WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmosphere modules 1-3

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0 . Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  2. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K, E-mail: ashwini@smita-iitd.co, E-mail: manjeet.jassal@smita-iitd.co [Smart and Innovative Textile Materials Group (SMITA), Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 {mu}l took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to < 1 s in the untreated samples. The plasma modified samples showed water contact angle of around 134{sup 0}. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  3. A spectral nudging method for the ACCESS1.3 atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhe, P.; Thatcher, M.

    2015-06-01

    A convolution-based method of spectral nudging of atmospheric fields is developed in the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS) version 1.3 which uses the UK Met Office Unified Model version 7.3 as its atmospheric component. The use of convolutions allow for flexibility in application to different atmospheric grids. An approximation using one-dimensional convolutions is applied, improving the time taken by the nudging scheme by 10-30 times compared with a version using a two-dimensional convolution, without measurably degrading its performance. Care needs to be taken in the order of the convolutions and the frequency of nudging to obtain the best outcome. The spectral nudging scheme is benchmarked against a Newtonian relaxation method, nudging winds and air temperature towards ERA-Interim reanalyses. We find that the convolution approach can produce results that are competitive with Newtonian relaxation in both the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, while giving the added flexibility of choosing which length scales to nudge.

  4. A spectral nudging method for the ACCESS1.3 atmospheric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Uhe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A convolution-based method of spectral nudging of atmospheric fields is developed in the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS version 1.3 which uses the UK Met Office Unified Model version 7.3 as its atmospheric component. The use of convolutions allow for flexibility in application to different atmospheric grids. An approximation using one-dimensional convolutions is applied, improving the time taken by the nudging scheme by 10–30 times compared with a version using a two-dimensional convolution, without measurably degrading its performance. Care needs to be taken in the order of the convolutions and the frequency of nudging to obtain the best outcome. The spectral nudging scheme is benchmarked against a Newtonian relaxation method, nudging winds and air temperature towards ERA-Interim reanalyses. We find that the convolution approach can produce results that are competitive with Newtonian relaxation in both the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, while giving the added flexibility of choosing which length scales to nudge.

  5. Remote sensing of atmospheric chemistry; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1-3, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, James L.; McNeal, Robert J.

    The present volume on remote sensing of atmospheric chemistry discusses special remote sensing space observations and field experiments to study chemical change in the atmosphere, network monitoring for detection of stratospheric chemical change, stratospheric chemistry studies, and the combining of model, in situ, and remote sensing in atmospheric chemistry. Attention is given to the measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide using gas filter radiometers, long-path differential absorption measurements of tropospheric molecules, air quality monitoring with the differential optical absorption spectrometer, and a characterization of tropospheric methane through space-based remote sensing. Topics addressed include microwave limb sounder experiments for UARS and EOS, an overview of the spectroscopy of the atmosphere using an FIR emission experiment, the detection of stratospheric ozone trends by ground-based microwave observations, and a FIR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements. (For individual items see A93-31377 to A93-31412)

  6. Immunohematopoietic modulation by oral β-1,3-glucan in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torello, Cristiane O; de Souza Queiroz, Julia; Oliveira, Sueli C; Queiroz, Mary L S

    2010-12-01

    In this study we demonstrated that the oral administration of β-1,3-glucan (Imunoglucan®) protects mice from a lethal dose of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) when administered prophylactically for 10 days at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, with survival rates up to 40%. These doses also prevented the myelosuppression and the splenomegaly caused by a sublethal infection with LM, due to increased numbers of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) in the bone marrow. Investigation of the production of colony-stimulating factors revealed an increased colony-stimulating activity (CSA) in the serum of infected mice pre-treated with Imunoglucan®. The treatment also restored the reduced ability of stromal cells to display myeloid progenitors in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) and up-regulated IL-6 and IL-1α production by these cells in the infected mice, which was consistent with higher number of non-adherent cells. Additional studies to investigate the levels of interferon-gamma (INF-γ) in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures demonstrated a further increase in the level of this cytokine in infected-treated mice, compared to infected controls. In all cases, no differences were observed between the responses of the two optimal biologically effective doses. In contrast, no significant changes were produced by the treatment with the 50mg/kg dose. In addition, no changes were observed in normal mice treated with the three doses used. All together our results suggest that orally given Imunoglucan® indirectly modulates immune activity and probably disengages Listeria induced suppression of these responses by inducing a higher reserve of myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow in consequence of biologically active cytokine release (CSFs, IL-1α, IL-6, and INF-γ). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Amplitude modulator of radio frequency system for 1.3 GeV Electron Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, T.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude modulator for the 8F68 VHF high power tetrode tube has been designed and constructed. The modulator was constructed with solid components such as transistors and integrated circuits. In case of changing circuit elements of the modulator to solid components from tubes, many attentions are paid for preventing the noise and the over load, due to connection between the low power circuits (modulator) and high power circuits (VHF amplifier). The new modulator is constructed with taking careful consideration into selection of the method of the power control and the protection system. (auth.)

  8. Effect of the SK/IK channel modulator 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591) on contractile force in rat, pig and human detrusor smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Rode, Frederik; Rahbek, Mette

    2011-01-01

    • To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced by electri......• To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced...

  9. Optimization of 1.3-μm InGaAsP/InP Electro-Absorption Modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui-Tao; Zhou Dai-Bing; Zhang Rui-Kang; Lu Dan; Zhao Ling-Juan; Zhu Hong-Liang; Wang Wei; Ji Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report the simulation and experimental results of 1.3-μm InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) electro-absorption modulators (EAMs). In this work, the quantum confined Stark effect of the EAM is systematically analyzed through the finite element method. An optimized structure of the 1.3-μm InGaAsP/InP QW EAM is proposed for applications in 100 G ethernet. Then 1.3-μm InGaAsP/InP EAMs with f_−_3 _d_B bandwidth of over 20 GHz and extinction ratio over 20 dB at 3 V bias voltage are demonstrated. (paper)

  10. The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ChunMin; Zhu, HuaChun; Zhao, Baochang

    2011-05-09

    A space-based tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer (TSMPAMI) is described. It uses the relative movement between the TSMPAMI and the measured target to change optical path difference. The acquisition method of interferogram is presented. The atmospheric temperatures and horizontal winds can be derived from the optical observations. The measurement errors of the winds and temperatures are discussed through simulations. In the presence of small-scale structures of the atmospheric fields, the errors are found to be significantly influenced by the mismatch of the scenes observed by the adjacent CCD sub-areas aligned along the orbiter's track during successive measurements due to the orbital velocity and the exposure time. For most realistic conditions of the orbit and atmosphere, however, the instrument is proven suitable for measuring the atmospheric parameters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. MET-RODOS: A comprehensive atmospheric dispersion module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Astrup, P.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive meteorological dispersion module called MET-RODOS is being developed to serve the real-time RODOS(1-3) decision support system with an integrated prediction capability for airborne radioactive spread, deposition and gamma radiation exposure on all scales. Deposition, ground level ...

  12. Effect of the SK/IK channel modulator 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591) on contractile force in rat, pig and human detrusor smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Rode, Frederik; Rahbek, Mette

    2011-01-01

    • To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced by electri...

  13. Comparative Study on Atmospheric Dispersion Module of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dahye; Jang, Misuk; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Some regulation documents such as Regulatory Guides and NUREG publications from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have influences on domestic radiation environmental analyses. As renewal versions of NUREG-0800 and NUREG-1555 have issued lately, the assessment for Severe Accident (SA) with Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be added to Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Radiation Environmental Report (RER). Because these reports are the required documents for obtaining the construction permit and operating license, it is important to understand the PSA methodology and it needs to improve the site-specific input data of L3PSA codes for SA. First, our review focuses on the atmospheric dispersion and deposition related input data of L3PSA code in this paper. Then we will continue to review the improvements of other input data. Two atmospheric dispersion models, which are PAVAN developed for design basis accident and ATMOS of MACCS2 code developed for SA, were reviewed in this paper. L3PSA deals with the effects of severe accidents and basically includes the evaluation of both short- and long-term effects. Therefore, both the deposition effects and nuclide information(type, amount, and chemical characteristics of released radionuclide) would be considered as the input parameters of atmospheric dispersion model for L3PSA. Additionally, the meteorological data would be sampled randomly to meet the purpose of probabilistic method. However, the sampling method would be selected according to analysis purpose. After review, ATMOS module and its input data are suitably developed for the atmospheric dispersion analysis of L3PSA. However, ATMOS module was developed using the site-specific terrain and environment characteristics. For the domestic application, it needs to study the input data reflecting the Korean terrain and environment characteristics. It would be also continuously improved in response to the time- and site-specific changes of weather

  14. Atmospheric volatilization and distribution of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene in field beds with and without plastic covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; McCormack, Leslie A; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W; Ou, Li-Tse

    2004-01-01

    The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is considered to be a potential replacement for methyl bromide when methyl bromide is phased out in 2005. This study on surface emissions and subsurface diffusion of 1,3-D in a Florida sandy soil was conducted in field beds with or without plastic covers. After injection of the commercial fumigant Telone II by conventional chisels to field beds at 30cm depth which were covered with polyethylene film (PE), virtually impermeable film, or no cover (bare), (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D rapidly diffused upward. Twenty hours after injection, majority of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D had moved upward from 30 cm depth to the layer of 5-20 cm depth. Downward movement of the two isomers in the beds with or without a plastic cover was not significant. (Z)-1,3-D diffused more rapidly than (E)-1,3-D. Virtually impermeable films (VIF) had a good capacity to retain (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in soil pore air space. Vapor concentrations of the two isomers in the shallow subsurface of the field bed covered with VIF were greater than that in the two beds covered with polyethylene film (PE) or no cover (bare). In addition, VIF cover provided more uniform distribution of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in shallow subsurface than PE cover or no cover. Virtually impermeable film also had a better capability to retard surface emissions of the two isomers from soil in field beds than PE cover or no cover.

  15. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of atmospheric trace gases using frequency modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David E.

    1986-01-01

    Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy is a new technique that promises to significantly extend the state-of-the-art in point detection of atmospheric trace gases. FM spectroscopy is essentially a balanced bridge optical heterodyne approach in which a small optical absorption or dispersion from an atomic or molecular species of interest generates an easily detected radio frequency (RF) signal. This signal can be monitored using standard RF signal processing techniques and is, in principle, limited only by the shot noise generated in the photodetector by the laser source employed. The use of very high modulation frequencies which exceed the spectral width of the probed absorption line distinguishes this technique from the well-known derivative spectroscopy which makes use of low (kHz) modulation frequencies. FM spectroscopy was recently extended to the 10 micron infrared (IR) spectral region where numerous polyatomic molecules exhibit characteristic vibrational-rotational bands. In conjunction with tunable semiconductor diode lasers, the quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of the technique should allow for the detection of absorptions as small as .00000001 in the IR spectral region. This sensitivity would allow for the detection of H2O2 at concentrations as low as 1 pptv with an integration time of 10 seconds.

  17. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions.

  18. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:23099443

  19. Atmospheric volatilization of methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, and propargyl bromide through two plastic films: transfer coefficient and temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yates, S. R.; Gan, J.; Knuteson, J. A.

    Atmospheric emission of methyl bromide (MeBr) and its potential alternative chemicals such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and propargyl bromide (PrBr) can contribute to air pollution and ozone depletion (for MeBr). One of the main sources of these chemicals is from agricultural soil fumigation. To understand the volatilization dynamics, emission of MeBr, 1,3-D, and PrBr through a polyethylene-based high-barrier film (HBF) and a virtually impermeable film (VIF) was measured using an air flow and sampling system that produced >90% mass balance. The experiment was conducted outdoors and was subjected to ambient daily temperature variations. The HBF film was found to be very permeable to 1,3-D and PrBr, but somewhat less permeable to MeBr. The VIF film was very impermeable to 1,3-D, PrBr, or MeBr. Measured volatilization flux, in general, exhibited strong diurnal variations which were controlled by film temperature. Unlike the HBF film, a time lag (˜12 h) was observed between high-temperatures and high-emission flux values for the VIF film. An impermeable film may be used as an effective means of controlling the atmospheric emission of MeBr and its alternative chemicals.

  20. CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels modulate depression-like behaviour in mice independent of deaf phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Perrine; Nguyen, Ngoc Khoi; Schmid, Eduard; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Mizuno, Fengxia; Akopian, Abram; Striessnig, Jörg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels can modulate affective behaviour. We therefore explored the role of CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in depression- and anxiety-like behaviours using CaV1.3-deficient mice (CaV1.3-/-). We showed that CaV1.3-/- mice displayed less immobility in the forced swim test as well as in the tail suspension test, indicating an antidepressant-like phenotype. Locomotor activity in the home cage or a novel open-field test was not influenced. In the elevated plus maze (EPM), CaV1.3-/- mice entered the open arms more frequently and spent more time there indicating an anxiolytic-like phenotype which was, however, not supported in the stress-induced hyperthermia test. By performing parallel experiments in Claudin 14 knockout mice (Cldn14-/-), which like CaV1.3-/- mice are congenitally deaf, an influence of deafness on the antidepressant-like phenotype could be ruled out. On the other hand, a similar EPM behaviour indicative of an anxiolytic phenotype was also found in the Cldn14-/- animals. Using electroretinography and visual behavioural tasks we demonstrated that at least in mice, CaV1.3 channels do not significantly contribute to visual function. However, marked morphological changes were revealed in synaptic ribbons in the outer plexiform layer of CaV1.3-/- retinas by immunohistochemistry suggesting a possible role of this channel type in structural plasticity at the ribbon synapse. Taken together, our findings indicate that CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels modulate depression-like behaviour but are not essential for visual function. The findings raise the possibility that selective modulation of CaV1.3 channels could be a promising new therapeutic concept for the treatment of mood disorders.

  1. T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ping Fung-Leung

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1.3 blockers was partial and stimulation strength dependent, with reduced inhibitory efficacy on T cells under strengthened anti-CD3/CD28 stimulations. T cell responses to allergens including house dust mites and ragweed were partially reduced by Kv1.3 blockers. The effect of Kv1.3 inhibition was dependent on T cell subsets, with stronger effects on CCR7- effector memory compared to CCR7+ central memory CD4 T cells. Calcium entry studies also revealed a population of CD4 T cells resistant to Kv1.3 blockade. Activation of CD4 T cells was accompanied with an increase in Kv1.3 currents but Kv1.3 transcripts were found to be reduced, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism in the regulation of Kv1.3 activities. In summary, Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cell activation in a manner that is highly dependent on the T cell identity and stimulation strength, These findings suggest that Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cells in a unique, conditional manner, further refining our understanding of the therapeutic potential of Kv1.3 blockers.

  2. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Safety Section: Modules 1-3. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    These three modules, which were developed for use by instructors in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contain the materials required to present the safety section of the plant's adult-oriented, job-specific competency-based training program. The 3 modules contain 12 lessons on the following topics: lockout/tagout…

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation of Kv1.3 channel is disregulated by adaptor proteins Grb10 and nShc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks David R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins are important regulators of growth and regeneration, and acutely, they can modulate the activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Previously we have shown that acute brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF activation of neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB suppresses the Shaker voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.3 via phosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues in the N and C terminal aspects of the channel protein. It is not known how adaptor proteins, which lack catalytic activity, but interact with members of the neurotrophic signaling pathway, might scaffold with ion channels or modulate channel activity. Results We report the co-localization of two adaptor proteins, neuronal Src homology and collagen (nShc and growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10, with Kv1.3 channel as demonstrated through immunocytochemical approaches in the olfactory bulb (OB neural lamina. To further explore the specificity and functional ramification of adaptor/channel co-localization, we performed immunoprecipitation and Western analysis of channel, kinase, and adaptor transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK 293. nShc formed a direct protein-protein interaction with Kv1.3 that was independent of BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3, whereas Grb10 did not complex with Kv1.3 in HEK 293 cells. Both adaptors, however, co-immunoprecipitated with Kv1.3 in native OB. Grb10 was interestingly able to decrease the total expression of Kv1.3, particularly at the membrane surface, and subsequently eliminated the BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3. To examine the possibility that the Src homology 2 (SH2 domains of Grb10 were directly binding to basally phosphorylated tyrosines in Kv1.3, we utilized point mutations to substitute multiple tyrosine residues with phenylalanine. Removal of the tyrosines 111–113 and 449 prevented Grb10 from decreasing Kv1.3 expression. In the absence of either adaptor protein

  4. In-line monitoring technique with visible light from 1.3 microm-band SHG module for optical access systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tadanaga, Osamu; Sakurai, Naoya; Kimura, Hideaki; Hadama, Hisaya; Asobe, Masaki

    2010-02-01

    We propose an in-line monitoring technique that uses 650 nm visible light for performing maintenance work on Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network quickly without the need for measuring skills or external devices. This technique is characterized by visible light (650 nm) generated by an SHG module from the 1.3 microm-band line signal. We fabricate a 1.3 microm-band quasi phase matched LiNbO(3) (QPM-LN) module, and the measure the 650 nm second harmonic (SH) power to test the proposed short-pulse modulation method. The results confirm the feasibility of the short-pulse modulation method with different peak factors (PFs) (1.0-7.3). We also examine the effect of short-pulse modulation on system performance at the optical receiver by measuring the bit error rate (BER) of received data (1.25 Gb/s). The BER is basically unaffected by the PF (1.0-5.5). This means that the proposed technique has little influence on data reception as regards PF (1.0-5.5).

  5. Design and development of cryo-module test system for 1.3 GHz LCLS-II cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunt, A.C.S.; Anupam Kumar Sinha, B.; Aravind, T.C.; Mishra, D.V.K.; Sinha, E.A.K.; Mukesh Goyal, F.; Tejas Rane, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is a major cryogenic system designed and developed at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC under Indian Institutions and Fermi Lab Collaboration (IIFC). It is necessary test bed to measure the performance of superconducting RF cavities in Cryomodule. CMTS is required to test 1.3 GHz LCLS-II Cryomodule for Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), USA. Feed Cap and End Cap sub systems of Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is designed and developed at CDM, BARC. Feed cap and End cap are 2K liquid helium distribution system for LCLS-II RF Cavity Bath and insulated by intermediate radiation shields maintained at 5K and 40K and Multilayer Insulation. The whole distribution system is enclosed in horizontal vacuum shells of approximately 1100 mm in diameter and 3000 mm in total length. This development was very challenging as many design considerations and decisions for 2K cryogenic requirements have been made and implemented. Also intricate mounting of ceramic sensors both internally and externally (surface mounted) for very low temperature measurements, low temperature epoxy bonding and multi-layer insulation wrapping were successfully completed. (author)

  6. Biological modulation of planetary atmospheres: The early Earth scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The establishment and subsequent evolution of life on Earth had a profound impact on the chemical regime at the planet's surface and its atmosphere. A thermodynamic gradient was imposed on near-surface environments that served as the driving force for a number on important geochemical transformations. An example is the redox imbalance between the modern atmosphere and the material of the Earth's crust. Current photochemical models predict extremely low partial pressures of oxygen in the Earth's prebiological atmosphere. There is widespread consensus that any large-scale oxygenation of the primitive atmosphere was contingent on the advent of biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation. It is suggested that photoautotrophy existed both as a biochemical process and as a geochemical agent since at least 3.8 Ga ago. Combining the stoichiometry of the photosynthesis reaction with a carbon isotope mass balance and current concepts for the evolution of the stationary sedimentary mass as a funion of time, it is possible to quantify, the accumulation of oxygen and its photosynthetic oxidation equivalents through Earth history.

  7. Investigation of 1.3 μm AlGaInAs multi-quantum wells for electro-absorption modulated laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binet, Guillaume [III-V Lab., Route de Nozay, 91461, Marcoussis (France); Institut Jean le Rond d' Alembert, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7190, 75005, Paris (France); Decobert, Jean; Lagay, Nadine; Chimot, Nicolas; Kazmierski, Christophe [III-V Lab., Route de Nozay, 91461, Marcoussis (France)

    2016-10-15

    Monolithic photonic integrated circuits (PIC) transmitters using the prefixed optical phase switching concept for BPSK modulation format have been shown promising at 1.55 μm band. These devices could also be crucial for short reach connections and access networks. With this aim, we are studying basic quantum well designs for a laser and an electro-absorption modulator switch to be integrated by selective area growth into PICs at 1.3 μm. Photocurrent measurements and band offset modeling have been performed to determine the MQW stack well-fitted for this application. Broad area laser measurements have also been checked on these structures to verify the material lasing properties. A 6 nm thick well with low barrier seems to be the best trade-off between absorption and shift for 1.3 μm EAM and it also gives good lasing properties. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Ops (MARCO POLO) Atmospheric Processing Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a...

  9. Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Poulin, Michel; Latrasse, Christine; Gagné, Jean-Frédéric; Painchaud, Yves; Paquet, Carl; Lessard, Stéphane; Plant, David

    2014-08-25

    We present a Silicon Photonic (SiP) intensity modulator operating at 1.3 μm with pulse amplitude modulation formats for short reach transmission employing a digital to analog converter for the RF signal generator, enabling pulse shaping and precompensation of the transmitter's frequency response. Details of the SiP Mach-Zehnder interfometer are presented. We study the system performance at various bit rates, PAM orders and propagation distances. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10 km of SMF fiber operating below pre-FEC BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) employing PAM-8 at 37.4 Gbaud using a fully packaged SiP modulator. An analytical model for the Q-factor metric applicable for multilevel PAM-N signaling is derived and accurately experimentally verified in the case of Gaussian noise limited detection. System performance is experimentally investigated and it is demonstrated that PAM order selection can be optimally chosen as a function of the desired throughput. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed transmitter to exhibit software-defined transmission for short reach applications by selecting PAM order, symbol rate and pulse shape.

  10. A user's guide to the atmospheric dispersion module NECTAR-ATMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, C.D.

    1982-02-01

    The NECTAR environmental computer code has been developed to meet the increasing demand for comprehensive calculations of the radiological consequences due to atmospheric releases of radioactivity. The code contains five calculational modules and this report presents a user's guide to the atmospheric dispersion and individual dose evaluation module NECTAR-ATMOS. The mathematical models employed in NECTAR-ATMOS are briefly described and a complete specification of the input data required for the module is given. The program includes facilities for reading in the source terms, for specifying the atmospheric dispersion parameters, for identifying the dose calculations required and for controlling output from the program to lineprinters and to output utility files. Three sample cases are included in an appendix to demonstrate some of the different ways in which the program may be used and also to provide examples for the prospective user. (author)

  11. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  12. Pharmacological characterization and modeling of the binding sites of novel 1,3-bis(pyridinylethynyl)benzenes as metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-selective negative allosteric modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Christina; Harpsøe, Kasper; Gloriam, David E

    2012-01-01

    )pyridine (MPEP)-derived negative allosteric modulators, 2-, 3-, and 4-BisPEB, have been characterized. 2-, 3-, and 4-BisPEB are 1,3-bis(pyridinylethynyl)-benzenes and differ only by the position of the nitrogen atoms in the pyridine rings. Despite their high structural similarity, 2-BisPEB [1,3-bis(pyridin-2......-ylethynyl)-benzene, nitrogen atoms in ortho positions], with an IC(50) value in the nanomolar range, is significantly more potent than the 3- and 4-pyridyl analogs. Mutational analysis, directed by a previously published mGluR5 homology model, was used to determine key residues for the ligand...... that the higher potency of 2-BisPEB is due to hydrogen bonding to Ser809 because the S809A mutation made 2-BisPEB equipotent to 3- and 4-BisPEB (IC(50), 1-2.5 µM). The potency of MPEP was also greatly affected by S809A (52-fold), suggesting that a Ser809-mediated hydrogen bond is also a key interaction between...

  13. Transient response simulation of gas separation membrane module for an atmosphere detritiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Munakata, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transient response of a gas separation membrane module for the atmosphere detritiation system was numerically simulated with a mass transfer model. The module contains thousands of hollow fiber type polyimide membranes. The simulation model took into account permeation of water vapor through the dense layer of the membrane, diffusive transfer through the porous support layer and adsorption/desorption of water vapor into the matrix of the porous layer. The slow responses of the water vapor concentration in the retentate and the permeation rate were well reproduced by the present simulation, and transient changes in a follow fiber membrane were investigated in detail. The inventory and the mean residence time of water vapor at 303 K were estimated for the commercial membrane module (UMS-B2, Ube industries, Ltd.) as 5.7 × 10 −3 mol and 380 s, respectively.

  14. Modulators of the human CCR5 receptor. Part 1: Discovery and initial SAR of 1-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-piperidinyl amides and ureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Jeremy N; Cumming, John G; Fillery, Shaun M; Hamlin, Gordon A; Hudson, Julian A; Jackson, Ruth J; McLaughlin, Sharon; Shaw, John S

    2005-01-03

    Investigation of weak screening hits led to the identification of N-alkyl-N-[1-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)piperidin-4-yl]-2-phenylacetamides and N-alkyl-N-[1-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)piperidin-4-yl]-N'-benzylureas as potent, selective ligands for the human CCR5 chemokine receptor.

  15. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  16. Atmospheric oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: characterization of gas and aerosol reaction products and implication for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoui, M.; Lewandowski, M.; Docherty, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Kleindienst, T. E.

    2014-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas- and particle-phase products. The chemical composition of the gas phase and SOA was analyzed using derivative-based methods (BSTFA, BSTFA + PFBHA, or DNPH) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the derivative compounds. The analysis showed the occurrence of more than 60 oxygenated organic compounds in the gas and particle phases, of which 31 organic monomers were tentatively identified. The major identified products include glyceric acid, d-threitol, erythritol, d-threonic acid, meso-threonic acid, erythrose, malic acid, tartaric acid, and carbonyls including glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, acrolein, malonaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, and peroxyacryloyl nitrate (APAN). Some of these were detected in ambient PM2.5 samples and could potentially serve as organic markers of 1,3-butadiene (13BD). Furthermore, a series of oligoesters were detected and found to be produced from esterification reactions among compounds bearing alcoholic groups and compounds bearing acidic groups. Time profiles are provided for selected compounds. SOA was analyzed for organic mass to organic carbon (OM / OC) ratio, effective enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvapeff), and aerosol yield. The average OM / OC ratio and SOA density were 2.7 ± 0.09 and 1.2 ± 0.05, respectively. The average ΔHvapeff was 26.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1, a value lower than that of isoprene SOA. The average laboratory SOA yield measured in this study at aerosol mass concentrations between 22.5 and 140.2 μg m-3 was 0.025 ± 0.011, a value consistent with the literature (0.021-0.178). While the focus of this study has been examination of the particle-phase measurements, the gas

  17. Atmospheric oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: characterization of gas and aerosol reaction products and implications for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoui, M.; Lewandowski, M.; Docherty, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Kleindienst, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas- and particle-phase products. The chemical composition of the gas phase and SOA was analyzed using derivative-based methods (BSTFA, BSTFA + PFBHA, or DNPH) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the derivative compounds. The analysis showed the occurrence of more than 60 oxygenated organic compounds in the gas and particle phases, of which 31 organic monomers were tentatively identified. The major identified products include glyceric acid, d-threitol, erythritol, d-threonic acid, meso-threonic acid, erythrose, malic acid, tartaric acid, and carbonyls including glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, acrolein, malonaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, and peroxyacryloyl nitrate (APAN). Some of these were detected in ambient PM2.5 samples, and could potentially serve as organic markers of 13BD. Furthermore, a series of oligoesters were detected and found to be produced through chemical reactions occurring in the aerosol phase between compounds bearing alcoholic groups and compounds bearing acidic groups. SOA was analyzed for organic mass to organic carbon (OM /OC) ratio, effective enthalpy of vaporization (Δ Hvapeff), and aerosol yield. The average OM /OC ratio and SOA density were 2.7 ± 0.09 and 1.2 ± 0.05, respectively. The average Δ Hvapeff was -26.08 ± 1.46 kJ mol-1, a value lower than that of isoprene SOA. The average laboratory SOA yield measured in this study at aerosol mass concentrations between 22.5 and 140.2 μg m-3 was 0.025 ± 0.011, a value consistent with the literature (0.021-0.178). While the focus of this study has been examination of the particle-phase measurements, the gas-phase photooxidation products have also been

  18. Oscillator phenomena in the solar atmosphere and radiation modulation in microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, A.M.Z.

    1983-05-01

    An overview of the principal known descriptions of oscillations in the solar atmosphere at different ranges of periods was developed. Particular attention was given to oscillations with time scale of seconds, associated to active regions or bursts. 1.5 quasi-periodic oscillations were detected by the first time at more than one microwave frequency simultaneously (22 GHz and 44 GHz), with high sensitivity and high time resolution, superimposed on a burst on Dec. 15, 1980. An advance phase of 0,3s between the oscillations in the frequencies of 22 GHz and 44 GHz was discovered. The proposed mechanism to explain such oscillations is based on oscillations of the magnetic field at the source. These oscillations modulate the gyro-synchrotron emission from high energy electrons trapped in the magnetic structure. The phase difference is attributed to the influence of the optical thickness of the gyro-synchrotron emission at 22 GHz. (Author) [pt

  19. Experimental studies of the overshoot and undershoot in pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, W. G.; Li, R. M.; Shi, J. J. [School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Ding, Z. F., E-mail: huowg.wg@tom.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The overshoot and undershoot of the applied voltage on the electrodes, the discharge current, and radio frequency (RF) power were observed at the initial phase of pulse-modulated (PM) RF atmospheric pressure discharges, but factors influencing the overshoot and undershoot have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, the experimental studies were performed to seek the reasons for the overshoot and undershoot. The experimental results show that the overshoot and undershoot are associated with the pulse frequency, the rise time of pulse signal, and the series capacitor C{sub s} in the inversely L-shaped matching network. In the case of a high RF power discharge, these overshoot and undershoot become serious when shortening the rise time of a pulse signal (5 ns) or operating at a moderate pulse frequency (500 Hz or 1 kHz).

  20. Atmosphere Processing Module Automation and Catalyst Durability Analysis for Mars ISRU Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Elspeth M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Pathfinder was designed to create fuel using components found in the planet’s atmosphere and regolith for an ascension vehicle to return a potential sample return or crew return vehicle from Mars. The Atmosphere Processing Module (APM), a subunit of the pathfinder, uses cryocoolers to isolate and collect carbon dioxide from Mars simulant gas. The carbon dioxide is fed with hydrogen into a Sabatier reactor where methane is produced. The APM is currently undergoing the final stages of testing at Kennedy Space Center prior to process integration testing with the other subunits of the pathfinder. The automation software for the APM cryocoolers was tested and found to perform nominally. The catalyst used for the Sabatier reactor was investigated to determine the factors contributing to catalyst failure. The results from the catalyst testing require further analysis, but it appears that the rapid change in temperature during reactor start up or the elevated operating temperature is responsible for the changes observed in the catalyst.

  1. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates....... The lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper is a suitable generator yielding fast pulse repetition rates and stable equidistant frequency steps. Theoretical range resolution profiles of modulated lidars are presented....

  2. Atmospheric Mars Entry and Landing Investigations & Analysis (AMELIA) by ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli Entry Descent Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F.; Karatekin, O.; Aboudan, A.; VanHove, B.; Colombatti, C.; Bettanini, C.; Debei, S.; Lewis, S.; Forget, F.

    2017-09-01

    On the 19th October 2016, Schiaparelli, the Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ESA ExoMars Program entered into the martian atmosphere. Although it did not complete a safe landing on Mars, it transmitted data throughout its descent to the surface, until the loss of signal at 1 minute before the expected touch-down on Mars' surface. From the flight data, we reconstruct the actual dynamics of the vehicle during its descent towards Mars's surface and retrieve the atmospheric profile, in terms of density, pressure and temperature, along its trajectory for atmospheric investigations.

  3. Whole Brain Radiotherapy With Hippocampal Avoidance and Simultaneous Integrated Boost for 1-3 Brain Metastases: A Feasibility Study Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Fred; Carolan, Hannah; Nichol, Alan; Cao, Fred; Nuraney, Nimet; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Wong, Frances; Schmuland, Moira; Heran, Manraj; Otto, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with hippocampal avoidance and a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for one to three brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for one to three brain metastases underwent repeat planning using VMAT. The whole brain prescription dose was 32.25 Gy in 15 fractions, and SIB doses to brain metastases were 63 Gy to lesions ≥2.0 cm and 70.8 Gy to lesions 2 . Plans were optimized for conformity and target coverage while minimizing hippocampal and ocular doses. Plans were evaluated on target coverage, prescription isodose to target volume ratio, conformity number, homogeneity index, and maximum dose to prescription dose ratio. Results: Ten patients had 18 metastases. Mean values for the brain metastases were as follows: conformity number = 0.73 ± 0.10, target coverage = 0.98 ± 0.01, prescription isodose to target volume = 1.34 ± 0.19, maximum dose to prescription dose ratio = 1.09 ± 0.02, and homogeneity index = 0.07 ± 0.02. For the whole brain, the mean target coverage and homogeneity index were 0.960 ± 0.002 and 0.39 ± 0.06, respectively. The mean hippocampal dose was 5.23 ± 0.39 Gy 2 . The mean treatment delivery time was 3.6 min (range, 3.3-4.1 min). Conclusions: VMAT was able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage with conformal hippocampal avoidance and radiosurgical quality dose distributions for one to three brain metastases. The mean delivery time was under 4 min.

  4. A micro-fabricated hydrogen storage module with sub-atmospheric activation and durability in air exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xi; Payer, Joe H. [Corrosion and Reliability Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Akron, 302 Buchtel Common, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Wainright, Jesse S.; Dudik, Laurie [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this work was to develop a hydrogen storage module for onboard electrical power sources suitable for use in micro-power systems and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Hydrogen storage materials were developed as thin-film inks to be compatible with an integrated manufacturing process. Important design aspects were (a) ready activation at sub-atmospheric hydrogen pressure and room temperature and (b) durability, i.e. capable of hundreds of absorption/desorption cycles and resistance to deactivation on exposure to air. Inks with palladium-treated intermetallic hydrogen storage alloys were developed and are shown here to be compatible with a thin-film micro-fabrication process. These hydrogen storage modules absorb hydrogen readily at atmospheric pressure, and the absorption/desorption rates remained fast even after the ink was exposed to air for 47 weeks. (author)

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n=1-3): Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation initiated by Cl atoms and OH radicals, IR spectra, and global warmin potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, MD; Wallington, TJ

    2004-01-01

    Smog chambers equipped with FTIR spectrometers were used to study the Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation of CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n = 1-3) in 720 +/- 20 Torr of air at 296 +/- 3 K. Relative rate techniques were used to measure k(Cl + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3) (3.7 +/- 10.7) x 10(-13) and k......(OH + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3) = (2.9 +/- 0.5) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) leading to an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 2 years for CH3O(CF2CF2O),CH3. The Cl initiated oxidation of CH3O(CF2CF2O),CH3 in air diluent gives CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)C(O)H in a yield which is indistinguishable from 100 Further...... oxidation leads to the diformate, H(O)CO(CF2CF2O)(n)C(O)H. A rate constant of k(Cl + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CHO) = (1.81 +/- 0.36) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s-1 was determined. Quantitative infrared spectra for CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n = 1-3) were recorded and used to estimate halocarbon global warming potentials...

  6. Investigation of the impact of atmospheric pollutants on solar module energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ivana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soiling is a term used to describe the deposition of dust (dirt on the solar modules, which reduces the amount of solar radiation that reaches the solar cells. This can cause a more difficult operation of the entire photovoltaic system and therefore generation of less electric energy. This paper presents the results of the influence of various pollutants commonly found in the air (carbon, calcium carbonate – CaCO3, and soil particles on the energy efficiency of solar modules. Scanning electron microscope investigation of carbon powder, CaCO3, and soil particles which were applied to solar modules showed that the particles of carbon and CaCO3 are similar in size, while the space between the particles through which the light can pass, is smaller in carbon than in CaCO3. Dimensions of soil particles are different, and the space between the soil particles through which the light can pass is similar to CaCO3. Solar radiation more easily reaches the surface of solar modules soiled by CaCO3 and soil particles than the surface of the solar modules soiled by carbon. The efficiency of the module soiled by carbon on average decreases by 37.6%, the efficiency of the module soiled by CaCO3 by 6.7%, and the efficiency of the module soiled by soil particles by 6.8%, as compared to the clean solar module. The greatest influence on reducing the energy efficiency of solar modules by soiling exerts carbon, and the influence of CaCO3 and soil particles is similar.

  7. Performance analysis of decode-and-forward dual-hop optical spatial modulation with diversity combiner over atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.

    2017-11-01

    Dual-hops transmission is a growing interest technique that can be used to mitigate against atmospheric turbulence along the Free Space Optical (FSO) communication links. This paper analyzes the performance of Decode-and-Forward (DF) dual-hops FSO systems in-conjunction with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over a Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence channel using heterodyne detection. Maximum Ratio Combiner (MRC), Equal Gain Combiner (EGC) and Selection Combiner (SC) are considered at the relay and destination as mitigation tools to improve the system error performance. Power series expansion of modified Bessel function is used to derive the closed form expression for the end-to-end Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expressions for each of the combiners under study and a tight upper bound on the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) per hop is given. Thus, the overall end-to-end ABER for the dual-hops FSO system is then evaluated. The numerical results depicted that dual-hops transmission systems outperformed the direct link systems. Moreover, the impact of having the same and different combiners at the relay and destination are also presented. The results also confirm that the combination of dual hops transmission with spatial modulation and diversity combiner significantly improves the systems error rate with the MRC combiner offering an optimal performance with respect to variation in atmospheric turbulence, change in links average received SNR and link range of the system.

  8. Ionization asymmetry effects on the properties modulation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge sustained by tailored voltage waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Nie, Q. Y.; Zhang, X. N.; Wang, Z. B.; Kong, F. R.; Jiang, B. H.; Lim, J. W. M.

    2018-04-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a promising technology to generate high density and uniform cold plasmas in atmospheric pressure gases. The effective independent tuning of key plasma parameters is quite important for both application-focused and fundamental studies. In this paper, based on a one-dimensional fluid model with semi-kinetics treatment, numerical studies of ionization asymmetry effects on the properties modulation of atmospheric DBD sustained by tailored voltage waveforms are reported. The driving voltage waveform is characterized by an asymmetric-slope fundamental sinusoidal radio frequency signal superimposing one or more harmonics, and the effects of the number of harmonics, phase shift, as well as the fluctuation of harmonics on the sheath dynamics, impact ionization of electrons and key plasma parameters are investigated. The results have shown that the electron density can exhibit a substantial increase due to the effective electron heating by a spatially asymmetric sheath structure. The strategic modulation of harmonics number and phase shift is capable of raising the electron density significantly (e.g., nearly three times in this case), but without a significant increase in the gas temperature. Moreover, by tailoring the fluctuation of harmonics with a steeper slope, a more profound efficiency in electron impact ionization can be achieved, and thus enhancing the electron density effectively. This method then enables a novel alternative approach to realize the independent control of the key plasma parameters under atmospheric pressure.

  9. Simulating atmospheric turbulence using a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available is zero and the outer scale is infinity. These assumptions lead to a well-defined distribution for the randomness in the refractive index of the atmosphere, which can be applied in the laboratory, giving a good approximation for a real atmosphere.1.... There are two basic aims: first, to expound on the steps required to actually simulate atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory, and second, to point out some of the limitations in using spatial light modula- Research Articles South African Journal of Science...

  10. LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2007-08-06

    We describe a coded power-efficient transmission scheme based on repetition MIMO principle suitable for communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel, and determine its channel capacity. The proposed scheme employs the Q-ary pulse-position modulation. We further study how to approach the channel capacity limits using low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Component LDPC codes are designed using the concept of pairwise-balanced designs. Contrary to the several recent publications, bit-error rates and channel capacities are reported assuming non-ideal photodetection. The atmospheric turbulence channel is modeled using the Gamma-Gamma distribution function due to Al-Habash et al. Excellent bit-error rate performance improvement, over uncoded case, is found.

  11. Three-Dimensional Coupled NLS Equations for Envelope Gravity Solitary Waves in Baroclinic Atmosphere and Modulational Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope gravity solitary waves are an important research hot spot in the field of solitary wave. And the weakly nonlinear model equations system is a part of the research of envelope gravity solitary waves. Because of the lack of technology and theory, previous studies tried hard to reduce the variable numbers and constructed the two-dimensional model in barotropic atmosphere and could only describe the propagation feature in a direction. But for the propagation of envelope gravity solitary waves in real ocean ridges and atmospheric mountains, the three-dimensional model is more appropriate. Meanwhile, the baroclinic problem of atmosphere is also an inevitable topic. In the paper, the three-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS equations are presented to describe the evolution of envelope gravity solitary waves in baroclinic atmosphere, which are derived from the basic dynamic equations by employing perturbation and multiscale methods. The model overcomes two disadvantages: (1 baroclinic problem and (2 propagation path problem. Then, based on trial function method, we deduce the solution of the CNLS equations. Finally, modulational instability of wave trains is also discussed.

  12. A unique distortion in K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}: X-ray diffraction determination and electronic band structure analysis of its incommensurately modulated structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdon, O; Hanko, J; Boucher, F; Petricek, V; Whangbo, M H; Kanatzidis, M G; Evain, M

    2000-04-03

    The incommensurately modulated structure of a square Te-net, namely that of K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}, is determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data within a (3+1)D higher dimension formalism. The phase is shown to crystallize in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}({alpha}0{gamma}) superspace group with the following lattice parameters: a = 4.6441(10) {angstrom}, b = 4.6292(12) {angstrom}, c = 23.765(9) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 101.28(2){degree} with q = 0.3248(6)a* {minus}0.07(8)c*, that is, in a symmetry different from that reported for the average structure (tetragonal) or that assumed from electron diffraction measurements (orthorhombic). After the introduction of a crenel function for the Te displacive description, the refinement converged to a residual factor R = 0.033 for 2583 observed reflections and 115 parameters (R = 0.024 and 0.101 for 1925 main reflections and 658 first-order satellites, respectively). The [Ag{sub 2}-Te{sub 2}] and the Ba/K layers are found to be only weakly modulated. The modulation of the square Te-net is, however, both substantial and unique. Namely, it results in two different units: a V-shaped Te{sub 3} trimer and a W-shaped Te{sub 5} pentamer. To examine both unit types, which are segregated in domains that aperiodically alternate within the Te layers, first principles electronic band structure calculations were carried out for three model commensurate structures using the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital method (LMTO). The calculations show that the distorted structures of V-pattern (model 2) and W-pattern (model 3) are more stable than the average structure (model 1) and that the V-pattern distortion provides a slightly larger stabilization than does the W-pattern distortion. The Fermi surface calculated for the average structure shows nesting vectors that are consistent with the occurrence of the V- and W-pattern distortions in the Te layers. However, these vectors do not predict the observed modulation

  13. Performance Testing of a Photocatalytic Oxidation Module for Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Kaiser, Mark; Seminara, Gary; Bershitsky, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a candidate process technology for use in high volumetric flow rate trace contaminant control applications in sealed environments. The targeted application for PCO as applied to crewed spacecraft life support system architectures is summarized. Technical challenges characteristic of PCO are considered. Performance testing of a breadboard PCO reactor design for mineralizing polar organic compounds in a spacecraft cabin atmosphere is described. Test results are analyzed and compared to results reported in the literature for comparable PCO reactor designs.

  14. Neutrinos (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The neutrino, the lightest and most weakly interacting particle of the Standard Model has revealed itself as the messenger of very exciting news in particle physics: there is Physics Beyond the Standard Model. All this thanks to the quantum-mechanical phenomenon of flavour oscillations which is intrinsically connected to the question of neutrino mass and which has been observed in neutrinos produced in natural sources, like the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as with human made neutrino beams at accelerator and reactors. The purpose of these lectures is to overview some aspects of the phenomenology of massive neutrinos. I will present the simplest extensions for adding neutrino masses to the SM, and then I will describe the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter and its present signatures.

  15. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  16. Newport, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Newport, Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  17. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  18. Southwestern Washington 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  19. Seaside, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seaside Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  20. Nawiliwili, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Nawiliwili Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  1. Guam 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Guam Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  2. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  3. Temporally resolved ozone distribution of a time modulated RF atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet: flow, chemical reaction, and transient vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S; Sobota, A; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J

    2015-01-01

    The ozone density distribution in the effluent of a time modulated RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated by time and spatially resolved by UV absorption spectroscopy. The plasma jet is operated with an averaged dissipated power of 6.5 W and gas flow rate 2 slm argon  +2% O 2 . The modulation frequency of the RF power is 50 Hz with a duty cycle of 50%. To investigate the production and destruction mechanism of ozone in the plasma effluent, the atomic oxygen and gas temperature is also obtained by TALIF and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. A temporal increase in ozone density is observed close to the quartz tube exit when the plasma is switched off due to the decrease in O density and gas temperature. Ozone absorption at different axial positions indicates that the ozone distribution is dominated by the convection induced by the gas flow and allows estimating the on-axis local gas velocity in the jet effluent. Transient vortex structures occurring during the switch on and off of the RF power also significantly affect the ozone density in the far effluent. (paper)

  4. Effect of Modulation of ENSO by Decadal and Multidecadal Ocean-Atmospheric Oscillations on Continental US Streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.; Abebe, A.; Srivastava, P.; Chaubey, I.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of the influences of individual and coupled oceanic-atmospheric oscillations on streamflow at a regional scale in the United States is the focus of this study. The main climatic oscillations considered in this study are: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Unimpacted or minimally impacted by water management streamflow data from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) were used in this study. Two robust and novel non-parametric tests, namely, the rank based partial least square (PLS) and the Joint Rank Fit (JRFit) procedures were used to identify the individual and coupled effect of oscillations on streamflow across continental U.S. (CONUS), respectively. Moreover, the interactive effects of ENSO with decadal and multidecadal cycles were tested and quantified using the JRFit interaction test. The analysis of ENSO indicated higher streamflows during La Niña phase compared to the El Niño phase in Northwest, Northeast and the lower part of Ohio Valley while the opposite occurs for rest of the climatic regions in US. Two distinct climate regions (Northwest and Southeast) were identified from the PDO analysis where PDO negative phase results in increased streamflow than PDO positive phase. Consistent negative and positive correlated regions around the CONUS were identified for AMO and NAO, respectively. The interaction test of ENSO with decadal and multidecadal oscillations showed that El Niño is modulated by the negative phase of PDO and NAO, and the positive phase of AMO, respectively, in the Upper Midwest. However, La Niña is modulated by the positive phase of AMO and PDO in Ohio Valley and Northeast while in Southeast and the South it is modulated by AMO negative phase. Results of this study will assist water managers to understand the streamflow change patterns across the CONUS at decadal and multi-decadal time scales. The

  5. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  6. Development of a Grid-Independent Geos-Chem Chemical Transport Model (v9-02) as an Atmospheric Chemistry Module for Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. S.; Yantosca, R.; Nielsen, J. E; Keller, C. A.; Da Silva, A.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Pawson, S.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model (CTM), used by a large atmospheric chemistry research community, has been re-engineered to also serve as an atmospheric chemistry module for Earth system models (ESMs). This was done using an Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) interface that operates independently of the GEOSChem scientific code, permitting the exact same GEOSChem code to be used as an ESM module or as a standalone CTM. In this manner, the continual stream of updates contributed by the CTM user community is automatically passed on to the ESM module, which remains state of science and referenced to the latest version of the standard GEOS-Chem CTM. A major step in this re-engineering was to make GEOS-Chem grid independent, i.e., capable of using any geophysical grid specified at run time. GEOS-Chem data sockets were also created for communication between modules and with external ESM code. The grid-independent, ESMF-compatible GEOS-Chem is now the standard version of the GEOS-Chem CTM. It has been implemented as an atmospheric chemistry module into the NASA GEOS- 5 ESM. The coupled GEOS-5-GEOS-Chem system was tested for scalability and performance with a tropospheric oxidant-aerosol simulation (120 coupled species, 66 transported tracers) using 48-240 cores and message-passing interface (MPI) distributed-memory parallelization. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the GEOS-Chem chemistry module scales efficiently for the number of cores tested, with no degradation as the number of cores increases. Although inclusion of atmospheric chemistry in ESMs is computationally expensive, the excellent scalability of the chemistry module means that the relative cost goes down with increasing number of cores in a massively parallel environment.

  7. Photochemistry in Saturn’s Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Wilson, Eric H.; Baines, Kevin H.; West, Robert A.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Momary, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over eleven years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere (the solar inclination was 24 degrees) to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn’s axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Our previous work, examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn’s stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. Similarly, we assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini’s datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn’s north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried

  8. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, S. G.; Atreya, S. K.; Wilson, E. H.; Baines, K. H.; West, R. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Fletcher, L. N.; Momary, T.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over twelve years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere with solar inclination of 24 degrees to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried out

  9. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state: an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS climate model (ModelE are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM, represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations.

    A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment

  10. Atmospheric radionuclide transport model with radon postprocessor and SBG module. Model description version 2.8.0; ARTM. Atmosphaerisches Radionuklid-Transport-Modell mit Radon Postprozessor und SBG-Modul. Modellbeschreibung zu Version 2.8.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Cornelia; Sogalla, Martin; Thielen, Harald; Martens, Reinhard

    2015-04-20

    The study on the atmospheric radionuclide transport model with radon postprocessor and SBG module (model description version 2.8.0) covers the following issues: determination of emissions, radioactive decay, atmospheric dispersion calculation for radioactive gases, atmospheric dispersion calculation for radioactive dusts, determination of the gamma cloud radiation (gamma submersion), terrain roughness, effective source height, calculation area and model points, geographic reference systems and coordinate transformations, meteorological data, use of invalid meteorological data sets, consideration of statistical uncertainties, consideration of housings, consideration of bumpiness, consideration of terrain roughness, use of frequency distributions of the hourly dispersion situation, consideration of the vegetation period (summer), the radon post processor radon.exe, the SBG module, modeling of wind fields, shading settings.

  11. Performance analysis of EM-based blind detection for ON-OFF keying modulation over atmospheric optical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Mohammad Taghi; Sadough, Seyed Mohammad Sajad

    2018-04-01

    In the free-space optical (FSO) links, atmospheric turbulence lead to scintillation in the received signal. Due to its ease of implementation, intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) based on ON-OFF keying (OOK) is a popular signaling scheme in these systems. Over turbulence channel, to detect OOK symbols in a blind way, i.e., without sending pilot symbols, an expectation-maximization (EM)-based detection method was recently proposed in the literature related to free-space optical (FSO) communication. However, the performance of EM-based detection methods severely depends on the length of the observation interval (Ls). To choose the optimum values of Ls at target bit error rates (BER)s of FSO communications which are commonly lower than 10-9, Monte-Carlo simulations would be very cumbersome and require a very long processing time. To facilitate performance evaluation, in this letter we derive the analytic expressions for BER and outage probability. Numerical results validate the accuracy of our derived analytic expressions. Our results may serve to evaluate the optimum value for Ls without resorting to time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations.

  12. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  14. 1-3 Composites Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2003-01-01

    ...) In a transducer in which the active material is sandwiched between mass elements, the filler in a 1-3 composite degrades performance with respect to an unfilled array of piezoelectric rods. (3...

  15. Solar wind oscillations with a 1.3 year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John D.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Belcher, John W.; Lazarus, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP-8) and Voyager 2 spacecraft have recently detected a very strong modulation in the solar wind speed with an approximately 1.3 year period. Combined with evidence from long-term auroral and magnetometer studies, this suggests that fundamental changes in the Sun occur on a roughly 1.3 year time scale.

  16. Labeling by ( sup 3 H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine of two high affinity binding sites in guinea pig brain: Evidence for allosteric regulation by calcium channel antagonists and pseudoallosteric modulation by sigma ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, R.B.; Reid, A.; Mahboubi, A.; Kim, C.H.; De Costa, B.R.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Equilibrium binding studies with the sigma receptor ligand ({sup 3}H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (({sup 3}H)DTG) demonstrated two high affinity binding sites in membranes prepared from guinea pig brain. The apparent Kd values of DTG for sites 1 and 2 were 11.9 and 37.6 nM, respectively. The corresponding Bmax values were 1045 and 1423 fmol/mg of protein. Site 1 had high affinity for (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, (R)-(+)-PPP, carbepentane, and other sigma ligands, suggesting a similarity with the dextromethorphan/sigma 1 binding site described by Musacchio et al. (Life Sci. 45:1721-1732 (1989)). Site 2 had high affinity for DTG and haloperidol (Ki = 36.1 nM) and low affinity for most other sigma ligands. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that ({sup 3}H)DTG dissociated in a biphasic manner from both site 1 and site 2. DTG and haloperidol increased the dissociation rate of ({sup 3}H)DTG from site 1 and site 2, demonstrating the presence of pseudoallosteric interactions. Inorganic calcium channel blockers such as Cd2+ selectively increased the dissociation rate of ({sup 3}H)DTG from site 2, suggesting an association of this binding site with calcium channels.

  17. Labeling by [3H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine of two high affinity binding sites in guinea pig brain: Evidence for allosteric regulation by calcium channel antagonists and pseudoallosteric modulation by sigma ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, R.B.; Reid, A.; Mahboubi, A.; Kim, C.H.; De Costa, B.R.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    Equilibrium binding studies with the sigma receptor ligand [ 3 H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine ([ 3 H]DTG) demonstrated two high affinity binding sites in membranes prepared from guinea pig brain. The apparent Kd values of DTG for sites 1 and 2 were 11.9 and 37.6 nM, respectively. The corresponding Bmax values were 1045 and 1423 fmol/mg of protein. Site 1 had high affinity for (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, (R)-(+)-PPP, carbepentane, and other sigma ligands, suggesting a similarity with the dextromethorphan/sigma 1 binding site described by Musacchio et al. [Life Sci. 45:1721-1732 (1989)]. Site 2 had high affinity for DTG and haloperidol (Ki = 36.1 nM) and low affinity for most other sigma ligands. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that [ 3 H]DTG dissociated in a biphasic manner from both site 1 and site 2. DTG and haloperidol increased the dissociation rate of [ 3 H]DTG from site 1 and site 2, demonstrating the presence of pseudoallosteric interactions. Inorganic calcium channel blockers such as Cd2+ selectively increased the dissociation rate of [ 3 H]DTG from site 2, suggesting an association of this binding site with calcium channels

  18. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state): an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer , S. E.; Wright , D.; Koch , D.; Lewis , E. R.; Mcgraw , R.; Chang , L.-S.; Schwartz , S. E.; Ruedy , R.

    2008-01-01

    A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model (ModelE) are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mod...

  19. A Modulated-Gradient Parametrization for the Large-Eddy Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The performance of the modulated-gradient subgrid-scale (SGS) model is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES) of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer within the weather research and forecasting model. Since the model includes a finite-difference scheme for spatial derivatives, the discretization errors may affect the simulation results. We focus here on understanding the effects of finite-difference schemes on the momentum balance and the mean velocity distribution, and the requirement (or not) of the ad hoc canopy model. We find that, unlike the Smagorinsky and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) models, the calculated mean velocity and vertical shear using the modulated-gradient model, are in good agreement with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, without the need for an extra near-wall canopy model. The structure of the near-wall turbulent eddies is better resolved using the modulated-gradient model in comparison with the classical Smagorinsky and TKE models, which are too dissipative and yield unrealistic smoothing of the smallest resolved scales. Moreover, the SGS fluxes obtained from the modulated-gradient model are much smaller near the wall in comparison with those obtained from the regular Smagorinsky and TKE models. The apparent inability of the LES model in reproducing the mean streamwise component of the momentum balance using the total (resolved plus SGS) stress near the surface is probably due to the effect of the discretization errors, which can be calculated a posteriori using the Taylor-series expansion of the resolved velocity field. Overall, we demonstrate that the modulated-gradient model is less dissipative and yields more accurate results in comparison with the classical Smagorinsky model, with similar computational costs.

  20. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, Alexander; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ionov, Victor; Iliyin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite). After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  1. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Slobodkin

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite. After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  2. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Kailua-Kona Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  3. Performance evaluation of modulation and multiple access schemes in ultraviolet optical wireless connections for two atmosphere thickness cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Nikos; Pikasis, Evangelos; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2016-08-01

    The exploitation of optical wireless communication channels in a non-line-of-sight regime is studied for point-to-point and networking configurations considering the use of light-emitting diodes. Two environments with different scattering center densities are considered, assuming operation at 265 nm. The bit error rate performance of both pulsed and multicarrier modulation schemes is examined, using numerical approaches. In the networking scenario, a central node only receives data, one node transmits useful data, and the rest of them act as interferers. The performance of the desirable node's transmissions is evaluated. The access to the medium is controlled by a code division multiple access scheme.

  4. Atmospheric CO2 Column Measurements with an Airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave 1.57-micron Fiber Laser Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy T.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Lin, Bing; McGregor, Doug; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Ismail, Syed

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, NASA space mission. ITT Exelis, formerly ITT Corp., and NASA Langley Research Center have been working together since 2004 to develop and demonstrate a prototype Laser Absorption Spectrometer for making high-precision, column CO2 mixing ratio measurements needed for the ASCENDS mission. This instrument, called the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), operates in an intensity-modulated, continuous-wave mode in the 1.57- micron CO2 absorption band. Flight experiments have been conducted with the MFLL on a Lear-25, UC-12, and DC-8 aircraft over a variety of different surfaces and under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Very high-precision CO2 column measurements resulting from high signal-to-noise (great than 1300) column optical depth measurements for a 10-s (approximately 1 km) averaging interval have been achieved. In situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 profiles were used to derive the expected CO2 column values, and when compared to the MFLL measurements over desert and vegetated surfaces, the MFLL measurements were found to agree with the in situ-derived CO2 columns to within an average of 0.17% or approximately 0.65 ppmv with a standard deviation of 0.44% or approximately 1.7 ppmv. Initial results demonstrating ranging capability using a swept modulation technique are also presented.

  5. Modulation of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climate by variable drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 from weathering of basaltic provinces on continents drifting through the equatorial humid belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The small reservoir of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2 that modulates climate through the greenhouse effect reflects a delicate balance between large fluxes of sources and sinks. The major long-term source of CO2 is global outgassing from sea-floor spreading, subduction, hotspot activity, and metamorphism; the ultimate sink is through weathering of continental silicates and deposition of carbonates. Most carbon cycle models are driven by changes in the source flux scaled to variable rates of ocean floor production, but ocean floor production may not be distinguishable from being steady since 180 Ma. We evaluate potential changes in sources and sinks of CO2 for the past 120 Ma in a paleogeographic context. Our new calculations show that decarbonation of pelagic sediments by Tethyan subduction contributed only modestly to generally high pCO2 levels from the Late Cretaceous until the early Eocene, and thus shutdown of this CO2 source with the collision of India and Asia at the early Eocene climate optimum at around 50 Ma was inadequate to account for the large and prolonged decrease in pCO2 that eventually allowed the growth of significant Antarctic ice sheets by around 34 Ma. Instead, variation in area of continental basalt terranes in the equatorial humid belt (5° S–5° N seems to be a dominant factor controlling how much CO2 is retained in the atmosphere via the silicate weathering feedback. The arrival of the highly weatherable Deccan Traps in the equatorial humid belt at around 50 Ma was decisive in initiating the long-term slide to lower atmospheric pCO2, which was pushed further down by the emplacement of the 30 Ma Ethiopian Traps near the equator and the southerly tectonic extrusion of SE Asia, an arc terrane that presently is estimated to account for 1/4 of CO2 consumption from all basaltic provinces that account for ~1/3 of the total CO2 consumption by continental silicate weathering (Dessert et al., 2003. A negative climate

  6. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D.; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, P.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.

    2016-07-01

    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  7. Atmospheric Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, based on evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent. The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with Earth as a model. All atmospheres contain charged molecules, electrons, and/or molecular clusters created by ionization from cosmic rays and other processes, which may affect an atmosphere's energy balance both through aerosol and cloud formation, and direct absorption of radiation. Several planets are anticipated to host a "global electric circuit" by analogy with the circuit occurring on Earth, where thunderstorms drive current of ions or electrons through weakly conductive parts of the atmosphere. This current flow may further modulate an atmosphere's radiative properties through cloud and aerosol effects. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport. It has been observed on many of the Solar System planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and it may also be present on Venus and Mars. On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System

  8. Precession and atmospheric CO2 modulated variability of sea ice in the central Okhotsk Sea since 130,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li; Belt, Simon T.; Lattaud, Julie; Friedrich, Tobias; Zeeden, Christian; Schouten, Stefan; Smik, Lukas; Timmermann, Axel; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Zhou, Liping; Ou, Tsong-Hua; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Liang-Chi; Chou, Yu-Min; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chen, Min-Te; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Song, Sheng-Rong; Fang, Tien-Hsi; Gorbarenko, Sergey A.; Wang, Wei-Lung; Lee, Teh-Quei; Elderfield, Henry; Hodell, David A.

    2018-04-01

    Recent reduction in high-latitude sea ice extent demonstrates that sea ice is highly sensitive to external and internal radiative forcings. In order to better understand sea ice system responses to external orbital forcing and internal oscillations on orbital timescales, here we reconstruct changes in sea ice extent and summer sea surface temperature (SSST) over the past 130,000 yrs in the central Okhotsk Sea. We applied novel organic geochemical proxies of sea ice (IP25), SSST (TEX86L) and open water marine productivity (a tri-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid and biogenic opal) to marine sediment core MD01-2414 (53°11.77‧N, 149°34.80‧E, water depth 1123 m). To complement the proxy data, we also carried out transient Earth system model simulations and sensitivity tests to identify contributions of different climatic forcing factors. Our results show that the central Okhotsk Sea was ice-free during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and the early-mid Holocene, but experienced variable sea ice cover during MIS 2-4, consistent with intervals of relatively high and low SSST, respectively. Our data also show that the sea ice extent was governed by precession-dominated insolation changes during intervals of atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from 190 to 260 ppm. However, the proxy record and the model simulation data show that the central Okhotsk Sea was near ice-free regardless of insolation forcing throughout the penultimate interglacial, and during the Holocene, when atmospheric CO2 was above ∼260 ppm. Past sea ice conditions in the central Okhotsk Sea were therefore strongly modulated by both orbital-driven insolation and CO2-induced radiative forcing during the past glacial/interglacial cycle.

  9. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures in a time modulated RF driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet: an analysis of the production and destruction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiqiang; Van Gessel, Bram; Hofmann, Sven; Van Veldhuizen, Eddie; Bruggeman, Peter; Van Gaens, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a time modulated RF driven DBD-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar + 2%O 2 , operating at a time averaged power of 6.5 W is investigated. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures are obtained by UV absorption and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. Significant gas heating in the core of the plasma up to 700 K is found and at the position of this increased gas temperature a depletion of the ozone density is found. The production and destruction reactions of O 3 in the jet effluent as a function of the distance from the nozzle are obtained from a zero-dimensional chemical kinetics model in plug flow mode which considers relevant air chemistry due to air entrainment in the jet fluent. A comparison of the measurements and the models show that the depletion of O 3 in the core of the plasma is mainly caused by an enhanced destruction of O 3 due to a large atomic oxygen density. (paper)

  10. Time-dependent two-temperature chemically non-equilibrium modelling of high-power Ar-N2 pulse-modulated inductively coupled plasmas at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori

    2006-01-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional, two-temperature and chemical non-equilibrium model was developed for high-power Ar-N 2 pulse-modulated inductively coupled plasmas (PMICPs) at atmospheric pressure. The high-power PMICP is a new technique for sustaining high-power induction plasmas. It can control the plasma temperature and radical densities in the time domain. The PMICP promotes non-equilibrium effects by a sudden application of electric field, even in the high-power density plasmas. The developed model accounts separately for the time-dependent energy conservation equations of electrons and heavy particles. This model also considers reaction heat effects and energy transfer between electrons and heavy particles as well as enthalpy flow resulting from diffusion caused by the particle density gradient. Chemical non-equilibrium effects are also taken into account by solving time-dependent mass conservation equations for each particle, considering diffusion, convection and net production terms resulting from 30 chemical reactions. Transport and thermodynamic properties of Ar-N 2 plasmas are calculated self-consistently using the first order approximation of the Chapman-Enskog method at each position and iteration using the local particle composition, heavy particle temperature and electron temperature. This model is useful to discuss time evolution in temperature, gas flow fields and distribution of chemical species

  11. Modulation of the atmospheric quasi-biweekly oscillation on the diurnal variation of the occurrence frequency of the Tibetan Plateau vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lun; Zhang, Renhe; Wen, Min

    2018-06-01

    In this study, modulation of the atmospheric quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) on diurnal variation of the occurrence frequency of Tibetan Plateau vortices (TPVs) during May-August of 2000-2009 was investigated. The diurnal variations of the occurrence frequency of the TPVs (OFTPVs) and the related dynamic and thermodynamic features in the positive and negative phases of QBWO were compared. In both the positive and negative phases, the OFTPVs reaches the maximum from evening to midnight (18-00 LT, LT indicates the local time), and minimum from early morning to noon (06-12 LT). At 18 LT, there is strongest convergence at 500 hPa and ascending motion, as well as the most abundant net water vapor budget over the Tibetan Plateau, which is in favor of the precipitation and the related condensation latent heat release, corresponding to the maximum of OFTPVs in 18-00 LT. On the contrary, in the early morning at 06 LT, the conditions are most unfavorable for genesis of TPVs in 06-12 LT. QBWO leads to stronger convergence at 500 hPa, ascending motion as well as more massive water vapor in the positive phases than those in the negative phases, resulting in larger numbers of TPVs occur in all of the four periods of a day (00-06 LT, 06-12 LT, 12-18 LT, and 18-00 LT) in the former. The TPVs generating from the early morning to noon (06-12 LT) are weaker and more sensitive and fragile to the disadvantageous background, while the TPVs occurring from evening to midnight (18-00 LT) are stronger and seem to be well tolerated, leading to more remarkable contrast between the OFTPVs in the negative and positive phases in 06-12 LT than in 18-00 LT.

  12. Human Decompression Trial With 1.3 ATA Oxygen in Helium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) was tasked to develop helium-oxygen decompression tables for a proposed closed circuit breathing apparatus which Will deliver a constant oxygen partial pressure of 1.3 atmospheres (ATA...

  13. guam_1_3s_20081014.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. kona_1_3s_20061121.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. nawiliwili_1_3s_01122006.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. lakewashington_1_3s_20100105.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. hilo_1_3s_20051220.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  19. HANSF 1.3.2 User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. This manual reflects the HANSF version 1.3.2, a revised version of 1.3.1. HANSF 1.3.2 was written to correct minor errors and to allow modeling of condensate flow on the MCO inner surface. HANSF 1.3.2 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under Lahey TI or digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  20. HANSF 1.3 user's manual; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  1. Implementation of the chemistry module MECCA (v2.5 in the modal aerosol version of the Community Atmosphere Model component (v3.6.33 of the Community Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate system model was developed using the modal aerosol version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (modal-CAM; v3.6.33 and the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry's Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA; v2.5 to provide enhanced resolution of multiphase processes, particularly those involving inorganic halogens, and associated impacts on atmospheric composition and climate. Three Rosenbrock solvers (Ros-2, Ros-3, RODAS-3 were tested in conjunction with the basic load-balancing options available to modal-CAM (1 to establish an optimal configuration of the implicitly-solved multiphase chemistry module that maximizes both computational speed and repeatability of Ros-2 and RODAS-3 results versus Ros-3, and (2 to identify potential implementation strategies for future versions of this and similar coupled systems. RODAS-3 was faster than Ros-2 and Ros-3 with good reproduction of Ros-3 results, while Ros-2 was both slower and substantially less reproducible relative to Ros-3 results. Modal-CAM with MECCA chemistry was a factor of 15 slower than modal-CAM using standard chemistry. MECCA chemistry integration times demonstrated a systematic frequency distribution for all three solvers, and revealed that the change in run-time performance was due to a change in the frequency distribution of chemical integration times; the peak frequency was similar for all solvers. This suggests that efficient chemistry-focused load-balancing schemes can be developed that rely on the parameters of this frequency distribution.

  2. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  3. Nucleation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegg, D A; Baker, M B

    2009-01-01

    Small particles play major roles in modulating radiative and hydrological fluxes in the atmosphere and thus they impact both climate (IPCC 2007) and weather. Most atmospheric particles outside clouds are created in situ through nucleation from gas phase precursors and most ice particles within clouds are formed by nucleation, usually from the liquid. Thus, the nucleation process is of great significance in the Earth's atmosphere. The theoretical examination of nucleation in the atmosphere has been based mostly on classical nucleation theory. While diagnostically very useful, the prognostic skill demonstrated by this approach has been marginal. Microscopic approaches such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory have also proven useful in elucidating various aspects of the process but are not yet sufficiently refined to offer a significant prognostic advantage to the classical approach, due primarily to the heteromolecular nature of atmospheric nucleation. An important aspect of the nucleation process in the atmosphere is that the degree of metastability of the parent phase for the nucleation is modulated by a number of atmospheric processes such as condensation onto pre-existing particles, updraft velocities that are the main driving force for supersaturation of water (a major factor in all atmospheric nucleation), and photochemical production rates of nucleation precursors. Hence, atmospheric nucleation is both temporally and spatially inhomogeneous

  4. Effect of atmosphere on the formation of perovskite phase in 0.90Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.10PbTiO{sub 3} (PZN-10PT) powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raigoza, C.F.V., E-mail: claudiafercha@gmail.com [Universidad del Cauca, Dpto. de Física, Grupo de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales Cerámicos, Popayán (Colombia); Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Federal University of São Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil); Eiras, J.A.; Garcia, D. [Federal University of São Carlos, Department of Physics, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    Lead zinc niobate (PZN) and lead titanate (PT) solid solutions close to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exhibit unusually large dielectric and piezoelectric constants. PZN-PT ceramics with a composition close to the MPB processed by the conventional route yield ceramics with a pyrochlore structure. In the last few decades, attempts to synthesize PZN-PT powders with perovskite structure via traditional ceramic methods and novel chemical processing routes have failed. In the present research, an analysis was made of the effect of the calcination atmosphere on the formation of perovskite phase in PZN-10PT powders. To this end, thermal analyses were carried out in four different atmospheres: oxygen, air, argon and nitrogen. The powders were calcined at the temperatures at which the DTA curves presented peaks, and the resulting phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. - Highlights: • PZN-PT ceramics powders. • Air, oxygen, argon and nitrogen as synthesis atmospheres. • Zinc as essential element in the formation and stabilization of the perovskite phase. • Nitrogen as inhibitor of the decomposition the zinc oxide.

  5. On D=2 (1/3,1/3) supersymmetric theories 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, E.H.; Zerouaoui, J.; Sedra, M.B.

    1994-06-01

    Denoting by D=2 (1/3,1/3) superalgebra; the off critical symmetry of the Φ 5/7,5/7 perturbation of the C=6/7 conformal theory, we build a new superspace solution of the (1/3,1/3) - subalgebra generated by spin ±1/3 charge operators extending the usual (1/2,1/2) supersymmetry generated by spin ±1/2 charges. This solution is based on the use of two Grassmann variables instead of one parafermionic variable θ ±1/3 satisfying the cubic nilpotency condition (θ ±1/3 ) 3 =0. Known results on the C=6/7 tricritical Potts model are recovered as special features. A relation with N=2 Landau-Ginzburg models is also discussed. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  6. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  7. N-2(A(3)Sigma(+)(u)) time evolution in N-2 atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier discharge driven by ac voltage under modulated regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrico, P. F.; Šimek, Milan; Dilecce, G.; De Benedictis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 23 (2009), s. 231503-231503 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Atmospheric pressure surface-DBD * Nitrogen metastable * LIF * Optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009

  8. Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.

    1986-10-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers

  9. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  10. Atmospheric ionisation in Snowdonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH UK (United Kingdom); Williams, J H, E-mail: k.aplin1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Envirodata-Eyri, Bryn Goleu, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan, Gwynedd LL33 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Atmospheric ionisation from natural radioactivity and cosmic rays has been measured at several sites in Snowdonia from 2005-present. The motivation for this project was a combination of public engagement with science, and research into the effects of ionisation on climate. A four-component atmospheric radiometer instrument is co-located with the ionisation detectors and the data is remotely logged and displayed on the Web. Atmospheric ionisation from natural radioactivity varies with local geology, and the cosmic ray ionisation component is modulated by solar activity and altitude. Variations due to all these effects have been identified and are described.

  11. Asymmetric oxidation of 1,3-dithianes to 1,3-dithiane 1-oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiko, Watanabe; Yojiro, Ono; Yoshio, Ueno; Takeshi, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Oxidation of 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1,3-dithiane with the Sharpless reagent has been examined under various reaction conditions. Oxidation of 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1,3-dithiane with Ti(OPri)4-diethyl L-(+)-tartrate-tert-butyl hydroperoxide (1:2:1.5) in CH2Cl2 in the presence of 4 A molecular sieves gives (1S,2S)-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1,3-dithiane 1-oxide with high trans selectivity and with moderate enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity depends upon the substituent at t...

  12. 1-3-7 minute intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Lee, Myung Hee

    1980-01-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) as it is used widely today was probably started in early 1950's after the introduction of triiodobenzoic acid compounds as contrast media. This long cherished traditional method consists of taking radiograms at 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the injection of contrast medium. There are a few modifications of this standard urographic examination such as five minute IVU (Woodruff, 1959), minute-sequence pyelogram (Maxwell et al., 1964), drip infusion pyelography (Schencker, 1964) and nephrotomography (Evans et al., 1955). The present study has been undertaken to test if the conventional standard IVU can be more rapidly performed without losing essential informational contents of urograms. In this new clinical trial, urograms were taken at the end of 1, 3 and 7 minutes instead of 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the intravenous injection of contrast medium. We injected 40 ml of meglumine diatrizoate solution within 30 seconds using an 18G iv needle. (The amount of injected contrast medium has been reduced recently to ordinary single dose of 20 ml for subjects weighing less than 8 kg). Upon viewing the 7 minute film in front of an automatic processor, the examination was terminated after obtaining an upright view unless any further radiogram was indicated. As shown in Tables and Figures, our new 1-3-7 minute method has been proven to provide us with as much essential and useful information as conventional 5-15-25 minute urography. Thus, we were able to finish one examination within 10 minutes without losing any necessary diagnostic information. In some of patients with obstructive uropathy such as stone the examination was extended as long as it was desired. Side reactions were occasional nausea, flushing and rare mild vomiting which never prevented the examination

  13. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  14. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  15. The Role of Atmospheric Heating over the South China Sea and Western Pacific Regions in Modulating Asian Summer Climate under the Global Warming Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface. However, the responses of monsoon precipitation to global warming show very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and surrounding regions during boreal summer. To understand the possible dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, the changes in atmospheric latent heating and their possible influences on global climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical sensitivity simulations. Results indicate that summertime latent heating has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, lower-tropospheric convergence, and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS-western Pacific and South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia and leading to a warm and dry climate. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The results highlight the important role of latent heating in adjusting the changes in sea surface temperature through atmospheric dynamics.

  16. Performance comparison of 2-1-3, 1-3 and 1-3-2 piezoelectric composite transducers by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-3 type, 1-3-2 type and 2-1-3 type piezoelectric composites are three proper smart materials for the design and manufacture of ultrasonic transducers. They have been proposed in different stages but possess similar properties. Compared with the initial 1-3 type composite, 1-3-2 composite is of higher mechanical stability. Compared with 1-3-2 composite, 2-1-3 composite has lower manufacturing difficulty. In this paper, a comparative study on these three composites in terms of receiving transducer material properties is presented. Finite element method (FEM has been adopted to calculate longitudinal velocity, thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient and voltage receiving sensitivity. It is concluded that for a large aspect ratio α=1, the performance of 2-1-3 composite transducer is much better than that of 1-3 and 1-3-2 composite transducers. The thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient of 2-1-3 composite transducer is about 5.58 times that of 1-3 composite transducer and 7.42 times that of 1-3-2 composite transducer. The voltage receiving sensitivity at 2 kHz of 2-1-3 composite transducer is 13.1 dB higher than that of 1-3-2 composite transducer and 12.3 dB higher than that of 1-3 composite transducer.

  17. 5-Isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H6S5, contains a 5-ylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione framework, which is an important synthetic precursor of multi-dimensional organic superconductors and conductors. The molecular framework is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å for the non-H atoms. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by short intermolecular S...S interactions [3.501 (5 and 3.581 (4 Å], constructing a zigzag molecular tape network along the c axis.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  19. Mechanism and regioselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition; sulphur-centred 1,3-dipoles; regioselectivity; DFT reactivity indices;. FMO theory. 1. Introduction. Five-membered heterocyclic compounds can be gene- rated by addition of a 1,3-dipole to a dipolarophile under a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (1,3-DC) reaction which is well known as pericyclic reaction.

  20. ESTUDIO CONFORMACIONAL EN ALGUNAS 1,3-OXAZINAS Y 1,3-BENZOXAZINAS EMPLEANDO METODOS TEORICOS.

    OpenAIRE

    HURTADO OCAMPO, SANDRA MARCELA; HURTADO OCAMPO, SANDRA MARCELA

    2007-01-01

    En la década del cincuenta, resultados experimentales entregados por Urbanski y colaboradores [1] pusieron en evidencia propiedades antituberculósicas y antitumorales en compuestos del tipo 5-nitro-R-N-1 ,3- oxazínicos. Como resultado de un proceso relati 187p.

  1. Evaluation of active sampling strategies for the determination of 1,3-butadiene in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    Two analytical methods for determining levels of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial atmospheres were evaluated in this study. Both methods are extensively used for determining the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and involve collecting samples by active adsorptive enrichment on solid sorbents. The first method uses activated charcoal as the sorbent and involves liquid desorption with carbon disulfide. The second involves the use of a multi-sorbent bed with two graphitised carbons and a carbon molecular sieve as the sorbent, with thermal desorption. Special attention was paid to the optimization of the sampling procedure through the study of sample volume, the stability of 1,3-butadiene once inside the sampling tube and the humidity effect. In the end, the thermal desorption method showed better repeatability and limits of detection and quantification for 1,3-butadiene than the liquid desorption method, which makes the thermal desorption method more suitable for analysing air samples from both industrial and urban atmospheres. However, sampling must be performed with a pre-tube filled with a drying agent to prevent the loss of the adsorption capacity of the solid adsorbent caused by water vapour. The thermal desorption method has successfully been applied to determine of 1,3-butadiene inside a 1,3-butadiene production plant and at three locations in the vicinity of the same plant.

  2. Effect of sequential surface irrigations on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Knuteson, J; Ernst, F F; Zheng, W; Wang, Q

    2008-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to measure subsurface movement and volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection to an agricultural soil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the emissions of 1,3-D to the atmosphere and is based on recent research that has shown that saturating the soil pore space reduces gas-phase diffusion and leads to reduced volatilization rates. Aerodynamic, integrated horizontal flux, and theoretical profile shape methods were used to estimate fumigant volatilization rates and total emission losses. These methods provide estimates of the volatilization rate based on measurements of wind speed, temperature, and 1,3-D concentration in the atmosphere. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 days, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 18 to 60 microg m(-2) s(-1). The total 13-D mass entering the atmosphere was approximately 44-68 kg ha(-1), or 10-15% of the applied active ingredient This represents approximately 30-50% reduction in the total emission losses compared to conventional fumigant applications in field and field-plot studies. Significant reduction in volatilization of 1,3-D was observed when five surface irrigations were applied to the field, one immediately after fumigation followed by daily irrigations.

  3. Impacts of the Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling on the Peru-Chile Ocean Dynamics: The Current-Induced Wind Stress Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, V.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Masson, S.; Lemarié, F.

    2018-02-01

    The ocean dynamical responses to the surface current-wind stress interaction at the oceanic mesoscale are investigated in the South-East Pacific using a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model. Two simulations are compared: one includes the surface current in the wind stress computation while the other does not. In the coastal region, absolute wind velocities are different between the two simulations but the wind stress remains very similar. As a consequence, the mean regional oceanic circulation is almost unchanged. On the contrary, the mesoscale activity is strongly reduced when taking into account the effect of the surface current on the wind stress. This is caused by a weakening of the eddy kinetic energy generation near the coast by the wind work and to intensified offshore eddy damping. We show that, above coherent eddies, the current-stress interaction generates eddy damping through Ekman pumping and eddy kinetic energy dissipation through wind work. This alters significantly the coherent eddy vertical structures compared with the control simulation, weakening the temperature and vorticity anomalies and increasing strongly the vertical velocity anomalies associated to eddies.

  4. Carbonato-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes generated by atmospheric CO2 fixation and their single-molecule-magnet behavior: [(μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH or H2O)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·solvent [3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Nishi, Koshiro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-06-17

    Atmospheric CO2 fixation of [Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(H2O)2]·2.5H2O [3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato], Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O, and triethylamine occurred in methanol/acetone, giving a first series of carbonato-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH)Ln(III)(NO3)}2] (1Gd, 1Tb, and 1Dy). When the reaction was carried out in acetonitrile/water, it gave a second series of complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(H2O)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·2CH3CN·2H2O (2Gd, 2Tb, and 2Dy). For both series, each Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 structure can be described as two di-μ-phenoxo-bridged Ni(II)Ln(III) binuclear units bridged by two carbonato CO3(2-) units to form a carbonato-bridged (μ4-CO3)2{Ni(II)2Ln(III)2} structure. The high-spin Ni(II) ion has octahedral coordination geometry, and the Ln(III) ion is coordinated by O9 donor atoms from Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn), bidentate NO3(-), and one and two oxygen atoms of two CO3(2-) ions. The NO3(-) ion for the first series roughly lie on Ln-O(methoxy) bonds and are tilted toward the outside, while for the second series, the two oxygen atoms roughly lie on one of the Ln-O(phenoxy) bonds due to the intramolecular hydrogen bond. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities indicated a ferromagnetic interaction between the Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) for all of the complexes, with a distinctly different magnetic behavior between the two series in the lowest-temperature region due to the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic interaction and/or different magnetic anisotropies of the Tb(III) or Dy(III) ion. Alternating-current susceptibility measurements under the 0 and 1000 Oe direct-current (dc) bias fields showed no magnetic relaxation for the Ni(II)2Gd(III)2 complexes but exhibited an out-of-phase signal for Ni(II)2Tb(III)2 and Ni(II)2Dy(III)2, indicative of slow relaxation of magnetization. The energy barriers, Δ/kB, for the spin flipping were estimated from the Arrhenius

  5. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Chang

    Full Text Available Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1. Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.

  6. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall ...

  7. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling ... The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science; The Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P. R. ...

  8. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li diffusion; LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2; lithium ion batteries; layered structure. 1. Introduction ... The coin-type cell CR2012 consisting of a metallic- lithium foil anode ... and the polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) binder with a mass ratio of 4:1:1 in NMP ...

  9. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Hydroxyl radical and ozone initiated photochemical reactions of 1,3-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Jeffries, Harvey E.; Sexton, Kenneth G.

    1,3-Butadiene, classified as hazardous in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is an important ambient air pollutant. Understanding its atmospheric transformation is useful for its own sake, and is also helpful for eliciting isoprene's fate in the atmosphere (isoprene dominates the biogenic emissions in US). In this paper, samples from both hydroxyl- and ozone-initiated photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene were analyzed by derivatization with O- (2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine followed by separation and detection by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry to detect and identify carbonyl compounds. The following carbonyls were observed: formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glycidaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-propanaldehyde, hydroxy acetone, and malonaldehyde, which can be classified into three categories: epoxy carbonyls, hydroxyl carbonyls, and di-carbonyls. Three non-carbonyls, furan, 1,3-buatdiene monoxide, and 1,3-butadiene diepoxide, were also found. To confirm their identities, both commercially available and synthesized standards were used. To investigate the mechanism of 1,3-butadiene, separate batch reactor experiments for acrolein and 1,3-butadiene monoxide were carried out. Time series samples for several products were also taken. When necessary, computational chemistry methods were also employed. Based on these results, various schemes for the reaction mechanism are proposed.

  11. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  12. Thermochemistry of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Joana; Agapito, Filipe; Piedade, M. Fátima M.; Bernardes, Carlos E.S.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Leal, João P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The enthalpy of formation of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by combustion calorimetry. • The cohesive energy of liquid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was evaluated. • The crystal structure of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • Δ f H m o (l/g) of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (tmg) were obtained by solution and Calvet calorimetry. • Δ f H m o (g) calculated by the W1-F12 procedure was in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental value. - Abstract: Considerable efforts have recently been made to investigate how the structure of protic ionic liquids determines some of their most important properties for technological applications (e.g. low vapour pressure, conductivity). In contrast, the assessment of cohesive energies (which are also linked to those properties) based on thermodynamic results is still practically unexplored. This problem is addressed here for 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate, [Htmg][NO 3 ], through a combination of experimental and computational chemistry results at the reference temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m o ([Htmg][NO 3 ],cr)=-(311.8±2.3)kJ·mol -1 , and fusion, Δ fus H m o ([Htmg][NO 3 ])=16.2±3.8kJ·mol -1 , of solid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate (form I polymorph) were obtained by combustion and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. From these results Δ f H m o ([Htmg][NO 3 ],l)=-(295.6±4.4)kJ·mol -1 could be derived. Also determined were the standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m o (tmg, l)=7.7±2.8kJ·mol -1 , and vaporisation, Δ vap H m o (tmg,l)=50.0±1.2kJ·mol -1 , of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine, by reaction solution and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry, respectively, leading to Δ f H m o (tmg,g)=57.7±3.0kJ·mol -1 . This result is in excellent agreement with Δ f H m o (tmg,g)=58.4±4.0kJ·mol -1

  13. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  14. Preparation of layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 via the sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Hanxing; HU Chen; ZHU Xianjun; LI Yanxi

    2008-01-01

    To obtain homogenous layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material,the sol-gel process using citric acid as a chelating agent was applied.The material Li(Co1/3,Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized at different calcination temperatures.XRD experiment indicated that the hyered Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2material could he synthesized at a lower temperature of 800℃,and the oxidation state of Co,Ni,and Mn in the cathode confirmed by XPS were +3,+2,and +4,respectively.SEM observations showed that the synthesized material could form homogenous particle morphology with the particle size of about 200nm In spite of different calcination temperatures,the charge-discharge curves of all the samples for the initial cycle were similar,and the cathode synthesized at 900℃ showed a small irreversible capacity loss of 11.24% and a high discharge capacity of 212.2 mAh.g-1 in the voltage range of 2.9-4.6 V.

  15. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.L.; Dunham, E.W.; Bosh, A.S.; Slivan, S.M.; Young, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  16. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  17. An archetype hydrogen atmosphere problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, R. G.; Mihalas, D.; Shine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal hydrostatic atmosphere at 20,000 K. The atmosphere is treated as optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1, 3-1, 3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is nontrivial and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused the failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods or new implementations of old methods may be tested.

  18. An archetype hydrogen atmosphere problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athay, R.G.; Mihalas, D.; Shine, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal, hydrostatic atmosphere at 20000K. The atmosphere is treated as being optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1,3-1,3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is non-trivial, and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods, or new implementations of old methods may be tested. (Auth.)

  19. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  20. Improvement of multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok

    1998-09-01

    The MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code is a multi-dimensional, best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. This report describes the new features that have been improved in the MARS 1.3 code since the release of MARS 1.3 in July 1998. The new features include: - implementation of point kinetics model into the 3D module - unification of the heat structure model - extension of the control function to the 3D module variables - improvement of the 3D module input check function. Each of the items has been implemented in the developmental version of the MARS 1.3.1 code and, then, independently verified and assessed. The effectiveness of the new features is well verified and it is shown that these improvements greatly extend the code capability and enhance the user friendliness. Relevant input data changes are also described. In addition to the improvements, this report briefly summarizes the future code developmental activities that are being carried out or planned, such as coupling of MARS 1.3 with the containment code CONTEMPT and the three-dimensional reactor kinetics code MASTER 2.0. (author). 8 refs.

  1. Improvement of multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok

    1998-09-01

    The MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code is a multi-dimensional, best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. This report describes the new features that have been improved in the MARS 1.3 code since the release of MARS 1.3 in July 1998. The new features include: - implementation of point kinetics model into the 3D module - unification of the heat structure model - extension of the control function to the 3D module variables - improvement of the 3D module input check function. Each of the items has been implemented in the developmental version of the MARS 1.3.1 code and, then, independently verified and assessed. The effectiveness of the new features is well verified and it is shown that these improvements greatly extend the code capability and enhance the user friendliness. Relevant input data changes are also described. In addition to the improvements, this report briefly summarizes the future code developmental activities that are being carried out or planned, such as coupling of MARS 1.3 with the containment code CONTEMPT and the three-dimensional reactor kinetics code MASTER 2.0. (author). 8 refs

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as positive electrode material for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Lee, Myung-Hun; Komaba, Shinichi; Kumagai, Naoaki; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2005-01-01

    In attempts to prepare layered Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 , hydrothermal method was employed. The hydrothermal precursor, [Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ](OH) 2 , was synthesized via a coprecipitation route. The sphere-shaped powder precursor was hydrothermally reacted with LiOH aqueous solution at 170 deg. C for 4 days in autoclave. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies, it was found that the as-hydrothermally prepared powders were crystallized to layered α-NaFeO 2 structure and the particles had spherical shape. The as-prepared Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 delivered an initial discharge of about 110 mA h g -1 due to lower crystallinity. Heat treatment of the hydrothermal product at 800 deg. C was significantly effective to improve the structural integrity, which consequently affected the increase in the discharge capacity to 157 (4.3 V cut-off) and 182 mA h g -1 (4.6 V cut-off) at 25 deg. C with good reversibility

  3. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.

  4. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...

  5. Atmospheric electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, H.

    1984-01-01

    The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work

  6. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  7. Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2017-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks.

  8. Direct, Regioselective N-Alkylation of 1,3-Azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Graceffa, Russell F; Boezio, Alessandro A

    2016-01-04

    Regioselective N-alkylation of 1,3-azoles is a valuable transformation. Organomagnesium reagents were discovered to be competent bases to affect regioselective alkylation of various 1,3-azoles. Counterintuitively, substitution selectively occurred at the more sterically hindered nitrogen atom. Numerous examples are provided, on varying 1,3-azole scaffolds, with yields ranging from 25 to 95%.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of "1"3C_3-tristearin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hangyu; Lin Lin; Li Lei; Chen Dazhou

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of "1"3C_3 labeled triglycerides of stearic acids from "1"3C_3-glycerol and stearic acids, by immobilized lipase-catalyzed in solvent-free medium was described. The structure of the product were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectra (MS). The results showed that triglycerides of stearic acids contained three "1"3C atoms. The isotope abundance of "1"3C_3-tristearin was more than 99% and the yield was 80% of "1"3C_3-tristearin through calculation. Chemical purity (> 98%) was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (authors)

  10. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  11. Mars: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  12. Hydrogenolysis of 2-tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol into 1,3-propanediol over Raney Ni catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Zheng; Jianli, Wang; Zhen, Lu; Min, Luo; Miao, Zhang; Lixin, Xu; Jianbing [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Biofuel, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-03-15

    2-Tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol (TPD), a potential precursor for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, is produced by the tosylation of glycerol with the help of protecting group techniques. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of TPD into 1,3-PD over Raney Ni catalyst is discussed at different reaction parameters to optimize the reaction conditions for selective formation of 1,3-PD. The mechanisms of the hydrogenolysis of TPD and the side reactions were also confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique (author)

  13. Local atomic characterization of LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedoseykina, Tatiana; Kim, Sung-Soo; Nitta, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Co, Ni and Mn K-edge XAFS investigation of LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 as alternative cathode material to commercially used LiCoO 2 in lithium rechargeable battery has been performed. Parameters of a local atomic structure such as radii of metal-oxygen and metal-metal coordination shells and disorder in those shells have been determined. It has been found that the radius of the first coordination shell (metal-oxygen) as well as a local disorder in the second shell (metal-metal) around each of the 3d-metals are in a good agreement with obtained for superlattice model of √3 x √3] R30 o type in triangular lattice of sites by first principle calculation. Other parameters of the local atomic structure around Co, Ni and Mn atoms do not provide evidence for presence of superstructure in LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2

  14. Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2017-11-08

    The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks. We designed our study to determine if a new stimulant similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA has been introduced as an ingredient in supplements sold in the United States (US). We analyzed six brands of supplements that listed an ingredient on the label (e.g., Aconitum kusnezoffii, DMHA or 2-amino-isoheptane) that might refer to an analog of 1,3-DMAA. Supplements were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and reference standards. Two previously unidentified 1,3-DMAA analogs (2-amino-6-methylheptane [octodrine] and 1,4-dimethylamylamine [1,4-DMAA]) and two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine [1,3-DMBA]) were identified. Octodrine was found at a dose (±95% CI) of 72 ± 7.5 mg per serving. In Europe, octodrine was previously sold as a pharmaceutical in multi-ingredient medications at dosages from 8 to 33 mg. The quantity of octodrine found in our study was more than twice the largest pharmaceutical dose. The other new stimulant, 1,4-DMAA, has not previously been approved for human consumption, and its safety in humans is unknown. 1,4-DMAA was found at dosages between 21 ± 11 mg to 94 ± 48 mg per serving. In addition, two banned stimulants - 1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA - were also identified: 24 ± 7.6 mg to 35 ± 11 mg of 1,3-DMAA and 51 ± 16 mg of 1,3-DMBA. In one product, 24 ± 7.6 mg of 1,3-DMAA was combined with 21 ± 11 mg of 1,4-DMAA. 1,3-DMAA has been investigated as potentially contributing to hemorrhagic strokes and sudden death, whereas the safety of 1,3-DMBA in humans is unknown. Two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA) and two previously unidentified stimulants (1,4-DMAA and

  15. Interlaboratory study of the heat capacity of LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC111) with layered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupid, Damian M.; Gotcu, Petronela [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); Beutl, Alexander [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry - Functional Materials; and others

    2017-11-15

    An interlaboratory study was performed to determine the heat capacity of an active material for lithium-ion batteries with layered structure and nominal composition LiNi{sub 1/3} . Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC111). The commercial sample, which was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, is single phase (α-NaFeO{sub 2} crystal structure) with a composition of Li{sub 1.02}Ni{sub 0.32}Mn{sub 0.31}Co{sub 0.30}O{sub 2}. Heat capacity measurements of the homogeneous sample were performed at five laboratories using different operators, methods, devices, temperature ranges, gas atmospheres and crucible materials. The experimental procedures from each laboratory are presented and the results of the individual laboratories are analyzed. Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the data from each laboratory, the heat capacity of the NMC111 sample from 315 K to 1 020 K is obtained with an expanded reproducibility uncertainty of less than 1.22 %.

  16. Combined eye-atmosphere visibility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Existing models of the optical characteristics of the eye are combined with a recent model of optical characteristics of the atmosphere given by its modulation transfer function. This combination results in the combined eye-atmosphere performance given by the product of their modulation transfer functions. An application for the calculation of visibility thresholds in the case of a two-halves field is given.

  17. CASSINI ORBITER SATURN UVIS EDITED SPECTRA V1.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectroscopy of Jupiter, Saturnian rings, atmospheres and satellites for determining chemical abundance, compositional albedo, aerosol profiling, ring reflected...

  18. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  19. The secret life of ion channels: Kv1.3 potassium channels and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, M Teresa; Cidad, Pilar; López-López, José R

    2018-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels are involved in the switch to proliferation of normally quiescent cells, being implicated in the control of cell cycle in many different cell types and in many different ways. They modulate membrane potential controlling K + fluxes, sense changes in potential, and interact with many signaling molecules through their intracellular domains. From a mechanistic point of view, we can describe the role of Kv1.3 channels in proliferation with at least three different models. In the "membrane potential model," membrane hyperpolarization resulting from Kv1.3 activation provides the driving force for Ca 2+ influx required to activate Ca 2+ -dependent transcription. This model explains most of the data obtained from several cells from the immune system. In the "voltage sensor model," Kv1.3 channels serve mainly as sensors that transduce electrical signals into biochemical cascades, independently of their effect on membrane potential. Kv1.3-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) could fit this model. Finally, in the "channelosome balance model," the master switch determining proliferation may be related to the control of the Kv1.3 to Kv1.5 ratio, as described in glial cells and also in VSMCs. Since the three mechanisms cannot function independently, these models are obviously not exclusive. Nevertheless, they could be exploited differentially in different cells and tissues. This large functional flexibility of Kv1.3 channels surely gives a new perspective on their functions beyond their elementary role as ion channels, although a conclusive picture of the mechanisms involved in Kv1.3 signaling to proliferation is yet to be reached.

  20. New 4-phosphino-1,3,2-dioxaborinanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musina, Eh.I.; Nikonov, G.N.; Balueva, A.S.; Litvinov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular and crystal structure of bis[(5,6-benzo-2-phenyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane-4)phenylphosphino]methane are ascertained by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis. Interaction of methyl (phenyl) phosphine and salicyl aldehyde with phenylboric acid ester gives rise to preparation of its monoheterocyclic analog - 4-methyl(phenyl) phosphino-2-phenyl-5,6-benzo-1,3,2-dioxaborinane and its sulfide. It is shown that in the series 4-aryl(alkyl)phosphino 1,3,2-dioxaborinanes no stacking-conformations realized for 4-diarylphosphino-1,3,2-dioxaboraphosphorinanes are observed [ru

  1. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  2. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  3. Lithium Diffusion and Magnetism in Battery Cathode Material LixNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Månsson, M; Prša, K; Nozaki, H; Sugiyama, J; Wikberg, J M; Sassa, Y; Dahbi, M; Kamazawa, K; Sedlak, K; Watanabe, I

    2014-01-01

    We have studied low-temperature magnetic properties as well as high-temperature lithium ion diffusion in the battery cathode materials Li x Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 by the use of muon spin rotation/relaxation. Our data reveal that the samples enter into a 2D spin-glass state below T SG ≈ 12 K. We further show that lithium diffusion channels become active for T ≥ T diff ∼ 125 K where the Li-ion hopping-rate [v(T)] starts to increase exponentially. Further, v(T) is found to fit very well to an Arrhenius type equation and the activation energy for the diffusion process is extracted as E a ≈ 100 meV

  4. Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Moshammer, Kai

    2016-10-17

    This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.

  5. Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Moshammer, Kai; Seidel, Lars; Wang, Yu; Selim, Hatem; Sarathy, Mani; Mauss, Fabian; Hansen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.

  6. 26 CFR 1.3-1 - Application of optional tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., appropriate to his number of exemptions, provided for cases in which a joint return is filed. (c) Use of tax... in the case of a joint return (including the return of a surviving spouse) and lesser income... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application of optional tax. 1.3-1 Section 1.3-1...

  7. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS...

  8. 1,3- and 1,4-Substituted tetrazolium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2002-01-01

    The published data on the synthesis, physicochemical properties, structures and reactions of 1,3-(1,3,5)- and 1,4-(1,4,5)-substituted tetrazolium salts are systematised and generalised. Their applications as starting compounds in the preparative chemistry of heterocyclic derivatives and some other branches of science and technology are reviewed. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  9. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  10. Characterization of methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weijing; Lu Hao; Yang Weicheng; Liu Weixia; Li Shuai; Xu Zhongjie; Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Chen Suyun; Jiang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C was synthesized by using methanol-"1"3C with a novel method, and the characterization of it was performed using HPLC, LC-MS and "1HMNR. The results indicated that the synthetic was right. And the yield of methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C was 70.0% with 99% "1"3C abundance and 99.8% purity. Compared with the classical method, there was more benefit. The methacetin "1"3C-breath test was performed with the synthetic on the live mice, which showed a precise reflection of alteration of liver function in liver injury and functional recovery. (authors)

  11. Simulating emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene after soil fumigation under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Ashworth, D J

    2018-04-15

    Soil fumigation is an important agricultural practice used to produce many vegetable and fruit crops. However, fumigating soil can lead to atmospheric emissions which can increase risks to human and environmental health. A complete understanding of the transport, fate, and emissions of fumigants as impacted by soil and environmental processes is needed to mitigate atmospheric emissions. Five large-scale field experiments were conducted to measure emission rates for 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), a soil fumigant commonly used in California. Numerical simulations of these experiments were conducted in predictive mode (i.e., no calibration) to determine if simulation could be used as a substitute for field experimentation to obtain information needed by regulators. The results show that the magnitude of the volatilization rate and the total emissions could be adequately predicted for these experiments, with the exception of a scenario where the field was periodically irrigated after fumigation. In addition, the timing of the daily peak 1,3-D emissions was not accurately predicted for these experiments due to the peak emission rates occurring during the night or early-morning hours. This study revealed that more comprehensive mathematical models (or adjustments to existing models) are needed to fully describe emissions of soil fumigants from field soils under typical agronomic conditions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  15. Thermochemistry of 1,3-diethylbarbituric and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acids: Experimental and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notario, Rafael; Roux, María Victoria; Ros, Francisco; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enthalpies of formation in condensed phase have been obtained. • Enthalpy of vaporization of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid has been determined. • Enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid has been determined. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been obtained. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been calculated at G3 and G4 levels. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental and computational thermochemical study on two barbituric acid derivatives, viz. 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid. Values of standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K have been derived from experiment. Energies of combustion were measured by the static bomb combustion calorimetry in the case of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid, and the rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry in the case of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid. From the combustion energies, standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state at T = 298.15 K were calculated. The enthalpy of vaporization of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid and enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid were determined using the transpiration method. Combining calorimetric and transpiration results, values of −(611.9 ± 2.0) kJ · mol −1 and −(343.8 ± 2.2) kJ · mol −1 for the gas-phase enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K of 1,3-diethylbarbituric and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acids, respectively, were derived. Theoretical calculations at the G3 and G4 levels were performed, and a study of the molecular structure of the compounds has been carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation were in very good agreement with the experimental values

  16. pago_pago_1-3s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. Mobile, Alabama 1/3 MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  18. Southern Louisiana 1/3 arc-second MHW DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Modeling and mapping of coastal processes (e.g. tsunamis, hurricane storm-surge, and sea-level rise) requires digital representations of Earth's solid surface,...

  19. seward_ak_1_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. cordova_1_3s_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. hanalei_hi_1-3sec_pub.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. wake_island_1_3sec.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. sd_1_3_110805.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. or_newport1_3navd.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. oahu_pearlhbr_1_3s_20060629.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. or_seaside1_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. craig_ak_1_3s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. Searching for ?_1_3 at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Napolitano, James

    2015-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out by the Daya Bay Collaboration to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ_1_3. In addition, the grant has supported research into lattice field theory beyond the standard model.

  9. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  10. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  11. Eesti Post investeerib Kasahstani 1,3 miljonit / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Post investeerib tütarettevõtte Eesti Elektronpost vahendusel Kasahstani postiturule 1,3 miljonit krooni, et pakkuda koostöös sealse riikliku postifirmaga digitaalselt saadetud andmete printimise ning adressaatidele saatmise kompleksteenust

  12. 1-(3-Iodopropyl-4-methylquinolin-1-ium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Deligeorgiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free “one-pot” synthetic approach to 1-(3-iodopropyl-4-methylquinolin-1-ium iodide is reported in the present work. The title compound is derived from N-alkylation of 4-methylquinoline with 1,3-diiodopropane proceeded at room temperature. The target quinolinium salt is obtained in a highly pure form. It’s structure was evaluated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and DEPT135 spectra.

  13. Spin glass transition in the rhombohedral LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, Xiaofei; Yang, Xu; Han, Bing; Chen, Nan; Liu, Lina; Wei, Yingjin; Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Hong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The Rietveld analysis of XRD data reveals a single phase with rhombohedral structure. •Dc susceptibility data suggest a spin glass behavior at low T in the 333 compound. •The ac susceptibility measurements have been observed in the typical SG system. •Three models have been employed to study the behavior of the spin glass state. •Both geometrical frustration and disorder play important role in the formation of SG. -- Abstract: Layered LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 has been synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the magnetic properties were comprehensively studied by dc and ac susceptibilities. The dc magnetization curves show the irreversibility and spin freezing behavior at 109 K and 9 K. The evolution of real and imaginary part of ac susceptibility under different frequencies indicates a spin glass transition at low temperature. Three models (the Néel–Arrhenius law, the Vogel–Fulcher law, and the power law) have been employed to study the relaxation behavior of the spin glass state. Both frustration and disorder play important role in the formation of spin glass

  14. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  15. Lewis base catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to carbonyl and imino compounds using 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, Makoto; Mukaiyama, Teruaki

    2008-09-01

    Lewis base-catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and N-substituted aldimines with 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane (TMS-dithiane) is described. By the activation of the carbon-silicon bond in the presence of a Lewis base catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium phenoxide (PhONnBu(4)), a 1,3-dithiane addition reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding adducts in good to high yields under mild conditions. This synthesis is also applied to the reactions of ketones having alpha-protons, and of N-substituted aldimines.

  16. β-1,3-glucan in developing cotton fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, D.; Carpita, N.C.; Montezinos, D.; Kulow, C.; Delmer, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of a noncellulosic β-1,3-glucan in cotton fibers. The glucan can be isolated as distinct fractions of varying solubility. When fibers are homogenized rigorously in aqueous buffer, part of the total β-1,3-glucan is found as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls. The proportion of total β-1,3-glucan which is found as the soluble polymer varies somewhat as a function of fiber age. The insoluble fraction of the BETA-1,3-glucan remains associated with the cell wall fraction. The glucan fraction which can be isolated as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls is not associated with membranous material, and we propose that it represents glucan which is also extracellular but not tightly associated with the cell wall. Enzyme digestion studies indicate that all of the cotton fiber glucan is β-linked, and methylation analyses and enzyme studies both show that the predominant linkage in the glucan is 1 → 3. The possibility of some minor branching at C-6 can also be deduced from the methylation analyses. The timing of deposition of the β-1,3-glucan during fiber development coincides closely with the onset of secondary wall cellulose synthesis. Kinetic studies performed with ovules and fibers cultured in vitro show that incorporation of radioactivity from [ 14 C/glucose into β-1,3-glucan is linear with respect to time almost from the start of the labeling period; however, a lag is observed before incorporation into cellulose becomes linear with time, suggesting that these two different glucans are not polymerized directly from the same substrate pool. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that neither the β-1,3-glucan nor cellulose exhibits significant turnover after synthesis

  17. Optical and radio counterpart of Circinus X-1 (3U 1516-56)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, J A.J.; Murdin, P G; Peterson, B A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia); and others

    1977-11-01

    Circinus X-1 (3U 1516-56) has a radio counterpart which, at high frequencies, show flares with the same 16.6 day periodicity as the X-ray intensity. In each cycle the radio flare occurs shortly after the intensity drop-off which defines the X-ray modulation. The radio source is positionally coincident with a faint red star having very strong H..cap alpha.. and weak He I emission lines which are probably variable. The object may be an early-type emission-line star or a symbiotic star, at a distance of 10 kpc.

  18. Comparison of ASTEC 1.3 and ASTEC 1.3 R2 calculations in case of SBO for VVER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasova, B.; Stefanova, A.; Grudev, P.

    2009-01-01

    The report presents the results from severe accident analyses performed with the both versions of ASTEC v1.3 and ASTEC v1.3R2 computer code for a VVER 1000 type of reactor. The purpose of this analysis is to assess the progress of ASTEC code modeling of main phenomena arising during hypothetical severe accidents. The final target of these analyses is to estimate the behaviour of the ASTEC code, its capability for simulation of severe accidents, including safety systems and Severe Accident Management (SAM) procedures. The analyses have been performed assuming a station blackout with simultaneous loss of HPIS, LPIS (ECCSs), EFWS and spray system due to failure of DGs. Hydro accumulators are not available. In the calculation it is assumed opening and stuck-open of PRZ relief valves. It has been organized the Fission Products path through the SEMPELL valve. It should be said that this investigation was limited to the 'in-vessel' phase of the sequence; therefore the effect of sprays on containment atmosphere has not been studied. (authors)

  19. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  20. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran: a Model Chromophore for Singlet Fission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson, J. C.; Michl, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 375, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 80. ISSN 2365-0869 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19143S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran * photophysics * solar energy * singlet fission * covalent dimers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2016

  1. 1,3-Butadiene: Biomarkers and application to risk assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swenberg, J. A.; Bordeerat, N. K.; Boysen, G.; Carro, S.; Georgieva, N. I.; Troutman, J. M.; Upton, P. B.; Albertini, R. J.; Vacek, P. M.; Walker, V. E.; Šrám, Radim; Goggin, M.; Tretyakova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, 1-2 (2011), s. 150-154 ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : risk assessment * 1,3-butadiene * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2011

  2. Environmentally benign synthesis of sydnone containing 1,3,4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    lop benign synthetic methods for sydnone deriva- tives,. 9 we report here a new series of sydnone containing 1,3,4-thiadiazines by microwave irradia- tion under solvent-free conditions. 2. Experimental. 2.1 General remarks. Melting points were determined by open capillary method and are uncorrected. All compounds were.

  3. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3 Contract clause. In addition to the clause at 48 CFR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes...

  4. 48 CFR 970.0407-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0407... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0407-1-3 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5204-3, Access to and Ownership of Records...

  5. Variation of β-1,3-Glucanase, Chitinase and Polyphenoloxidase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones that differ in susceptibility to black pod disease were analysed for response to stress induced by pod inoculation with the fungus Phytophthora megakarya Braz. Et Griff. Fungal inoculation significantly stimulated β-1,3-glucanase activity in both soluble and ionically-bound fractions of the ...

  6. Irony and Aequabilitas : Horace, Satires 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Kemp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Satire 1.3 Horace upholds ‘Stoic’ aequabilitas, ironically aligning it with Epicurean moderation to attack Stoic inflexibility. His connection between friendship and justice shows an awareness of this link in Hellenistic thought. His ironic use of philosophical material serves a serious, anti-Stoic purpose (pace some recent scholarship.

  7. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino

  8. O interactions in 1,3-diphenyl-urea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis, X-ray structure and role of intermolecular interactions have been studied in case of 1,3-diphenyl-urea, owing to its medicinal importance. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system (space group, 21) with unit cell parameters, = 9.118(3), = 10.558(2), = 11.780(3) Å and = 4.

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S Y; Lee, H

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  10. High-performance 1.3-μm laser diode by LP-MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, TongNing; Ji, Jin-yan; Yan, Xin-min; Liu, Tao; Ning, Zhou; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Zi-li; Huang, Ge-fan

    1996-09-01

    The progress in 1.3 micrometers wavelength InGaAsP/InP lasers for optic fiber communication and subscriber loop applications is reviewed. By using LP-MOVPE/LPE epitaxy techniques, the performance of commercial optical devices is considerably improved. The bandwidth of the 1.3 micrometers uncooled MQW-LD module could be high to 1.6GHz, threshold current Ith = 20mW while uniformity, reproducible, high yield are achieved. Further by growing active layer with compressive strained structure the lowest threshold current Ith equals 3.8mA was achieved with high reflection coating and the temperature performance of the SL-MQW-LD has been greatly improved, the change of slop efficiency at 25 degrees C and 85 degrees C is less than 1 dB. Using the holographic technique a high power 1.31 micrometers InGaAsP/InP multiquantum well distributed feedback laser has also been developed. The fiber output power of butterfly packaged module with optic isolator Pf > 10mW, threshold current Ith 22 percent and side mode suppression ratio SMSR > 40dB. The composite triple beat CTB test frequencies equals 55.25 to approximately 289.25MHz with 40 NCTA channels, the carrier to noise ration CNR > 50 dB and the relative intensity noise RIN < -160dB/Hz.

  11. Problem Definition Study on 1,3-Dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene and Di-n-Propyl Adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    are significantly higher than the levels observed for * 1,3,5-tr it~be-zeve. 9Both corounds hav teen sh...r to exhibit c e-re:,onse mutagenicity in the...returned to work. However, cyanosis, general malaise and anorexia *0 appeared within two days after returning to work and she was admitted to the hospital...secondary anemia, anorexia , weight loss, insomnia, moderate cvanosis and yellow-brown discoloration of the skin. After removal from 1,3-dinitro- benzene

  12. Structural Analysis of a Family 81 Glycoside Hydrolase Implicates Its Recognition of β-1,3-Glucan Quaternary Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Fillo, Alexander; Massel, Patricia; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2017-09-05

    Family 81 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), which are known to cleave β-1,3-glucans, are found in archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses. Here we examine the structural and functional features of the GH81 catalytic module, BhGH81, from the Bacillus halodurans protein BH0236 to probe the molecular basis of β-1,3-glucan recognition and cleavage. BhGH81 displayed activity on laminarin, curdlan, and pachyman, but not scleroglucan; the enzyme also cleaved β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides as small as β-1,3-glucotriose. The crystal structures of BhGH81 in complex with various β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides revealed distorted sugars in the -1 catalytic subsite and an arrangement consistent with an inverting catalytic mechanism having a proposed conformational itinerary of 2 S 0 → 2,5 B ‡ → 5 S 1 . Notably, the architecture of the catalytic site, location of an adjacent ancillary β-1,3-glucan binding site, and the surface properties of the enzyme indicate the likely ability to recognize the double and/or triple-helical quaternary structures adopted by β-1,3-glucans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subchronic toxicity studies on 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and tetryl in rats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, T.V.; Daniel, F.B.

    1994-09-01

    Toxic effects of 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) in male and female F344 rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of 1,3-DNB (0, 2.5, 10, 25, 75 and 150 mg/kg diet) for fourteen days. The average daily 1 ,3-DNB doses consumed were 0.21, 0.87, 2.02, 6.28 and 11.82 mg/kg b.w. for females and 0.21, 0.80, 1.98, 5.77 and 10.56 for males. Food consumption was significantly decreased in high dose animals of both sexes. Final body weights were not altered but relative organ weights were significantly changed in the 150 and 75 mg dose groups involving the spleen (males and females) and testes (males). Hematology and clinical chemistry studies indicated significantly increased values in both sexes relating to reticulocytes and methemoglobin in the 150 and 75 mg/kg dose groups while the red blood cell count, hemoglobin level and % hematocrit were decreased in these same groups. In addition, the levels of bilirubin, protein and albumin were increased in high dose males, Histopathological evaluations suggested that the susceptible organs for 1,3-DNB toxicity were kidneys (hyaline droplets), spleen (erythroid cell hyperplasia), brain (malacia and microgliosis), testes (seminiferous tubular degeneration). These changes were noted mainly in the 150 and 75 mg/kg dose groups except those changes involving the brain (150 mg/kg group only).

  14. Synthesis of Spiroisoxazolines by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of the chiral nitrile oxide 1 to 1-R-substituted 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinones 2 (where R is H, n-butyl-, 1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonyl-, 1-methylethenyl- and acetyl- proceeds regioselectively under the formation of spiroisoxazolines, namely 7-R-substituted-6-oxo-8,8-dimethyl-1-oxa-2,7-diazaspiro[4,4]non-2-enes 5 and 6. The asymmetric induction expected by the a-chiral centre of the nitrile oxide 1 was not very effective, diastereoisomers 5 and 6 were formed in an approximate 50:50 ratio. The stereoselectivity of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the arylnitrile oxide 7 with the chiral lactam 3 and the achiral lactone 4 are investigated. The attack of the 1,3-dipole occurred from the less hindered face of the dipolarophile 3 and 4, giving the major isomer 8 and 10, respectively.

  15. Spin texture and magnetoroton excitations at nu=1/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshaus, Javier G; Dujovne, Irene; Gallais, Yann; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F; Pinczuk, Aron; Tan, Yan-Wen; Stormer, Horst; Dennis, Brian S; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken W

    2008-02-01

    Neutral spin texture (ST) excitations at nu=1/3 are directly observed for the first time by resonant inelastic light scattering. They are determined to involve two simultaneous spin flips. At low magnetic fields, the ST energy is below that of the magnetoroton minimum. With increasing in-plane magnetic field these mode energies cross at a critical ratio of the Zeeman and Coulomb energies of eta(c)=0.020+/-0.001. Surprisingly, the intensity of the ST mode grows with temperature in the range in which the magnetoroton modes collapse. The temperature dependence is interpreted in terms of a competition between coexisting phases supporting different excitations. We consider the role of the ST excitations in activated transport at nu=1/3.

  16. Purification and characterization of a novel 1,3- propanediol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase (YqhD-1) found in Klebsiella oxytoca M5al was purified to homogeneity with a his-tag on a Ni-NTA column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa. When YqhD-1 was tested as a ...

  17. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+·0.5C8H4O4−·H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anion and one water molecule. In the crystal, components are connected by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network.

  18. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  19. Improved cycling and high rate performance of core-shell LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/carbon nanocomposites for lithium-ion batteries: Effect of the carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Yi; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Hongbo; Li, Guochun; Li, Yunxing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a fast microwave heating way to prepare LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C. • The effects of different carbon sources were discussed in detail. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 shows a discharge capacity of 160 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 elucidates excellent cyclic stability. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 exhibits attractive rate capability. - Abstract: Core-shell type olivine solid solutions, LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C, are synthesized via a very simple and rapid microwave heating route with different carbon sources. The obatined LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C materials are characterized thoroughly by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy instrument. The particle sizes and distribution of the carbon layer of BP2000 carbon black coated LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP) are more uniform than that obtained from acetylene black (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /AB) and Super P (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /SP). Moreover, the LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP nanocomposite shows superior electrochemical properties such as high discharge capacity of 160 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C, excellent cyclic stability (143 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C after 30 cycles) and rate capability (76 mAh g −1 at 20 C), which are better than other two samples. Cyclic voltammetric and electrical tests disclose that the Li-ion diffusion, the reversibility of lithium extraction/insertion and electrical conductivity are significantly improved in LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP composite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy illustrates that LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP composite electrode possesses low contact and charge-transfer impedances, which can lead to rapid electron transport during the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction reaction. It is believed that olivine solid

  20. 1,3Do and 1,3Pe states of two electron atoms under Debye plasma screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Jayanta K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mukherjee, T.K.; Mukherjee, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive non-relativistic variational calculations for estimating the energy values of 2pnd( 1,3 D o ) states [n=3-6] of two electron atoms (He, Li + ,Be 2+ ) and 2pnp( 1 P e )[n=3-8] and 2pnp( 3 P e ) states [n=2-7] of Be 2+ under weakly coupled plasma screening have been performed using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis. The modified energy eigenvalues of 1,3 P e states arising from two p electrons of Be 2+ ion and 1,3 D o states due to 2pnd configuration of Li + and Be 2+ ion in the Debye plasma environment are being reported for the first time. The effect of plasma has been incorporated through the Debye screening model. The system tends towards gradual instability and the number of bound states reduces with increasing plasma coupling strength. The wavelengths for 2pn ' p( 1 P e )[n ' =3-8]→2pnd( 1 D o )[n=3-6] and 2pn ' p( 3 P e )[n ' =2-8]→2pnd( 3 D o )[n=3-6] transitions in plasma embedded two electron atoms have also been reported.

  1. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3 or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4 it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic. This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1. First, we synthesized the 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2, yield 98% by using Br2 and CH3CO2H, and then used it to obtain 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3, yield 62% from compound 1, along with ethanolic solution (reflux and NaN3. Finally, we prepared 1,2,3-triazole compounds (4a, b by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, involving compound (3 and terminal acetylenes (phenylacetylene, a and glycoside (b using Cu(OAc2 and ascorbate, under argon atmosphere. During the second step, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone was prepared using Br2/CH2Cl2 at room temperature. From compound (5 it was possible to synthesize (6, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2/CuI/Et3N, under argon atmosphere, in 40% yield. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3 and alkynes (a, yield 23% and b, yield 30% were conducted using the solvent system, (1:1 terc-BuOH/H2O/r.t/ 20 mol% of Cu(OAc2 and sodium ascorbate, under stirring during 24 hours. The reaction involving 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (5, yield 65% and phenylacetylene was prepared using the solvent mixture (2:1 DMSO/CHCl3 and catalytic amount of CuI/Pd(PPh32Cl2. The final products were characterized by elemental analysis and spectrometric techniques (IR, NMR 1H and 13C. Two novel triazole compounds were synthesized from naphthoquinones by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition from suitable 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained by Sonogashira couplings.

  2. The Dual Activity Responsible for the Elongation and Branching of β-(1,3-Glucan in the Fungal Cell Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishukumar Aimanianda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available β-(1,3-Glucan, the major fungal cell wall component, ramifies through β-(1,6-glycosidic linkages, which facilitates its binding with other cell wall components contributing to proper cell wall assembly. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we developed a protocol to quantify β-(1,6-branching on β-(1,3-glucan. Permeabilized S. cerevisiae and radiolabeled substrate UDP-(14Cglucose allowed us to determine branching kinetics. A screening aimed at identifying deletion mutants with reduced branching among them revealed only two, the bgl2Δ and gas1Δ mutants, showing 15% and 70% reductions in the branching, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, a recombinant Gas1p introduced β-(1,6-branching on the β-(1,3-oligomers following its β-(1,3-elongase activity. Sequential elongation and branching activity of Gas1p occurred on linear β-(1,3-oligomers as well as Bgl2p-catalyzed products [short β-(1,3-oligomers linked by a linear β-(1,6-linkage]. The double S. cerevisiae gas1Δ bgl2Δ mutant showed a drastically sick phenotype. An ScGas1p ortholog, Gel4p from Aspergillus fumigatus, also showed dual β-(1,3-glucan elongating and branching activity. Both ScGas1p and A. fumigatus Gel4p sequences are endowed with a carbohydrate binding module (CBM, CBM43, which was required for the dual β-(1,3-glucan elongating and branching activity. Our report unravels the β-(1,3-glucan branching mechanism, a phenomenon occurring during construction of the cell wall which is essential for fungal life.

  3. Synthesis of [1,3 - 15 N2] uracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, M.; Axente, D.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of 15 N labelled uracil, using CO( 15 NH 2 ) 2 as starting material, is presented. The experimental procedure is an adaptation of the synthesis methods for the corresponding unlabelled compounds. Urea- 15 N 2 used as starting material was obtained from H 15 NO 3 (99 at.% 15 N) produced at National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca.The uracil structure was determined using the mass spectrometry method and the isotopic labelling was determined by the same method on the molecular compound. The synthesis scheme of (1,3- 15 N 2 ) uracil is presented. (authors)

  4. Polymers Containing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Rings for Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Dana Damaceanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, properties and potential applications of new polymers containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole rings, tacking into account the requirements of the modern technologies. Two classes of polymers containing oxadiazole rings were approached: polyamides and polyimides. All the polymers were characterized with respect to the identification of their chemical structure, solubility, molecular weights, film forming ability, thermal, dielectric and optical properties, and the behaviour of polyoxadiazole films upon irradiation with pulsed KrF laser. All the properties were discussed in correlation with their chemical structure and compared with those of related polymers.

  5. 5-Methylbenzo[d][2,1,3]selenadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Ouahine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C7H6N2Se, the molecules are arranged in rods along the b-axis direction and form dimeric units due to intermolecular Se...N contacts of 2.982 (2 Å. The molecules are further linked by weak π–π stacking interactions between the 2,1,3-selenadiazole and six-membered aromatic rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8509 (11 Å and ring slippage = 1.539 (3 Å].

  6. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  7. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  8. l-2-Nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutyun A. Karapetyan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic form of l-nitroarginine, C6H10N4O4, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. According to the geometrical parameters, similar in both molecules, the structure corresponds to that of l-2-nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid; there are, however, conformational differences between the independent molecules, one of them being close to a twisted chair while the other might be described as a rather flattened boat. All six active H atoms in the two molecules are involved in hydrogen bonds, two of which are intramolecular and four intermolecular, forming an infinite chain of molecules along the b axis.

  9. Spin Caloritronic Transport of 1,3,5-Triphenylverdazyl Radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiu-Hua; Zhao Peng; Liu De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin caloritronic transport properties of a stable 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl (TPV) radical sandwiched between Au electrodes through different connection fashions. Obvious spin Seebeck effect can be observed in the para-connection fashion. Furthermore, a pure spin current and a completely spin-polarized current can be realized by tuning the gate voltage. Furthermore, a 100% spin polarization without the need of gate voltage can be obtained in the meta-connection fashion. These results demonstrate that TPV radical is a promising material for spin caloritronic and spintronic applications. (paper)

  10. The gas phase reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene: formation yields of some toxic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Franz; Paulson, Suzanne E.

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product yields. In separate experiments, small quantities of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene were added as a tracer for OH. Formation yields of acrolein of (52±7)%, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene of (3.1±0.5)% and OH radicals of (13±3)% were observed. In addition, the rate coefficient of the gas-phase reaction of ozone with 1,2-epoxy-3-butene was measured both directly and relative to propene, finding an average of (1.6±0.4)×10 -18 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, respectively, at 296±2 K. The results are briefly discussed in terms of the effect of atmospheric processing on the toxicity of 1,3-butadiene.

  11. Transcriptional activation of Mina by Sp1/3 factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shangli; Potula, Hari Hara S K; Pillai, Meenu R; Van Stry, Melanie; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chung, Linda; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Mina is an epigenetic gene regulatory protein known to function in multiple physiological and pathological contexts, including pulmonary inflammation, cell proliferation, cancer and immunity. We showed previously that the level of Mina gene expression is subject to natural genetic variation linked to 21 SNPs occurring in the Mina 5' region. In order to explore the mechanisms regulating Mina gene expression, we set out to molecularly characterize the Mina promoter in the region encompassing these SNPs. We used three kinds of assays--reporter, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation--to analyze a 2 kb genomic fragment spanning the upstream and intron 1 regions flanking exon 1. Here we discovered a pair of Mina promoters (P1 and P2) and a P1-specific enhancer element (E1). Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that Sp1/3 transcription factors trigger Mina expression through additive activity targeted to a cluster of four Sp1/3 binding sites forming the P1 promoter. These results set the stage for comprehensive analysis of Mina gene regulation from the context of tissue specificity, the impact of inherited genetic variation and the nature of upstream signaling pathways.

  12. Measurement of atmospheric MTF in a littoral environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, DJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) derived from the point spread function is an alternative to the use of scintillometry in characterizing the effects of turbulence as well as optical scattering. This experiment involved...

  13. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  14. 2-Ureido-1,3-thiazol-3-ium dihydrogen phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Gubina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C4H6N3OS+·H2PO4−, (I, was obtained as a result of hydrolysis of [(1,3-thiazol-2-ylaminocarbonyl]phosphoramidic acid, (II, in water. X-ray analysis has shown that the N—P bond in (II breaks, leading to the formation of the substituted carbamide (I. This compound exists as an internal salt. The unit cell consists of a urea cation and an anion of H2PO4−. Protonation of the N atom of the heterocyclic ring was confirmed by the location of the H atom in a difference Fourier map. The molecules of substituted urea are connected by O...O hydrogen bonds into unlimited planes. In turn, those planes are connected to each other via N—H...O hydrogen bonds with molecules of phosphoric acid, forming a three-dimensional polymer.

  15. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  16. Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-Butadiene: influence of aerosol acidity and Relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of acidic seed aerosols on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA)have been examined in a number of previous studies, several of which have observed strong linear correlations between the aerosol acidity (measured as nmol H+ per m3 air s...

  17. Functional analysis of α1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. ► Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. ► FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. ► FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The α1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of α1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe x were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  18. LINAG phase I. A technical report, Version: 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    . General remarks; II.2. Production of accelerated ISOL - RIBs from fission and comparison with photoinduced fission; III. High intensity multi-charge ion sources for LINAG I; III.1. Constraints; III.2. Multi-charged ion sources; IV. The linear accelerator; IV.1. General layout of the linear accelerator; IV.2. Source and low energy beam transport line; IV.3. The RFQ injector; IV.4. The superconducting linear accelerator; IV.5. Layout of the driver; IV.6. Review of the driver cost evaluation; V. The target and ion source; V.1. The production and fission fragments; V.1.1. The rotating target/converter; V.1.2. The target and ion source production system; V.1.3. Production rates; V.2. Radioprotection and target handling; VI. Security and radioprotection; VI.1.1. Ion source; VI.1.2.The RFQ; VI.1.3. The liner accelerator; VI.2.1. Ion source; VI.2.2. RFQ; VI.2.3. LINAC; VI.2.4. The high energy beam transport line; VI.2.5. Beam accidents; VI.2.6. Shielding for the target/ion - source; VI.2.7. The authorization procedures; VII. Siting, post-acceleration and coupling to experimental areas; VII.1. Post acceleration option; VII.1.1. Post acceleration in using the CIME cyclotron; VII.1.2. Re-injection of the CIME beams into CSS2; VII.1.3. Post acceleration with C0 + CSS1 + CSS2; VIII. Possible links between LINAG and EURISOL; VIII.1. Background to EURISOL; VIII.2. Synergies; IX. Summary of costs and general schedule; X. Conclusion

  19. Crystal structure of 4,4-dibromo-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-2-azabuta-1,3-diene-1-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Chaabene

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10Br2N2O2, represents an example of a planar π-conjugated 2-azabutadiene molecule, which is both an interesting starting material for further organic transformations and a potential ligand in organometallic coordination chemistry. Its metric molecular parameters are typical for the family of 2-azabuta-1,3-dienes not substituted at the (CH 3-position. In the crystal, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0658 Å azadiene molecules form one-dimensional double-wide ribbons through intermolecular halogen bonds (C—Br...O and C—Br...Br—C, which then stack in a slipped manner through weak C—H...Br and π–π interactions to generate a three-dimensional network.

  20. 2-(1,3-Dithiolan-2-ylidene)-5-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6- tetrathiapentalene(DHDA-TTP), a hybrid of BDH-TTP and BDA-TTP, and its metallic cation-radical salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Maki; Toita, Takashi; Akutsu, Hiroki; Nakatsuji, Shin'ichi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Ikemoto, Isao; Kikuchi, Koichi

    2002-05-21

    The synthesis and electrochemical properties of the DHDA-TTP donor, a hybrid of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDH-TTP) and 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP), has been investigated, and its ability to form metallic cation-radical salts is elucidated.

  1. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An electron spin resonance study on the gamma-irradiation of urea, urea- d4, 1-3-dimethylurea, 1-3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramthylurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.S.; McManus, H.J.D.; Kevan, L.

    1994-01-01

    Urea, urea-d 4 , 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea powder and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea, and their solutions in D 2 O were γ-irradiated with 0.0882 kGy both at room temperature and at 77 K. The product radicals were identified with X-band electron spin resonance, based on the g-factor and hyperfine coupling constants. The radicals formed from urea and urea-d 4 were identified as nitrogen-centered and resulted from N-H bond dissociation. The radicals produced from 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea were identified as carbon-centered and resulted from C-H bond cleavage. The electron spin resonance signals of 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea are similar in both the powder and D 2 O solution. The radicals observed from 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea were identified as . NH-CH 2 , . NH-CHCH 3 and . (CH 3 )(CH 2 ), respectively. (author)

  3. Photoluminescence of 1,3-dimethyl pyrazoloquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscien, E. [1st Liceum, Sobieskiego 22, 42-700 Lubliniec (Poland); Gondek, E.; Pokladko, M. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Krakow, Podhorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Jarosz, B. [Department of Chemistry, Hugon Kollotaj Agricultural University, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Vlokh, R.O. [Institute of Physical Optics, Dragomanova 23, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kityk, A.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)], E-mail: kityk@ap.univie.ac.at

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents absorption and photoluminescence of 6-F, 6-Br, 6-Cl, 7-TFM and 6-COOEt derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMPQ). The measured absorption and emission spectra are compared with the quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semi-empirical methods (AM1 or PM3) that are applied either to the equilibrium conformations in vacuo (T = 0 K) or combined with the molecular dynamics simulations (T = 300 K). The spectra calculated by the AM1 method appear to be for all dyes in practically excellent agreement with the measured ones. In particular, the position of the first absorption band is obtained with the accuracy up to a few nanometers, whereas the calculated photoluminescence spectra predict the positions of the emission maxima for a gas phase with the accuracy up to 10-18 nm. The photoemission spectra of DMPQ dyes are considerably less solvatochromic comparing to phenyl-containing pyrazoloquinoline derivatives. According to the quantum chemical analysis the reason for such behaviour lies in a local character of the electronic transitions of DMPQ dyes which are characterized by a relatively small difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moments. Importantly that the rotational dynamics of both methyl subunits does not change this situation.

  4. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food

  5. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food.

  6. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity of thiazolidinone derivatives of 1,3-thiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Mirjana; Fesatidou, Mara; Xenikakis, Iakovos; Geronikaki, Athina; Angelova, Violina T; Savic, Vladimir; Pasic, Marta; Krilovic, Branislav; Djukic, Dusan; Gobeljic, Borko; Pavlica, Marina; Djuric, Ana; Stanojevic, Ivan; Vojvodic, Danilo; Saso, Luciano

    2018-04-25

    The initial steps in preclinical drug developing research concern the synthesis of new compounds for specific therapeutic use which needs to be confirmed by in vitro and then in vivo testing. Nine thiazolidinone derivatives (numerically labeled 1-9) classified as follows: 1,3-thiazole-based compounds (1 and 2); 1,3,4-thiadiazole based compounds (3 and 4); substituted 5-benzylideno-2-adamantylthiazol[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazol-6(5H)ones (5-8); and an ethylaminothiazole-based chalcone (9), were tested for antioxidant activity (AOA) by using three in vitro assays: DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging capacity test); FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power test); and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test). Compounds 1-4 and 9 in particular are newly synthesized compounds. Also, traditional antioxidants Vitamins E and C and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) were tested. The results of DPPH testing: Vitamin C 94.35%, Vitamin E 2.99% and α-LA 1.57%; compounds: 4 33.98%; 2 18.73%; 1 15.62%; 5 6.59%; 3 4.99%; 6-9 demonstrated almost no AOA. The results of TBARS testing (% of LPO inhibition): Vitamin C 62.32%; Vitamin E 36.29%; α-LA 51.36%; compounds: 1 62.11%; 5 66.71%; 9 60.93%; 4, 6 and 7 demonstrated ∼50%; 3 and 8 displayed ∼38%; 2 23.51%. By FRAP method, Vitamins E and C showed equal AOA, ∼100%, unlike α-LA (no AOA), and AOA of the tested compounds (expressed as a fraction of the AOA of Vitamin C) were: 2 and 4-75%; 8, 3 and 1-45%; 5-7 and 9-27%. Different red-ox reaction principles between these assays dictate different AOA outcomes for a single compound. Vitamin C appeared to be the superior antioxidant out of the traditional antioxidants; and compound 4 was superior to other tested thiazolidinone derivatives. Vitamin C appeared to be the superior antioxidant out of the traditional antioxidants; and compound 4 was superior to other tested thiazolidinone derivatives. Phenyl-functionalized benzylidene, amino-carbonyl functional domains and chelating

  8. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  9. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 3: Solar-Power Microgrids and Atmospheric Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    1.2 DOD Renewable Energy Applications 1 1.3 Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research Strategy 2 1.4 Microgrid Definitions 3 1.4.1 Mobile Microgrid 4...1.4.2 Hybrid Microgrid 4 1.4.3 Smart Microgrid 4 1.5 Long-Term Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research Vision 5 2. Atmospheric Dependencies 5 2.1...developed-for-Army “ smart ” mobile hybrid microgrid that will incorporate both traditional and renewable energy power resources. A significant

  10. Effect of Nb doping on electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} at high cutoff voltage for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiefan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Hongguang, E-mail: hongguangliu_01@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); CNOOC Tianjin Chemical Research & Design Institute, Tianjin 300131 (China); Ye, Xuehai; Xia, Jiping; Lu, Yang; Lin, Chaowang; Yu, Xiaowei [CNOOC Tianjin Chemical Research & Design Institute, Tianjin 300131 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Nb substituted LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 0–0.03) was prepared by sol–gel method. • 2% Nb-substituted sample showed better cycle performance at high cutoff voltage. • Ex situ analysis was used to show the structure changes of Nb-doped samples. - Abstract: Nb doped cathode materials with the formula LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) have been prepared successfully by sol–gel method. The effect of Nb substitution on the crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} were studied systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and various electrochemical measurements. The results showed Nb substitution played an important role in the good cycling performance of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. Charge/discharge tests revealed that LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3–0.02}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 2} showed a capacity retention of 94.1% at 1 C after 50 cycles in a high cutoff voltage range (3.0–4.6 V), while discharge capacity of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} remains only 89.4% of that at 1 C. Ex-situ XRD analysis and EIS analysis indicated that the improved electrochemical properties of Nb-doped sample result from the more stable structure and lower resistance during the electrochemical cycling.

  11. Enhancement of electrochemical performance of LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 by surface modification with MnO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xin; Cong, Li-Na; Zhao, Qin; Tai, Ling-Hua; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Rong-Shun; Xie, Hai-Ming; Sun, Li-Qun

    2015-01-01

    LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 is successfully coated with MnO_2 by a chemical deposition method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) results demonstrate that MnO_2 forms a thin layer on the surface of LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 without destroying the crystal structure of the core material. Compared with pristine LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2, the MnO_2-coated sample shows enhanced electrochemical performance especially the rate capability. Even at a current density of 750 mA g"−"1, the discharge capacity of MnO_2-coated LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 is 155.15 mAh g"−"1, while that of the pristine electrode is only 132.84 mAh g"−"1 in the range of 2.5–4.5 V. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) curves show that the MnO_2 coating layer reacts with Li"+ during cycling, which is responsible for the higher discharge capacity of MnO_2-coated LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results confirmed that the MnO_2 coating layer plays an important role in reducing the charge transfer resistance on the electrolyte–electrode interfaces. - Highlights: • MnO_2 coated LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 cathode material is synthesized for the first time. • MnO_2 offers available sites for insertion of extracted lithium. • The preserved surface and crystal structures results in the improved kinetics.

  12. A facile synthesis of Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Liqing; Deng, Kunfa; Lv, Mengni; Xu, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    The novel Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C has been successfully synthesized by a feasible solution process in ternary system. The spherical carbon-coated composites are obtained using a heat treatment in the presence of sucrose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffractogram displays that the Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C crystallized in an orthorhombic structure with a space group of Pmn21. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mappings indicate that Fe, Mn and Ni elements are distributed homogenously in Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C nano-spherical particle with size less than 50 nm. The lithium storage capacity and cycling performance of the Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C presents good results when tested as cathode materials in lithium cells at room temperature. It delivers an initial discharge capacity of 181.4 mAh g"−"1 and a discharge capacity of 172.9 mAh g"−"1 after 20 cycles at 0.1C in the voltage range of 1.5–4.6V. Furthermore, it also exhibits an excellent rate capability with a capacity under different current densities of about 144.0 mAh g"−"1 (0.2 C), 117.9 mAh g"−"1 (0.5 C), 106.1 mAh g"−"1 (1 C), respectively and a good capacity cycling maintenance of 153.7 mAh g"−"1 after 60 cycles. Above results indicate that the spherical Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C becomes a very promising candidate for cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C was obtained by solution process in a ternary system. • The material was pure phase ternary solid solution with tetrahedral morphology. • The spherical particle size was less than 50 nm with graphitized carbon coating. • The nanocomposite revealed high discharge capacity and excellent rate capability.

  13. Gas/particle partitioning of carbonyls in the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new denuder-filter sampling technique has been used to investigate the gas/particle partitioning behaviour of the carbonyl products from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. A series of experiments was performed in two atmospheric simulation chambers at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature in the presence of NOx and at a relative humidity of approximately 50%. The denuder and filter were both coated with the derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl-hydroxylamine (PFBHA to enable the efficient collection of gas- and particle-phase carbonyls respectively. The tubes and filters were extracted and carbonyls identified as their oxime derivatives by GC-MS. The carbonyl products identified in the experiments accounted for around 5% and 10% of the mass of secondary organic aerosol formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene respectively.

    Experimental gas/particle partitioning coefficients were determined for a wide range of carbonyl products formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and compared with the theoretical values based on standard absorptive partitioning theory. Photooxidation products with a single carbonyl moiety were not observed in the particle phase, but dicarbonyls, and in particular, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, exhibited gas/particle partitioning coefficients several orders of magnitude higher than expected theoretically. These findings support the importance of heterogeneous and particle-phase chemical reactions for SOA formation and growth during the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons.

  14. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  15. Spin freezing phenomenon and transport properties in La{sub 1/3}Nd{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guoqing E-mail: gqli@mail.sy.ln.cn; Ze Xianyu; Kim, C.-O.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, Y.-W

    2002-02-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of La{sub 1/3}Nd{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} with the colossal magnetoresistant (CMR) effect were studied by using SQUID. The irreversible curve for magnetizing intensity vs. temperature in an applied magnetic field of 13 Oe indicates that the spins of electrons are frozen, and therefore spin-glass state is probably formed below the Curie temperature. This fact implied that La{sub 1/3}Nd{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} is mictomagnetic, that is, ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism co-exist in this kind of material.

  16. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  17. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  18. Development of a multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS 1.3 and its verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    A multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS version 1.3 has been developed. Main purpose of MARS 1.3 development is to have the realistic analysis capability of transient two-phase thermal-hydraulics of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) especially during Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LBLOCAs) where the multi-dimensional phenomena domain the transients. MARS code is a unified version of USNRC developed COBRA-TF, domain the transients. MARS code is a unified version of USNRC developed COBRA-TF, three-dimensional (3D) reactor vessel analysis code, and RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2, one-dimensional (1D) reactor system analysis code., Developmental requirements for MARS are chosen not only to best utilize the existing capability of the codes but also to have the enhanced capability in code maintenance, user accessibility, user friendliness, code portability, code readability, and code flexibility. For the maintenance of existing codes capability and the enhancement of code maintenance capability, user accessibility and user friendliness, MARS has been unified to be a single code consisting of 1D module (RELAP5) and 3D module (COBRA-TF). This is realized by implicitly integrating the system pressure matrix equations of hydrodynamic models and solving them simultaneously, by modifying the 1D/3D calculation sequence operable under a single Central Processor Unit (CPU) and by unifying the input structure and the light water property routines of both modules. In addition, the code structure of 1D module is completely restructured using the modular data structure of standard FORTRAN 90, which greatly improves the code maintenance capability, readability and portability. For the code flexibility, a dynamic memory management scheme is applied in both modules. MARS 1.3 now runs on PC/Windows and HP/UNIX platforms having a single CPU, and users have the options to select the 3D module to model the 3D thermal-hydraulics in the reactor vessel or other

  19. Improved high-voltage performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode with Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite as electrolyte additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Ma, Yulin; Li, Qin; Cui, Yingzhi; Wang, Panpan; Cheng, Xinqun; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi

    2017-01-01

    Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFEP) is investigated as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode at high operating voltage (4.6 V). Charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that TTFEP is effective to improve the cycling stability and rate capability of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode. The capacity retention of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 /Li cell with 1% TTFEP-containing electrolyte reaches up to 85.4% after 100 cycles at 0.5C (1C = 160 mA g −1 ), while that of the cell with the baseline electrolyte (1 M LiPF 6 in EC/DMC electrolyte) only remains 74.2%. Moreover, the discharge capacity of the cathode with 1% TTFEP-containing electrolyte could maintain around 112.0 mAh g −1 at 4C. Based on the characterization of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a protective interphase film formed on the cathode surface can be found due to the preferential oxidation of TTFEP, which inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and mitigates the cathode structural destruction, leading to the improved electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode at high voltage.

  20. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  1. Influence of Temperature on the Performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Prepared by High-Temperature Ball-Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the preparation of high electrochemical performance LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material for lithium-ion battery, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was prepared with lithium carbonate, nickel (II oxide, cobalt (II, III oxide, and manganese dioxide as raw materials by high-temperature ball-milling method. Influence of ball-milling temperature was investigated in this work. It was shown that the fine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder with high electrochemical performance can be produced by the high-temperature ball-milling process, and the optimal ball-milling temperature obtained in the current study was 750°C. Its initial discharge capacity was 146.0 mAhg−1 at the rate of 0.1 C, and over 50 cycles its capacity retention rate was 90.2%.

  2. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  3. Our shared atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  4. Pulseshape characteristics of a 300 $\\mu$m PR03 R-measuring VELO sensor read out with a Beetle1.3 chip

    CERN Document Server

    Palacios, A; Buytaert, J; Borel, J; Collins, P; Eckstein, D; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Jans, E; Ketel, T; Petrie, D; Pivk, M; Tobin, M

    2005-01-01

    The signal-to-noise, overspill and undershoot characteristics of a VELO module equipped with Beetle1.3 read-out chips have been measured using 120 GeV pions from the SPS test beam facility at CERN. The module consists of a PR03 n-on-n 300 $\\mu$m R measuring prototype sensor and a fully populated K03 hybrid. Results are presented for a single Beetle1.3 chip with a variety of chip parameter settings controlling the pre-amplifier and shaper currents and feedback voltages, with the objective of establishing the performance of the module and understanding its dependence on the read-out chip settings.

  5. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  6. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g −1 , reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 are 201 mAh g −1 and 155.4 mAh g −1 (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g −1 even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%

  7. Protective Effects of Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) Treatment in 1,3-β-glucan-modulated Allergic Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakih, Dalia; Pilecki, Bartosz; Schlosser, Anders

    2015-01-01

    SP-D is a pulmonary collectin important in lung immunity. SP-D-deficient mice (Sftpd(-/-)) are reported to be susceptible to ovalbumin (OVA)- and fungal allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation, while treatment with exogenous SP-D has therapeutic effects in such disease models. β-glucans are a div...

  8. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1345 - Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate... Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer. Ethylene/1, 3-phenylene... polymers complying with § 177.1630. (a) Identity. For the purpose of this section, ethylene/1,3-phenylene...

  10. Tandem Rh-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H Olefination and Cyclization of Enantiomerically Enriched Benzo-1,3-Sulfamidates: Stereoselective Synthesis of trans-1,3-Disubstituted Isoindolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achary, Raghavendra; Jung, In-A; Lee, Hyeon-Kyu

    2018-04-06

    A tandem process, involving Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative C-H olefination of enantiomerically enriched 4-aryl-benzo-1,3-sulfamidates and subsequent intramolecular aza-Michael cyclization has been developed. The reaction produces trans-benzosulfamidate-fused-1,3-disubstituted isoindolines as major products, in which the configurational integrity of the stereogenic center in the starting material is preserved. Further transformations of the benzosulfamidate-fused-1,3-disubstituted isoindolines are described.

  11. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2017-06-01

    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 , such as the H 2 SO 4 concentration, temperature, H 2 O 2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H 2 SO 4 , 1vol% H 2 O 2 , 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO 2 . Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f) 1/3 =(1-kt/r 0 ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional properties of a newly identified C-terminal splice variant of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gabriella; Gebhart, Mathias; Scharinger, Anja; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Busquet, Perrine; Poggiani, Chiara; Sartori, Simone; Mangoni, Matteo E; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Herzig, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2011-12-09

    An intramolecular interaction between a distal (DCRD) and a proximal regulatory domain (PCRD) within the C terminus of long Ca(v)1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(v)1.3(L)) is a major determinant of their voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent gating kinetics. Removal of these regulatory domains by alternative splicing generates Ca(v)1.3(42A) channels that activate at a more negative voltage range and exhibit more pronounced Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. Here we describe the discovery of a novel short splice variant (Ca(v)1.3(43S)) that is expressed at high levels in the brain but not in the heart. It lacks the DCRD but, in contrast to Ca(v)1.3(42A), still contains PCRD. When expressed together with α2δ1 and β3 subunits in tsA-201 cells, Ca(v)1.3(43S) also activated at more negative voltages like Ca(v)1.3(42A) but Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation was less pronounced. Single channel recordings revealed much higher channel open probabilities for both short splice variants as compared with Ca(v)1.3(L). The presence of the proximal C terminus in Ca(v)1.3(43S) channels preserved their modulation by distal C terminus-containing Ca(v)1.3- and Ca(v)1.2-derived C-terminal peptides. Removal of the C-terminal modulation by alternative splicing also induced a faster decay of Ca(2+) influx during electrical activities mimicking trains of neuronal action potentials. Our findings extend the spectrum of functionally diverse Ca(v)1.3 L-type channels produced by tissue-specific alternative splicing. This diversity may help to fine tune Ca(2+) channel signaling and, in the case of short variants lacking a functional C-terminal modulation, prevent excessive Ca(2+) accumulation during burst firing in neurons. This may be especially important in neurons that are affected by Ca(2+)-induced neurodegenerative processes.

  13. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs uptake in paddy rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on "1"3"7Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ("1"3"3Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting "1"3"7Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil "1"3"7Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period

  14. Growth mechanisms for spherical mixed hydroxide agglomerates prepared by co-precipitation method: A case of Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}(OH){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yue [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Shengming, E-mail: smxu@stinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xie, Ming [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); He, Yinghe, E-mail: yinghe.he@jcu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Huang, Guoyong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Youcai [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anisotropic growth of Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}(OH){sub 2} along the [0 0 1] direction was revealed. • DFT calculation results show crystal surface energies of (0 0 1) plane is highest. • A new model was proposed to explain the formation of spherical agglomerates. - Abstract: Spherical Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}(OH){sub 2} agglomerates were synthesized by the co-precipitation method in the presence of ammonia. The results show that the growth mechanism of spherical agglomerates follows three-stages, i.e. nucleation and anisotropic growth of single crystals; agglomeration of polycrystalline crystallites agglomerated by single crystal grains as primary particles to form embryonic agglomerates; formation, growth and consolidation of spherical agglomerates or particles by agglomeration of embryonic agglomerates, continued growth of individual crystals in the agglomerates and further attachment of primary particles. The first two stages are very fast while the last stage takes almost the entire process to complete. The main reason for the anisotropic growth of Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}(OH){sub 2} crystal is that crystal surface energy of E{sub (001)}, E{sub (100)}, E{sub (101)} and E{sub (102)} is different with E{sub (001)} being the highest. The morphology of the final spherical agglomerates is explained by partial re-crystallization of contacting primary particles. The growth process of spherical agglomerates was examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and calculation of crystal surface energy using density function theory.

  15. Growth mechanisms for spherical mixed hydroxide agglomerates prepared by co-precipitation method: A case of Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Xie, Ming; He, Yinghe; Huang, Guoyong; Yang, Youcai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anisotropic growth of Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 along the [0 0 1] direction was revealed. • DFT calculation results show crystal surface energies of (0 0 1) plane is highest. • A new model was proposed to explain the formation of spherical agglomerates. - Abstract: Spherical Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 agglomerates were synthesized by the co-precipitation method in the presence of ammonia. The results show that the growth mechanism of spherical agglomerates follows three-stages, i.e. nucleation and anisotropic growth of single crystals; agglomeration of polycrystalline crystallites agglomerated by single crystal grains as primary particles to form embryonic agglomerates; formation, growth and consolidation of spherical agglomerates or particles by agglomeration of embryonic agglomerates, continued growth of individual crystals in the agglomerates and further attachment of primary particles. The first two stages are very fast while the last stage takes almost the entire process to complete. The main reason for the anisotropic growth of Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 crystal is that crystal surface energy of E (001) , E (100) , E (101) and E (102) is different with E (001) being the highest. The morphology of the final spherical agglomerates is explained by partial re-crystallization of contacting primary particles. The growth process of spherical agglomerates was examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and calculation of crystal surface energy using density function theory

  16. Composites Li2MnO3·LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2: Optimized synthesis and applications as advanced high-voltage cathode for batteries working at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Li Guangshe; Guan Xiangfeng; Zheng Jing; Li Liping; Chen Tianwen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composites xLi 2 MnO 3 ·(1 − x)LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 (x = 0.1–0.4) were prepared by a novel two-step molten-salt route. ► Structure and chemical compositions of the composites were optimized to show an optimum electrochemical property. ► Composite electrode 0.3Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.7LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance at elevated temperature of 45.4 °C. ► Electrode kinetics of composites was uncovered for the excellent electrochemical performance at elevated temperature. - Abstract: This work reports on the optimized preparation of a series of composites xLi 2 MnO 3 ·(1 − x)LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 (x = 0.1–0.4) with an aim to find an advanced high-voltage cathode for lithium-ion batteries that can work at elevated temperatures. Developing a two-step molten-salt method leads to composites with a layered-type structure, showing a particle size distribution ranging from 350 to 450 nm. The composites are featured by oxidation states stabilized as Mn 4+ , Ni 2+ , and Co 3+ , and by lattice occupation of Li + in both transition-metal layers and lithium layer of LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 . When acting as a cathode of lithium-ion batteries, the composite at x = 0.3 shows an optimum electrochemical performance as characterized by a discharge capacity of 120 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 and a capacity retention of 64% after 20 cycles. Surprisingly, this electrochemical performance is significantly improved at elevated temperatures. Namely, discharge capacity is increased to 140.4 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 , while average capacity decay rate becomes very small to 0.76%. These excellent performance is explained in terms of the dramatically improved lithium-ion diffusions in both electrode and surface films at elevated temperatures.

  17. CASPER: Concordia Atmospheric SPectroscopy of Emitted Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Petris, M.; Catalano, A.; de Gregori, S.; Lamagna, L.; Lattanzi, V.; Luzzi, G.; Maoli, R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Savini, G.; Vetrani, G. G.; Battistelli, E. S.; Valenziano, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Villa, F.; Cuttaia, F.; Ade, P. A. R.; Mauskopf, P.; Orlando, A.; Encrenaz, P.; Pardo, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.

    CASPER (Concordia Atmospheric SPectroscopy of Emitted Radiation) is a spectrometer proposed for installation at Dome C, devoted to measurements of atmospheric emission in the spectral region between 180 μm and 3 mm (3 55 cm-1). This instrument will be able to perform continuous spectral sampling at different altitudes at angular scales of 1°. From the recorded data it is possible to extract atmospheric transmittance within 1% in the whole wide operating band, together with water vapour content and O{2} and O{3} concentrations. CASPER will allow us to characterize the site for future FIR/mm telescopes. Atmospheric data recorded by CASPER will allow for correction of astrophysical and cosmological observations without the need for telescope-specific procedures and further loss of observation time with more precision in the observations themselves. Calibration of ground-based telescopes on known sky sources is strongly affected by atmospheric absorption. CASPER has this as its primary goal. The spectrometer is based on a Martin-Puplett interferometer. Two data sampling solutions will be performed: phase modulation & fast scan strategy. Sky radiation is collected towards the interferometer by an optical setup that allows the field of view, to explore the full 0° div 90° range of elevation angles. With a low spurious polarization instrument, monitoring of polarized atmospheric contribution will be possible.

  18. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  19. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  20. Isoxazolium N-ylides and 1-oxa-5-azahexa-1,3,5-trienes on the way from isoxazoles to 2H-1,3-oxazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Khlebnikov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental studies of the reaction of isoxazoles with diazo compounds show that the formation of 2H-1,3-oxazines proceeds via the formation of (3Z-1-oxa-5-azahexa-1,3,5-trienes which undergo a 6π-cyclization. The stationary points corresponding to the probable reaction intermediates, isoxazolium N-ylides, were located by DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d level only for derivatives without a substituent in position 3 of the isoxazole ring. These isoxazolium N-ylides are thermodynamically and kinetically very unstable. According to the calculations and experimental results 2H-1,3-oxazines are usually more thermodynamically stable than the corresponding open-chain isomers, (3Z-1-oxa-5-azahexa-1,3,5-trienes. The exception are oxaazahexatrienes derived from 5-alkoxyisoxazoles, which are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding 2H-1,3-oxazines. Therefore, the reaction of diazo esters with 5-alkoxyisoxazoles is a good approach to 1,4-di(alkoxycarbonyl-2-azabuta-1,3-dienes. The reaction conditions for the preparation of aryl- and halogen-substituted 2H-1,3-oxazines and 1,4-di(alkoxycarbonyl-2-azabuta-1,3-dienes from isoxazoles were investigated.

  1. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  2. Decomposition of 2-((2-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3,5-triol molecule by an argon plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanışlı, Murat; Taşal, Erol

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we have presented the effects of the argon plasma on a 2-((2-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3,5-triol molecule—AZO compound (abbreviated as 2MDB)—under atmospheric pressure. In order to do this, the validated molecule has been considered and plasma has been used to modify it. The atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was specially designed for performing decomposing processes of the 2MDB molecule. The characterizations before and after the application of plasma—which takes only 3 minutes under atmospheric pressure conditions, to dissolve the 2MDB molecule in ethanol and methanol solutions—were examined using the Fourier transform infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. After the plasma treatment, the molecule was broken at -C-N=N-C-C bond. Accurate and important changes are seen clearly from the results. In addition, according to UV-Vis spectra, π-π* electronic transitions related to -N=N- AZO bridge for the 2MDB molecule in polar-aprotic solvents such as ethanol and methanol were recorded as strong transitions. The new photoproducts such as -C-N-N=C and C=O were obtained from the 2MDB molecule.

  3. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    REPORT Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have transformed a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 31-Mar-2012 Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane Report Title ABSTRACT We have transformed a...DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer 1    Final Report for DARPA project W911NF1010027  Phytoremediation  of Atmospheric

  4. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs

  5. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  6. General Approach to Prepare 0.33Li₂MnO₃ · 0.67LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O₂ Hollow Microspheres for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfa; Xu, Wenjin; Zhang, Lei; Li, Min

    2018-06-01

    Li-excess manganese-based oxide layered structures, have drawn increasing interests as the promising cathodes to succeed the conventional LiCoO2 in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It could deliver a higher energy density and output potential, as well as the nature of environment benign and low cost. Pristine Li-excess manganese-based oxides however suffer from poor rate capacity and voltage fading after cycling, and their inherent capacity limits of bulk size in performance. Micro-/Nanostructured electrode materials are considered to hold the key to overcome these thresholds. This paper reports a general approach to prepare 0.33Li2MnO3 · 0.67LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 microspheres with pores and void space, which benefits improving both the capacity and cyclability. The electrode made of hollow 0.33Li2MnO3 · 0.67LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 microspheres exhibits a 224 mAh g-1 discharge capacity over 200 cycles at 0.25 C rate, and 195 mAh g-1 at 5.0 C rate. These results indicated good perspective of hollow microspheres for practical battery applications.

  7. High rate performance of novel cathode material Li1.33Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haowen; Tan Long

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel cathode material with highly ordered structure has been prepared for the first time. → The charge and discharge current is 1000 mA g -1 and 2000 mA g -1 , respectively. → The results indicate better discharge capacity and cyclability. - Abstract: Li 1.33 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 with highly ordered structure has been successfully synthesized via a simple co-precipitation process. Charge-discharge tests showed that the initial discharge capacities are 153.0 mAh g -1 and 128.9 mAh g -1 at 5 C (1000 mA g -1 ) and 10 C (2000 mA g -1 ) between 2.5 and 4.5 V, respectively. The average full-charge time of this material is less than 12 min at 5 C and 6 min at 10 C. The electrode material composed of the prepared showed a better cyclability. The excellent high rate performance is attributed to the improved ordered layered structure and the electrical conductivity. The excess Li shorten Li + diffusion distance between these submicron and nano-scaled particles. The results show that Li 1.33 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode material has potential application in lithium ion batteries.

  8. Effects of Residual Lithium in the precursors of Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 on their lithium-ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Minsang; Ku, Heesuk; Park, Sanghyuk; Song, Junho; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2018-07-01

    Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 cathode active materials are synthesized from co-precipitated hydroxide precursors Lix[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]1-x(OH)2, and the effect of residual Li in the precursors on the lithium-ion battery (LIB) performance of their corresponding cathode active materials is investigated. Three kinds of precursors that contain different amounts of Li are selected depending on different conditions of the solution composition for the co-precipitation and washing process. It is confirmed that the introduction of Li to the precursors reduces the degree of structural perfection by X-ray diffraction analysis. Undesirable cation mixing occurs with the increasing Li content of the precursors, which is inferred from a decline in lattice parameters and the calculated intensity ratio of (003) and (104) peaks. In the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, the initial charge/discharge capacities and the rate capability of the cathode active materials are aggravated when Li exists in the precursors. Therefore, it could be concluded that the strict control of Li in a solution for co-precipitation of precursors is necessary in the resynthesis of cathode active materials from spent LIBs.

  9. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem

    2009-08-20

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem; Sulaiman, Al Khattaf

    2009-01-01

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  12. The C-terminal HRET sequence of Kv1.3 regulates gating rather than targeting of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Orsolya; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Balajthy, András; Somodi, Sándor; Panyi, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Péter

    2018-04-12

    Kv1.3 channels are expressed in several cell types including immune cells, such as T lymphocytes. The targeting of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane is essential for T cell clonal expansion and assumed to be guided by the C-terminus of the channel. Using two point mutants of Kv1.3 with remarkably different features compared to the wild-type Kv1.3 (A413V and H399K having fast inactivation kinetics and tetraethylammonium-insensitivity, respectively) we showed that both Kv1.3 channel variants target to the membrane when the C-terminus was truncated right after the conserved HRET sequence and produce currents identical to those with a full-length C-terminus. The truncation before the HRET sequence (NOHRET channels) resulted in reduced membrane-targeting but non-functional phenotypes. NOHRET channels did not display gating currents, and coexpression with wild-type Kv1.3 did not rescue the NOHRET-A413V phenotype, no heteromeric current was observed. Interestingly, mutants of wild-type Kv1.3 lacking HRET(E) (deletion) or substituted with five alanines for the HRET(E) motif expressed current indistinguishable from the wild-type. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of Kv1.3 immediately proximal to the S6 helix is required for the activation gating and conduction, whereas the presence of the distal region of the C-terminus is not exclusively required for trafficking of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane.

  13. Deuterium in atmospheric cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, M.C.

    Interest of the study concerning the deuterium content variation (HDO) in the atmospheric water. Standards and measurement methods. Molecule HDO cycle in the atmospheric water. Application to the study of hail-generating cumulus-nimbus and of the mantle of snow [fr

  14. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  15. Controlled Atmosphere Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere (CAS) stunning includes several variations of gaseous mixtures given to induce an anaesthetic state before slaughter poultry. One method of multi phase CAS is to unload the birds out of the crate on a conveyor belt and subject the birds to an atmosphere of 30% O2, 40% CO2 and

  16. Cathode follower RF system with frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Yano, Y.; Kaneko, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A model RF system with a cathode follower was tested under frequency modulation in the 1-3.5 MHz range. The repetition rate was 40 Hz. The oscillation was stable, and the output impedance was measured to be around 20 ohm. (author)

  17. Electrochemical Study of Bromide in the Presence of 1,3-Indandione. Application to the Electrochemical Synthesis of Bromo Derivatives of 1,3-Indandione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akaberi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of bromide in the presence of 1,3-indandione (1 in water/acetic acid and methanol/acetic acid mixtures has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of 1,3-indandione in the bromination reaction. On the basis of the electroanalytical and preparative results a reaction mechanism including electron transfer, chemical reaction and regeneration of bromide was discussed. The electrochemical synthesis of bromo derivatives of 1,3-indandione (2-3 has been successfully performed at constant current, in an undivided cell, in good yield and purity.

  18. Tritium module for ITER/Tiber system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Willms, S.; Busigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium module was developed for the ITER/Tiber system code to provide information on capital costs, tritium inventory, power requirements and building volumes for these systems. In the tritium module, the main tritium subsystems/emdash/plasma processing, atmospheric cleanup, water cleanup, blanket processing/emdash/are each represented by simple scaleable algorithms. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  19. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Laboratory management and operation. 970.1504-1-3 Section 970.1504-1-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-3 Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation. (a) For the management...

  20. 41 CFR 301-1.3 - Who is eligible for TDY allowances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for TDY allowances? 301-1.3 Section 301-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.3 Who is eligible for TDY...

  1. 37 CFR 1.3 - Business to be conducted with decorum and courtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decorum and courtesy. 1.3 Section 1.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.3 Business to be conducted with decorum and courtesy...

  2. 30 CFR 1.3 - Use of letters and acronym MSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of letters and acronym MSHA. 1.3 Section 1.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND...; ESTABLISHMENT AND USE OF OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.3 Use of letters and acronym MSHA. The letters and acronym MSHA may...

  3. High rate performances of the cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized using low temperature hydroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Cuixia; Tan, Long; Liu, Haowen; Huang, Xintang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A low-temperature reaction route is introduced based on hydroxide precipitation method to synthesize a cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 . The charge-discharge tests were performed at 1000 mA g -1 between 2.5 and 4.5 V and the discharge capacity is about 160 mAh g -1 . The discharge capacity of the material is strongly impacted by the reaction temperature. The powders sintered at 850 o C show the best electrochemical performance. Highlights: → A low-temperature reaction route is introduced based on hydroxide precipitation method to synthesize a novel cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 . → The charge-discharge tests were performed at higher current as 5 C between 2.5 and 4.5 V. → The discharge capacity of the material is strongly impacted by the reaction temperature. The powders sintered at 850 o C show the best electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: A low-temperature reaction route is introduced based on hydroxide precipitation method to synthesize the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 . The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared powder have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scan electron microscope, respectively. The charge-discharge tests were performed between 2.5 and 4.5 V. The discharge capacity of the material is strongly impacted by the reaction temperature. The powders sintered at 850 o C show the best electrochemical performance and the initial discharge capacity is about 160 mAh g -1 at 5 C. Powder X-ray diffraction and Scan electron microscope results reveal that the excellent electrochemical performances should be ascribed to the lower precursor reaction temperature, the lower degree of cation mixing and analogous spherical small particles, which can improve the transfer of Li ions and electrons. All these results indicate that this material has potential application in lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  5. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stozhkov, Y I [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Leninsky Prospect, 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10{sup 8} times). But at altitudes of h {approx} 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h {approx} 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning.

  6. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhkov, Y I

    2003-01-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10 8 times). But at altitudes of h ∼ 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h ∼ 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning

  7. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synchrotron radiation-based 61Ni Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials of lithium ion rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segi, Takashi; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Takayuki; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Layered rocksalt type oxides, such as Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are widely used as the cathode active materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Because the nickel ions are associated with the role of the charge compensation at discharge and charge, the 61Ni Mössbauer measurements at 6 K using synchrotron radiation were performed to reveal the role of Ni. The Ni ions of the active materials play two roles for the redox process between the charge and discharge states of lithium-ion batteries. Half of the total Ni ions change to the low-spin Ni3+ with Jahn-Teller distortion from the Ni2+ ions of the discharge state. The remainder exhibit low-spin state divalent Ni ions.

  9. Three-dimensional evaluation of compositional and structural changes in cycled LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 by atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeong; Kim, Ji Yoon; Cho, Hae In; Lee, Chi Ho; Kim, Han Sung; Lee, Sang Uck; Prosa, Ty J.; Larson, David J.; Yu, Tae Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung

    2018-03-01

    Accelerated capacity fading of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM111) electrode by the chemical migration of lithium (Li) or transition metals (TMs), and surface reconstruction in the surface during electrochemical cycling were evaluated by correlative analysis of atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cycled NCM111 showed a lack of Li at surface which provides the driving force for long-range Ni migration toward surface. A schematic model for phase transformation and the kinetics of TM migration within the layered structure by density functional theory (DFT) calculations was proposed. This study provides insights into capacity loss and voltage fade upon electrochemical charge-discharge process of NCM111 by measuring the variation of Li composition away from the surface.

  10. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor in the environment. However, little is known about its distribution and transport in the atmosphere. Here, the concentrations of BPA in the atmospheric aerosols from urban, rural, marine, and the polar regions were measured using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of BPA (1-17,400 pg m -3 ) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude in the world with a declining trend from the continent (except for the Antarctica) to remote sites. A positive correlation was found between BPA and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, a tracer for plastic burning, in urban regions, indicating that the open burning of plastics in domestic waste should be a significant emission source of atmospheric BPA. Our results suggest that the ubiquity of BPA in the atmosphere may raise a requirement for the evaluation of health effects of BPA in order to control its emission sources, for example, from plastic burning. - This study gives first insight into the sources and global distributions of bisphenol A (BPA) in the atmosphere.

  11. When Ethyl Isocyanoacetate Meets Isatins: A 1,3-Dipolar/Inverse 1,3-Dipolar/Olefination Reaction for Access to 3-Ylideneoxindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen-Kui; Cui, Tao; Liu, Wei; Wen, Li-Rong; Li, Ming

    2018-03-16

    A new CuI/1,10-phen-catalyzed reaction for the synthesis of 3-ylideneoxindoles from readily available isatins and ethyl isocyanoacetate, in which ethyl isocyanoacetate acts as a latent two-carbon donor like the Wittig reagent, is reported. A tandem procedure including 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/inverse 1,3-dipolar ring opening/olefination allows the preparation of 3-ylideneoxindoles with broad functional group tolerance.

  12. Ion radical rupture of the carbon-carbon bond in oxidation of 1,3,1',3'-tetramethyl-2,3,2',3'- tetrahydro-2,2'-diperimidinyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanov, V.Kh.; Kibizova, A.Yu.; Klimov, E.S.; Berberova, N.T.; Okhlobystin, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical and chemical oxidation of 1,3,1',3'-tetramethyl-2,3,2',3'-tetrahydro-2,2'-dipyriminyl takes place with rupture of the C-C bond in the initially formed cation radical. In the oxidation of the compound with aluminum chloride in nitrobenzene, ESR revealed a cation radical with an unresolved hyperfine structure. Oxidation of the dihydrodimer with nitrosonium perchlorate in nitrobenzene or nitromethane resulted in the same spectra. Cyclic volt-ampere diagrams are included

  13. Electrochemical Study of Bromide in the Presence of 1,3-Indandione. Application to the Electrochemical Synthesis of Bromo Derivatives of 1,3-Indandione

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, D.; Akaberi, N.

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of bromide in the presence of 1,3-indandione (1) in water/acetic acid and methanol/acetic acid mixtures has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of 1,3-indandione in the bromination reaction. On the basis of the electroanalytical and preparative results a reaction mechanism including electron transfer, chemical reaction and regeneration of bromide was discussed. The electrochemical synthesi...

  14. Enantioselective preparation of 1,3-dithiane 1-oxides by asymmetric oxidation of 1,3-dithianes bearing a chiral auxiliary

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiko, Watanabe; Yojiro, Ono; Shigefumi, Hayashi; Yoshio, Ueno; Takeshi, Toru

    1996-01-01

    Oxidation of 1,3-dithianes bearing a chiral auxiliary derived from (+) or (-)-camphor or diacetone D-(+)-glucose by the Sharpless reagent [Ti(OPi)4-diethyl L-(+)- or D-(-)-tartrate-ButOOH] affords, with high stereoselectivity, the monosulfoxides in good to excellent yields. Removal of the chiral auxiliary by base-catalysed hydrolysis yields (R)- and (S)-1,3-dithiane 1-oxides in high yields.

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fractional no. d. measurements for a radiofrequency plasma needle operating at atm. pressure were obtained using a mol. beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atm. plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes

  16. Propagation of Polarization Modulated Beams Through a Turbulent Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    1. INTRODUCTION A medium’s susceptibility, hence the refractive index, the polarizability and the...frequencies. (3) Molecular polarizability is also frequency dependent. Electronic polarizability is present in all molecules and has a response time...representation: � . Trajectories on the Poincaré sphere the Krypton laser at λ = 647 nm, and the Argon laser at λ = (1) 457; (2) 476; and (3) 488

  17. Effect of Cu Doping on the Structural and Electrochemical Performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ren, Fengzhagn; Feng, Qigao; Xu, Guangri; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Yuanchao; Zhao, Erqing; Ma, Jignjign; Fan, Shumin

    2018-04-01

    The structural and electrochemical performance of Cu-doped, Li[Ni1/3-xCo1/3 Mn1/3Cux]O2 (x = 0-0.1) cathode materials obtained by means of the sol-gel method are discussed; we used critic acid as gels and spent mixed batteries as the raw materials. The effects of the sintering time, sintering temperature, and Cu doping ratio on the phase structure, morphology, and element composition and the behavior in a galvanostatical charge/discharge test have been systemically studied. The results show that the Cu-doped material exhibits better galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling performance. At 0.2 C, its original discharge specific capacity is 180.4 mAh g-1 and its Coulomb efficiency is 90.3%. The Cu-doped material demonstrate an outstanding specific capacity at 0.2 C, 0.5 C, and 2.0 C. In comparison with the original capacities of 178 mAh g-1, 159.5 mAh g-1, and 119.4 mAh g-1, the discharge capacity after 50 cycles is 160.8 mAh g-1, 143.4 mAh g-1, and 90.1 mAh g-1, respectively. This obvious improvement relative to bare Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 cathode materials arises from an enlarged Li layer spacing and a reduced degree of cation mixing. Therefore, Cu-doped cathode materials have obvious advantages in the field of lithium-ion batteries and their applications.

  18. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  19. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  20. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  1. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  2. Functional Properties of a Newly Identified C-terminal Splice Variant of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gabriella; Gebhart, Mathias; Scharinger, Anja; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Busquet, Perrine; Poggiani, Chiara; Sartori, Simone; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Herzig, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    An intramolecular interaction between a distal (DCRD) and a proximal regulatory domain (PCRD) within the C terminus of long Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels (Cav1.3L) is a major determinant of their voltage- and Ca2+-dependent gating kinetics. Removal of these regulatory domains by alternative splicing generates Cav1.342A channels that activate at a more negative voltage range and exhibit more pronounced Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Here we describe the discovery of a novel short splice variant (Cav1.343S) that is expressed at high levels in the brain but not in the heart. It lacks the DCRD but, in contrast to Cav1.342A, still contains PCRD. When expressed together with α2δ1 and β3 subunits in tsA-201 cells, Cav1.343S also activated at more negative voltages like Cav1.342A but Ca2+-dependent inactivation was less pronounced. Single channel recordings revealed much higher channel open probabilities for both short splice variants as compared with Cav1.3L. The presence of the proximal C terminus in Cav1.343S channels preserved their modulation by distal C terminus-containing Cav1.3- and Cav1.2-derived C-terminal peptides. Removal of the C-terminal modulation by alternative splicing also induced a faster decay of Ca2+ influx during electrical activities mimicking trains of neuronal action potentials. Our findings extend the spectrum of functionally diverse Cav1.3 L-type channels produced by tissue-specific alternative splicing. This diversity may help to fine tune Ca2+ channel signaling and, in the case of short variants lacking a functional C-terminal modulation, prevent excessive Ca2+ accumulation during burst firing in neurons. This may be especially important in neurons that are affected by Ca2+-induced neurodegenerative processes. PMID:21998310

  3. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  4. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyan; Seay, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We construct a grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres spanning a wide range of atmospheric metallicity (0.3x ≤ met ≤ 100x), C/O ratios (0.25x ≤ C/O ≤ 2.5x), and cloud properties, encompassing atmospheres of effective temperatures 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and gravities 2.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5. We produce the expected temperature-pressure profiles and emergent spectra from an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium. We can then compare our predicted spectra to observations and retrieval results to aid in their predictions and influence future missions and telescopic observations. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology and present our progress on model grid construction, spanning solar and subsolar C/O and metallicity.

  5. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Africa and South India first detected the natural neutrinos and observed .... lucky coincidences, such as the angular diameter of the moon and sun being ... (where there is some peaking due to longer flight paths for pions in the atmosphere).

  6. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  7. CARBON NEUTRON STAR ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in the chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, the atmospheres of thermally emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in Cas A, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho and Heinke. To test this composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of the carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed this grid using the standard local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10 8  G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra

  8. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major p...

  9. Origin of atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Gy [Eotvos Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied.

  10. The origin of atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gy.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether the pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied. (Sz.Z.)

  11. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  12. Solid-phase Synthesis of Combinatorial 2,4-Disubstituted-1,3,5-Triazine via Amine Nucleophilic Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Won [KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jungyeob [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Tae [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Jae Wook [University of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    In combinatorial chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is a popular approach formass production of small molecules. Compared to solution-phase synthesis, it is easy to prepare and purify a large number of heterocyclic small molecules via solid-phase chemistry; the overall reaction time is decreased as well. 1,3,5-Triazine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic scaffold that was shown to be a druggable scaffold in recent studies. These structures have been reported as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiretroviral compounds, as CDKs and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, as estrogen receptor modulators, and as inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. we designed and synthesized disubstituted triazine compounds as an analog of disubstituted pyrimidine compounds. These disubstituted triazine compounds possess a linear structure which may have biological activity similar to that of disubstituted pyrimidine. Here we report the solid-phase synthesis of disubstituted triazine compounds.

  13. Solid-phase Synthesis of Combinatorial 2,4-Disubstituted-1,3,5-Triazine via Amine Nucleophilic Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Won; Ham, Jungyeob; Chang, Young-Tae; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-01-01

    In combinatorial chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is a popular approach formass production of small molecules. Compared to solution-phase synthesis, it is easy to prepare and purify a large number of heterocyclic small molecules via solid-phase chemistry; the overall reaction time is decreased as well. 1,3,5-Triazine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic scaffold that was shown to be a druggable scaffold in recent studies. These structures have been reported as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiretroviral compounds, as CDKs and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, as estrogen receptor modulators, and as inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. we designed and synthesized disubstituted triazine compounds as an analog of disubstituted pyrimidine compounds. These disubstituted triazine compounds possess a linear structure which may have biological activity similar to that of disubstituted pyrimidine. Here we report the solid-phase synthesis of disubstituted triazine compounds

  14. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  15. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  16. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology....

  17. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  18. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  19. Effect of two major N-nitroso hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on earthworm reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Cox, Stephen B.; McMurry, Scott T.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil and topical tests were employed to investigate the effect of two N-nitroso metabolites of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on earthworm reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for cocoon production and hatching was 50 mg/kg for both hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soil. MNX and TNX also significantly affected cocoon hatching in soil (p 20 values for MNX were 8.7 and 8.8 mg/kg for cocoon and juvenile production, respectively, compared to 9.2 and 9.1 mg/kg for TNX, respectively. The EC 20 values for the total number of cocoon hatchlings were 3.1 and 4.7 mg/kg for MNX and TNX, respectively, in soil and 4.5 and 3.1 mg/L in the topical test. Both MNX and TNX inhibited cocoon production and hatching, suggesting that they may have a negative affect on soil ecosystems at contaminated sites. - RDX metabolites affect earthworm cocoon production and hatching

  20. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Freitag, Christina M.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Cheng Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC 2 , EC 5 , and EC 95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  1. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmwork are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC/AMB/65699/2006) financed by "Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia". C. Oliveira thanks Project PAHLIS his scholarship.

  2. Impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameris, M; Sausen, R; Grewe, V; Koehler, I; Ponater, M [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Steil, B [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Bruehl, Ch [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A hierarchy of models of different complexity has been applied to estimate the impact of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions on atmospheric chemistry. The global circulation model ECHAM3 has been coupled with two types of chemistry modules. The first of these describes only a simplified (linear) NO{sub x} and HNO{sub 3} chemistry while the second one is a comprehensive chemistry module (CHEM), describing tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry including photochemical reactions and heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosols and PSCs. The module CHEM has been coupled either off-line or with feedback via the ozone concentration. First results of multilayer integrations (over decades) are discussed. (author) 27 refs.

  3. Impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameris, M.; Sausen, R.; Grewe, V.; Koehler, I.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Steil, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Bruehl, Ch. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A hierarchy of models of different complexity has been applied to estimate the impact of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions on atmospheric chemistry. The global circulation model ECHAM3 has been coupled with two types of chemistry modules. The first of these describes only a simplified (linear) NO{sub x} and HNO{sub 3} chemistry while the second one is a comprehensive chemistry module (CHEM), describing tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry including photochemical reactions and heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosols and PSCs. The module CHEM has been coupled either off-line or with feedback via the ozone concentration. First results of multilayer integrations (over decades) are discussed. (author) 27 refs.

  4. Synthesis and preliminary ex vivo evaluation of the spasmolytic activity of 1,3-thiazolium- and 1,3,4-thiadiazolium-5-methylthio- and 5-thioacetate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis José A. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new compounds have been synthetized in satisfactory yields (51-78 % through the treatment of mesoionic 1,3-thiazolium-5-thiolate (4a-d and 1,3,4-thiadiazolium- 5-thiolate (10a,b with chloroacetic acid or methyl iodide: 1,3,4-thiadiazolium-5-methylthio- (11 and 5-thioacetate (12. The structure of the title compounds was elucidated by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The newly synthesized compounds 5a, 6a, 11 and 12 were evaluated for their ex vivo spasmolytic potential on four isolated smooth muscles (rat aorta and uterus, guinea pig ileum and trachea and compared with scopolamine. Some of the compounds exhibited potent spasmolytic activity equal to or stronger than scopolamine

  5. Do regions outside the tropical Pacific influence ENSO through atmospheric teleconnections?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dayan, H.; Izumo, T.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Masson, S

    This paper aims at identifying oceanic regions outside the tropical Pacific, which may influence the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through interannual modulation of equatorial Pacific winds An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) 7...

  6. Study of atmospheric neutrino interactions with the Frejus detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longuemare, C.

    1988-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the 165 neutrino events collected in the Frejus detector during three years of running is presented. This sample, which corresponds to a 1.3 kt.year sensitivity, is compared to the predictions of a neutrino Monte Carlo simulation program based on a calculated atmospheric neutrino flux. The agreement is satisfactory at the present statistical level

  7. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C.; Striessnig, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    and genetic tools, we identified that the expression of this sensitized D2-autoreceptor phenotype required Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channel activity, internal Ca2+, and the interaction of the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 with D2-autoreceptors. Thus, we identified a first physiological function of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in SN DA neurons for homeostatic modulation of their D2-autoreceptor responses. L-type Ca2+ channel activity however, was not important for pacemaker activity of mouse SN DA neurons. Furthermore, we detected elevated substantia nigra dopamine messenger RNA levels of NCS-1 (but not Cav1.2 or Cav1.3) after cocaine in mice, as well as in remaining human SN DA neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Thus, our findings provide a novel homeostatic functional link in SN DA neurons between Cav1.3- L-type-Ca2+ channels and D2-autoreceptor activity, controlled by NCS-1, and indicate that this adaptive signalling network (Cav1.3/NCS-1/D2/GIRK2) is also active in human SN DA neurons, and contributes to Parkinson’s disease pathology. As it is accessible to pharmacological modulation, it provides a novel promising target for tuning substantia nigra dopamine neuron activity, and their vulnerability to degeneration. PMID:24934288

  8. The cell wall-localized atypical β-1,3 glucanase ZERZAUST controls tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddepalli, Prasad; Fulton, Lynette; Wieland, Jennifer; Wassmer, Katrin; Schaeffer, Milena; Ranf, Stefanie; Schneitz, Kay

    2017-06-15

    Orchestration of cellular behavior in plant organogenesis requires integration of intercellular communication and cell wall dynamics. The underlying signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis depends on the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG. Mutations in ZERZAUST were previously shown to result in a strubbelig -like mutant phenotype. Here, we report on the molecular identification and functional characterization of ZERZAUST We show that ZERZAUST encodes a putative GPI-anchored β-1,3 glucanase suggested to degrade the cell wall polymer callose. However, a combination of in vitro , cell biological and genetic experiments indicate that ZERZAUST is not involved in the regulation of callose accumulation. Nonetheless, Fourier-transformed infrared-spectroscopy revealed that zerzaust mutants show defects in cell wall composition. Furthermore, the results indicate that ZERZAUST represents a mobile apoplastic protein, and that its carbohydrate-binding module family 43 domain is required for proper subcellular localization and function whereas its GPI anchor is dispensable. Our collective data reveal that the atypical β-1,3 glucanase ZERZAUST acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner and is required for cell wall organization during tissue morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. First-cycle defect evolution of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 lithium ion battery electrodes investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlmayer, Stefan; Buchberger, Irmgard; Reiner, Markus; Gigl, Thomas; Gilles, Ralph; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    In this study the structure and evolution of vacancy type defects in lithium ion batteries are investigated in respect of crystallographic properties. The relation between positron annihilation and electronic structure is discussed in terms of structural dynamics during the lithiation process. Samples of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC-111) electrodes with decreasing lithium content (x = 0-0.7) covering the whole range of state of charge were electrochemically prepared for the non-destructive analysis using positron coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). The positron measurements allowed us to observe the evolution of the defect structure caused by the delithiation process in the NMC-111 electrodes. The combination of CDBS with X-ray diffraction for the characterization of the lattice structures enabled the analysis of the well-known kinetic-hindrance-effect in the first charge-discharge cycle and possible implications of vacancy ordering. In particular, CDBS revealed the highest degree of relithiation after discharge to 3.0 V at 55 °C. For the first time, we report on the successful application of CDBS on NMC-111 electrodes yielding new insights in the important role of defects caused by the delithiation process and the kinetic hindrance effect.

  10. Chemical-wet Synthesis and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Mo, Chung-Yu; Chen, Yu-Fu; Chung, Yi-Jou

    2013-01-01

    LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (LNCM) with a well-ordered layered structure, confirmed by X-ray diffraction, was synthesized by the chemical-wet synthesis incorporated with (i) a pulse microwave-assisted heating of LNCM precursors and (ii) a carbon coating technique. The microwave irradiation periods (i.e., 5–20 min) and amount of carbon additive (i.e., glucose content: 0.1–0.75%) served as key factors in modifying as-prepared LNCM powders. The electrochemical performance of as-prepared LNCM cathodes was well characterized by cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge cycling at 0.1–5C. Both appropriate microwave heating and carbon coating significantly improve discharge capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability of LNCM cathodes. This improved performance can be attributed to the facts that an appropriate microwave heating of LNCM precursors induces low cation mixing of the layered lattices and the carbon coating enables the creation of outer circuit of charge-transfer pathway, preventing cathode corrosion from direct contact to the electrolyte. The C-coated LNCM cathode shows the increased capacity retention from 70.2 to 93.3% after 50 cycles at 1C. On the basis of the experimental results, both the microwave heating and the carbon coating provide a feasible potential way to improve the electrochemical performance of LNCM cathode, benefiting the development of Li-ion batteries

  11. Hydrogen peroxide assisted synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chaohong; Zhang, Yongzhi; Chen, Li; Lei, Ying; Ou, Junke; Guo, Yong; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2015-04-01

    LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion battery. In this research, a facile co-precipitation process is employed, during which the mixed solution of NH3·H2O, H2O2 (30% aqueous solution) and LiOH·H2O is added into the nitrate solution. Notably, H2O2 is introduced as the oxidant and dispersant during the co-precipitation process to oxidize the metal ions and decrease the agglomeration of the precursor by giving out O2, and then improves the specific capacity, stability and energy density of NCM. Additionally, O3 is employed to further oxidize NCM to enhance the stability during the calcination process. The obtained NCM material with single crystal structure exhibits a high initial discharge specific capacity of 208.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 280 mA g-1), an excellent cycle stability with high retained capacity of 176.3 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and a high initial discharge specific capacities of 150.6 mAh g-1 at 5 C even at a high cutoff potential (4.6 V).

  12. Countering the Segregation of Transition-Metal Ions in LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 Cathode for Ultralong Life and High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Tamiya, Yu; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    High-voltage layered lithium transition-metal oxides are very promising cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries. However, these materials often suffer from a fast degradation of cycling stability due to structural evolutions. It seriously impedes the large-scale application of layered lithium transition-metal oxides. In this work, an ultralong life LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 microspherical cathode is prepared by constructing an Mn-rich surface. Its capacity retention ratio at 700 mA g(-1) is as large as 92.9% after 600 cycles. The energy dispersive X-ray maps of electrodes after numerous cycles demonstrate that the ultralong life of the as-prepared cathode is attributed to the mitigation of TM-ions segregation. Additionally, it is discovered that layered lithium transition-metal oxide cathodes with an Mn-rich surface can mitigate the segregation of TM ions and the corrosion of active materials. This study provides a new strategy to counter the segregation of TM ions in layered lithium transition-metal oxides and will help to the design and development of high-energy cathodes with ultralong life. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel histone deacetylase 8-selective inhibitor 1,3,4-oxadiazole-alanine hybrid induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidugu, Vijaya Rao; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Kalle, Arunasree M; Satya, Alapati Krishna

    2017-11-01

    Identification of isoform-specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is a significant advantage to overcome the adverse side effects of pan-HDACi for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have designed, and synthesized novel 1,3,4 oxadiazole with glycine/alanine hybrids as HDAC8-specific inhibitors and preliminary evaluation has indicated that 1,3,4 oxadiazole with alanine hybrid [(R)-2-amino-N-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)propanamide (10b)] to be a potent HDAC8 inhibitor. In the present study, the in vitro efficacy of the molecule in inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation and the underlying molecular mechanism was studied. 10b inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells, with a lower IC 50 of 230 and 1000 nM, respectively, compared to K562, COLO-205 and HepG2 cells and was not cytotoxic to normal breast epithelial cells, MCF10A. 10b was specific to HDAC8 and did not affect the expression of other class I HDACs. Further, a dose-dependent increase in H3K9 acetylation levels demonstrated the HDAC-inhibitory activity of 10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a dose-dependent increase and decrease in the percent apoptotic cells and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively, when treated with 10b. Immunoblot analysis showed a modulation of Bax/Bcl2 ratio with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and no change in Bax expression. 10b treatment resulted in induction of p21 and inhibition of CDK1 proteins along with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, activation of caspases-3 and -9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase leading to apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of 10b as an anticancer agent against breast cancer.

  14. Catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene in aqueous biochar slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Jiaolong [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, Yuxiao; Sun, Mingxing [Shanghai Entry–Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shanghai 200135 (China); Yan, Lili [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen, Guoqing, E-mail: gqsh@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Biochar has been explored as a cost-effective sorbent of contaminants, such as soil fumigant. However, contaminant-loaded biochar probably becomes a source of secondary air pollution. In this study, biochars developed from cow manure and rice husk at 300 °C or 700 °C were used to investigate the catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in aqueous biochar slurry. Results showed that the adsorption of 1,3-D on the biochars was influenced by Langmuir surface monolayer adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of cow manure was greater than that of rice husk at the same pyrolysis temperature. Batch experiments revealed that 1,3-D degradation was improved in aqueous biochar slurry. The most rapid 1,3-D degradation occurred on cow manure-derived biochar produced at 300 °C (C-300), with t{sub 1/2} = 3.47 days. The degradation efficiency of 1,3-D on C-300 was 95.52%. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in biochars were detected via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) in biochars were detected by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer coupled with a terephthalic acid trapping method. The improvement of 1,3-D degradation efficiency may be attributed to EPFRs and DOM in aqueous biochar slurry. Our results may pose implications in the development of effective reduction strategies for soil fumigant emission with biochar. - Highlights: • Hydrolysis of 1,3-D was accelerated in aqueous biochar slurry. • 1,3-D adsorption kinetics on biochars fitted well with Langmuir model. • Cow manure biochar showed higher catalytic degradation activity for 1,3-D than rice husk biochar did. • EPFRs and DOM have potential roles in 1,3-D degradation on biochar.

  15. Catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene in aqueous biochar slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiaolong; Cheng, Yuxiao; Sun, Mingxing; Yan, Lili; Shen, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Biochar has been explored as a cost-effective sorbent of contaminants, such as soil fumigant. However, contaminant-loaded biochar probably becomes a source of secondary air pollution. In this study, biochars developed from cow manure and rice husk at 300 °C or 700 °C were used to investigate the catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in aqueous biochar slurry. Results showed that the adsorption of 1,3-D on the biochars was influenced by Langmuir surface monolayer adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of cow manure was greater than that of rice husk at the same pyrolysis temperature. Batch experiments revealed that 1,3-D degradation was improved in aqueous biochar slurry. The most rapid 1,3-D degradation occurred on cow manure-derived biochar produced at 300 °C (C-300), with t 1/2 = 3.47 days. The degradation efficiency of 1,3-D on C-300 was 95.52%. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in biochars were detected via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) in biochars were detected by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer coupled with a terephthalic acid trapping method. The improvement of 1,3-D degradation efficiency may be attributed to EPFRs and DOM in aqueous biochar slurry. Our results may pose implications in the development of effective reduction strategies for soil fumigant emission with biochar. - Highlights: • Hydrolysis of 1,3-D was accelerated in aqueous biochar slurry. • 1,3-D adsorption kinetics on biochars fitted well with Langmuir model. • Cow manure biochar showed higher catalytic degradation activity for 1,3-D than rice husk biochar did. • EPFRs and DOM have potential roles in 1,3-D degradation on biochar.

  16. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor in the environment. However, little is known about its distribution and transport in the atmosphere. Here, the concentrations of BPA in the atmospheric aerosols from urban, rural, marine, and the polar regions were measured using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of BPA (1-17,400 pg m(-3)) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude in the world with a declining trend from the continent (except for the Antarctica) to remote sites. A positive correlation was found between BPA and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, a tracer for plastic burning, in urban regions, indicating that the open burning of plastics in domestic waste should be a significant emission source of atmospheric BPA. Our results suggest that the ubiquity of BPA in the atmosphere may raise a requirement for the evaluation of health effects of BPA in order to control its emission sources, for example, from plastic burning. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  18. The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv1.3, is expressed in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Shaker-type voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, is believed to be restricted in distribution to lymphocytes and neurons. In lymphocytes, this channel has gained intense attention since it has been proven that inhibition of Kv1.3 channels compromise T lymphocyte activation. To investigate...

  19. Pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin (k1-3) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Grietje; van Veen-Hof, Ingrid; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Proost, Johannes; de Leij, Lou F.M.H.; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, we determined short-term pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin [angiostatin((k1-3))] in rats after i.v. injection of radiolabelled protein. Since In gamma-camera studies, no tumor specific angiostatin((k1-3)) accumulation was observed,

  20. Production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... The conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) is an environmentally friendly biological process and has .... as carrier gas at flow rate of 40 ml min-1, detector.

  1. Function and Biosynthesis of Cell Wall α-1,3-Glucan in Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshimi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although α-1,3-glucan is a major cell wall polysaccharide in filamentous fungi, its biological functions remain unclear, except that it acts as a virulence factor in animal and plant pathogenic fungi: it conceals cell wall β-glucan on the fungal cell surface to circumvent recognition by hosts. However, cell wall α-1,3-glucan is also present in many of non-pathogenic fungi. Recently, the universal function of α-1,3-glucan as an aggregation factor has been demonstrated. Applications of fungi with modified cell wall α-1,3-glucan in the fermentation industry and of in vitro enzymatically-synthesized α-1,3-glucan in bio-plastics have been developed. This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of the biological functions and biosynthetic mechanism of cell wall α-1,3-glucan in fungi. We briefly consider the history of studies on α-1,3-glucan, overview its biological functions and biosynthesis, and finally consider the industrial applications of fungi deficient in α-1,3-glucan.

  2. Chiral 1,3,2-oxazaborolidines in asymmetric synthesis: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, Vladimir A; Tolstikov, Alexander G

    2004-01-01

    The use of chiral 1,3,2-oxazaborolidines in asymmetric organic synthesis, particularly, in enantioselective reduction of ketones, imines and oxime ethers, asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions, aldol condensation and atroposelective reduction of lactones is reviewed. Reactions of immobilised 1,3,2-oxazaborolidines are also considered.

  3. Exploring strain-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of end functionalized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledin, Petr A; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Hudlikar, Manish S; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strain-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclooctynes with 1,3-dipoles such as azides, nitrones, and nitrile oxides, are of interest for the functionalization of polymers. In this study, we have explored the use of a 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO)-containing chain transfer agent in reversible

  4. Crystal structures and spectroscopic properties of 2¿3 phospha-1,3-dionates and 1,3-dionates of calcium ¿ comparative studies on the 1,3-diphenyl- and 1,3-Di(tert-butyl) derivatives¿

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Gerd; Niemeyer, Mark; Mundt, Otto; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Westerhausen, Matthias; Ossberger, Manfred W.; Mayer, Peter; Nöth, Heinrich; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Der Wasserstoff-Metall-Austausch zwischen Dibenzoylphosphan und Calciumcarbid in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ergibt nach Zusatz des Liganden 1, 3, 5-Trimethyl-1, 3, 5-triazinan (TMTA) den als Kokristallisat mit Benzol isolierten zweikernigen Komplex Bis[(tmta-N, N, N)calcium-bis(dibenzoylphosphanid)

  5. 7 CFR 301.1-3 - Action on special need requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on special need requests. 301.1-3 Section 301.1... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special Need Requests § 301.1-3 Action on special need requests. (a) Upon receipt of a complete special need request...

  6. Potential of Klebsiella oxytoca for 1,3-propanediol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased rate of glycerol consumption and the formation of 1,3-propanediol coincides with formate degradation. This indicates that formate degradation likely works as an alternative means to generate part of the nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) used by the 1,3-propanediol-dehydrogenase enzyme. Yield in mole ...

  7. Resonance Raman investigation of the radical cation of 1,3,5-hexatriene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keszhelyi, T.; Wilbrandt, R.; Cave, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the 1,3,5-hexatriene radical cation generated by gamma-irradiation in a Freon glass is reported. The spectrum is excited at 395 nm in resonance with the second absorption band. Identical spectra are obtained from ionized (E)- and (Z)-1,3,5-hexatriene. The presence...

  8. Synthesis and inhibitory effect on photosynthetic electron transport of 1,3,5-triazinylcarboxylic acid derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimori, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Okano, R.; Hiraki, M.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Boger, P.; Kohno, H.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study relates to the modification of 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3,5-triazine. New 1,3,5-triazine compounds with an electron-withdrawing carboxyl group, e.g. ester group, substituted for the trifluoromethyl group, were synthesized and assayed for activity to inhibit

  9. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values for benzene and 1,3-butadiene in bag samples for the baseline fuel are 4.0 ppm and 0.30 ppm respectively. At...

  10. Electron–electron interactions in the chemical bond: “1/3” Effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The prominent “1/3” effect observed in the Hall effect plateaus of two- dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems has been postulated to indicating 1/3 fractional charge quasiparticle excitations arising from electron–electron interactions. Tunneling shot-noise experiments on 2DEF exhibiting fractional quantum Hall ...

  11. Alternative Synthesis of 2,4-Substituted-1,3-thiazines and 2,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which phenacetamidines have been utilized as precursors for thiazine synthesis. The syntheses of novel cyclic fused 1,3-diazabutadienes 13 and 2-aza-1,3-butadiene 17, and iodocyclization of 17 leading to the formation of thiazole 16a are also reported. In this paper a ...

  12. Titan's Atmospheric Dynamics and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Baines, K. H.; Bird, M. K.; Tokano, T.; West, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation in the solar system, but a circulation that has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere. Direct measurement of Titan's winds, particularly observations tracking the Huygens probe at 10degS, indicate that the zonal winds are generally in the sense of the satellites rotation. They become cyclostrophic approx. 35 km above the surface and generally increase with altitude, with the exception of a sharp minimum centered near 75 km, where the wind velocity decreases to nearly zero. Zonal winds derived from the temperature field retrieved from Cassini measurements, using the thermal wind equation, indicate a strong winter circumpolar vortex, with maximum winds at mid northern latitudes of 190 ms-' near 300 km. Above this level, the vortex decays. Curiously, the zonal winds and temperatures are symmetric about a pole that is offset from the surface pole by approx.4 degrees. The cause of this is not well understood, but it may reflect the response of a cyclostrophic circulation to the offset between the equator, where the distance to the rotation axis is greatest, and the solar equator. The mean meridional circulation can be inferred from the temperature field and the meridional distribution of organic molecules and condensates and hazes. Both the warm temperatures in the north polar region near 400 km and the enhanced concentration of several organic molecules suggests subsidence there during winter and early spring. Stratospheric condensates are localized at high northern latitudes, with a sharp cut-off near 50degN. Titan's winter polar vortex appears to share many of the same characteristics of winter vortices on Earth-the ozone holes. Global mapping of temperatures, winds, and composition in he troposphere, by contrast, is incomplete. The few suitable discrete clouds that have bee found for tracking indicate smaller velocities than aloft, consistent with the

  13. Atmospheric ions and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1977-01-01

    The various types of atmospheric ions are defined, the main sources of natural atmospheric radioactivity inducing the formation of radioactive ions in the air are then recalled. The basic equations governing the formation of these ions are indicated and the most current experimental methods used for detecting them are described (Zeleny tubes, Erikson tubes). The special properties of these ions are examined, they are particularly emphasized for the smaller ones. The existence of a discret spectrum of mobilities is shown and the presence of big negative radioactive ions is investigated. Indicative information are given on the granulometric distribution of the atmospheric radioactivity in the air, from small positive Ra A ion fixation on aerosols [fr

  14. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  16. The Contribution of L-Type Cav1.3 Channels to Retinal Light Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liheng Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs regulate tonic neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons including retinal photoreceptors. There are three types of LTCCs (Cav1.2, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4 expressed in the retina. While Cav1.2 is expressed in all retinal cells including the Müller glia and neurons, Cav1.3 and Cav1.4 are expressed in the retinal neurons with Cav1.4 exclusively expressed in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Mutations in the gene encoding Cav1.4 cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in humans. Even though Cav1.3 is present in the photoreceptor inner segments and the synaptic terminals in various vertebrate species, its role in vision is unclear, since genetic alterations in Cav1.3 are not associated with severe vision impairment in humans or in Cav1.3-null (Cav1.3−/− mice. However, a failure to regulate Cav1.3 was found in a mouse model of Usher syndrome, the most common cause of combined deafness and blindness in humans, indicating that Cav1.3 may contribute to retinal function. In this report, we combined physiological and morphological data to demonstrate the role of Cav1.3 in retinal physiology and function that has been undervalued thus far. Through ex vivo and in vivo electroretinogram (ERG recordings and immunohistochemical staining, we found that Cav1.3 plays a role in retinal light responses and synaptic plasticity. Pharmacological inhibition of Cav1.3 decreased ex vivo ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes. In Cav1.3−/− mice, their dark-adapted ERG a-, b-wave, and oscillatory potential amplitudes were significantly dampened, and implicit times were delayed compared to the wild type (WT. Furthermore, the density of ribbon synapses was reduced in the outer plexiform layer of Cav1.3−/− mice retinas. Hence, Cav1.3 plays a more prominent role in retinal physiology and function than previously reported.

  17. The Contribution of L-Type Cav1.3 Channels to Retinal Light Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liheng; Chang, Janet Ya-An; Yu, Fei; Ko, Michael L; Ko, Gladys Y-P

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) regulate tonic neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons including retinal photoreceptors. There are three types of LTCCs (Ca v 1.2, Ca v 1.3, and Ca v 1.4) expressed in the retina. While Ca v 1.2 is expressed in all retinal cells including the Müller glia and neurons, Ca v 1.3 and Ca v 1.4 are expressed in the retinal neurons with Ca v 1.4 exclusively expressed in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Mutations in the gene encoding Ca v 1.4 cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in humans. Even though Ca v 1.3 is present in the photoreceptor inner segments and the synaptic terminals in various vertebrate species, its role in vision is unclear, since genetic alterations in Ca v 1.3 are not associated with severe vision impairment in humans or in Ca v 1.3-null (Ca v 1.3 -/- ) mice. However, a failure to regulate Ca v 1.3 was found in a mouse model of Usher syndrome, the most common cause of combined deafness and blindness in humans, indicating that Ca v 1.3 may contribute to retinal function. In this report, we combined physiological and morphological data to demonstrate the role of Ca v 1.3 in retinal physiology and function that has been undervalued thus far. Through ex vivo and in vivo electroretinogram (ERG) recordings and immunohistochemical staining, we found that Ca v 1.3 plays a role in retinal light responses and synaptic plasticity. Pharmacological inhibition of Ca v 1.3 decreased ex vivo ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes. In Ca v 1.3 -/- mice, their dark-adapted ERG a-, b-wave, and oscillatory potential amplitudes were significantly dampened, and implicit times were delayed compared to the wild type (WT). Furthermore, the density of ribbon synapses was reduced in the outer plexiform layer of Ca v 1.3 -/- mice retinas. Hence, Ca v 1.3 plays a more prominent role in retinal physiology and function than previously reported.

  18. Effect of viscoelastic and dielectric relaxing matrix on ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayendiran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on evaluating the time-dependent non-linear ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under pure uni-axial compressive stress loading condition. An experimental setup is developed to study the influence of high-stress levels on the stress-strain and stress-polarization behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites. The electro-elastic effective properties of 1-3 piezocomposites are measured experimentally based on IEEE standard and compared with the proposed numerical model using finite-element software ABAQUS. The time-dependent effective properties are evaluated using viscoelastic model and it is incorporated into a 3D micromechanical model to predict the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under mechanical loading. The simulated results are compared with the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites obtained from experiments.

  19. Pot-Economy Autooxidative Condensation of 2-Aryl-2-lithio-1,3-dithianes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, João R; Rimpiläinen, Tatu; Sievänen, Elina; Rissanen, Kari; Afonso, Carlos A M; Candeias, Nuno R

    2018-02-16

    The autoxidative condensation of 2-aryl-2-lithio-1,3-dithianes is here reported. Treatment of 2-aryl-1,3-dithianes with n-BuLi in the absence of any electrophile leads to condensation of three molecules of 1,3-dithianes and formation of highly functionalized α-thioether ketones orthothioesters in 51-89% yields upon air exposure. The method was further expanded to benzaldehyde dithioacetals, affording corresponding orthothioesters and α-thioether ketones in 48-97% yields. The experimental results combined with density functional theory studies support a mechanism triggered by the autoxidation of 2-aryl-2-lithio-1,3-dithianes to yield a highly reactive thioester that undergoes condensation with two other molecules of 2-aryl-2-lithio-1,3-dithiane.

  20. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  1. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  2. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  3. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Defined by German philosopher Gernot Böhme as a ‘fundamental concept of a new aesthetics’ (Böhme 2003), the notion of atmosphere has been widely discussed across many disciplinary fields over the last few decades. It has taken a central stage also in architectural debate, leading to both conceptual......, the notion of atmosphere is presented as parallactic for designing experience in architectural fields, since it transgresses formal and material boundaries of bodies, opening a new gap that exposes the orthodox space-body-environment relationships to questions. It leads to the dissolution...

  4. Global atmospheric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  5. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  6. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  7. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  8. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoplates with {010} active planes exposing prepared in polyol medium as a high-performance cathode for Li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jili; Yao, Ruimin; Cao, Chuanbao

    2014-04-09

    As we know, Li(+)-ion transport in layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is through two-dimensional channels parallel to the Li(+)-ion layers that are indexed as {010} active planes. In this paper, NCM nanoplates with exposed {010} active facets are synthesized in a polyol medium (ethylene glycol) and characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, and HR-TEM. In addition, the effects of reaction conditions on the morphologies, structures and electrochemical performances are also evaluated. The results show that more {010} facets can be exposed with the thickness of NCM nanoplates increasing which can lead to more channels for Li(+)-ion migration. However, when the annealing temperatures exceed 900 °C, many new crystal planes grow along the thickness direction covering the {010} facets. In all of the NCM nanoplates obtained at different conditions, the NCM nanoplates calcined at 850 °C for 12 h (NCM-850-12H) display a high initial discharge capacity of 207.6 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C (1 C = 200 mA g(-1)) between 2.5 and 4.5 V higher than most of NCM materials as cathodes for lithium ion batteries. The discharge capacities of NCM-850-12H are 169.8, 160.5, and 149.3 mAh g(-1) at 2, 5, and 7 C, respectively, illustrating the excellent rate capability. The superior electrochemical performance of NCM-850-12H cathode can be attributed to more {010} active planes exposure.

  9. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and glucose signaling pathways attributed to the Kv1.3 ion channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Kovach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene-targeted deletion of the potassium channel Kv1.3 (Kv1.3-/- results in ‘Super-smeller’ mice with a sensory phenotype that includes an increased olfactory ability linked to changes in olfactory circuitry, increased abundance of olfactory cilia, and increased expression of odorant receptors and the G-protein, Golf. Kv1.3-/- mice also have a metabolic phenotype including lower body weight and decreased adiposity, increased total energy expenditure (TEE, increased locomotor activity, and resistance to both diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We explored two cellular aspects to elucidate the mechanism by which loss of Kv1.3 channel in the olfactory bulb (OB may enhance glucose utilization and metabolic rate. First, using in situ hybridization we find that Kv1.3 and the insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 is co-localized to the mitral cell layer of the OB. Disruption of Kv1.3 conduction via construction of a pore mutation (W386F Kv1.3 was sufficient to independently translocate GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in HEK 293 cells. Because olfactory sensory perception and the maintenance of action potential firing frequency by mitral cells of the OB is highly energy demanding and Kv1.3 is also expressed in mitochondria, we next explored the structure of this organelle in mitral cells. We challenged wildtype (WT and Kv1.3-/- male mice with a moderately high-fat diet (MHF, 31.8 % kcal fat for 4 months and then examined OB ultrastructure using transmission microscopy. In WT mice, mitochondria were significantly enlarged following diet-induced obesity (DIO and there were fewer mitochondria, likely due to mitophagy. Interestingly, mitochondria were significantly smaller in Kv1.3-/- mice compared with that of WT mice. Similar to their metabolic resistance to DIO, the Kv1.3-/- mice had unchanged mitochondria in terms of cross sectional area and abundance following a challenge with modified diet. We are very interested to understand how

  10. Mitral cells of the olfactory bulb perform metabolic sensing and are disrupted by obesity at the level of the Kv1.3 ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Ann Fadool

    Full Text Available Sixty-five percent of Americans are over-weight. While the neuroendocrine controls of energy homeostasis are well known, how sensory systems respond to and are impacted by obesity is scantily understood. The main accepted function of the olfactory system is to provide an internal depiction of our external chemical environment, starting from the detection of chemosensory cues. We hypothesized that the system additionally functions to encode internal chemistry via the detection of chemicals that are important indicators of metabolic state. We here uncovered that the olfactory bulb (OB subserves as an internal sensor of metabolism via insulin-induced modulation of the potassium channel Kv1.3. Using an adult slice preparation of the olfactory bulb, we found that evoked neural activity in Kv1.3-expressing mitral cells is enhanced following acute insulin application. Insulin mediated changes in mitral cell excitability are predominantly due to the modulation of Kv1.3 channels as evidenced by the lack of effect in slices from Kv1.3-null mice. Moreover, a selective Kv1.3 peptide blocker (ShK186 inhibits more than 80% of the outward current in parallel voltage-clamp studies, whereby insulin significantly decreases the peak current magnitude without altering the kinetics of inactivation or deactivation. Mice that were chronically administered insulin using intranasal delivery approaches exhibited either an elevation in basal firing frequency or fired a single cluster of action potentials. Following chronic administration of the hormone, mitral cells were inhibited by application of acute insulin rather than excited. Mice made obese through a diet of ∼32% fat exhibited prominent changes in mitral cell action potential shape and clustering behavior, whereby the subsequent response to acute insulin stimulation was either attenuated or completely absent. Our results implicate an inappropriate neural function of olfactory sensors following exposure to

  11. Bis[2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylphenyl-κ2C1,N][1,3-bis(4-bromophenylpropane-1,3-dionato-κ2O,O′]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kwon Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Ir(C15H9Br2O2(C13H8NS2], lies about a crystallographic twofold rotation axis passing through the IrIII atom and the central C atom of the bis(bromophenylpropane-1,3-dionate ligand. The IrIII atom adopts a distorted octahedral geometry coordinated by two N atoms in the axial positions, and two C and two O atoms in the equatorial plane. The dihedral angle between the two thiazole ring systems in the complex is 77.45 (10°.

  12. A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project evaluated an alternative method of controlled atmosphere stunning of commercial broilers to induce anoxia utilizing a vacuum pump to reduce the oxygen tension, low atmospheric pressure stun (LAPS). A custom built 2 cage-module system (holding a total of 600 broilers each) with...

  13. A study of the influence of forest gaps on fire–atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Kiefer; Warren E. Heilman; Shiyuan Zhong; Joseph J. (Jay) Charney; Xindi (Randy) Bian

    2016-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists regarding the possible role that gaps in forest canopies play in modulating fire–atmosphere interactions in otherwise horizontally homogeneous forests. This study examines the influence of gaps in forest canopies on atmospheric perturbations induced by a low-intensity fire using the ARPS-CANOPY model, a version of the Advanced Regional...

  14. Concentrations and fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Hansen, Kaj M; van Egmond, Roger; Christensen, Jesper H; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2010-07-15

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration in ambient air at a rural site in Sweden. The samples were collected with daily resolution between January and June 2009. The D(5) concentration ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng m(-3), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than previous reports. The measured data were compared with D(5) concentrations predicted using an atmospheric circulation model that included both OH radical and D(5) chemistry. The model was parametrized using emissions estimates and physical chemical properties determined in laboratory experiments. There was good agreement between the measured and modeled D(5) concentrations. The results show that D(5) is clearly subject to long-range atmospheric transport, but that it is also effectively removed from the atmosphere via phototransformation. Atmospheric deposition has little influence on the atmospheric fate. The good agreement between the model predictions and the field observations indicates that there is a good understanding of the major factors governing D(5) concentrations in the atmosphere.

  15. Atmospheric Error Correction of the Laser Beam Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saydi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric models based on surface measurements of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity have been used to increase the laser ranging accuracy by ray tracing. Atmospheric refraction can cause significant errors in laser ranging systems. Through the present research, the atmospheric effects on the laser beam were investigated by using the principles of laser ranging. Atmospheric correction was calculated for 0.532, 1.3, and 10.6 micron wavelengths through the weather conditions of Tehran, Isfahan, and Bushehr in Iran since March 2012 to March 2013. Through the present research the atmospheric correction was computed for meteorological data in base of monthly mean. Of course, the meteorological data were received from meteorological stations in Tehran, Isfahan, and Bushehr. Atmospheric correction was calculated for 11, 100, and 200 kilometers laser beam propagations under 30°, 60°, and 90° rising angles for each propagation. The results of the study showed that in the same months and beam emission angles, the atmospheric correction was most accurate for 10.6 micron wavelength. The laser ranging error was decreased by increasing the laser emission angle. The atmospheric correction with two Marini-Murray and Mendes-Pavlis models for 0.532 nm was compared.

  16. Novel Reaction of N,N'-Bisarylmethanediamines with Formaldehyde. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,5-Triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Olyaei

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2- pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa- hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino- pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyldimethylenetriamine (7a as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated.

  17. Development of a calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.; Tang, F.; He, L.; Xu, Y.; Lu, X.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices was developed at the Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology (SIMT). This system consists of a gaseous "1"3"1I_2 generator, an airborne storage chamber, an airborne iodine sampler, and an HPGe spectrometer. With this system, "1"3"1I reference samples in the form of charcoal filters and charcoal cartridges, with activities ranging from 100 to 10,000 Bq, were produced with overall relative standard uncertainties of 2.8% (for filter samples) and 3.5% (for cartridge samples); the activities range could be extended according to need. - Highlights: • Original calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices was developed. • Two types of "1"3"1I reference samples was prepared. • The activity of the produced "1"3"1I reference sample could be easily controlled. • The influence of uneven distribution of "1"3"1I in cartridge samples was considered.

  18. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  19. Seasonal atmospheric extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)

  20. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  1. Atmospheric muons in Hanoi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham thi Tuyet Nhung; Pierre Darriulat; Nguyen Thi Thao; Dang Quang Thieu; Vo Van Thuan

    2006-01-01

    Recent measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in Hanoi were reviewed. As the measurements were carried out in a region of maximal geomagnetic rigidity cutoff, they provided a sensitive test of air shower models used in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured data were found to be in a very good agreement with the prediction from the model of M. Honda. (author)

  2. Climate and atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Schumacher, R.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the scientific journal of the Humboldt university is dedicated to results of research work carried out to the greatest extent at the meteorological institute in the last two years on the area of climate and atmospheric research. The traditional research areas of the institute are climatology and the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the atmospherical boundary layer. Considering the high probability of a global climatic fluctuation due to the anthropogenic change of composition of the atmosphere and other climate-relevant factors imminent in the next century, climatological research today is an important part of global and regional environmental research. From the necessity of determination and evaluation of the effect of climatic fluctuations on nature and society the contours of a new interdisciplinary research area are already visible now. This is suitable as hardly any other area to be the supporting idea of environmental research at universities. The contributions contained in the issue already consider, in addition to results on climate diagnosis, also results on aspects of climate effect research. (orig./KW) [de

  3. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  4. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  5. Atmospheric neutrino challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We briefly review the improvements in the predictions of atmospheric neutrino fluxes since the NOW2000 workshop. In spite of the great progress of the calculational technique the predictions are still not exact because of the uncertainties in the two major sets of input - cosmic ray flux and hadronic interactions on light nuclei.

  6. Atmosphere as colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenogij, K.P.; Kutsenogij, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper review the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on space-time variability of physical, chemical and biological atmospheric characteristics and its influence on climate, ecology and environmental quality under the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic load is submitted

  7. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Ariya, Parisa A.; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC

    2014-01-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  8. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  9. Atoms and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megie, G.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone sources, roles and distribution are reviewed, and the atmosphere dynamic effects on ozone circulation are discussed; chlorine and CFC are the two main perturbative agents of the ozone layer and their effects are described and analyzed; impacts of the limitation of the CFC and chlorine utilization are discussed. 5 figs., 9 tabs

  10. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  11. Energy profiles for ketene cyclizations. Interconversion of 1,3-oxazin-6-ones, mesoionic 1,3-oxazinium olates and acylketenes, imidoylketenes, oxoketenimines, and cyclization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Holger; Wentrup, Curt

    2005-07-22

    The energy surface connecting oxazinium olates 9, several possible conformers of ketenes 10 and 11, and the final cyclization products 12, 13 and 14, as well as the isomeric 1,3-oxazine-6-ones 15, ring opening of the latter to N-acylimidoylketenes 16, and subsequent rearrangement of 16 to oxoketenimines 17, azetinones 18, and the cyclization products 19 and 20 are evaluated computationally at the B3LYP/6-31G and B3LYP/6-311+G//B3LYP/6-31G levels. The cyclizations of ketenes to oxazinium olates 9 and oxazines 15 have the characteristics of pseudopericyclic reactions. Plots of the energy vs internal reaction coordinate for the cyclization of transoid acylketenes such as 10 to 9 (via TS1) and 16 to 15 (via TS7) feature two inflection points and indicate that the part of the energy surface above the lower inflection points describe internal rotation of the acyl function in the ketene moiety, and the part below this point describes the cyclization of the cisoid ketene to the planar mesoionic oxazinium olate 9 or oxazinone 15. The 1,3-shifts of the OR group that interconvert ketenes 16 and ketenimines 17 via four-membered cyclic transition states TS8 behave similarly, the first portion (from the ketenimine side) of the activation barrier being due largely to internal rotation of substituents, and the top part being due to the 1,3-shift proper.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Mono- and Bicycle Heterocyclic Derivatives Containing 1, 2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine and 1,3-Thiazole Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navabeh Nami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of tartaric acid with thiocarbohydrazide (2 and thiosemicarbazide (6 afforded 1,2-bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl-ethane-1,2-diol (3 and 1,2-bis(5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl-ethane-1,2-diol (7. Reaction of compounds 3 and 7 with DMAD (dimethylacety lendi carboxylate and DEAD (diethylacetylendicarboxylate gave 1,2-bis(7-[(z-methoxycarbonylmethylen]-5,6-dihydro-5H-6-one-[1,2,4] riazolo[3,4-b] [1,3,4] thiadiazin-3-yl-ethan-1,2-diol (4, 1,2-bis(7-[(z-ethoxycarbonylmethylen] -5,6-dihydro -5H-6-one-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl-ethan-1,2- diol (5 and 1,2-bis(6-[(z-methoxycarbonylmethylen]-5-oxo-[1,3]thiazolo[2,3-c] [1,2,4]triazol-3-yl-ethan-1,2-diol (8 in good yields.

  13. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    Studies of element abundances and values of D/H in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan have emphasized the important role of icy planetesimals in the formation of these bodies. In these atmospheres, C/H and D/H increase as the relative masses of the 'cores' of the planets increase. N/H appears to deviate from this trend in an interesting way. In the inner solar system, the traditional approach of using carbonaceous chondrites as the source of planetary volatiles is in serious trouble because of the depletion of xenon and the unusual pattern of xenon isotopes found in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, and because of the solar-type abundance ratios of argon, krypton and xenon and the large amounts of neon and argon on Venus. Recent studies of elemental abundances in comets, especially P/Halley, coupled with laboratory studies of the trapping of gas in ice formed at low temperatures by A. Bar-Nun et al. provide a consistent interpretation of all of these results. This interpretation emphasizes the fundamental importance of icy planetesimals (comets) and the randomness of early impacts in the formation of planetary systems. Cometary delivery by itself will not explain the noble gas abundances on the inner planets. There is good evidence for at least one additional source, which presumably consists of the rocky material making up the bulk of the planets. The existence of this rocky reservoir is manifested in the nucleogenic isotopes and in the neon which is found in all these atmospheres and is also present in the Earth's mantle. This neon may well be a relic of the planets' earliest, accretional atmospheres.

  14. 1,3 benzene dioxole derivates as radioprotective agents. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallacker, F.; Holschbach, M.; Konings, A.W.T.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the acid-catalysed transformation of o-terpenyl-dioxolephenols into 1,3-dioxole[4,5-g]chromanes 1a-1f and their methoxyl derivatives 2a-2f. The 1,3-dioxole[4,5-g]chromens 4a-4d, 5a-5d and 6a-6g are produced by treatment of the 1,3-dioxole[4,5-g]chromanes with DDQ in benzene. Moreover the chromenes 4-6 be synthesized by cyclohydrogenation of the corresponding open-chain compounds in good yields with DDQ. (orig.) [de

  15. Proprotein convertase 1/3 inhibited macrophages: A novel therapeutic based on drone macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie; Rodet, Franck; Murgoci, Adriana; Wisztorski, Maxence; Day, Robert; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated here thanks to proteomic, that proprotein convertase 1/3 knockdown macrophages present all the characteristic of activated pro-inflammatory macrophages. TLR4 and TLR9 signaling pathways can be enhanced leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and antitumor factors. We can control their activation by controlling one enzyme, PC1/3. In a tumor context, PC1/3 inhibition in macrophages may reactivate them and lead to a cytokine storm after stimulation "at distance" with a TLR ligand. Therefore, we name these proprotein convertase inhibited macrophages the "drone macrophages". They constitute an innovative cell therapy to treat efficiently tumors.

  16. Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wooseok; Jeong, Yun A; On, Jiwon; Choi, Ari; Lee, Jee-yeon; Lee, Joon Goo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Pyo, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although th...

  17. Key West, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Chignik, Alaska 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  19. Santa Monica, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Miami 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Cordova, Alaska 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. sitka_ak_1-3sec_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. Elfin Cove Alaska 1/3 Arc-second MHHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  4. Elfin Cove Alaska 1/3 Arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  5. Nikolski, Alaska 1/3 arc-second MHHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  6. Tutuila, American Samoa 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. San Diego, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Central Florida 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Central Florida 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Crescent City, California 1/3 Arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Bar Harbor, Maine 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Destin, Florida 1/3 arc-second NAVD88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  13. Palm Beach, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Port Alberni, Canada 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Four-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2006-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. We have conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  16. Three-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2007-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. When we conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  17. Midway Atoll 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Eureka, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. elfin_cove_ak_1-3_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. Southern Louisiana 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Modeling and mapping of coastal processes (e.g. tsunamis, hurricane storm-surge, and sea-level rise) requires digital representations of Earth's solid surface,...

  1. Eureka, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. New Orleans, Louisiana 1/3 Arc-second MLLW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  3. San Francisco Bay, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. crescent_city_1-3_arc-second_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. Wake Island 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. San Diego, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Panama City, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  9. Mobile, Alabama 1/3 NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  10. Panama City, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  11. Puget Sound 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Tampa Bay 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Puget Sound 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Santa Monica, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Port Townsend, Washington 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2006 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Pago Pago, American Samoa 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Port San Luis, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Astoria, Oregon 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model Vers.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  20. New Orleans, Louisiana 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  1. Port Townsend, Washington 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Fort Bragg, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Orange County, California 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  4. Fort Bragg, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Crescent City, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Miami 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Key West, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Pensacola, Florida 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  11. port_townsend_wa_1-3_arc-second_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. port_alexander_ak_1-3_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. port_townsend_wa_1-3_arc-second_navd88.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. crescent_city_1-3_arc-second_navd_88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Climate Data Record (CDR), Version 1.3 (Daily)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GPCP Daily analysis is a companion to the GPCP Monthly analysis, and provides globally complete precipitation estimates at a spatial resolution of one degree...

  16. st_thomas_john_vi_1_3s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. st_croix_vi_1_3s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. Kodiak, Alaska 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Garibaldi, Oregon 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. San Francisco Bay, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Perryville and Ivanof Bay, Alaska 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  2. Morehead City, North Carolina 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Garibaldi, Oregon 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2007 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Morehead City, North Carolina 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Port San Luis, California 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Monterey, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. panama_city_fl_1-3_arc-second_mhw_netcdf.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. Monterey, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Tampa Bay 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Palm Beach, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Central Washington Coast 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Bar Harbor, Maine 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Sitka, Alaska 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  16. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-02

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices.

  17. Atmospheric Tides in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D,; Newman, C. E; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Wilson, R. J.; Lemmon, M.; Smith, M. D.; Kahanpaa, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric tides are the primary source of daily air pressure variation at the surface of Mars. These tides are forced by solar heating of the atmosphere and modulated by the presence of atmospheric dust, topography, and surface albedo and thermal inertia. This results in a complex mix of sun-synchronous and nonsun- synchronous tides propagating both eastward and westward around the planet in periods that are integer fractions of a solar day. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station on board the Mars Science Laboratory has observed air pressure at a regular cadence for over 1 Mars year and here we analyze and diagnose atmospheric tides in this pressure record. The diurnal tide amplitude varies from 26 to 63 Pa with an average phase of 0424 local true solar time, while the semidiurnal tide amplitude varies from 5 to 20 Pa with an average phase of 0929. We find that both the diurnal and semidiurnal tides in Gale Crater are highly correlated to atmospheric opacity variations at a value of 0.9 and to each other at a value of 0.77, with some key exceptions occurring during regional and local dust storms. We supplement our analysis with MarsWRF general circulation modeling to examine how a local dust storm impacts the diurnal tide in its vicinity. We find that both the diurnal tide amplitude enhancement and regional coverage of notable amplitude enhancement linearly scales with the size of the local dust storm. Our results provide the first long-term record of surface pressure tides near the martian equator.

  18. Tetrahydro-2,1,3-boraoxazines - a new group boron heterocyclics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowska, H.; Serafin, B.; Urbanski, T.; Vasudeva, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis of new group of compounds derivative of tetrahydro-2,1,3 boraoxazine(5) by condensation of aminoalcohols 3 with aryloboronic acids(4) was carried out. The properties of new compounds are presented. (B.C.)

  19. Regio- and stereochemistry of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to alkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinovskaya, Raisa P; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2001-01-01

    The published data on the chemistry of intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to different types of alkene derivatives are systematised. Various aspects of stereo- and regiochemistry of this reaction are considered. The bibliography includes 182 references.

  20. Synthesis of novel N-, S-substituted-polyhalo-1, 3-butadienes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyhalogenated-2-nitro-1, 3-butadienes are important synthetic precursors for a variety of poly- functionalized ... biodegradation of morpholine with strains of Mycobac- terium or ...... pounds from very simple precursor in a one-pot ope- ration.