoph Gerbig, Andreas Stohl, Ashok Luhar, and Peter Webley explore the nuances of the modeling technique. In this interview Eos talks to Lin about the growing importance of Lagrangian modeling as the world settles on climate change mitigation strategies, the societal value of operational modeling, and how recent advances are making it possible to run these complex calculations at home.

  20. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  1. Atmospheric radon: origin and transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Mireles, F.; Davila, I.; Quirino, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric indoor and outdoor radon surveys have been performed in several locations of Mexico. In order to estimate the radon transfer from different origins to the atmosphere, soil and ground water, together with the exhalation rate from bare and coated building materials have also been studied. The radon detection was performed with SSNTD, an automatic silicon-based radon monitor and the liquid scintillation technique. The results from several years of monitoring indicate that the atmospheric radon behaviour is different for the countryside as compared with more complex inhabited regions; transfer from soil being inhibited by the specific structures of the cities. The effect of wall coatings reduced from 50% to 90% the radon exhalation from bare building materials. A low radon content was observed in the ground water samples studied. (Author).

  2. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  3. The Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment for Understanding the Earth-Atmosphere Coupled System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Xu, X.; Chen, F.; Guo, X.; Zheng, X.; Liu, L. P.; Hong, Y.; Li, Y.; La, Z.; Peng, H.; Zhong, L. Z.; Ma, Y.; Tang, S. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Li, Y. H.; Zhang, Q.; Hu, Z.; Sun, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Dong, L.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Yan, X.; Xiao, A.; Wan, W.; Zhou, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Third Tibetan Plateau atmospheric scientific experiment (TIPEX-III) was initiated jointly by the China Meteorological Administration, the National Natural Scientific Foundation, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This paper presents the background, scientific objectives, and overall experimental design of TIPEX-III. It was designed to conduct an integrated observation of the earth-atmosphere coupled system over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from land surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL), troposphere, and stratosphere for eight to ten years by coordinating ground- and air-based measurement facilities for understanding spatial heterogeneities of complex land-air interactions, cloud-precipitation physical processes, and interactions between troposphere and stratosphere. TIPEX-III originally began in 2014, and is ongoing. It established multiscale land-surface and PBL observation networks over the TP and a tropospheric meteorological radiosonde network over the western TP, and executed an integrated observation mission for cloud-precipitation physical features using ground-based radar systems and aircraft campaigns and an observation task for atmospheric ozone, aerosol, and water vapor. The archive, management, and share policy of the observation data are also introduced herein. Some TIPEX-III data have been preliminarily applied to analyze the features of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, cloud-precipitation physical processes, and atmospheric water vapor and ozone over the TP, and to improve the local precipitation forecast. Furthermore, TIPEX-III intends to promote greater scientific and technological cooperation with international research communities and broader organizations. Scientists working internationally are invited to participate in the field campaigns and to use the TIPEX-III data for their own research.

  4. Ferrous alloys cast under high pressure gas atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is describing the essence of the process of introducing nitrogen to the melt of ferrous alloys by application of overpressure above the metal bath. The problem was discussed in terms of both theory (the thermodynamic aspects of the process and practice (the technical and technological aspects, safety of the furnace stand operation, and technique of conducting the melt. The novel technique of melting under high pressure of the gas atmosphere (up to 5 MPa has not been used so far in the domestic industry, mainly because of the lack of proper equipment satisfyng the requirements of safe operation. Owing to cooperation undertaken with a partner from Bulgaria, a more detailed investigation of this technology has become possible and melting of selected ferrous alloys was conducted under the gas atmosphere at a pressure of about 3,5 MPa.

  5. Studies of Tenuous Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    The final report includes an overall project overview as well as scientific background summaries of dust and sodium in comets, and tenuous atmospheres of Jupiter's natural satellites. Progress and continuing work related to dust coma and tenuous atmospheric studies are presented. Also included are published articles written during the course of the report period. These are entitled: (1) On Europa's Magnetospheric Interaction: An MHD Simulation; (2) Dust-Gas Interrelations in Comets: Observations and Theory; and (3) Io's Plasma Environment During the Galileo Flyby: Global Three Dimensional MHD Modeling with Adaptive Mesh Refinement.

  6. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  7. Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The project impact also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will focus on the first results obtained using three technologies during specific events as stratospheric warming, volcanic eruptions and severe weather. The benefits of using the three technologies will be discussed.

  8. CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR for atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa. 2Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Lynwood Road, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. 3Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. ABSTRACT A mobile LIDAR (LIght Detection... obtained using the CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR in a 23 hour field campaign at the University of Pretoria. Index Terms— Atmospheric measurements, Remote sensing, Aerosols, Air pollution, Meteorology 1. INTRODUCTION Remote sensing is a technique...

  9. Turbulence Scales Simulations in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Teleman, Elena-Carmen; Silion, Radu; Axinte, Elena; Pescaru, Radu

    2008-01-01

    The simulation of the air flow over models in atmospheric boundary layer tunnels is a research domain based on advanced scientific technologies imposed by the necessity of studying the turbulent fluid movements in the proximity of the Earth’s surface. The experiment presented herein is developed in the wind tunnel from the Laboratory of Structural Aerodynamics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services in Iassy. Measurements necessary for the determination of the turbulence sca...

  10. Application of beamform to sound propagation in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Wiese, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying beam-former technology (i.e., the technique that uses the combined signal from an array of sensors as a spatial filter to locate sound sources) in atmospheric acoustics is examined. Special attention is given to the microphone array, data collection, and signal processing technology as well as to an array processing algorithm. It is shown that this algorithm, which incorporates the maximum-likelihood method, is operational. Also discussed is a postprocessing algorithm for eliminating the ghosting sidelobes that arise from the moving sources.

  11. Contact-free cold atmospheric plasma treatment of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Tim; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Mitra, Anindita; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L

    2012-09-01

    In this study we investigated the sensitivity of Deinococcus radiodurans to contact-free cold atmospheric plasma treatment as part of a project to establish new efficient procedures for disinfection of inanimate surfaces. The Gram-positive D. radiodurans is one of the most resistant microorganisms worldwide. Stationary phases of D. radiodurans were exposed to cold atmospheric plasma for different time intervals or to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation at dose rates of 0.001-0.0656 J cm⁻², respectively. A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (MRSA) served as control for Gram-positive bacteria. The surface microdischarge plasma technology was used for generation of cold atmospheric plasma. A plasma discharge was ignited using ambient air. Surprisingly, D. radiodurans was sensitive to the cold atmospheric plasma treatment in the same range as the MRSA strain. Survival of both bacteria decreased with increasing plasma exposure times up to 6 log₁₀ cycles (>99.999 %) within 20 s of plasma treatment. In contrast, UVC radiation of both bacteria demonstrated that D. radiodurans was more resistant to UVC treatment than MRSA. Cold atmospheric plasma seems to be a promising tool for industrial and clinical purposes where time-saving is a critical point to achieve efficient disinfection of inanimate surfaces and where protection from corrosive materials is needed.

  12. Robotic Exploration of the Surface and Atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Venus, the "greenhouse planet", is a scientifically fascinating place. In many ways it can be considered "Earth's evil twin." A huge number of important scientific questions remain to be answered: 1) Before the runaway greenhouse effect, was early Venus temperate? 2) Did Venus once have an ocean? 3) What causes the geological resurfacing of the planet? 4) Is Venus still geologically active? 5) What is the "snow" on Venus mountaintops? 6) Can we learn about Earth's climate from Venus? 7) Is the atmosphere of Venus suitable for life? To address these and other scientific questions, a robotic mission to study the surface and atmosphere of Venus has been designed. The mission includes both surface robots, designed with an operational lifetime of 90 days on the surface of Venus, and also solar-powered airplanes to probe the middle atmosphere. At 450 Celsius, and with 90 atmospheres of pressure of carbon-dioxide atmosphere, the surface of Venus is a hostile place for operation of a probe. This paper will present the mission design, discuss the technology options for materials, power systems, electronics, and instruments, and present a short summary of the mission.

  13. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinye; Tong Yala; Yang Xiaoling; Gong Jiaoli [School of science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Gong Wei, E-mail: yezi.zh@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  14. Technological Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Olesen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify and explain the barriers that prevented the case study organization, an Australasian university, from implementing a groupware package. This is an insider action research case study, using qualitative semi-structured interviews, group and individual training to look at users’ technological frames around the implementation and use of a groupware product. Technological frames were used to enable a systematic examination of the assumptions, expectations, and knowledge of technology; in particular, the use of technological frames reveals aspects of user resistance. While addressing criticisms of the technological frames genre, this study uses technological frames as a lens to examine the underlying drivers and impediments to information systems (IS implementation. In this case study, changes to a groupware product failed to be implemented, not because of user resistance to the product, but because of organizational politics. This study demonstrates how the culture of an organization may stifle the implementation of IS.

  15. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  16. TV series on atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Karla A.

    Acid rain, climate change, air pollution, and the possible inadvertent depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere will be among the subjects covered in an eight-part television series that premiers April 3, 1986, on public television. Part of a 32-lecture program entitled “Earth Science for Teachers,” this series will feature new developments in the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere and will focus on the role of anthropogenic activities that affect atmospheric composition and climate.Public television station WHRO-TV in Norfolk, Va., in cooperation with Virginia's Department of Education in Richmond, produced the series, which involved guest lecturers from across the country. Joel S. Levine, senior research scientist in the Atmospheric Science Division at the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in Hampton, Va., served as the organizer and coordinator of the series. Joseph D. Exline, Associate Director for Science, Virginia Department of Education, assisted with the development and production of the series.

  17. Exploring the Atmosphere with Lidars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 by oxygen and water molecules at heightz, respectively and T(zo' z) is the transmission correction term (ratio of atmospheric transmissivity at oxygen Raman backscattering to that of water vapor Raman scattering from the !idar at height Zo to height z). Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A DIAL system is similar to a LIDAR ...

  18. Would be the Atmosphere Chaotic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isimar de Azevedo Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere has often been considered “chaotic” when in fact the “chaos” is a manifestation of the models that simulate it, which do not include all the physical mechanisms that exist within it. A weather prediction cannot be perfectly verified after a few days of integration due to the inherent nonlinearity of the equations of the hydrodynamic models. The innovative ideas of Lorenz led to the use of the ensemble forecast, with clear improvements in the quality of the numerical weather prediction. The present study addresses the statement that “even with perfect models and perfect observations, the ‘chaotic’ nature of the atmosphere would impose a finite limit of about two weeks to the predictability of the weather” as the atmosphere is not necessarily “chaotic”, but the models used in the simulation of atmospheric processes are. We conclude, therefore, that potential exists for developments to increase the horizon of numerical weather prediction, starting with better models and observations.

  19. Entropic "sound" in the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, B. -F.; Stefan, S.; Apostol, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that small, local disturbances of entropy in the atmosphere may give rise to "sound" waves propagating with a velocity which depends on the amplitude ratio of the local relative variations of temperature and volume. This velocity is much smaller than the mean molecular velocity and the usual, adiabatic sound velocity.

  20. Exploring the Atmosphere Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Martin; Vogt, Patrik; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the inner layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, are determinant for Earth's life. In this experience we explore the first hundreds of meters using a smartphone mounted on a quadcopter. Both the altitude and the pressure are obtained using the smartphone's sensors. We complement these measures with data collected from the…

  1. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; hide

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  3. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  4. C/O atmosphere measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytova, Taisiya

    2017-06-01

    The atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio is believed to be a key to formation scenario of exoplanets. Due to different condensation temperatures for water, carbon oxide, and carbon dioxide, their "icelines" are situated at different parts of the protoplanetary disk resulting in different C/O ratio values through the disk. Therefore, by measuring a C/O ratio in the atmosphere of a giant exoplanet, we should be able to understand the planet's formation.I will give a brief overview of recent theoretical studies that predict how various mechanisms during planet formation (e.g. migration, pebble drift) may affect the feasability of using a C/O ratio to understand formation of exoplanets.In the second part of my talk, I will discuss various methods of measuring abundances in atmospheres. I will also talk about how to take into account systematic effects in observations and atmospheric models and if there is a possibility to determine and apply "C/O ratio indices".

  5. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Chevallier, F.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Ciais, P.; Deutscher, N. M.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Kivi, R.; Paris, J.-D.; Peuch, V.-H.; Sherlock, V.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2014-11-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) real-time forecast is now available as part of the pre-operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO2 products retrieved from satellite measurements and

  6. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  7. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  8. ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE VISUALIZATION USING INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Albourae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increased exposure to tourists, historical monuments are at an ever-growing risk of disappearing. Building Information Modelling (BIM offers a process of digitally documenting of all the features that are made or incorporated into the building over its life-span, thus affords unique opportunities for information preservation. BIM of historical buildings are called Historical Building Information Models (HBIM. This involves documenting a building in detail throughout its history. Geomatics professionals have the potential to play a major role in this area as they are often the first professionals involved on construction development sites for many Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC projects. In this work, we discuss how to establish an architectural database of a heritage site, digitally reconstruct, preserve and then interact with it through an immersive environment that leverages BIM for exploring historic buildings. The reconstructed heritage site under investigation was constructed in the early 15th century. In our proposed approach, the site selection was based on many factors such as architectural value, size, and accessibility. The 3D model is extracted from the original collected and integrated data (Image-based, range-based, CAD modelling, and land survey methods, after which the elements of the 3D objects are identified by creating a database using the BIM software platform (Autodesk Revit. The use of modern and widely accessible game engine technology (Unity3D is explored, allowing the user to fully embed and interact with the scene using handheld devices. The details of implementing an integrated pipeline between HBIM, GIS and augmented and virtual reality (AVR tools and the findings of the work are presented.

  9. Architectural Heritage Visualization Using Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albourae, A. T.; Armenakis, C.; Kyan, M.

    2017-08-01

    With the increased exposure to tourists, historical monuments are at an ever-growing risk of disappearing. Building Information Modelling (BIM) offers a process of digitally documenting of all the features that are made or incorporated into the building over its life-span, thus affords unique opportunities for information preservation. BIM of historical buildings are called Historical Building Information Models (HBIM). This involves documenting a building in detail throughout its history. Geomatics professionals have the potential to play a major role in this area as they are often the first professionals involved on construction development sites for many Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) projects. In this work, we discuss how to establish an architectural database of a heritage site, digitally reconstruct, preserve and then interact with it through an immersive environment that leverages BIM for exploring historic buildings. The reconstructed heritage site under investigation was constructed in the early 15th century. In our proposed approach, the site selection was based on many factors such as architectural value, size, and accessibility. The 3D model is extracted from the original collected and integrated data (Image-based, range-based, CAD modelling, and land survey methods), after which the elements of the 3D objects are identified by creating a database using the BIM software platform (Autodesk Revit). The use of modern and widely accessible game engine technology (Unity3D) is explored, allowing the user to fully embed and interact with the scene using handheld devices. The details of implementing an integrated pipeline between HBIM, GIS and augmented and virtual reality (AVR) tools and the findings of the work are presented.

  10. Ions in the Terrestrial Atmosphere and Other Solar System Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Tammet, Hannes

    Charged molecular clusters, traditionally called small ions, carry electric currents in atmospheres. Charged airborne particles, or aerosol ions, play an important role in generation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Growth of ions depends on the trace gas content, which is highly variable in the time and space. Even at sub-ppb concentrations, electrically active organic compounds (e.g. pyridine derivatives) can affect the ion composition and size. The size and mobility are closely related, although the form of the relationship varies depending on the critical diameter, which, at 273 K, is about 1.6 nm. For ions smaller than this the separation of quantum levels exceeds the average thermal energy, allowing use of a molecular aggregate model for the size-mobility relation. For larger ions the size-mobility relation approaches the Stokes-Cunningham-Millikan law. The lifetime of a cluster ion in the terrestrial lower atmosphere is about one minute, determined by the balance between ion production rate, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment.

  11. Atmospheric evolution on inhabited and lifeless worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Catling, David C

    2017-01-01

    As the search for Earth-like exoplanets gathers pace, in order to understand them, we need comprehensive theories for how planetary atmospheres form and evolve. Written by two well-known planetary scientists, this text explains the physical and chemical principles of atmospheric evolution and planetary atmospheres, in the context of how atmospheric composition and climate determine a planet's habitability. The authors survey our current understanding of the atmospheric evolution and climate on Earth, on other rocky planets within our Solar System, and on planets far beyond. Incorporating a rigorous mathematical treatment, they cover the concepts and equations governing a range of topics, including atmospheric chemistry, thermodynamics, radiative transfer, and atmospheric dynamics, and provide an integrated view of planetary atmospheres and their evolution. This interdisciplinary text is an invaluable one-stop resource for graduate-level students and researchers working across the fields of atmospheric science...

  12. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  13. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  14. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of optical materials and new technologies, as well to laser applications in several areas: Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. The Program is basically divided into two main areas: Material and Laser Development and Laser Applications.

  15. Technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, Arie; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessment (TA) refers to the early identification and assessment of eventual impacts of technological change and applications, as a service to policy making and decision making more generally. TA can be done by (or for) business firms, or as a medical, social, or environmental impact

  16. Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  17. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  18. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  19. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

  20. NASA's atmospheric variability experiments /AVE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of seven mesoscale experiments were conducted under the NASA program, Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE). Rawinsonde, satellite, aircraft, and ground observations were recorded during specially selected meteorological periods lasting from 1 to 3 days. Details are presented for each AVE relative to observation times, experiment size and location, and significant weather. Some research results based on the use of these AVE data are referenced. These include contributions to regional numerical prediction; relations between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development; relations between moisture and temperature and the probability of convection; retrieval of tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated satellite data; variation of convection intensity as a result of atmospheric variability; and effects of cloud rotation on their trajectories.