WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmosphere coronal heating

  1. Mechanisms of Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. R. Verma

    2006-06-01

    The Sun is a mysterious star. The high temperature of the chromosphere and corona present one of the most puzzling problems of solar physics. Observations show that the solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in solar corona. Recent observations show that Magnetic Carpet is a potential candidate for solar coronal heating.

  2. Recent advances in coronal heating

    CERN Document Server

    De Moortel, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This 'coronal heating problem' requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue.

  3. A Contemporary View of Coronal Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Parnell, Clare E; 10.1098/rsta.2012.0113

    2012-01-01

    Determining the heating mechanism (or mechanisms) that causes the outer atmosphere of the Sun, and many other stars, to reach temperatures orders of magnitude higher than their surface temperatures has long been a key problem. For decades the problem has been known as the coronal heating problem, but it is now clear that `coronal heating' cannot be treated or explained in isolation and that the heating of the whole solar atmosphere must be studied as a highly coupled system. The magnetic field of the star is known to play a key role, but, despite significant advancements in solar telescopes, computing power and much greater understanding of theoretical mechanisms, the question of which mechanism or mechanisms are the dominant supplier of energy to the chromosphere and corona is still open. Following substantial recent progress, we consider the most likely contenders and discuss the key factors that have made, and still make, determining the actual (coronal) heating mechanism (or mechanisms) so difficult.

  4. Generation of Electron Suprathermal Tails in the Upper Solar Atmosphere: Implications for Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Wong, Hung K.; Klimas, Alexander J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a mechanism for the generation of non-Maxwellian electron distribution function in the upper regions of the solar atmosphere in the presence of collisional damping. It is suggested that finite amplitude, low frequency, obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves can carry a substantial electric field component parallel to the mean magnetic field that can be significantly larger than the Dreicer electric field. This long wavelength electric fluctuation is capable of generating high frequency electron plasma oscillations and low frequency ion acoustic-like waves. The analysis has been performed using 1-1/2D Vlasov and PIC numerical simulations in which both electrons and ions are treated kinetically and self consistently. The simulation results indicate that high frequency electron plasma oscillations and low frequency ion acoustic-like waves are generated. The high frequency electron plasma oscillation drives electron plasma turbulence, which subsequently is damped out by the background electrons. The turbulence damping results in electron acceleration and the generation of non-Maxwellian suprathermal tails on time scales short compared to collisional damping. Bulk heating also occurs if the fluctuating parallel electric field is strong enough. This study suggests that finite amplitude, low frequency, obliquely propagating, electromagnetic waves can play a significant role in the acceleration and heating of the solar corona electrons and in the coupling of medium and small-scale phenomena.

  5. Relating magnetic reconnection to coronal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcope, D W; Tarr, L A

    2015-05-28

    It is clear that the solar corona is being heated and that coronal magnetic fields undergo reconnection all the time. Here we attempt to show that these two facts are related--i.e. coronal reconnection generates heat. This attempt must address the fact that topological change of field lines does not automatically generate heat. We present one case of flux emergence where we have measured the rate of coronal magnetic reconnection and the rate of energy dissipation in the corona. The ratio of these two, [Formula: see text], is a current comparable to the amount of current expected to flow along the boundary separating the emerged flux from the pre-existing flux overlying it. We can generalize this relation to the overall corona in quiet Sun or in active regions. Doing so yields estimates for the contribution to coronal heating from magnetic reconnection. These estimated rates are comparable to the amount required to maintain the corona at its observed temperature.

  6. Observational Consequences of Coronal Heating Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan C.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The coronal heating problem remains unsolved today, 80 years after its discovery, despite 50 years of suborbital and orbital coronal observatories. Tens of theoretical coronal heating mechanisms have been suggested, but only a few have been able to be ruled out. In this talk, we will explore the reasons for the slow progress and discuss the measurements that will be needed for potential breakthrough, including imaging the solar corona at small spatial scales, measuring the chromospheric magnetic fields, and detecting the presence of high temperature, low emission measure plasma. We will discuss three sounding rocket instruments developed to make these measurements: the High resolution Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP), and the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS).

  7. A unified theory of coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Solar coronal heating mechanisms are analyzed within the framework of a unified theory of heating processes. The theory is based on the standing wave equation of Ionson (1982) for the global current driven by emfs from the convection Beta less than 1. The equation has the same form as a driven LRC equation in which the equivalent inductance is scaled with the coronal loop length. The theory is used to classify various heating mechanisms inside the coronal loops. It is shown that the total global current can be obtained from an integration of the local currents, the degree of coherency between local currents being the dominant factor governing the global current amplitude. Active region loops appear to be heated by electrodynamic coupling to p-mode oscillations in the convection Beta less than 1.

  8. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. R. Verma; Diksha Chaudhary

    2008-03-01

    One of the fundamental questions in solar physics is how the solar corona maintains its high temperature of several million Kelvin above photosphere with a temperature of 6000 K. Observations show that solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in the solar corona. The separate kinds of coronal loops may also be heated by different mechanisms. Using data from instruments onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and from the more recent Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) scientists have identified small regions of mixed polarity, termed magnetic carpet contributing to solar activity on a short time scale. Magnetic loops of all sizes rise into the solar corona, arising from regions of opposite magnetic polarity in the photosphere. Energy released when oppositely directed magnetic fields meet in the corona is one likely cause for coronal heating. There is enough energy coming up from the loops of the “magnetic carpet” to heat the corona to its known temperature.

  9. Coronal heating in multiple magnetic threads

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, K V; Browning, P K; Cargill, P J

    2015-01-01

    Context. Heating the solar corona to several million degrees requires the conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy. In this paper, we investigate whether an unstable magnetic thread within a coronal loop can destabilise a neighbouring magnetic thread. Aims. By running a series of simulations, we aim to understand under what conditions the destabilisation of a single magnetic thread can also trigger a release of energy in a nearby thread. Methods. The 3D magnetohydrodynamics code, Lare3d, is used to simulate the temporal evolution of coronal magnetic fields during a kink instability and the subsequent relaxation process. We assume that a coronal magnetic loop consists of non-potential magnetic threads that are initially in an equilibrium state. Results. The non-linear kink instability in one magnetic thread forms a helical current sheet and initiates magnetic reconnection. The current sheet fragments, and magnetic energy is released throughout that thread. We find that, under certain conditions, this ...

  10. Coronal Fourier power spectra: implications for coronal seismology and coronal heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, Jack; Inglis, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of regions of the solar corona are investigated using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171\\AA\\ and 193\\AA\\ data. The coronal emission from the quiet Sun, coronal loop footprints, coronal moss, and from above a sunspot is studied. It is shown that the mean Fourier power spectra in these regions can be described by a power law at lower frequencies that tails to flat spectrum at higher frequencies, plus a Gaussian-shaped contribution that varies depending on the region studied. This Fourier spectral shape is in contrast to the commonly-held assumption that coronal time-series are well described by the sum of a long time-scale background trend plus Gaussian-distributed noise, with some specific locations also showing an oscillatory signal. The implications of this discovery to the field of coronal seismology and the automated detections of oscillations are discussed. The power law contribution to the shape of the Fourier power spectrum is interpreted as being due to the summation of a distribution ...

  11. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  12. Stellar Activity and Coronal Heating: an overview of recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars.

  13. Microflares as Possible Sources for Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meera Gupta; Rajmal Jain; Jayshree Trivedi; A. P. Mishra

    2008-03-01

    We present a preliminary study of 27 microflares observed by Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission during July 2003 to August 2006. We found that all 27 microflares show the Fe-line feature peaking around 6.7 keV, which is an indicator of the presence of coronal plasma temperature ≥ 9 MK. On the other hand, the spectra of microflares showhybrid model of thermal and non-thermal emission, which further supports them as possible sources of coronal heating. Our results based on the analysis show that the energy relapsed by the microflares is good enough for heating of the active corona. We discuss our results in the light of the hybrid model of microflares production.

  14. The role of torsional Alfven waves in coronal heating

    CERN Document Server

    Antolin, P

    2009-01-01

    In the context of coronal heating, among the zoo of MHD waves that exist in the solar atmosphere, Alfven waves receive special attention. Indeed, these waves constitute an attractive heating agent due to their ability to carry over the many different layers of the solar atmosphere sufficient energy to heat and maintain a corona. However, due to their incompressible nature these waves need a mechanism such as mode conversion (leading to shock heating), phase mixing, resonant absorption or turbulent cascade in order to heat the plasma. New observations with polarimetric, spectroscopic and imaging instruments such as those on board of the japanese satellite Hinode, or the SST or CoMP, are bringing strong evidence for the existence of energetic Alfven waves in the solar corona. In order to assess the role of Alfven waves in coronal heating, in this work we model a magnetic flux tube being subject to Alfven wave heating through the mode conversion mechanism. Using a 1.5-dimensional MHD code we carry out a paramete...

  15. Coronal Heating Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent launch of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) as a sounding rocket has offered a new, different view of the Sun. With approx 0.3" resolution and 5 second cadence, Hi-C reveals dynamic, small-scale structure within a complicated active region, including coronal braiding, reconnection regions, Alfven waves, and flows along active region fans. By combining the Hi-C data with other available data, we have compiled a rich data set that can be used to address many outstanding questions in solar physics. Though the Hi-C rocket flight was short (only 5 minutes), the added insight of the small-scale structure gained from the Hi-C data allows us to look at this active region and other active regions with new understanding. In this talk, I will review the first results from the Hi-C sounding rocket and discuss the impact of these results on the coronal heating problem.

  16. Network Coronal Bright Points: Coronal Heating Concentrations Found in the Solar Magnetic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the magnetic origins of coronal heating in quiet regions by combining SOHO/EIT Fe xii coronal images and Kitt Peak magnetograms. Spatial filtering of the coronal images shows a network of enhanced structures on the scale of the magnetic network in quiet regions. Superposition of the filtered coronal images on maps of the magnetic network extracted from the magnetograms shows that the coronal network does indeed trace and stem from the magnetic network. Network coronal bright points, the brightest features in the network lanes, are found to have a highly significant coincidence with polarity dividing lines (neutral lines) in the network and are often at the feet of enhanced coronal structures that stem from the network and reach out over the cell interiors. These results indicate that, similar to the close linkage of neutral-line core fields with coronal heating in active regions (shown in previous work), low-lying core fields encasing neutral lines in the magnetic network often drive noticeable coronal heating both within themselves (the network coronal bright points) and on more extended field lines rooted around them. This behavior favors the possibility that active core fields in the network are the main drivers of the heating of the bulk of the quiet corona, on scales much larger than the network lanes and cells.

  17. Numerical Simulation of DC Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, G.; Taylor, Brian D.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection, nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla. To connect these simulations to observations the computed number densities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differential emission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions.

  18. A unified theory of electrodynamic coupling in coronal magnetic loops - The coronal heating problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionson, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The coronal heating problem is studied, and it is demonstrated that Ionson's (1982) LRC approach results in a unified theory of coronal heating which unveils a variety of new heating mechanisms and which links together previously proposed mechanisms. Ionson's LRC equation is rederived, focusing on various aspects that were not clarified in the original article and incorporating new processes that were neglected. A parameterized heating rate is obtained. It is shown that Alfvenic surface wave heating, stochastic magnetic pumping, resonant electrodynamic heating, and dynamical dissipation emerge as special cases of a much more general formalism. This generalized theory is applied to solar coronal loops and it is found that active region and large scale loops are underdamped systems. Young active region loops and (possibly) bright points are found to be overdamped systems.

  19. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere.

  20. Observing Episodic Coronal Heating Events Rooted in Chromospheric Activity

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a multi-wavelength study of episodic plasma injection into the corona of AR 10942. We exploit long-exposure images of the Hinode and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft to study the properties of faint, episodic, "blobs" of plasma that are propelled upward along coronal loops that are rooted in the AR plage. We find that the source location and characteristic velocities of these episodic upflow events match those expected from recent spectroscopic observations of faint coronal upflows that are associated with upper chromospheric activity, in the form of highly dynamic spicules. The analysis presented ties together observations from coronal and chromospheric spectrographs and imagers, providing more evidence of the connection of discrete coronal mass heating and injection events with their source, dynamic spicules, in the chromosphere.

  1. Evidence of Non-Thermal Particles in Coronal Loops Heated Impulsively by Nanoflares

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Allred, Joel; Carlsson, Mats; Reale, Fabio; Daw, Adrian; Hansteen, Viggo; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Liu, Wei; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; McKillop, Sean; Reeves, Kathy; Saar, Steve; Tian, Hui; Lemen, Jim; Title, Alan; Boerner, Paul; Hurlburt, Neal; Tarbell, Ted; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, Lucia; Kankelborg, Charles; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The physical processes causing energy exchange between the Sun's hot corona and its cool lower atmosphere remain poorly understood. The chromosphere and transition region (TR) form an interface region between the surface and the corona that is highly sensitive to the coronal heating mechanism. High resolution observations with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal rapid variability (about 20 to 60 seconds) of intensity and velocity on small spatial scales at the footpoints of hot dynamic coronal loops. The observations are consistent with numerical simulations of heating by beams of non-thermal electrons, which are generated in small impulsive heating events called "coronal nanoflares". The accelerated electrons deposit a sizable fraction of their energy in the chromosphere and TR. Our analysis provides tight constraints on the properties of such electron beams and new diagnostics for their presence in the nonflaring corona.

  2. Free Magnetic Energy and Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Moore, Ron; Falconer, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the coronal X-ray luminosity of an active region increases roughly in direct proportion to the total photospheric flux of the active region's magnetic field (Fisher et al. 1998). It is also observed, however, that the coronal luminosity of active regions of nearly the same flux content can differ by an order of magnitude. In this presentation, we analyze 10 active regions with roughly the same total magnetic flux. We first determine several coronal properties, such as X-ray luminosity (calculated using Hinode XRT), peak temperature (calculated using Hinode EIS), and total Fe XVIII emission (calculated using SDO AIA). We present the dependence of these properties on a proxy of the free magnetic energy of the active region

  3. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Active-region Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding coronal heating remains a central problem in solar physics. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how energy is transferred to and deposited in the corona. We summarize past observational studies that attempted to identify the heating mechanism and point out the difficulties in reproducing the observations of the solar corona from the heating models. The aim of this paper is to study whether the observed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission in individual coronal loops in solar active regions can provide constraints on the volumetric heating function, and to develop a diagnostic for the heating function for a subset of loops that are found close to static thermal equilibrium. We reconstruct the coronal magnetic field from Solar Dynamics Observatory/HMI data using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field model. We model selected loops using a one-dimensional stationary model, with a heating rate dependent locally on the magnetic field strength along the loop, and we calculate the emission from these loops in various EUV wavelengths for different heating rates. We present a method to measure a power index β defining the dependence of the volumetric heating rate EH on the magnetic field, {E}H\\propto {B}β , and controlling also the shape of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints. The diagnostic is based on the dependence of the electron density on the index β. This method is free from the assumptions of the loop filling factor but requires spectroscopic measurements of the density-sensitive lines. The range of applicability for loops of different length and heating distributions is discussed, and the steps to solving the coronal heating problem are outlined.

  4. Competition between shock and turbulent heating in coronal loop system

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are performed with high spatial resolution in order to distinguish between competing models of the coronal heating problem. A single coronal loop powered by Alfv\\'{e}n waves excited in the photosphere is the target of the present study. The coronal structure is reproduced in our simulations as a natural consequence of the transportation and dissipation of Alfv\\'{e}n waves. Further, the coronal structure is maintained as the spatial resolution is changed from 25 to 3 km, although the temperature at the loop top increases with the spatial resolution. The heating mechanisms change gradually across the magnetic canopy at a height of 4 Mm. Below the magnetic canopy, both the shock and the MHD turbulence are dominant heating processes. Above the magnetic canopy, the shock heating rate reduces to less than 10 % of the total heating rate while the MHD turbulence provides significant energy to balance the radiative cooling and thermal conduction loss or gain. The i...

  5. Competition between shock and turbulent heating in coronal loop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2016-11-01

    2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are performed with high spatial resolution in order to distinguish between competing models of the coronal heating problem. A single coronal loop powered by Alfvén waves excited in the photosphere is the target of this study. The coronal structure is reproduced in our simulations as a natural consequence of the transportation and dissipation of Alfvén waves. Further, the coronal structure is maintained as the spatial resolution is changed from 25 to 3 km, although the temperature at the loop top increases with the spatial resolution. The heating mechanisms change gradually across the magnetic canopy at a height of 4 Mm. Below the magnetic canopy, both the shock and the MHD turbulence are dominant heating processes. Above the magnetic canopy, the shock heating rate reduces to less than 10 per cent of the total heating rate while the MHD turbulence provides significant energy to balance the radiative cooling and thermal conduction loss or gain. The importance of compressibility shown in this study would significantly impact on the prospects of successful MHD turbulence theory in the solar chromosphere.

  6. Coronal heating by resonant absorption: The effects of chromospheric coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, A. J. C.; Martens, P. C. H.; Keppens, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present the first 2.5 dimensional numerical model calculations of the nonlinear wave dynamics and heating by resonant absorption in coronal loops with thermal structuring of the transition region and higher chromosphere. The numerical calculations were done with the Versatile Advection Code. The

  7. Closed-Field Coronal Heating Driven by Wave Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Downs, Cooper; Mikić, Zoran; Linker, Jon A; Velli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    To simulate the energy balance of coronal plasmas on macroscopic scales, we often require the specification of the coronal heating mechanism in some functional form. To go beyond empirical formulations and to build a more physically motivated heating function, we investigate the wave-turbulence-driven (WTD) phenomenology for the heating of closed coronal loops. Our implementation is designed to capture the large-scale propagation, reflection, and dissipation of wave turbulence along a loop. The parameter space of this model is explored by solving the coupled WTD and hydrodynamic evolution in 1D for an idealized loop. The relevance to a range of solar conditions is also established by computing solutions for over one hundred loops extracted from a realistic 3D coronal field. Due to the implicit dependence of the WTD heating model on loop geometry and plasma properties along the loop and at the footpoints, we find that this model can significantly reduce the number of free parameters when compared to traditiona...

  8. A data driven kinetic approach to coronal heating

    CERN Document Server

    Toutountzi, A; Isliker, H; Moraitis, K; Georgoulis, M; Chintzoglou, G

    2016-01-01

    Coronal heating through the explosive release of magnetic energy remains an open problem in solar physics. Several one-dimensional hydrodynamical models have been developed over the last decade, using simple approaches for the way energy is deposited and transported in the coronal plasma, namely by inserting 'nanoflares' in the form of 'hot spots' at random sites and times. Our aim in this work is to investigate the problem from a different perspective. With the help of a nonlinear force-free extrapolation method we reconstruct the coronal magnetic field of a well-studied solar active region using an observed photospheric vector magnetogram of the region as the required boundary condition. We then determine the locations, energy contents, and volumes of unstable areas within the active-region corona. These areas include strong gradients in the magnetic field and are naturally connected to three-dimensional current sheets. The statistical distributions of these volumes, their fractal structure and correspondin...

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Parker Scenario for Coronal Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Rappazzo, A F; Einaudi, G; Dahlburg, R B

    2007-01-01

    The Parker or field line tangling model of coronal heating is studied comprehensively via long-time high-resolution simulations of the dynamics of a coronal loop in cartesian geometry within the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Slow photospheric motions induce a Poynting flux which saturates by driving an anisotropic turbulent cascade dominated by magnetic energy. In physical space this corresponds to a magnetic topology where magnetic field lines are barely entangled, nevertheless current sheets (corresponding to the original tangential discontinuities hypothesized by Parker) are continuously formed and dissipated. Current sheets are the result of the nonlinear cascade that transfers energy from the scale of convective motions ($\\sim 1,000 km$) down to the dissipative scales, where it is finally converted to heat and/or particle acceleration. Current sheets constitute the dissipative structure of the system, and the associated magnetic reconnection gives rise to impulsive ``bursty'' heating ...

  10. What can large-scale magnetohydrodynamic numerical experiments tell us about coronal heating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H

    2015-05-28

    The upper atmosphere of the Sun is governed by the complex structure of the magnetic field. This controls the heating of the coronal plasma to over a million kelvin. Numerical experiments in the form of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used to investigate the intimate interaction between magnetic field and plasma. These models allow one to synthesize the coronal emission just as it would be observed by real solar instrumentation. Large-scale models encompassing a whole active region form evolving coronal loops with properties similar to those seen in extreme ultraviolet light from the Sun, and reproduce a number of average observed quantities. This suggests that the spatial and temporal distributions of the heating as well as the energy distribution of individual heat deposition events in the model are a good representation of the real Sun. This provides evidence that the braiding of fieldlines through magneto-convective motions in the photosphere is a good concept to heat the upper atmosphere of the Sun.

  11. Signatures of Steady Heating in Time Lag Analysis of Coronal Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Viall, Nicholeen M

    2016-01-01

    Among the many ways of investigating coronal heating, the time lag method of Viall & Klimchuk (2012) is becoming increasingly prevalent as an analysis technique complementary to those traditionally used. The time lag method cross correlates light curves at a given spatial location obtained in spectral bands that sample different temperature plasmas. It has been used most extensively with data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We have previously applied the time lag method to entire active regions and surrounding quiet Sun and create maps of the results (Viall & Klimchuk 2012; Viall & Klimchuk 2015). We find that the majority of time lags are consistent with the cooling of coronal plasma that has been impulsively heated. Additionally, a significant fraction of the map area has a time lag of zero. This does not indicate a lack of variability. Rather, strong variability must be present, and it must occur in phase in the different channels. We have shown previous...

  12. Multifractal Solar EUV Intensity Fluctuations and their Implications for Coronal Heating Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Rivera, Y. J.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jennings, P. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15-45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  13. Plasma Heating Suring a Coronal Mass Ejection Observed by SOHO

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, N A; Korreck, K E

    2011-01-01

    We perform a time-dependent ionization analysis to constrain plasma heating requirements during a fast partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) observed on 2000 June 28 by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We use two methods to derive densities from the UVCS measurements, including a density sensitive O V line ratio at 1213.85 and 1218.35 Angstroms, and radiative pumping of the O VI 1032,1038 doublet by chromospheric emission lines. The most strongly constrained feature shows cumulative plasma heating comparable to or greater than the kinetic energy, while features observed earlier during the event show cumulative plasma heating comparable to or less than the kinetic energy. SOHO Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) observations are used to estimate the active region magnetic energy. We consider candidate plasma heating mechanisms and provide constraints when possible. Because this CME was associated with a relatively weak flare, the contribution b...

  14. An observationally-driven kinetic approach to coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, K.; Toutountzi, A.; Isliker, H.; Georgoulis, M.; Vlahos, L.; Chintzoglou, G.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: Coronal heating through the explosive release of magnetic energy remains an open problem in solar physics. Recent hydrodynamical models attempt an investigation by placing swarms of "nanoflares" at random sites and times in modeled one-dimensional coronal loops. We investigate the problem in three dimensions, using extrapolated coronal magnetic fields of observed solar active regions. Methods: We applied a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation above an observed photospheric magnetogram of NOAA active region (AR) 11 158. We then determined the locations, energy contents, and volumes of "unstable" areas, namely areas prone to releasing magnetic energy due to locally accumulated electric current density. Statistical distributions of these volumes and their fractal dimension are inferred, investigating also their dependence on spatial resolution. Further adopting a simple resistivity model, we inferred the properties of the fractally distributed electric fields in these volumes. Next, we monitored the evolution of 105 particles (electrons and ions) obeying an initial Maxwellian distribution with a temperature of 10 eV, by following their trajectories and energization when subjected to the resulting electric fields. For computational convenience, the length element of the magnetic-field extrapolation is 1 arcsec, or 725 km, much coarser than the particles' collisional mean free path in the low corona (0.1-1 km). Results: The presence of collisions traps the bulk of the plasma around the unstable volumes, or current sheets (UCS), with only a tail of the distribution gaining substantial energy. Assuming that the distance between UCS is similar to the collisional mean free path we find that the low active-region corona is heated to 100-200 eV, corresponding to temperatures exceeding 2 MK, within tens of seconds for electrons and thousands of seconds for ions. Conclusions: Fractally distributed, nanoflare-triggening fragmented UCS in the active-region corona can

  15. Alfven Wave Solar Model: Part 1, Coronal Heating

    CERN Document Server

    van der Holst, Bart; Meng, Xing; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas I

    2013-01-01

    We present the new Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), a global model from the upper chromosphere to the corona and the heliosphere. The coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are addressed with low-frequency Alfven wave turbulence. The injection of Alfven wave energy at the inner boundary is such that the Poynting flux is proportional to the magnetic field strength. The three-dimensional magnetic field topology is simulated using data from photospheric magnetic field measurements. This model does not impose open-closed magnetic field boundaries; those develop self-consistently. The physics includes: (1) The model employs three different temperatures, namely the isotropic electron temperature and the parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures. The firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities due to the developing ion temperature anisotropy are accounted for. (2) The Alfven waves are partially reflected by the Alfven speed gradient and the vorticity along the field lines. The resulting counter-propagat...

  16. Numerical Simulations of Coronal Heating through Footpoint Braiding

    CERN Document Server

    Hansteen, Viggo; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Advanced 3D radiative MHD simulations now reproduce many properties of the outer solar atmosphere. When including a domain from the convection zone into the corona, a hot chromosphere and corona are self-consistently maintained. Here we study two realistic models, with different simulated area, magnetic field strength and topology, and numerical resolution. These are compared in order to characterize the heating in the 3D-MHD simulations which self-consistently maintains the structure of the atmosphere. We analyze the heating at both large and small scales and find that heating is episodic and highly structured in space, but occurs along loop shaped structures, and moves along with the magnetic field. On large scales we find that the heating per particle is maximal near the transition region and that widely distributed opposite-polarity field in the photosphere leads to a greater heating scale height in the corona. On smaller scales, heating is concentrated in current sheets, the thicknesses of which are set ...

  17. The mystery of coronal heating%日冕反常加热之谜新解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宝林

    2016-01-01

    日冕加热之谜是当代天文学、天体物理学中的八大难题之一。自日冕高温发现七十多年以来,人们建立了许多模型试图解决这一难题,但到目前为止,现有的模型几乎都无法给出一个完整的解答。近年来,人们从观测上取得了一系列新的发现,如从光球到日冕的超精细磁通道中的快速上升热流、二型针状体、极紫外龙卷风等。这些发现给我们一个新的启示,即日冕的加热能量很可能是直接通过热物质上升并在日冕区域沉积而实现的。但是,这些上升热流又是如何形成的呢?鉴于太阳大气中普遍存在具有磁场梯度的磁通量管,作者最近提出了磁场梯度抽运机制(magnetic gradient pumping mechanism, MGP),每一磁通量管就像一个抽水机一般,将底层热分布的等离子体中的高能端粒子抽运到高层大气中沉积,并最终形成了高温的日冕大气。这一机制为我们探索日冕加热之谜提供了一个新的思路。%The problem of coronal heating is one the eight key mysteries in modern as-tronomy and astrophysics. Since the discovery of extremely hot corona more than 70 years ago, many theoretical models have attempted to explain this mystery. However, so far no model can ex-plain the coronal heating process perfectly. Recently, there have been several new discoveries, such as the observation of hot plasma ejections along the ultrafine magnetic channels from the so-lar surface upward to the corona, hot upflows of type II spicules, magnetic tornados, and EUV cy-clones, which imply that the hot corona may be heated by hot plasma upflows directly from the underlying atmosphere. But how do these hot upflows form? We notice the fact that the magnetic gradient is ubiquitous in the whole solar atmosphere, based on which we have proposed a new the-oretical model, the magnetic-gradient pumping mechanism, to explain the coronal heating pro-cess. In this

  18. EUV FLICKERING OF SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: A NEW DIAGNOSTIC OF CORONAL HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajfirouze, E.; Reale, F.; Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Testa, P., E-mail: reale@astropa.unipa.it [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    A previous work of ours found the best agreement between EUV light curves observed in an active region core (with evidence of super-hot plasma) and those predicted from a model with a random combination of many pulse-heated strands with a power-law energy distribution. We extend that work by including spatially resolved strand modeling and by studying the evolution of emission along the loops in the EUV 94 Å and 335 Å channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using the best parameters of the previous work as the input of the present one, we find that the amplitude of the random fluctuations driven by the random heat pulses increases from the bottom to the top of the loop in the 94 Å channel and from the top to the bottom in the 335 Å channel. This prediction is confirmed by the observation of a set of aligned neighboring pixels along a bright arc of an active region core. Maps of pixel fluctuations may therefore provide easy diagnostics of nanoflaring regions.

  19. EUV flickering of solar coronal loops: a new diagnostic of coronal heating

    CERN Document Server

    Tajfirouze, E; Peres, G; Testa, P

    2016-01-01

    A previous work of ours found the best agreement between EUV light curves observed in an active region core (with evidence of super-hot plasma) and those predicted from a model with a random combination of many pulse-heated strands with a power-law energy distribution. We extend that work by including spatially resolved strand modeling and by studying the evolution of emission along the loops in the EUV 94 A and 335 A channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using the best parameters of the previous work as the input of the present one, we find that the amplitude of the random fluctuations driven by the random heat pulses increases from the bottom to the top of the loop in the 94 A channel and, viceversa, from the top to the bottom in the 335 A channel. This prediction is confirmed by the observation of a set of aligned neighbouring pixels along a bright arc of an active region core. Maps of pixel fluctuations may therefore provide easy diagnostics of nano-flaring ...

  20. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES AND CORONAL HEATING: UNIFYING EMPIRICAL AND MHD TURBULENCE MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Igor V.; Van der Holst, Bart; Oran, Rona; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Downs, Cooper [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roussev, Ilia I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Rebekah M., E-mail: igorsok@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present a new global model of the solar corona, including the low corona, the transition region, and the top of the chromosphere. The realistic three-dimensional magnetic field is simulated using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements. The distinctive feature of the new model is incorporating MHD Alfven wave turbulence. We assume this turbulence and its nonlinear dissipation to be the only momentum and energy source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. The difference between the turbulence dissipation efficiency in coronal holes and that in closed field regions is because the nonlinear cascade rate degrades in strongly anisotropic (imbalanced) turbulence in coronal holes (no inward propagating wave), thus resulting in colder coronal holes, from which the fast solar wind originates. The detailed presentation of the theoretical model is illustrated with the synthetic images for multi-wavelength EUV emission compared with the observations from SDO AIA and STEREO EUVI instruments for the Carrington rotation 2107.

  1. Coronal heating by the partial relaxation of twisted loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bareford, Michael; Browning, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Context: Relaxation theory offers a straightforward method for estimating the energy that is released when a magnetic field becomes unstable, as a result of continual convective driving. Aims: We present new results obtained from nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of idealised coronal loops. The purpose of this work is to determine whether or not the simulation results agree with Taylor relaxation, which will require a modified version of relaxation theory applicable to unbounded field configurations. Methods: A three-dimensional (3D) MHD Lagrangian-remap code is used to simulate the evolution of a line-tied cylindrical coronal loop model. This model comprises three concentric layers surrounded by a potential envelope; hence, being twisted locally, each loop configuration is distinguished by a piecewise-constant current profile. Initially, all configurations carry zero-net-current fields and are in ideally unstable equilibrium. The simulation results are compared with the predictions of helicity ...

  2. Global Alfven Waves in Solar Physics: Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha demostrado que Ia onda discreta de Alfven puede generar por lo memos un 20% de la energia coronal requerida con densidad de flujo de lO- erg 5 . Las ondas discretas de Alfven son una nueva clase `de ondas de Alfven las cuales pueden describirse por el modelo con que incluye un i6n finito, con frecuencia ciclotr6nica ( /uci # 0) y los efectos del equilibrio de plasma mostrados por Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. ABSTRACT. It has been shown that the Discrete Alfven wave can power at least 20% of the required coronal energy flux density iO- Discrete Alfven waves are a new class of Alfven waves wich can be described by the model with the inclusion of finite ion cyclotron frequency (w/wci 0) and the equilibrium plasma current effects as shown by Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. o,t :, HYDROMAGNETICS - SUN-CORONA

  3. Feel the Burn: What accounts for spatial variations in coronal heating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Shane; Kankelborg, Charles C.

    2016-05-01

    The coronal volume is filled with magnetic field, yet only part of that volume has sufficient heating to exhibit hot x-ray loops. How does the Sun decide where the heat goes? Using XRT and AIA images and HMI magnetograms, we identify footpoints of hot coronal loops, and magnetically similar regions underlying relatively unheated corona. We then use IRIS rasters and sit-and-stare observations to compare the spatial, temporal, and spectral structure of these relatively ``heated’’ and ``unheated’’ regions. We seek a signature of upward propagating energy that could be associated with hot active region loops.

  4. Coronal Heating Driven by Magnetic-gradient Pumping Mechanism in Solar Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    The solar coronal heating is a longstanding mystery in astrophysics. Considering that the solar magnetic field is spatially inhomogeneous with considerable magnetic gradient from solar surface to the corona, this work proposes a magnetic gradient pumping (MGP) mechanism and try to explain the formation of hot plasma upflows, such as the hot type II spicules and hot plasma ejections, etc. In MGP mechanism, the magnetic gradients drive the energetic particles to move upwards from the underlying solar atmosphere and form hot upflows. These upflow energetic particles deposit in corona and make it becoming very hot. Roughly estimations indicate that the solar corona can be heated to above 1 million degrees, and the upflow velocity is about 40 km/s in chromosphere and about 130 km/s in the corona. The solar magnetic flux tubes act as pumpers to extract energetic particles from the underlying thermal photosphere, convey them and deposit in the corona. The deposition of energetic particles will make the corona become...

  5. Location of energy source for coronal heating on the photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhen-Xiang; Yang, Xu; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai-Fan; Ji, Hai-Sheng; Cao, Wen-Da

    2017-02-01

    It is reported that ultra-fine dynamic ejections along magnetic loops of an active region originate from intergranular lanes and they are associated with subsequent heating in the corona. As continuing work, we analyze the same set of data but focus on a quiet region and the overlying EUV/UV emission as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We find that there appear to be dark patches scattered across the quiet region and the dark patches always stay along intergranular lanes. Over the dark patches, the average UV/EUV emission at 131, 171, 304 and 1600 Å (middle temperature) is more intense than that of other regions and EUV brightness is negatively correlated with 10830 Å intensity, though, such a trend does not exist for high temperature lines at 94, 193, 211 and 335 Å. For the same quiet region, where both TiO 7057 Å broad band images and 10830 Å filtergrams are available, contours for the darkest lane areas on TiO images and dark patches on 10830 Å filtergrams frequently differ in space. The results suggest that the dark patches do not simply reflect the areas with the darkest lanes but are associated with a kind of enhanced absorption (EA) at 10830 Å. A strict definition for EA with narrow band 10830 Å filtergrams is found to be difficult. In this paper, we define enhanced absorption patches (EAPs) of a quiet region as the areas where emission is less than ∼90% of the mean intensity of the region. The value is equivalent to the average intensity along thin dark loops connecting two moss regions of the active region. A more strict definition for EAPs, say 88%, gives even more intense UV/EUV emission over those in the middle temperature range. The results provide further observational evidence that energy for heating the upper solar atmosphere comes from the intergranular lane area where the magnetic field is constantly brought in by convection motion in granules.

  6. Observational Signatures of Coronal Loop Heating and Cooling Driven by Footpoint Shuffling

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlburg, R B; Taylor, B D; Ugarte-Urra, I; Warren, H P; Rappazzo, A F; Velli, M

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multi-thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01...

  7. Spectroscopy at the Solar Limb: II. Are Spicules Heated to Coronal Temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Rezaei, R.; Puschmann, K. G.; Fabbian, D.

    2016-10-01

    Spicules of the so-called type II were suggested to be relevant for coronal heating because of their ubiquity on the solar surface and their eventual extension into the corona. We investigate whether solar spicules are heated to transition-region or coronal temperatures and reach coronal heights ({≫} 6 Mm) using multiwavelength observations of limb spicules in different chromospheric spectral lines (Ca ii H, Hɛ, Hα, Ca ii IR at 854.2 nm, He i at 1083 nm) taken with slit spectrographs and imaging spectrometers. We determine the line width of spectrally resolved line profiles in individual spicules and throughout the field of view, and estimate the maximal height that different types of off-limb features reach. We derive estimates of the kinetic temperature and the non-thermal velocity from the line width of spectral lines from different chemical elements. We find that most regular, i.e. thin and elongated, spicules reach a height of at most about 6 Mm above the solar limb. The majority of features found at larger heights are irregularly shaped with a significantly larger lateral extension, of up to a few Mm, than spicules. Both individual and average line profiles in all spectral lines show a decrease in their line width with height above the limb with very few exceptions. The kinetic temperature and the non-thermal velocity decrease with height above the limb. We find no indications that the spicules in our data reach coronal heights or transition-region or coronal temperatures.

  8. Acceleration of solar wind in polar coronal holes by induction heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, A. D.; Shkrebets, A. E.; Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Soldatov, V. A.

    1995-01-01

    The universal induction heating mechanism supplying with the energy all the processes of coronal heating and the solar wind acceleration is developed. The observed relative 'trembling' of photospheric super-large scale magnetic fields with quasi-periods of 1-4 days amounts 30-40 percent in amplitude. The inductive electric field appears in the corona. The electric currents cause the Joule dissipation. The uneven heating leads to the solar wind acceleration. A model is suggested in which high-speed streams in space are caused by the combination of the enhanced inductive energy flux from the solar coronal active regions; the work against the regular magnetic field; losses from coronal emission. The consideration is made in terms of the dissipative solar wind theory with the finite electrical conductivity of plasma. The leakage of plasma and the energy flux across the magnetic field, caused by the induction heating processes, are taken into account. The polar coronal holes (and the mid-latitude ones) are indicators of energy transfer balance but not direct sources of high-speed streams in the solar wind.

  9. Plasma Sloshing in Pulse-heated Solar and Stellar Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, F.

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that coronal heating is highly intermittent, and flares are the high energy extreme. The properties of the heat pulses are difficult to constrain. Here, hydrodynamic loop modeling shows that several large amplitude oscillations (˜20% in density) are triggered in flare light curves if the duration of the heat pulse is shorter than the sound crossing time of the flaring loop. The reason for this is that the plasma does not have enough time to reach pressure equilibrium during heating, and traveling pressure fronts develop. The period is a few minutes for typical solar coronal loops, dictated by the sound crossing time in the decay phase. The long period and large amplitude make these oscillations different from typical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. This diagnostic can be applied both to observations of solar and stellar flares and to future observations of non-flaring loops at high resolution.

  10. Plasma sloshing in pulse-heated solar and stellar coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Reale, F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that coronal heating is highly intermittent, and flares are the high energy extreme. The properties of the heat pulses are difficult to constrain. Here hydrodynamic loop modeling shows that several large amplitude oscillations (~ 20% in density) are triggered in flare light curves if the duration of the heat pulse is shorter that the sound crossing time of the flaring loop. The reason is that the plasma has not enough time to reach pressure equilibrium during the heating and traveling pressure fronts develop. The period is a few minutes for typical solar coronal loops, dictated by the sound crossing time in the decay phase. The long period and large amplitude make these oscillations different from typical MHD waves. This diagnostic can be applied both to observations of solar and stellar flares and to future observations of non-flaring loops at high resolution.

  11. Resonant Heating of Ions by Parallel Propagating Alfvén Waves in Solar Coronal Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xi Zhang; Jing-Xiu Wang; Chi-Jie Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Resonant heating of H, O+5, and Mg+9 by parallel propagating ioncyclotron Alfven waves in solar coronal holes at a heliocentric distance is studied using the heating rate derived from the quasilinear theory. It is shown that the particle-Alfven-wave interaction is a significant microscopic process. The temperatures of the ions are rapidly increased up to the observed order in only microseconds, which implies that simply inserting the quasilinear heating rate into the fluid/MHD energy equation to calculate the radial dependence of ion temperatures may cause errors as the time scales do not match. Different species ions are heated by Alfven waves with a power law spectrum in approximately a mass order.To heat O+5 over Mg+9 as measured by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) in the solar coronal hole at a region≥ 1.9R⊙, the energy density of Alfven waves with a frequency close to the O+5-cyclotron frequency must be at least double of that at the Mg+9-cyclotron frequency. With an appropriate wave-energy spectrum, the heating of H, O+5 and Mg+9 can be consistent with the UVCS measurements in solar coronal holes at a heliocentric distance.

  12. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF CORONAL LOOP HEATING AND COOLING DRIVEN BY FOOTPOINT SHUFFLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Taylor, B. D. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Einaudi, G. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, I. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F. [Advanced Heliophysics, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Velli, M., E-mail: rdahlbur@lcp.nrl.navy.mil [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence, the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is nonuniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales that, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multithermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50,000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 T are presented. To connect these simulations to observations, we use the computed number densities and temperatures to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. These intensities are used to compute differential emission measure distributions using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain code, which are very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions. We conclude that coronal heating is found to be strongly intermittent in space and time, with only small portions of the coronal loop being heated: in fact, at any given time, most of the corona is cooling down.

  13. A new approach for modelling chromospheric evaporation in response to enhanced coronal heating: 1 the method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, C D; Cargill, P J; De Moortel, I

    2016-01-01

    We present a new computational approach that addresses the difficulty of obtaining the correct interaction between the solar corona and the transition region in response to rapid heating events. In the coupled corona, transition region and chromosphere system, an enhanced downward conductive flux results in an upflow (chromospheric evaporation). However, obtaining the correct upflow generally requires high spatial resolution in order to resolve the transition region. With an unresolved transition region, artificially low coronal densities are obtained because the downward heat flux jumps across the unresolved region to the chromosphere, underestimating the upflows. Here, we treat the lower transition region as a discontinuity that responds to changing coronal conditions through the imposition of a jump condition that is derived from an integrated form of energy conservation. To illustrate and benchmark this approach against a fully resolved one-dimensional model, we present field-aligned simulations of corona...

  14. Non-WKB Models of the FIP Effect: Implications for Solar Coronal Heating and the Coronal Helium and Neon Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Laming, J Martin

    2009-01-01

    We revisit in more detail a model for element abundance fractionation in the solar chromosphere, that gives rise to the "FIP Effect" in the solar corona and wind. Elements with first ionization potential below about 10 eV, i.e. those that are predominantly ionized in the chromosphere, are enriched in the corona by a factor 3-4. We model the propagation of Alfven waves through the chromosphere using a non-WKB treatment, and evaluate the ponderomotive force associated with these waves. Under solar conditions, this is generally pointed upwards in the chromosphere, and enhances the abundance of chromospheric ions in the corona. Our new approach captures the essentials of the solar coronal abundance anomalies, including the depletion of He relative to H, and also the putative depletion of Ne, recently discussed in the literature. We also argue that the FIP effect provides the strongest evidence to date for energy fluxes of Alfven waves sufficient to heat the corona. However it appears that these waves must also be...

  15. Heating and cooling of coronal loops observed by SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. P.; Peter, H.; Chen, F.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Context. One of the most prominent processes to have been suggested as heating the corona to well above 106 K builds on nanoflares, which are short bursts of energy dissipation. Aims: We compare observations to model predictions to test the validity of the nanoflare process. Methods: Using extreme UV data from AIA/SDO and HMI/SDO line-of-sight magnetograms, we study the spatial and temporal evolution of a set of loops in active region AR 11850. Results: We find a transient brightening of loops in emission from Fe xviii forming at about 7.2 MK, while at the same time these loops dim in emission from lower temperatures. This points to a fast heating of the loop that goes along with evaporation of material that we observe as apparent upward motions in the image sequence. After this initial phase lasting some 10 min, the loops brighten in a sequence of AIA channels that show progressively cooler plasma, indicating that this cooling of the loops lasts about one hour. A comparison to the predictions from a 1D loop model shows that this observation supports the nanoflare process in (almost) all aspects. In addition, our observations show that the loops get broader while getting brighter, which cannot be understood in a 1D model. Movie associated to Fig. 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Suppression of Heating of Coronal Loops Rooted in Opposite Polarity Sunspot Umbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    EUV observations of active region (AR) coronae reveal the presence of loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 Å images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect plage or a sunspot of one polarity to an opposite-­polarity plage region. The AIA 94 Å images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the Heliosesmic Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. The NLFFF model, validated by comparison of calculated model field lines with observed loops in AIA 193 and 94 Å, specifies the photospheric roots of the model field lines. Some model coronal magnetic field lines arch from the dim umbral area of the positive-polarity sunspot to the dim umbral area of a negative-polarity sunspot. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.

  17. Spectroscopy at the solar limb: II. Are spicules heated to coronal temperatures ?

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Puschmann, K G; Fabbian, D

    2016-01-01

    Spicules of the so-called type II were suggested to be relevant for coronal heating because of their ubiquity on the solar surface and their eventual extension into the corona. We investigate whether solar spicules are heated to transition-region or coronal temperatures and reach coronal heights (>6 Mm) using multi-wavelength observations of limb spicules in different chromospheric spectral lines (Ca II H, Hepsilon, Halpha, Ca II IR at 854.2 nm, He I at 1083 nm). We determine the line width of individual spicules and throughout the field of view and estimate the maximal height that different types of off-limb features reach. We derive estimates of the kinetic temperature and the non-thermal velocity from the line width of spectral lines from different chemical elements. We find that most regular spicules reach a maximal height of about 6 Mm above the solar limb. The majority of features found at larger heights are irregularly shaped with a significantly larger lateral extension than spicules. Both individual ...

  18. Can Large Time Delays Observed in Light Curves of Coronal Loops be Explained by Impulsive Heating?

    CERN Document Server

    Lionello, Roberto; Winebarger, Amy R; Linker, Jon A; Mikić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower. The time delays between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. Time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values, with maxima $>$ 5,000\\,s. These large time delays make up 3-26\\% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a significant, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that time delays can be explained by impulsive heating. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in t...

  19. Heat flux in a non-Maxwellian plasma. [in realistic solar coronal loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljepojevic, N. N.; Macneice, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Landau equation for the electron distribution function over all velocity space. Evidence is presented for the first time of the degree and character of the failure of the classical Spitzer-Haerm heat flux approximation in a realistic solar coronal loop structure. In the loop model used, the failure is so severe at some points that the role of the heat flux in the plasma's energy balance is completely misinterpreted. In the lower corona the Spitzer-Haerm approximation predicts that the heat flux should act as an energy source, whereas the more accurate distribution functions calculated here show this to be an energy sink.

  20. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-3933 (United States); Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R., E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: caroline.e.alexander@nasa.gov, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored.

  1. THERMAL NON-EQUILIBRIUM REVISITED: A HEATING MODEL FOR CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The location and frequency of events that heat the million-degree corona are still a matter of debate. One potential heating scenario is that the energy release is effectively steady and highly localized at the footpoints of coronal structures. Such an energy deposition drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions in the hydrodynamic equations in longer loops. This heating scenario was considered and discarded by Klimchuk et al. on the basis of their one-dimensional simulations as incapable of reproducing observational characteristics of loops. In this paper, we use three-dimensional simulations to generate synthetic emission images, from which we select and analyze six loops. The main differences between our model and that of Klimchuk et al. concern (1) dimensionality, (2) resolution, (3) geometrical properties of the loops, (4) heating function, and (5) radiative function. We find evidence, in this small set of simulated loops, that the evolution of the light curves, the variation of temperature along the loops, the density profile, and the absence of small-scale structures are compatible with the characteristics of observed loops. We conclude that quasi-steady footpoint heating that drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions cannot yet be ruled out as a viable heating scenario for EUV loops.

  2. Coronal heating and wind acceleration by nonlinear Alfvén waves – global simulations with gravity, radiation, and conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Suzuki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent results of global one-dimensional (1-D MHD simulations for the acceleration of solar and stellar winds. We impose transverse photospheric motions corresponding to the granulations, which generate outgoing Alfvén waves. We treat the propagation and dissipation of the Alfvén waves and consequent heating from the photosphere by dynamical simulations in a self-consistent manner. Nonlinear dissipation of Alfven waves becomes quite effective owing to the stratification of the atmosphere (the outward decrease of the density. We show that the coronal heating and the solar wind acceleration in the open magnetic field regions are natural consequence of the footpoint fluctuations of the magnetic fields at the surface (photosphere. We find that the properties of the solar wind sensitively depend on the fluctuation amplitudes at the solar surface because of the nonlinearity of the Alfvén waves, and that the wind speed at 1 AU is mainly controlled by the field strength and geometry of flux tubes. Based on these results, we point out that both fast and slow solar winds can be explained by the dissipation of nonlinear Alfvén waves in a unified manner. We also discuss winds from red giant stars driven by Alfvén waves, focusing on different aspects from the solar wind.

  3. Non-negative Matrix Factorization as a Method for Studying Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Will; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Many theoretical efforts have been made to model the response of coronal loops to nanoflare heating, but the theory has long suffered from a lack of direct observations. Nanoflares, originally proposed by Parker (1988), heat the corona through short, impulsive bursts of energy. Because of their short duration and comparatively low amplitude, emission signatures from nanoflare heating events are often difficult to detect. Past algorithms (e.g. Ugarte-Urra and Warren, 2014) for measuring the frequency of transient brightenings in active region cores have provided only a lower bound for such measurements. We present the use of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to analyze spectral data in active region cores in order to provide more accurate determinations of nanoflare heating properties. NMF, a matrix deconvolution technique, has a variety of applications , ranging from Raman spectroscopy to face recognition, but, to our knowledge, has not been applied in the field of solar physics. The strength of NMF lies in its ability to estimate sources (heating events) from measurements (observed spectral emission) without any knowledge of the mixing process (Cichocki et al., 2009). We apply our NMF algorithm to forward-modeled emission representative of that produced by nanoflare heating events in an active region core. The heating events are modeled using a state-of-the-art hydrodynamics code (Bradshaw and Cargill, 2013) and the emission and active regions are synthesized using advanced forward modeling and visualization software (Bradshaw and Klimchuk, 2011; Reep et al., 2013). From these active region visualizations, our NMF algorithm is then able to predict the heating event frequency and amplitudes. Improved methods of nanoflare detection will help to answer fundamental questions regarding the frequency of energy release in the solar corona and how the corona responds to such impulsive heating. Additionally, development of reliable, automated nanoflare detection

  4. The Foggy EUV Corona and Coronal Heating by MHD Waves From Explosive Reconnection Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Falconer, D. A.

    2008-05-01

    In 0.5 arcsec/pixel TRACE coronal EUV images, the corona rooted in active regions that are at the limb and are not flaring is seen to consist of (1) a complex array of discrete loops and plumes embedded in (2) a diffuse ambient component that shows no fine structure and gradually fades with height. For each of two not-flaring active regions, Cirtain et al (2006, Sol. Phys., 239, 295) found that the diffuse component is (1) approximately isothermal and hydrostatic and (2) emits well over half of the total EUV luminosity of the active-region corona. Here, from a TRACE Fe XII coronal image of another not-flaring active region, the large sunspot active region AR 10652 when it was at the west limb on 30 July 2004, we separate the diffuse component from the discrete-loop component by spatial filtering, and find that the diffuse component has about 60% of the total luminosity. If under much higher spatial resolution than that of TRACE (e.g., the 0.1 arcsec/pixel resolution of the Hi-C sounding- rocket experiment proposed by J. W. Cirtain et al), most of the diffuse component remains diffuse rather being resolved into very narrow loops and plumes, this will raise the possibility that the EUV corona in active regions consists of two basically different but comparably luminous components: one being the set of discrete bright loops and plumes and the other being a truly diffuse component filling the space between the discrete loops and plumes. This dichotomy would imply that there are two different but comparably powerful coronal heating mechanisms operating in active regions, one for the distinct loops and plumes and another for the diffuse component. We present a scenario in which (1) each discrete bright loop or plume is a flux tube that was recently reconnected in a burst of reconnection, and (2) the diffuse component is heated by MHD waves that are generated by these reconnection events and by other fine-scale explosive reconnection events, most of which occur in and

  5. The Foggy EUV Corona and Coronal Heating by MHD Waves from Explosive Reconnection Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Falconer, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In 0.5 arcsec/pixel TRACE coronal EUV images, the corona rooted in active regions that are at the limb and are not flaring is seen to consist of (1) a complex array of discrete loops and plumes embedded in (2) a diffuse ambient component that shows no fine structure and gradually fades with height. For each of two not-flaring active regions, found that the diffuse component is (1) approximately isothermal and hydrostatic and (2) emits well over half of the total EUV luminosity of the active-region corona. Here, from a TRACE Fe XII coronal image of another not-flaring active region, the large sunspot active region AR 10652 when it was at the west limb on 30 July 2004, we separate the diffuse component from the discrete loop component by spatial filtering, and find that the diffuse component has about 60% of the total luminosity. If under much higher spatial resolution than that of TRACE (e. g., the 0.1 arcsec/pixel resolution of the Hi-C sounding-rocket experiment proposed by J. W. Cirtain et al), most of the diffuse component remains diffuse rather being resolved into very narrow loops and plumes, this will raise the possibility that the EUV corona in active regions consists of two basically different but comparably luminous components: one being the set of discrete bright loops and plumes and the other being a truly diffuse component filling the space between the discrete loops and plumes. This dichotomy would imply that there are two different but comparably powerful coronal heating mechanisms operating in active regions, one for the distinct loops and plumes and another for the diffuse component. We present a scenario in which (1) each discrete bright loop or plume is a flux tube that was recently reconnected in a burst of reconnection, and (2) the diffuse component is heated by MHD waves that are generated by these reconnection events and by other fine-scale explosive reconnection events, most of which occur in and below the base of the corona where they are

  6. A new model for heating of Solar North Polar Coronal Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Devlen, E; Yardımcı, M; Pekünlü, E R

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model of North Polar Coronal Hole (NPCH) to study dissipation/propagation of MHD waves. We investigate the effects of the isotropic viscosity and heat conduction on the propagation characteristics of the MHD waves in NPCH. We first model NPCH by considering the differences in radial as well as in the direction perpendicular to the line of sight (\\textit{los}) in temperature, particle number density and non-thermal velocities between plumes and interplume lanes for the specific case of \\ion{O}{VI} ions. This model includes parallel and perpendicular (to the magnetic field) heat conduction and viscous dissipation. Next, we derive the dispersion relations for the MHD waves in the case of absence and presence of parallel heat conduction. In the case of absence of parallel heat conduction, we find that MHD wave dissipation strongly depends on the viscosity for modified acoustic and Alfven waves. The energy flux density of acoustic waves varies between $10^{4.7}$ and $10^7 \\,erg\\,cm^{-2}\\,...

  7. Modeling solar coronal bright point oscillations with multiple nanoflare heated loops

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrashekhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Intensity oscillations of coronal bright points (BPs) have been studied for past several years. It has been known for a while that these BPs are closed magnetic loop like structures. However, initiation of such intensity oscillations is still an enigma. There have been many suggestions to explain these oscillations, but modeling of such BPs have not been explored so far. Using a multithreaded nanoflare heated loop model we study the behavior of such BPs in this work. We compute typical loop lengths of BPs using potential field line extrapolation of available data (Chandrashekhar et al. 2013), and set this as the length of our simulated loops. We produce intensity like observables through forward modeling and analyze the intensity time series using wavelet analysis, as was done by previous observers. The result reveals similar intensity oscillation periods reported in past observations. It is suggested these oscillations are actually shock wave propagations along the loop. We also show that if one considers di...

  8. Classical Heat-Flux Measurements in Coronal Plasmas from Collective Thomson-Scattering Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Rozmus, W.

    2016-10-01

    Collective Thomson scattering was used to measure heat flux in coronal plasmas. The relative amplitude of the Thomson-scattered power into the up- and downshifted electron plasma wave features was used to determine the flux of electrons moving along the temperature gradient at three to four times the electron thermal velocity. Simultaneously, the ion-acoustic wave features were measured. Their relative amplitude was used to measure the flux of the return-current electrons. The frequencies of these ion-acoustic and electron plasma wave features provide local measurements of the electron temperature and density. These spectra were obtained at five locations along the temperature gradient in a laser-produced blowoff plasma. These measurements of plasma parameters are used to infer the Spitzer-Härm flux (qSH = - κ∇Te ) and are in good agreement with the values of the heat flux measured from the scattering-feature asymmetries. Additional experiments probed plasma waves perpendicular to the temperature gradient. The data show small effects resulting from heat flux compared to probing waves along the temperature gradient. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. Electron heating in atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Robert H.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-04-01

    The application of nanosecond voltage pulses to weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas allows heating the electrons without considerably increasing the gas temperature, provided that the duration of the pulses is less than the critical time for the development of glow-to-arc transitions. The shift in the electron energy distribution towards higher energies causes a temporary increase in the ionization rate, and consequently a strong rise in electron density. This increase in electron density is reflected in an increased decay time of the plasma after the pulse application. Experiments in atmospheric pressure air glow discharges with gas temperatures of approximately 2000 K have been performed to explore the electron heating effect. Measurements of the temporal development of the voltage across the discharge and the optical emission in the visible after applying a 10 ns high voltage pulse to a weakly ionized steady state plasma demonstrated increasing plasma decay times from tens of nanoseconds to microseconds when the pulsed electric field was raised from 10 to 40 kV/cm. Temporally resolved photographs of the discharge have shown that the plasma column expands during this process. The nonlinear electron heating effect can be used to reduce the power consumption in a repetitively operated air plasma considerably compared to a dc plasma operation. Besides allowing power reduction, pulsed electron heating also has the potential to enhance plasma processes, which require elevated electron energies, such as excimer generation for ultraviolet lamps.

  10. Alfvén wave solar model (AWSoM): Coronal heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I. V.; Meng, X.; Jin, M.; Manchester, W. B. IV; Tóth, G.; Gombosi, T. I. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    We present a new version of the Alfvén wave solar model, a global model from the upper chromosphere to the corona and the heliosphere. The coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are addressed with low-frequency Alfvén wave turbulence. The injection of Alfvén wave energy at the inner boundary is such that the Poynting flux is proportional to the magnetic field strength. The three-dimensional magnetic field topology is simulated using data from photospheric magnetic field measurements. This model does not impose open-closed magnetic field boundaries; those develop self-consistently. The physics include the following. (1) The model employs three different temperatures, namely the isotropic electron temperature and the parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures. The firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities due to the developing ion temperature anisotropy are accounted for. (2) The Alfvén waves are partially reflected by the Alfvén speed gradient and the vorticity along the field lines. The resulting counter-propagating waves are responsible for the nonlinear turbulent cascade. The balanced turbulence due to uncorrelated waves near the apex of the closed field lines and the resulting elevated temperatures are addressed. (3) To apportion the wave dissipation to the three temperatures, we employ the results of the theories of linear wave damping and nonlinear stochastic heating. (4) We have incorporated the collisional and collisionless electron heat conduction. We compare the simulated multi-wavelength extreme ultraviolet images of CR2107 with the observations from STEREO/EUVI and the Solar Dynamics Observatory/AIA instruments. We demonstrate that the reflection due to strong magnetic fields in the proximity of active regions sufficiently intensifies the dissipation and observable emission.

  11. Modeling Solar Coronal Bright-point Oscillations with Multiple Nanoflare Heated Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, K.; Sarkar, Aveek

    2015-09-01

    Intensity oscillations of coronal bright points (BPs) have been studied for the past several years. It has been known for a while that these BPs are closed magnetic loop-like structures. However, the initiation of such intensity oscillations is still an enigma. There have been many suggestions to explain these oscillations, but so far modeling such BPs has not been explored. Using a multithreaded nanoflare heated loop model we study the behavior of such BPs in this work. We compute typical loop lengths of BPs using potential field-line extrapolation of available data, and set this as the length of our simulated loops. We produce intensity-like observables through forward modeling and analyze the intensity time series using wavelet analysis, as was done by previous observers. The result reveals similar intensity oscillation periods reported in past observations. It is suggested these oscillations are actually shock wave propagations along the loop. We also show that if one considers different background subtractions, one can extract adiabatic standing modes from the intensity time-series data as well, both from the observed and simulated data.

  12. Coronal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  13. High-frequency torsional Alfvén waves as an energy source for coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Shetye, Juie; Murawski, Krzysztof; Doyle, John Gerard; Stangalini, Marco; Scullion, Eamon; Ray, Tom; Wójcik, Dariusz Patryk; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2017-03-01

    The existence of the Sun’s hot atmosphere and the solar wind acceleration continues to be an outstanding problem in solar-astrophysics. Although magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and dissipation of magnetic energy contribute to heating and the mass cycle of the solar atmosphere, yet direct evidence of such processes often generates debate. Ground-based 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope (SST)/CRISP, Hα 6562.8 Å observations reveal, for the first time, the ubiquitous presence of high frequency (~12–42 mHz) torsional motions in thin spicular-type structures in the chromosphere. We detect numerous oscillating flux tubes on 10 June 2014 between 07:17 UT to 08:08 UT in a quiet-Sun field-of-view of 60” × 60” (1” = 725 km). Stringent numerical model shows that these observations resemble torsional Alfvén waves associated with high frequency drivers which contain a huge amount of energy (~105 W m‑2) in the chromosphere. Even after partial reflection from the transition region, a significant amount of energy (~103 W m‑2) is transferred onto the overlying corona. We find that oscillating tubes serve as substantial sources of Alfvén wave generation that provide sufficient Poynting flux not only to heat the corona but also to originate the supersonic solar wind.

  14. High-frequency torsional Alfvén waves as an energy source for coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Shetye, Juie; Murawski, Krzysztof; Doyle, John Gerard; Stangalini, Marco; Scullion, Eamon; Ray, Tom; Wójcik, Dariusz Patryk; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2017-01-01

    The existence of the Sun’s hot atmosphere and the solar wind acceleration continues to be an outstanding problem in solar-astrophysics. Although magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and dissipation of magnetic energy contribute to heating and the mass cycle of the solar atmosphere, yet direct evidence of such processes often generates debate. Ground-based 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope (SST)/CRISP, Hα 6562.8 Å observations reveal, for the first time, the ubiquitous presence of high frequency (~12–42 mHz) torsional motions in thin spicular-type structures in the chromosphere. We detect numerous oscillating flux tubes on 10 June 2014 between 07:17 UT to 08:08 UT in a quiet-Sun field-of-view of 60” × 60” (1” = 725 km). Stringent numerical model shows that these observations resemble torsional Alfvén waves associated with high frequency drivers which contain a huge amount of energy (~105 W m−2) in the chromosphere. Even after partial reflection from the transition region, a significant amount of energy (~103 W m−2) is transferred onto the overlying corona. We find that oscillating tubes serve as substantial sources of Alfvén wave generation that provide sufficient Poynting flux not only to heat the corona but also to originate the supersonic solar wind. PMID:28256538

  15. Constraining a Model of Turbulent Coronal Heating for AU Microscopii with X-Ray, Radio, and Millimeter Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R; MacGregor, Meredith A

    2013-01-01

    Many low-mass pre-main-sequence stars exhibit strong magnetic activity and coronal X-ray emission. Even after the primordial accretion disk has been cleared out, the star's high-energy radiation continues to affect the formation and evolution of dust, planetesimals, and large planets. Young stars with debris disks are thus ideal environments for studying the earliest stages of non-accretion-driven coronae. In this paper we simulate the corona of AU Mic, a nearby active M dwarf with an edge-on debris disk. We apply a self-consistent model of coronal loop heating that was derived from numerical simulations of solar field-line tangling and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We also synthesize the modeled star's X-ray luminosity and thermal radio/millimeter continuum emission. A realistic set of parameter choices for AU Mic produces simulated observations that agree with all existing measurements and upper limits. This coronal model thus represents an alternative explanation for a recently discovered ALMA central em...

  16. Comments on "The Coronal Heating Paradox" by M.J. Aschwanden, A. Winebarger, D. Tsiklauri and H. Peter [2007, Astrophys J., 659, 1673

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Swadesh M

    2007-01-01

    We point out the priority of our paper (Mahajan et al. 2001, Phys. Plasmas, 8, 1340) over (Aschwanden et al. 2007, Astrophys J., 659, 1673) in introducing the term "Formation and primary heating of the solar corona" working out explicit models (theory as well as simulation) for coronal structure formation and heating. On analyzing the Aschwanden et al. (2007) scenario of coronal heating process (shifted to the chromospheric heating) we stress, that for efficient loop formation, the primary upflows of plasma in chromosphere/transition region should be relatively cold and fast (as opposed to hot). It is during trapping and accumulation in closed field structures, that the flows thermalize (due to the dissipation of the short scale flow energy) leading to a bright and hot coronal structure. The formation and primary heating of a closed coronal structure (loop at the end) are simultaneous and a process like the "filling of the empty coronal loop by hot upflows" is purely speculative and totally unlikely.

  17. Heated-Atmosphere Airship for the Titan Environment: Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. S.; Landis, G. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Colozza, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Future exploration of Saturn's moon Titan can be carried out by airships. Several lighter-than-atmosphere gas airships and passive drifting heated-atmosphere balloon designs have been studied, but a heated-atmosphere airship could combine the best characteristics of both. This work analyses the thermal design of such a heated-atmosphere vehicle, and compares the result with a lighter-than-atmosphere (hydrogen) airship design. A design tool was created to enable iteration through different design parameters of a heated-atmosphere airship (diameter, number of layers, and insulating gas pocket thicknesses) and evaluate the feasibility of the resulting airship. A baseline heated-atmosphere airship was designed to have a diameter of 6 m (outer diameter of 6.2 m), three-layers of material, and an insulating gas pocket thickness of 0.05 m between each layer. The heated-atmosphere airship has a mass of 161.9 kg. A similar mission making use of a hydrogen-filled airship would require a diameter of 4.3 m and a mass of about 200 kg. For a long-duration mission, the heated-atmosphere airship appears better suited. However, for a mission lifetime under 180 days, the less complex hydrogen airship would likely be a better option.

  18. Small-scale dynamo magnetism as the driver for heating the solar atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Tahar; Luciani, Jean-François; Aly, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-11

    The long-standing problem of how the solar atmosphere is heated has been addressed by many theoretical studies, which have stressed the relevance of two specific mechanisms, involving magnetic reconnection and waves, as well as the necessity of treating the chromosphere and corona together. But a fully consistent model has not yet been constructed and debate continues, in particular about the possibility of coronal plasma being heated by energetic phenomena observed in the chromosphere. Here we report modelling of the heating of the quiet Sun, in which magnetic fields are generated by a subphotospheric fluid dynamo intrinsically connected to granulation. We find that the fields expand into the chromosphere, where plasma is heated at the rate required to match observations (4,500 watts per square metre) by small-scale eruptions that release magnetic energy and drive sonic motions. Some energetic eruptions can even reach heights of 10 million metres above the surface of the Sun, thereby affecting the very low corona. Extending the model by also taking into account the vertical weak network magnetic field allows for the existence of a mechanism able to heat the corona above, while leaving unchanged the physics of chromospheric eruptions. Such a mechanism rests on the eventual dissipation of Alfvén waves generated inside the chromosphere and that carry upwards the required energy flux of 300 watts per square metre. The model shows a topologically complex magnetic field of 160 gauss on the Sun's surface, agreeing with inferences obtained from spectropolarimetric observations, chromospheric features (contributing only weakly to the coronal heating) that can be identified with observed spicules and blinkers, and vortices that may be possibly associated with observed solar tornadoes.

  19. MULTI-SHELL MAGNETIC TWISTERS AS A NEW MECHANISM FOR CORONAL HEATING AND SOLAR WIND ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K. [Group of Astrophysics, Institute of Physics, UMCS, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221005 (India); Musielak, Z. E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We perform numerical simulations of impulsively generated Alfvén waves in an isolated photospheric flux tube and explore the propagation of these waves along such magnetic structure that extends from the photosphere, where these waves are triggered, to the solar corona, and we analyze resulting magnetic shells. Our model of the solar atmosphere is constructed by adopting the temperature distribution based on the semi-empirical model and specifying the curved magnetic field lines that constitute the magnetic flux tube that is rooted in the solar photosphere. The evolution of the solar atmosphere is described by 3D, ideal MHD equations that are numerically solved by the FLASH code. Our numerical simulations reveal, based on the physical properties of the multi-shell magnetic twisters and the amount of energy and momentum associated with them, that these multi-shell magnetic twisters may be responsible for the observed heating of the lower solar corona and for the formation of solar wind. Moreover, it is likely that the existence of these twisters can be verified by high-resolution observations.

  20. Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  1. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Gas Dynamics of the Atmosphere of a "Hot~Jupiter" Exoplanet

    CERN Document Server

    Bisikalo, D V

    2016-01-01

    The results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of the gas dynamics of the atmosphere of a "hot Jupiter" exoplanet during the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the central star are presented. These computations assumed the parameters for the stellar wind and the CME to be typical of the solar values. The characteristic variations of the flow pattern are considered for quasi-closed and closed (but appreciably distorted by the gravitational influence of the star) gaseous envelopes of the exoplanet. It is shown that a typical CME is sufficient to tear off the outer part of an asymmetric envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe and carry it away from the exoplanet. This leads to a substantial increase in the mass-loss rate from the exoplanet envelope during the passage of CMEs. The mass-loss rate grows by about a factor of 11 for a closed envelope, and by about a factor of 14 for a quasi-closed envelope. Possible evolutionary consequences of the loss of part of the atmosphere during the p...

  2. The Heating of the Solar Atmosphere: from the Bottom Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The heating of the solar atmosphere remains a mystery. Over the past several decades, scientists have examined the observational properties of structures in the solar atmosphere, notably their temperature, density, lifetime, and geometry, to determine the location, frequency, and duration of heating. In this talk, I will review these observational results, focusing on the wealth of information stored in the light curve of structures in different spectral lines or channels available in the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, Hinode's X-ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. I will discuss some recent results from combined data sets that support the heating of the solar atmosphere may be dominated by low, near-constant heating events.

  3. Multifractal Solar EUV Intensity Fluctuations and their Implications for Coronal Heating Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cadavid, Ana Cristina Cadavid; Lawrence, John K; Christian, Damian J; Jennings, Peter J; Rappazzo, A Franco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of SDO/AIA intensity observations in four solar environments: active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments, and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Angstrom waveband , which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range 15-45 min is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on the average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Angstrom waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with ...

  4. MECHANICAL ENERGY FLUXES ASSOCIATED WITH SATURATED CORONAL HEATING IN M DWARFS: COMPARISON WITH PREDICTIONS OF A TURBULENT DYNAMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, D. J. [Bartol Research Institute, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); MacDonald, J., E-mail: mullan@udel.edu [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Empirically, the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} from M dwarfs has been found to have an upper limit of about 0.2% of the bolometric flux L{sub bol}. In the limit where magnetic fields in M dwarfs are generated in equipartition with convective motions, we use stellar models to calculate the energy flux of Alfvén waves F{sub A} as a function of depth in the sub-surface convection zone. Since Alfvén waves have the optimal opportunity for wave modes to reach the corona, we suggest that F{sub A} sets an upper limit on the mechanical flux F{sub mech} which causes coronal heating. This suggestion accounts quantitatively for the “saturated” values of L{sub X}/L{sub bol} which have been reported empirically for M dwarfs.

  5. Coronal vs chromospheric heating through co-spatial return currents during the 19 and 20 Jan 2005 solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.

    2016-05-01

    The high electron flux required to explain the bremsstrahlung X-ray emission observed from solar flares is expected to be accompanied by a neutralizing co-spatial return current. In addition to resupplying the acceleration region with electrons, this return current will both heat the coronal plasma and flatten the electron distribution at lower energies. This flattening in the electron distribution in turn flattens the X-ray spectrum. We have found that return-current collisional thick-target model (RCCTTM) of Holman (2012) provides an acceptable fit to X-ray spectra with strong breaks for 18 flares observed with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). This is a 1D model similar to the collisional thick-target model (CTTM) with two additional assumptions: (1) electrons lose some of their energy through return current losses along their path to the thick target, where they lose all their remaining energy through Coulomb collisions; (2) the non-thermal beam is streaming in a warm target, which means that electrons will be thermalized at a non-zero energy. We assume this energy to be equal to the analytical value derived by Kontar et al. 2015. We show that return-current heating in the corona is about an order of magnitude higher than the heating at the footpoints at times during the flare.

  6. Coronal Heating and Acceleration of the High/Low-Speed Solar Wind by Fast/Slow MHD Shock Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, T K

    2004-01-01

    We investigate coronal heating and acceleration of the high- and low-speed solar wind in the open field region by dissipation of fast and slow magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) waves through MHD shocks. Linearly polarized \\Alfven (fast MHD) waves and acoustic (slow MHD) waves travelling upwardly along with a magnetic field line eventually form fast switch-on shock trains and hydrodynamical shock trains (N-waves) respectively to heat and accelerate the plasma. We determine one dimensional structure of the corona from the bottom of the transition region (TR) to 1AU under the steady-state condition by solving evolutionary equations for the shock amplitudes simultaneously with the momentum and proton/electron energy equations. Our model reproduces the overall trend of the high-speed wind from the polar holes and the low-speed wind from the mid- to low-latitude streamer except the observed hot corona in the streamer. The heating from the slow waves is effective in the low corona to increase the density there, and plays ...

  7. Heating of Jupiter's upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, James; Moore, Luke; Stallard, Tom; Melin, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Measured upper-atmospheric, mid-to-low latitude temperatures of the giant planets are hundreds of degrees warmer than simulations based on solar heating alone can explain. Modelling studies, focused on additional sources of heating, have been so far unable to resolve this significant model-data discrepancy. Equatorward transport of energy from the hot auroral regions was expected to heat low latitude regions; instead, models have demonstrated that auroral energy is trapped at high latitudes, a consequence of the strong Coriolis forces on these rapidly rotating planets. Wave heating, driven from below, represents another potential source of upper-atmospheric heating. Using data taken in 2012 by the ground-based NASA IRTF, we found through observations of the H3+ ion that the upper atmosphere above Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) - the largest storm in the solar system - is hundreds of degrees hotter than anywhere else on the planet. Specifically, the result shows that the northern region of the spot was over 1600 K, and that background temperatures away from the spot are ~850 K. The hotspot, by process of elimination, must be heated from below, and this detection is therefore strong evidence for coupling between Jupiter's lower and upper atmospheres, likely the result of upward propagating acoustic and/or gravity waves. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere may yet play an important role in resolving the giant planet 'energy crisis'.

  8. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kuzin, Sergey [P. N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Walsh, Robert [University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); DeForest, Craig, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  9. Coronal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakariakov, V. M.

    2007-07-01

    The lectures present the foundation of solar coronal physics with the main emphasis on the MHD theory and on wave and oscillatory phenomena. We discuss major challenges of the modern coronal physics; the main plasma structures observed in the corona and the conditions for their equilibrium; phenomenology of large scale long period oscillatory coronal phenomena and their theoretical modelling as MHD waves. The possibility of the remote diagnostics of coronal plasmas with the use of MHD oscillations is demonstrated.

  10. Critical review of wind tunnel modeling of atmospheric heat dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-05-01

    There is increasing concern by scientists that future proposed energy or power parks may significantly affect the environment by releasing large quantities of heat and water vapor to the atmosphere. A critical review is presented of the potential application of physical modeling (wind tunnels) to assess possible atmospheric effects from heat dissipation systems such as cooling towers. A short inventory of low-speed wind tunnel facilities is included in the review. The useful roles of wind tunnels are assessed and the state-of-the-art of physical modeling is briefly reviewed. Similarity criteria are summarized and present limitations in satisfying these criteria are considered. Current physical models are defined and limitations are discussed. Three experimental problems are discussed in which physical modeling may be able to provide data. These are: defining the critical atmospheric heat load; topographic and local circulation effects on thermal plumes; and plume rise and downstream effects.

  11. Plasma-ion Induced Sputtering and Heating of Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. E.; Tucker, O. J.

    2007-05-01

    Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere and an atmospheric mass to solid mass ratio comparable to that of Venus. Atmospheres equivalent in size to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). Therefore, the use of Cassini data to determine the present erosion rate of Titan's atmosphere provides an important end point for studying the erosion and heating of planetary and satellite atmospheres by an ambient plasma. In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005; Michael and Johnson 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that are used to interpret Cassini data at Titan. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., " The magnetospheric plasmadriven evolution of satellite atmospheres" Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael, M. and R.E. Johnson, "Energy deposition of pickup ions and heating of Titan's atmosphere", Planetary & Space Sci.53, 1510-1514 (2005). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175, 263-267 (2005). Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael, and J.G. Luhmann, "Nitrogen loss from Titan", JGR 108, No. E8, 5087, doi:10.1029/2003JE002094 (2003).

  12. Steps towards understanding deep atmospheric heating in flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Machado, Marcos E.

    1986-01-01

    Different aspects of the heating of the deep solar atmosphere during flares, including temperature minimum enhancements and white light emission, are discussed. The proper treatment of H(-) radiative losses is discussed, and compared with previous studies, as well as a quantitative analysis of the ionizing effect of nonthermal particles and ultraviolet radiation. It is concluded that temperature minimum heating may be a natural consequence of the global radiation transport in flares. The implications of these results are discussed within the context of homogeneous and inhomogeneous models of the solar atmosphere.

  13. Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, Nancy; Joselyn, Jo Ann; Feynman, Joan

    The early 1970's can be said to mark the beginning of The Enlightenment in the history of the Space Age, literally as well as by analogy to European history. Instruments blinded by Earth's atmosphere were lifted above and, for the first time, saw clearly and continuously the ethereal white light and sparkling x-rays from the solar corona. From these two bands of the light spectrum came images of coronal mass ejections and coronal holes, respectively. But whereas coronal holes were immediately identified as the source of high-speed solar wind streams, at first coronal mass ejections were greeted only by a sense of wonder. It took years of research to identify their signatures in the solar wind before the fastest ones could be identified with the well-known shock disturbances that cause the most violent space storms.

  14. Atmospheric composition affects heat- and mass-transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    For environmental control system functions sensitive to atmospheric composition, components are test-operated in helium-oxygen and nitrogen-oxygen mixtures, pure oxygen, and air. Transient heat- and mass-transfer tests are conducted for carbon dioxide adsorption on molecular sieve and for water vapor adsorption on silica gel.

  15. The role of turbulence in coronal heating and solar wind expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R; Asgari-Targhi, Mahboubeh; Miralles, Mari Paz; Raymond, John C; Strachan, Leonard; Tian, Hui; Woolsey, Lauren N

    2015-05-13

    Plasma in the Sun's hot corona expands into the heliosphere as a supersonic and highly magnetized solar wind. This paper provides an overview of our current understanding of how the corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Recent models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence have progressed to the point of successfully predicting many observed properties of this complex, multi-scale system. However, it is not clear whether the heating in open-field regions comes mainly from the dissipation of turbulent fluctuations that are launched from the solar surface, or whether the chaotic 'magnetic carpet' in the low corona energizes the system via magnetic reconnection. To help pin down the physics, we also review some key observational results from ultraviolet spectroscopy of the collisionless outer corona.

  16. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Knietzsch, Marc-Andre; Lunkeit, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized earthlike aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is put on the Lorenz energy cycle and the atmospheric mean meridional circulation. The latter is analysed by means of the Kuo-Eliassen equation. The atmospheric heat transport compensates the imposed oceanic heat transport changes to a large extent in conjunction with significant modification of the general circulation. Up to a maximum about 3PW, an increase of the oceanic heat transport leads to an increase of the global mean near surface temperature and a decrease of its equator-to-pole gradient. For larger transports, the gradient is reduced further but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. A larger oceanic heat transport leads to a reduction of all reservoirs and conversions of the Lorenz energy cycl...

  17. Atmospheric heat redistribution and collapse on tidally locked rocky planets

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric collapse is likely to be of fundamental importance to tidally locked rocky exoplanets but remains understudied. Here, general results on the heat transport and stability of tidally locked terrestrial-type atmospheres are reported. First, the problem is modeled with an idealized 3D general circulation model (GCM) with gray gas radiative transfer. It is shown that over a wide range of parameters the atmospheric boundary layer, rather than the large-scale circulation, is the key to understanding the planetary energy balance. Through a scaling analysis of the interhemispheric energy transfer, theoretical expressions for the day-night temperature difference and surface wind speed are created that reproduce the GCM results without tuning. Next, the GCM is used with correlated-k radiative transfer to study heat transport for two real gases (CO2 and CO). For CO2, empirical formulae for the collapse pressure as a function of planetary mass and stellar flux are produced, and critical pressures for atmospher...

  18. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  19. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Knietzsch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized earthlike aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is put on the Lorenz energy cycle and the atmospheric mean meridional circulation. The latter is analysed by means of the Kuo–Eliassen equation. The atmospheric heat transport compensates the imposed oceanic heat transport changes to a large extent in conjunction with significant modification of the general circulation. Up to a maximum about 3 PW, an increase of the oceanic heat transport leads to an increase of the global mean near-surface temperature and a decrease of its equator-to-pole gradient. For larger transports, the gradient is reduced further but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. A larger oceanic heat transport leads to a reduction of all reservoirs and conversions of the Lorenz energy cycle but of different relative magnitude for the individual components. The available potential energy of the zonal mean flow and its conversion to eddy available potential energy are affected most. Both the Hadley and Ferrel cell show a decline for increasing oceanic heat transport, with the Hadley cell being more sensitive. Both cells exhibit a poleward shift of their maxima, and the Hadley cell broadens for larger oceanic transports. The partitioning, by means of the Kuo–Eliassen equation, reveals that zonal mean diabatic heating and friction are the most important sources for changes of the Hadley cell, while the behaviour of the Ferrell cell is mostly controlled by friction.

  20. Is Magnetic Topology Important for Heating the Solar Atmosphere?

    CERN Document Server

    Parnell, C E; Threlfall, J; Edwards, S J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide e...

  1. Tidal heating of young super-Earth atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2017-02-01

    Short-period Earth to Neptune-sized exoplanets (super-Earths) with voluminous gas envelopes seem to be very common. These gas atmospheres are thought to have originated from the protoplanetary disc in which the planets were embedded during their first few million years. The accretion rate of gas from the surrounding nebula is determined by the ability of the gas to cool and radiate away its gravitational energy. Here, we demonstrate that heat from the tidal interaction between the star and the young (and therefore inflated) planet can inhibit the gas cooling and accretion. Quantitatively, we find that the growth of super-Earth atmospheres halts for planets with periods of about 10 d, provided that their initial eccentricities are of the order of 0.2. Thus, tidal heating provides a robust and simple mechanism that can simultaneously explain why these planets did not become gas giants and account for the deficit of low-density planets closer to the star, where the tides are even stronger. We suggest that tidal heating may be as important as other factors (such as the nebula's lifetime and atmosphere evaporation) in shaping the observed super-Earth population.

  2. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Also at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (China)

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  3. Atmospheric dynamics. Constrained work output of the moist atmospheric heat engine in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F; Zika, J; Mudryk, L; Kushner, P J; Kjellsson, J; Döös, K

    2015-01-30

    Incoming and outgoing solar radiation couple with heat exchange at Earth's surface to drive weather patterns that redistribute heat and moisture around the globe, creating an atmospheric heat engine. Here, we investigate the engine's work output using thermodynamic diagrams computed from reanalyzed observations and from a climate model simulation with anthropogenic forcing. We show that the work output is always less than that of an equivalent Carnot cycle and that it is constrained by the power necessary to maintain the hydrological cycle. In the climate simulation, the hydrological cycle increases more rapidly than the equivalent Carnot cycle. We conclude that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in warmer climates might limit the heat engine's ability to generate work.

  4. Solar Coronal Jets: Observations, Theory, and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Raouafi, N E; Pariat, E; Young, P R; Sterling, A C; Savcheva, A; Shimojo, M; Moreno-Insertis, F; DeVore, C R; Archontis, V; Török, T; Mason, H; Curdt, W; Meyer, K; Dalmasse, K; Matsui, Y

    2016-01-01

    Coronal jets represent important manifestations of ubiquitous solar transients, which may be the source of significant mass and energy input to the upper solar atmosphere and the solar wind. While the energy involved in a jet-like event is smaller than that of "nominal" solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), jets share many common properties with these phenomena, in particular, the explosive magnetically driven dynamics. Studies of jets could, therefore, provide critical insight for understanding the larger, more complex drivers of the solar activity. On the other side of the size-spectrum, the study of jets could also supply important clues on the physics of transients close or at the limit of the current spatial resolution such as spicules. Furthermore, jet phenomena may hint to basic process for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind; consequently their study gives us the opportunity to attack a broad range of solar-heliospheric problems.

  5. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  6. Is magnetic topology important for heating the solar atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Clare E; Stevenson, Julie E H; Threlfall, James; Edwards, Sarah J

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide enough area, to explain the energy losses throughout the solar atmosphere? Here, we consider this question for the three different solar regions: active regions, open-field regions and the quiet Sun. We find that the heating of active regions and open-field regions is highly unlikely to be due to reconnection or wave dissipation at topological features, but it is possible that these may play a role in the heating of the quiet Sun. In active regions, the absence of a complex topology may play an important role in allowing large energies to build up and then, subsequently, be explosively released in the form of a solar flare. Additionally, knowledge of the intricate boundaries of open-field regions (which the magnetic skeleton provides) could be very important in determining the main acceleration mechanism(s) of the solar wind.

  7. Thermal and non-thermal emission from reconnecting twisted coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, R; Browning, P K; Vilmer, N

    2016-01-01

    Twisted magnetic fields should be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The magnetic energy contained in such twisted fields can be released during solar flares and other explosive phenomena. Reconnection in helical magnetic coronal loops results in plasma heating and particle acceleration distributed within a large volume, including the lower coronal and chromospheric sections of the loops, and can be a viable alternative to the standard flare model, where particles are accelerated only in a small volume located in the upper corona. The goal of this study is to investigate the observational signatures of plasma heating and particle acceleration in kink-unstable twisted coronal loops using combination of MHD simulations and test-particle methods. The simulations describe the development of kink instability and magnetic reconnection in twisted coronal loops using resistive compressible MHD, and incorporate atmospheric stratification and large-scale loop curvature. The resulting distributions of hot plasma let us est...

  8. Tidal Heating of Young Super-Earth Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Sivan

    2016-01-01

    Short-period Earth to Neptune size exoplanets (super-Earths) with voluminous gas envelopes seem to be very common. These gas atmospheres are thought to have originated from the protoplanetary disk in which the planets were embedded during their first few Myr. The accretion rate of gas from the surrounding nebula is determined by the ability of the gas to cool and radiate away its gravitational energy. Here we demonstrate that heat from the tidal interaction between the star and the young (and therefore inflated) planet can inhibit the gas cooling and accretion. Quantitatively, we find that the growth of super-Earth atmospheres halts for planets with periods of about 10 days, provided that their initial eccentricities are of the order of 0.2. Thus, tidal heating provides a robust and simple mechanism that can simultaneously explain why these planets did not become gas giants and account for the deficit of low-density planets closer to the star, where the tides are even stronger. We suggest that tidal heating m...

  9. Geothermal heating enhances atmospheric asymmetries on synchronously rotating planets

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Earth-like planets within the liquid water habitable zone of M type stars may evolve into synchronous rotators. On these planets, the sub-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual daylight while the opposing anti-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual darkness. Because the night-side hemisphere has no direct source of energy, the air over this side of the planet is prone to freeze out and deposit on the surface, which could result in atmospheric collapse. However, general circulation models (GCMs) have shown that atmospheric dynamics can counteract this problem and provide sufficient energy transport to the anti-stellar side. Here we use an idealized GCM to consider the impact of geothermal heating on the habitability of synchronously rotating planets. Geothermal heating may be expected due to tidal interactions with the host star, and the effects of geothermal heating provide additional habitable surface area and may help to induce melting of ice on the anti-stellar hemisphere. We also explore the persisten...

  10. Atmospheric heat transfer to the Arctic under main synoptic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurova, Alla; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Bobylev, Leonid; Zhu, Yali

    2016-04-01

    Arctic - mid-latitude teleconnections are operating in both ways and behind them are potentially some causes of the enhanced Arctic warming (e.g., through heat transfer from lower to higher latitudes) and the feedbacks from the Arctic climate to the mid-latitude weather patterns. In order to explain the variability of the surface air temperature in the Arctic, we aim to analyse the typical synoptic situations that, we hypothesize, are characterized by a specific patterns of heat exchange between the Arctic and mid-latitudes. According to classification of synoptic processes in the Arctic developed at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St. Petersburg major typical groups of synoptic situations in the Arctic are few (six). They correspond to position and intensity of low- and high-pressure centres. Therefore, the whole data sample for the winter period for the entire period of instrumental observations (archive exists back to 1939) can be split into six groups that sub-sample each of six groups/types of synoptic situations. Then heat transfer to the Arctic can be estimated as the divergence of the horizontal (advective) heat flux (the product of wind speed and temperature gradient) within each vertical atmospheric layer, which is calculated based on the ERA Interim Reanalysis data for the winter season (1979-now). Mapping heat divergence fields will reveal the main mid-latitude sources of heat transported to the Arctic, average for the whole data sample and for each of the six main groups of synoptic situations. This work was supported by RFBR grants 16-55-53031

  11. Energetic characterisation and statistics of solar coronal brightenings

    CERN Document Server

    Joulin, Vincent; Solomon, Jacques; Guennou, Chloé

    2016-01-01

    To explain the high temperature of the corona, much attention has been paid to the distribution of energy in dissipation events. Indeed, if the event energy distribution is steep enough, the smallest, unobservable events could be the largest contributors to the total energy dissipation in the corona. Previous observations have shown a wide distribution of energies but remain inconclusive about the precise slope. Furthermore, these results rely on a very crude estimate of the energy. On the other hand, more detailed spectroscopic studies of structures such as coronal bright points do not provide enough statistical information to derive their total contribution to heating. We aim at getting a better estimate of the distributions of the energy dissipated in coronal heating events using high-resolution, multi-channel Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) data. To estimate the energies corresponding to heating events and deduce their distribution, we detect brightenings in five EUV channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembl...

  12. Atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization using a heated microchip nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Auriola, Seppo

    2009-10-30

    When a standard atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion source is used without applying the corona discharge or photoirradiation, atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization (APTSI) of various compounds can be achieved. Although largely ignored, this phenomenon has recently gained interest as an alternative ionization technique. In this study, this technique is performed for the first time on a miniaturized scale using a microchip nebulizer. Sample ionization with the presented microchip-APTSI (microAPTSI) is achieved by applying only heat and gas flow to a nebulizer chip, without any other methods to promote gas-phase ionization. To evaluate the performance of the described microAPTSI setup, ionization efficiency for a set of test compounds was monitored as the microchip positioning, temperature, nebulizer gas flow rate, sample solution composition, and solvent flow rate were varied. The microAPTSI mass spectra of the test compounds were also compared to those obtained with ESI and APCI. The microAPTSI produces ESI-like spectra with low background noise, favoring the formation of protonated or deprotonated molecules of compounds that are ionizable in solution. Multiple charging of peptides without in-source fragmentation was also observed. Unlike ESI, however, the microAPTSI source can tolerate the presence of mobile phase additives like trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) without significant ion suppression. The microAPTSI source can be used with standard mass spectrometer ion source hardware, being a unique alternative to the present interfacing techniques.

  13. Coronal magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Bastian, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research articles on the subject of the solar corona, and particularly, coronal magnetism. The book was motivated by the Workshop on Coronal Magnetism: Connecting Models to Data and the Corona to the Earth, which was held 21 - 23 May 2012 in Boulder, Colorado, USA. This workshop was attended by approximately 60 researchers. Articles from this meeting are contained in this topical issue, but the topical issue also contains contributions from researchers not present at the workshop. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics. Originally published in Solar Physics, Vol. 288, Issue 2, 2013 and Vol. 289, Issue 8, 2014.

  14. Vesicle dynamics during the atmospheric entry heating of cosmic spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genge, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    Cosmic spherules are unique igneous objects that form by melting due to gas drag heating during atmospheric entry heating. Vesicles are an important component of many cosmic spherules since they suggest their precursors had finite volatile contents. Vesicle abundances in spherules decrease through the series porphyritic, glassy, barred, to cryptocrystalline spherules. Anomalous hollow spherules, with large off-center vesicles occur in both porphyritic and glassy spheres. Numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior of vesicles during atmospheric flight is presented that indicates vesicles rapidly migrate due to deceleration and separate from nonporphyritic particles. Modest rotation rates of tens of radians s-1 are, however, sufficient to impede loss of vesicles and may explain the presence of small solitary vesicles in barred, cryptocrystalline and glassy spherules. Rapid rotation at spin rates of several thousand radians s-1 are required to concentrate vesicles at the rotational axis and leads to rapid growth by coalescence and either separation or retention depending on the orientation of the rotational axis. Complex rapid rotations that concentrate vesicles in the core of particles are proposed as a mechanism for the formation of hollow spherules. High vesicle contents in porphyritic spherules suggest volatile-rich precursors; however, calculation of volatile retention indicates these have lost >99.9% of volatiles to degassing prior to melting. The formation of hollow spherules, by rapid spin, necessarily implies preatmospheric rotations of several thousand radians s-1. These particles are suggested to represent immature dust, recently released from parent bodies, in which rotations have not been slowed by magnetic damping.

  15. Quantifying the Significance of Substructure in Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, K. B. D.; Kashyap, V.; McKillop, S.

    2014-12-01

    A method to infer the presence of small-scale substructure in SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory) images of coronal loops is developed. We can classify visible loop structure based on this propensity to show substructure which puts constraints on contemporary solutions to the coronal heating problem. The method uses the Bayesian algorithm Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) to infer the multi-scale component of the loops which describes deviations from a smooth model. The increase in contrast of features in this multi-scale component is determined using a statistic that estimates the sharpness across the image. Regions with significant substructure are determined using p-value upper bounds. We are able to locate substructure visible in Hi-C (High-Resolution Coronal Imager) data that are not salient features in the corresponding AIA image. Looking at coronal loops at different regions of the Sun (e.g., low-lying structure and loops in the upper corona) we are able to map where detectable substructure exists and thus the influence of the nanoflare heating process. We acknowledge support from AIA under contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO.

  16. Energy Release in Driven Twisted Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareford, M. R.; Gordovskyy, M.; Browning, P. K.; Hood, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate magnetic reconnection in twisted magnetic fluxtubes, representing coronal loops. The main goal is to establish the influence of the field geometry and various thermodynamic effects on the stability of twisted fluxtubes and on the size and distribution of heated regions. In particular, we aim to investigate to what extent the earlier idealised models, based on the initially cylindrically symmetric fluxtubes, are different from more realistic models, including the large-scale curvature, atmospheric stratification, thermal conduction and other effects. In addition, we compare the roles of Ohmic heating and shock heating in energy conversion during magnetic reconnection in twisted loops. The models with straight fluxtubes show similar distribution of heated plasma during the reconnection: it initially forms a helical shape, which subsequently becomes very fragmented. The heating in these models is rather uniformly distributed along fluxtubes. At the same time, the hot plasma regions in curved loops are asymmetric and concentrated close to the loop tops. Large-scale curvature has a destabilising influence: less twist is needed for instability. Footpoint convergence normally delays the instability slightly, although in some cases, converging fluxtubes can be less stable. Finally, introducing a stratified atmosphere gives rise to decaying wave propagation, which has a destabilising effect.

  17. On the averaging of ratios of specific heats in a multicomponent planetary atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisch, R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of adiabatic relations in the calculation of planetary atmospheres requires knowledge of the ratio of specific heats of a mixture of gases under various pressure and temperature conditions. It is shown that errors introduced by simple averaging of the ratio of specific heats in a multicomponent atmosphere can be roughly 0.4%. Therefore, the gamma-averaging error can become important when integrating through the atmosphere to a large depth.

  18. Energetic characterisation and statistics of solar coronal brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchlin, Eric; Solomon, Jacques; Joulin, Vincent; Guennou, Chloé

    2016-07-01

    To explain the high temperature of the corona, much attention has been paid to the distribution of energy in dissipation events, which might be caused by turbulent reconnection. Indeed, if the event energy distribution is steep enough, the smallest, unobservable events could be the largest contributors to the total energy dissipation in the corona. Previous observations have shown a wide distribution of energies but remain inconclusive about the precise slope. Furthermore, these results rely on a very crude estimate of the energy. On the other hand, more detailed spectroscopic studies of structures such as coronal bright points do not provide enough statistical information to derive their total contribution to heating. We aim at getting a better estimate of the distributions of the energy dissipated in coronal heating events using high-resolution, multi-channel Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) data. To estimate the energies corresponding to heating events and deduce their distribution, we detect brightenings in five EUV channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We combine the results of these detections and we use maps of temperature and emission measure derived from the same observations to compute the energies. We obtain distributions of areas, durations, intensities, and energies (thermal, radiative, and conductive) of events. These distributions are power-laws, and we find also power-law correlations between event parameters. The energy distributions indicate that the energy from a population of events like the ones we detect represents a small contribution to the total coronal heating, even when extrapolating to smaller scales. The main explanations for this are how heating events can be extracted from observational data, and the incomplete knowledge of the thermal structure and processes in the coronal plasma attainable from available observations.

  19. Ponderomotive Acceleration in Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Laming, J. M.; Taylor, B. D.; Obenschain, K.

    2016-11-01

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3-4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  20. The Mechanical Greenhouse: Burial of Heat by Turbulence in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Youdin, Andrew N

    2010-01-01

    The intense irradiation received by hot Jupiters suppresses convection in the outer layers of their atmospheres and lowers their cooling rates. "Inflated" hot Jupiters, i.e., those with anomalously large transit radii, require additional sources of heat or suppressed cooling. We consider the effect of forced turbulent mixing in the radiative layer, which could be driven by atmospheric circulation or by another mechanism. Due to stable stratification in the atmosphere, forced turbulence drives a downward flux of heat. Weak turbulent mixing slows the cooling rate by this process, as if the planet was irradiated more intensely. Stronger turbulent mixing buries heat into the convective interior, provided the turbulence extends to the radiative-convective boundary. This inflates the planet until a balance is reached between the heat buried into and radiated from the interior. We also include the direct injection of heat due to the dissipation of turbulence or other effects. Such heating is already known to slow pl...

  1. The Local Atmosphere and the Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Han; LI Peng; MA Shupo; ZHOU Libo; ZHU Jinhuan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the local atmosphere and heat transfer and to facilitate the boundary-layer parameterization of numerical simulation and prediction,an observational campaign was conducted in the Eastern Himalayas in June 2010.The local atmospheric properties and near-surface turbulent heat transfers were analyzed.The local atmosphere in this region is warmer,more humid and less windy,with weaker solar radiation and surface radiate heating than in the Middle Himalayas.The near-surface turbulent heat transfer in the Eastern Himalayas is weaker than that in the Middle Himalayas.The total heat transfer is mainly contributed by the latent heat transfer with a Bowen ratio of 0.36,which is essentially different from that in the Middle Himalayas and the other Tibetan regions.

  2. Formation and evolution of coronal rain observed by SDO/AIA on February 22, 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Vashalomidze, Z; Zaqarashvili, T V; Oliver, R; Shergelashvili, B; Ramishvili, G; Poedts, S; De Causmaecker, P

    2015-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of coronal rain are currently not fully understood. Coronal rain is the fall of cool and dense blobs formed by thermal instability in the solar corona towards the solar surface with acceleration smaller than gravitational free fall. We aim to study the observational evidence of the formation of coronal rain and to trace the detailed dynamics of individual blobs. We used time series of the 171 \\AA\\, and 304 \\AA\\, spectral lines obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) above active region AR 11420 on February 22, 2012. Observations show that a coronal loop disappeared in the 171 \\AA\\ channel and appeared in the 304 \\AA\\ line$\\text{}\\text{}$ more than one hour later, which indicates a rapid cooling of the coronal loop from 1 MK to 0.05 MK. An energy estimation shows that the radiation is higher than the heat input, which indicates so-called catastrophic cooling. The cooling was accompanied by the formation of coronal rain in the fo...

  3. Impulsively Generated Linear and Non-linear Alfven Waves in the Coronal Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielewski, P; Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E

    2014-01-01

    We present simulation results of the impulsively generated linear and non-linear Alfven waves in the weakly curved coronal magnetic flux-tubes (coronal funnels) and discuss their implications for the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. We solve numerically the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic equations to find the temporal signatures of the small and large-amplitude Alfven waves in the model atmosphere of open and expanding magnetic field configuration with a realistic temperature distribution. We compute the maximum transversal velocity of both linear and non-linear Alfven waves at different heights of the model atmosphere, and study their response in the solar corona during the time of their propagation. We infer that the pulse-driven non-linear Alfven waves may carry sufficient wave energy fluxes to heat the coronal funnels and also to power the solar wind that originates in these funnels. Our study of linear Alfven waves show that they can contribute only to the plasma dynamics and heating of t...

  4. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary co...

  5. Investigating the reliability of coronal emission measure distribution diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph onboard Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models, and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the "true" distributions from the model we assess the limitations of the diagnostics, as a function of the plasma parameters and of the signal-to-noise of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with signif...

  6. EIT waves and coronal magnetic field diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN PengFei

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field in the solar lower atmosphere can be measured by the use of the Zeeman and Hanle effects. By contrast, the coronal magnetic field well above the solar surface, which directly controls various eruptive phenomena, can not be precisely measured with the traditional techniques. Several attempts are being made to probe the coronal magnetic field, such as force-free extrapolation based on the photospheric magnetograms, gyroresonance radio emissions, and coronal seismology based on MHD waves in the corona. Compared to the waves trapped in the localized coronal loops, EIT waves are the only global-scale wave phenomenon, and thus are the ideal tool for the coronal global seismology. In this paper, we review the observations and modelings of EIT waves, and illustrate how they can be applied to probe the global magnetic field in the corona.

  7. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  8. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  9. Geometry of solar coronal rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B. P.; Martsenyuk, O. V.; Platov, Yu. V.; Den, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    Coronal helmet streamers are the most prominent large-scale elements of the solar corona observed in white light during total solar eclipses. The base of the streamer is an arcade of loops located above a global polarity inversion line. At an altitude of 1-2 solar radii above the limb, the apices of the arches sharpen, forming cusp structures, above which narrow coronal rays are observed. Lyot coronagraphs, especially those on-board spacecrafts flying beyond the Earth's atmosphere, enable us to observe the corona continuously and at large distances. At distances of several solar radii, the streamers take the form of fairly narrow spokes that diverge radially from the Sun. This radial direction displays a continuous expansion of the corona into the surrounding space, and the formation of the solar wind. However, the solar magnetic field and solar rotation complicate the situation. The rotation curves radial streams into spiral ones, similar to water streams flowing from rotating tubes. The influence of the magnetic field is more complex and multifarious. A thorough study of coronal ray geometries shows that rays are frequently not radial and not straight. Coronal streamers frequently display a curvature whose direction in the meridional plane depends on the phase of the solar cycle. It is evident that this curvature is related to the geometry of the global solar magnetic field, which depends on the cycle phase. Equatorward deviations of coronal streamers at solar minima and poleward deviations at solar maxima can be interpreted as the effects of changes in the general topology of the global solar magnetic field. There are sporadic temporal changes in the coronal rays shape caused by remote coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagating through the corona. This is also a manifestation of the influence of the magnetic field on plasma flows. The motion of a large-scale flux rope associated with a CME away from the Sun creates changes in the structure of surrounding field

  10. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  11. Deep coronal hole associated with quiescent filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesumaningrum, Rasdewita; Herdiwidjaya, Dhani

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the morphology of quiescent filament observed by H-alpha Solar Telescope at Bosscha Observatory in association with coronal hole observed by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in 193 Å from Solar Dynamics Observatory. H-alpha images were processed by imaging softwares, namely Iris 5.59 and ImageJ, to enhance the signal to noise ratio and to identify the filament features associated with coronal hole. For images observed on October 12, 2011, November 14, 2011 and January 2, 2012, we identified distinct features of coronal holes above the quiescent filaments. This associated coronal holes have filament-like morphology with a thick long thread as it's `spine', defined as Deep Coronal Hole. Because of strong magnetic field of sunspot, these filaments and coronal holes emerged far from active region and lasted for several days. It is interesting as for segmented filament, deep coronal holes above the filaments lasted for a quite long period of time and merged. This association between filament and deep coronal hole can be explained by filament magnetic loop.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves driven by observed photospheric motions: Application to the coronal heating and spicule formation

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    We have performed MHD simulations of Alfven wave propagation along an open flux tube in the solar atmosphere. In our numerical model, Alfven waves are generated by the photospheric granular motion. As the wave generator, we used a derived temporal spectrum of the photospheric granular motion from G-band movies of Hinode/SOT. It is shown that the total energy flux at the corona becomes larger and the transition region height becomes higher in the case when we use the observed spectrum rather than white/pink noise spectrum as the wave generator. This difference can be explained by the Alfven wave resonance between the photosphere and the transition region. After performing Fourier analysis on our numerical results, we have found that the region between the photosphere and the transition region becomes an Alfven wave resonant cavity. We have confirmed that there are at least three resonant frequencies, 1, 3 and 5 mHz, in our numerical model. Alfven wave resonance is one of the most effective mechanisms to explai...

  13. Coronal temperature profiles obtained from kinetic models and from coronal brightness measurements obtained during solar eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V; Lemaire, J F

    2012-01-01

    Coronal density, temperature and heat flux distributions for the equatorial and polar corona have been deduced by Lemaire [2012] from Saito's model of averaged coronal white light (WL) brightness and polarization observations. They are compared with those determined from a kinetic collisionless/exospheric model of the solar corona. This comparison indicates rather similar distributions at large radial distances (> 7 Rs) in the collisionless region. However, rather important differences are found close to the Sun in the acceleration region of the solar wind. The exospheric heat flux is directed away from the Sun, while that inferred from all WL coronal observations is in the opposite direction, i.e., conducting heat from the inner corona toward the chromosphere. This could indicate that the source of coronal heating rate extends up into the inner corona where it maximizes at r > 1.5 Rs well above the transition region.

  14. Formation of extreme surface turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Gavrikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in total oceanic heat loss in the North Atlantic is studied. The atmospheric circulation patterns enhancing ocean-atmosphere heat flux in regions with significant contributions of the extreme heat fluxes (up to 60% of the net heat loss) are analyzed. It is shown that extreme heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream and the Greenland and Labrador Seas occur in zones with maximal air pressure gradients, i.e., in cyclone-anticyclone interaction zones.

  15. The Impact of Oceanic Heat Transport on the Atmospheric Circulation: a Thermodynamic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Alexander; Lunkeit, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates how global thermodynamic properties of the climate system are affected by the changes in the intensity of the imposed oceanic heat transport in an atmospheric general circulation model in aqua-planet configuration. Increasing the poleward oceanic heat transport results in an overall increase in the surface temperature and a decrease in the equator-to-pole surface temperature difference as a result of the ice-albedo feedback. Following the classical ansatz by Stone, the atmospheric heat transport changes in such a way that the total poleward heat transport remains almost unchanged. We also find that the efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport which suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production, as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fl...

  16. Atmospheric Heating and Wind Acceleration in Cool Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, Vladimir S

    2014-01-01

    A chromosphere is a universal attribute of stars of spectral type later than ~F5. Evolved (K and M) giants and supergiants (including the zeta Aurigae binaries) show extended and highly turbulent chromospheres, which develop into slow massive winds. The associated continuous mass loss has a significant impact on stellar evolution, and thence on the chemical evolution of galaxies. Yet despite the fundamental importance of those winds in astrophysics, the question of their origin(s) remains unsolved. What sources heat a chromosphere? What is the role of the chromosphere in the formation of stellar winds? This chapter provides a review of the observational requirements and theoretical approaches for modeling chromospheric heating and the acceleration of winds in single cool, evolved stars and in eclipsing binary stars, including physical models that have recently been proposed. It describes the successes that have been achieved so far by invoking acoustic and MHD waves to provide a physical description of plasma...

  17. Slipping magnetic reconnection in coronal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanier, Guillaume; Golub, Leon; Deluca, Edward E; Cirtain, Jonathan W; Kano, Ryouhei; Lundquist, Loraine L; Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro; Weber, Mark A

    2007-12-07

    Magnetic reconnection of solar coronal loops is the main process that causes solar flares and possibly coronal heating. In the standard model, magnetic field lines break and reconnect instantaneously at places where the field mapping is discontinuous. However, another mode may operate where the magnetic field mapping is continuous but shows steep gradients: The field lines may slip across each other. Soft x-ray observations of fast bidirectional motions of coronal loops, observed by the Hinode spacecraft, support the existence of this slipping magnetic reconnection regime in the Sun's corona. This basic process should be considered when interpreting reconnection, both on the Sun and in laboratory-based plasma experiments.

  18. Heating of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, J.; Moore, L.; Stallard, T. S.; Melin, H.

    2016-08-01

    The temperatures of giant-planet upper atmospheres at mid- to low latitudes are measured to be hundreds of degrees warmer than simulations based on solar heating alone can explain. Modelling studies that focus on additional sources of heating have been unable to resolve this major discrepancy. Equatorward transport of energy from the hot auroral regions was expected to heat the low latitudes, but models have demonstrated that auroral energy is trapped at high latitudes, a consequence of the strong Coriolis forces on rapidly rotating planets. Wave heating, driven from below, represents another potential source of upper-atmospheric heating, though initial calculations have proven inconclusive for Jupiter, largely owing to a lack of observational constraints on wave parameters. Here we report that the upper atmosphere above Jupiter’s Great Red Spot—the largest storm in the Solar System—is hundreds of degrees hotter than anywhere else on the planet. This hotspot, by process of elimination, must be heated from below, and this detection is therefore strong evidence for coupling between Jupiter’s lower and upper atmospheres, probably the result of upwardly propagating acoustic or gravity waves.

  19. Observation of High-speed Outflow on Plume-like Structures of the Quiet Sun and Coronal Holes with SDO/AIA

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Habbal, Shadia Rifal; He, Jiansen

    2011-01-01

    Observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) reveal ubiquitous episodic outflows (jets) with an average speed around 120 km s-1 at temperatures often exceeding a million degree in plume-like structures, rooted in magnetized regions of the quiet solar atmosphere. These outflows are not restricted to the well-known plumes visible in polar coronal holes, but are also present in plume-like structures originating from equatorial coronal holes and quiet-Sun regions. Outflows are also visible in the "interplume" regions throughout the atmosphere. Furthermore, the structures traced out by these flows in both plume and inter-plume regions continually exhibit transverse (Alfvenic) motion. Our finding suggests that high-speed outflows originate mainly from the magnetic network of the quiet Sun and coronal holes, and that the plume flows observed are highlighted by the denser plasma contained therein. These outflows might be an efficient means to provide heated mas...

  20. Microwave heating systems for atmospheric pressure: Nonequilibrium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, G.E.; Dandl, R.A. (AMPC, Inc., Carlsbad, CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma-chemical processing is attracting increasing interest because of the possibility of creating mixtures of active species that would not be available in thermal equilibrium. For significant throughput of reactants it would be advantageous to create nonequilibrium plasmas in large volumes of atmospheric-pressure mixtures of gases. Techniques for accomplishing this are very limited at present. Here they describe a novel microwave approach to creating nonequilibrium plasmas in large volumes of atmospheric-pressure gases using pulses of microwave radiation with very high peak power that are focused by quasi-optical techniques at one or more points in the interior of the reaction chamber. A new type of microwave source, the Plasma Electron Microwave Source (PEMS), is able to produce the require power levels by storing cw microwave power in a mirror-confined, relativistic-electron plasma and periodically transforming a fraction of that stored energy into intense microwave pulses. This approach avoids many of the limitations inherent in resonant cavity approaches and is expected to permit ultrahigh purity discharges to be produced.

  1. Rapid heating of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Deming, Drake; Langton, Jonathan; Kasen, Daniel; Vogt, Steve; Butler, Paul; Rivera, Eugenio; Meschiari, Stefano

    2009-01-29

    Near-infrared observations of more than a dozen 'hot-Jupiter' extrasolar planets have now been reported. These planets display a wide diversity of properties, yet all are believed to have had their spin periods tidally spin-synchronized with their orbital periods, resulting in permanent star-facing hemispheres and surface flow patterns that are most likely in equilibrium. Planets in significantly eccentric orbits can enable direct measurements of global heating that are largely independent of the details of the hydrodynamic flow. Here we report 8-microm photometric observations of the planet HD 80606b during a 30-hour interval bracketing the periastron passage of its extremely eccentric 111.4-day orbit. As the planet received its strongest irradiation (828 times larger than the flux received at apastron) its maximum 8-microm brightness temperature increased from approximately 800 K to approximately 1,500 K over a six-hour period. We also detected a secondary eclipse for the planet, which implies an orbital inclination of i approximately 90 degrees , fixes the planetary mass at four times the mass of Jupiter, and constrains the planet's tidal luminosity. Our measurement of the global heating rate indicates that the radiative time constant at the planet's 8-microm photosphere is approximately 4.5 h, in comparison with 3-5 days in Earth's stratosphere.

  2. Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1

  3. Phase transformations of a talc ore under heated chlorine atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, P., E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, M. del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); González, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-02-20

    Highlights: ► We studied the effect of Cl{sub 2} on minerals present in a talc of ultramafic origin. ► Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in N{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} atmospheres. ► The reagents and the products were analyzed by DTA, XRD, SEM, and EPMA. ► The chlorination produced protoenstatite at 800 °C. ► Calcination of a talc ore in Cl{sub 2} produces more enstatite than thermal treatment in N{sub 2}. - Abstract: The effect of Cl{sub 2} on the phase transformations of the minerals present in a talc (Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}) unpurified with clinochlore (Mg{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 8}), magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}), dolomite (MgCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) was studied with the purpose of deferricating the mineral and obtaining protoenstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}), which is the basic component of steatite ceramics. Isothermal and non-isothermal assays in N{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} atmospheres were performed using a thermogravimetric device at temperatures between 600 and 980 °C. The reagents and the products were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Results obtained showed that the following phenomena were produced in Cl{sub 2}: (a) The transformation of vitreous silica (SiO{sub 2}), from the chlorination reaction of talc, into enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) started at about 700 °C, being dolomite the mineral that favored this reaction. At 800 °C, more enstatite was formed as a result of the reaction between vitreous silica not transformed, MgCl{sub 2} and O{sub 2} derived from the chlorination of dolomite and magnesite; then, polymorphic transformation of enstatite into protoenstatite was produced. (b) At about 950 °C, CaCl{sub 2} produced as a result of dolomite chlorination led to the destruction of the protoenstatite

  4. Direct observations of magnetic flux rope formation during a solar coronal mass ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Hongqiang; Chen, Yao; Cheng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, a heated debate is on whether MFRs pre-exist before the eruptions or they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, \\textit{e.g.}, filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre-existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation about MFR formation during the eruption. In this letter, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event occurred on 2013 November 21 with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the \\textit{Solar Dynamic Observatory}, which shows a detailed formation process of the MFR during the eruption. The process started with the expansion of a low-lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly-fo...

  5. Development of a Parching Machine Using Super-Heated Vapor or Super-Heated High-Moisture Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shoichi; Shinsho, Seiji; Iriki, Hiroyuki; Asai, Junya; Suganuma, Hirofumi; Shibata, Tsutomu

    We developed a new parching machine with super-heated vapor or super-heated highmoisture atmosphere as a heat medium, and investigated the influence exerted on the characteristics of manufactured tea and crude tea quality. (1)We developed machine specifications that improved throughput and allowed us to control stable quality compared with the conventional kamairicha parching machine. (2)The new parching machine could not only manufacture like kamairicha but also achieve various degrees of steaming of products like green tea or heavily steamed sencha. (3)The new parching machine could not only deactivate enzymes but dry leaves. (4)The influence of throughput was great with respect to the grade of pan-parched flavour, which meant that there was a contact opportunity for tea leaves and the surface of machine's wall. (5)Unpleasant smells such as that produced in a summer crop of tea were reduced by the new parching machine.

  6. Forward Modelling of Standing Kink Modes in Coronal Loops II. Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves are believed to play a significant role in coronal heating, and could be used for remote diagnostics of solar plasma. Both the heating and diagnostic applications rely on a correct inversion (or backward modelling) of the observables into the thermal and magnetic structures of the plasma. However, owing to the limited availability of observables, this is an ill-posed issue. Forward Modelling is to establish a plausible mapping of plasma structuring into observables. In this study, we set up forward models of standing kink modes in coronal loops and simulate optically thin emissions in the extreme ultraviolet bandpasses, and then adjust plasma parameters and viewing angles to match three events of transverse loop oscillations observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We demonstrate that forward models could be effectively used to identify the oscillation overtone and polarization, to reproduce the general profile of oscillation amplitude and phase, and t...

  7. Performance of controlled atmosphere/heating block systems for assessing insect thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heated controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments have potential as alternatives to chemical fumigation for disinfesting postharvest stored products. To determine accurately the minimal thermal requirements to kill target insects over a wide range of temperatures and CA conditions, it is desirable to dev...

  8. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-10

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  9. The role of atmospheric heat transport and regional feedbacks in the Arctic warming at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Laîné, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the Arctic warms much more than the rest of the world even under spatially quasi-uniform radiative forcing such as that due to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. While the surface albedo feedback is often referred to as the explanation of the enhanced Arctic warming, the importance of atmospheric heat transport from the lower latitudes has also been reported in previous studies. In the current study, an attempt is made to understand how the regional feedbacks in the Arctic are induced by the change in atmospheric heat transport and vice versa. Equilibrium sensitivity experiments that enable us to separate the contributions of the Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitude response to the CO2 increase and the remote influence of surface warming in other regions are carried out. The result shows that the effect of remote forcing is predominant in the Arctic warming. The dry-static energy transport to the Arctic is reduced once the Arctic surface warms in response to the local or remote forcing. The feedback analysis based on the energy budget reveals that the increased moisture transport from lower latitudes, on the other hand, warms the Arctic in winter more effectively not only via latent heat release but also via greenhouse effect of water vapor and clouds. The change in total atmospheric heat transport determined as a result of counteracting dry-static and latent heat components, therefore, is not a reliable measure for the net effect of atmospheric dynamics on the Arctic warming. The current numerical experiments support a recent interpretation based on the regression analysis: the concurrent reduction in the atmospheric poleward heat transport and future Arctic warming predicted in some models does not imply a minor role of the atmospheric dynamics. Despite the similar magnitude of poleward heat transport change, the Arctic warms more than the Southern Ocean even in the equilibrium response without ocean dynamics. It is shown that a

  10. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, A.; Baştan, F. E.; Erdoǧan, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  11. Average Heating Rate of Hot Atmospheres in Distant Galaxy Clusters by Radio AGN: Evidence for Continuous AGN Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cheng-Jiun; McNamara, B.; Nulsen, P.; Schaffer, R.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray observations of nearby clusters and galaxies have shown that energetic feedback from AGN is heating hot atmospheres and is probably the principal agent that is offsetting cooling flows. Here we examine AGN heating in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within the central 250 kpc that is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. We find no significant correlation between radio power, hence jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in redshift range 0.1 -- 0.6. The detection frequency of radio AGN is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in 400SD, but cannot rule out the presence of weak cooling flows. The average jet power of central radio AGN is approximately 2 10^{44} erg/s. The jet power corresponds to an average heating of approximately 0.2 keV/particle for gas within R_500. Assuming the current AGN heating rate remained constant out to redshifts of about 2, these figures would rise by a factor of two. Our results show that the integrated energy injected from radio AGN outbursts in clusters is statistically significant compared to the excess entropy in hot atmospheres that is required for the breaking of self-similarity in cluster scaling relations. It is not clear that central AGN in 400SD clusters are maintained by a self-regulated feedback loop at the base of a cooling flow. However, they may play a significant role in preventing the development of strong cooling flows at early epochs.

  12. Note: Development of fast heating inert gas annealing apparatus operated at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. C.; Majumdar, A.; Shripathi, T.; Hippler, R.

    2012-04-01

    Here, we report the development of a simple, small, fast heating, and portable, homemade, inert gas (Ar) atmospheric annealing setup. Instead of using a conventional heating element, a commercial soldering rod having an encapsulated fast heating heater is used here. The sample holder is made of a block of stainless steel. It takes 200 s to reach 700 °C, and 10 min to cool down. The probability of oxidation or surface contamination has been examined by means of x ray photoelectron spectroscopy of virgin Cu sample after annealing at 600 °C. In addition, we compare the annealing of a hydrogenated carbon nitride film (HCNx) in both a conventional vacuum and our newly developed ambient Ar atmosphere setup.

  13. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation, which constitutes ˜ 70 % of the total amount of freshwater consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) with an active crop model, two high-resolution (˜ 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat (LH), sensible heat (SH), and carbon fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed that the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer, with a LH increase of ˜ 100 W m-2 and a SH decrease of ˜ 60 W m-2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate is below 5 mm day-1, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm day-1, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC m-2 day-1, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by ˜ 0.8 gC m-2 day-1. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH, and NEE.

  14. The Effect of Diffusional Transport and Surface Catalysis on the Aerothermodynamic Heating for Martian Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henline, William D.; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    For the reentry heating of 70-degree blunt sphere-cones entering Mars at velocities in excess of 6 km/sec, a study was performed to determine the magnitude of both convective and catalytic heating on the cone forebody. Case studies of the peak heating conditions for the current NASA Mars Pathfinder entry probe, as well as the peak heating conditions of the proposed NASA Mars 2001 aerobraking orbiter mission were performed. Since the actual behavior of the chemical recombination of Mars atmosphere hypersonic shock layer species on heat shield materials is not known, and no experimental studies of any consequence have been done to determine surface reaction rates for the CO2 system, a parametric analysis of various reaction schemes and surface catalytic mechanistic models was performed. In many cases the actual Mars entry probe will have a heat shield composed of an ablative material which can either partially or completely preclude the existence of catalytic surface recombination phenomena. The extent of this blockage effect has not been examined at this time and is not considered in this effort. Instead only non-ablative computations are performed to separately evaluate the full extent of the surface catalysis and related diffusional phenomena. Parametric studies include peak heating point comparisons of non-catalytic, partially catalytic and fully catalytic total surface heat transfer for three difference surface recombination catalytic mechanisms (with and without simultaneous CO + O and O + O recombination) as well as with different species diffusion models. Diffusion model studies include constant Schmidt number (equal diffusivities) and the bifurcation, approximate multi-component diffusion model. Since the gas phase reaction kinetics for the Mars CO2 based atmosphere have also not been validated, the effect of two different (fast and slow) sets of gas kinetics on heat transfer is presented.

  15. Coronal influence on dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Warnecke, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    We report on turbulent dynamo simulations in a spherical wedge with an outer coronal layer. We apply a two-layer model where the lower layer represents the convection zone and the upper layer the solar corona. This setup is used to study the coronal influence on the dynamo action beneath the surface. Increasing the radial coronal extent gradually to three times the solar radius and changing the magnetic Reynolds number, we find that dynamo action benefits from the additional coronal extent in terms of higher magnetic energy in the saturated stage. The flux of magnetic helicity can play an important role in this context.

  16. Effects of Latent Heating on Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-02-01

    The growing number of observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) has provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these objects. Directly imaged planets share similar observations and can be viewed as low-gravity versions of BDs. Vigorous condensate cycles of chemical species in their atmospheres are inferred by observations and theoretical studies, and latent heating associated with condensation is expected to be important in shaping atmospheric circulation and influencing cloud patchiness. We present a qualitative description of the mechanisms by which condensational latent heating influences circulation, and then illustrate them using an idealized general circulation model that includes a condensation cycle of silicates with latent heating and molecular weight effect due to the rainout of the condensate. Simulations with conditions appropriate for typical T dwarfs exhibit the development of localized storms and east–west jets. The storms are spatially inhomogeneous, evolving on a timescale of hours to days and extending vertically from the condensation level to the tropopause. The fractional area of the BD covered by active storms is small. Based on a simple analytic model, we quantitatively explain the area fraction of moist plumes and show its dependence on the radiative timescale and convective available potential energy (CAPE). We predict that if latent heating dominates cloud formation processes, the fractional coverage area of clouds decreases as the spectral type goes through the L/T transition from high to lower effective temperature. This is a natural consequence of the variation of the radiative timescale and CAPE with the spectral type.

  17. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    CERN Document Server

    Boucheron, L E; McAteer, R T J

    2016-01-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. As the source of the fast solar wind, the detection and characterization of these regions is important for both testing theories of their formation and evolution and from a space weather perspective. Coronal holes are detected in full disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind ...

  18. Characterising the influence of atmospheric mixing state on Urban Heat Island Intensity using Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott D.; Podstawczyńska, Agnieszka; Williams, Alastair G.; Pawlak, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Characterisation of the effects of varying atmospheric mixing states (stability) in urban climate studies has historically been hampered by problems associated with the complexity of the urban environment, representativity of measurement techniques, and the logistical and financial burdens of maintaining multiple long-term comprehensive measurement sites. These shortcomings, together with a lack of a consistent measurement approach, have limited our ability to understand the physical processes contributing to the urban heat island effect. In this study, we analyse 4 years of continuous hourly near-surface meteorological and atmospheric radon data from an urban-rural site pair in central Poland. A recently-developed radon-based stability classification technique, previously developed for urban pollution characterisation, is employed to characterise the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) and other climatic factors over the full diurnal cycle by season and atmospheric mixing state. By characterising the UHII over a range of atmospheric mixing states in a statistically robust way, this technique provides an effective tool for assessing the efficacy of mitigation measures for urban climate effects in a consistent way over timescales of years to decades. The consistency of approach, ease of application, and unprecedented clarity of findings, provide a strong argument for atmospheric radon observations to be included as part of the 'standard measurement suite' for urban climate monitoring networks for non-coastal cities.

  19. Radiation and Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere: A Comprehensive Approach on a Molecular Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Harde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction of infrared active molecules in the atmosphere with their own thermal background radiation as well as with radiation from an external blackbody radiator. We show that the background radiation can be well understood only in terms of the spontaneous emission of the molecules. The radiation and heat transfer processes in the atmosphere are described by rate equations which are solved numerically for typical conditions as found in the troposphere and stratosphere, showing the conversion of heat to radiation and vice versa. Consideration of the interaction processes on a molecular scale allows to develop a comprehensive theoretical concept for the description of the radiation transfer in the atmosphere. A generalized form of the radiation transfer equation is presented, which covers both limiting cases of thin and dense atmospheres and allows a continuous transition from low to high densities, controlled by a density dependent parameter. Simulations of the up- and down-welling radiation and its interaction with the most prominent greenhouse gases water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone in the atmosphere are presented. The radiative forcing at doubled CO2 concentration is found to be 30% smaller than the IPCC-value.

  20. Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.

  1. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Catrin M.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.

    2016-12-01

    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  2. Ponderomotive Acceleration in Coronal Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlburg, R B; Taylor, B D; Obenschain, K

    2016-01-01

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect, the by now well known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3-4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a "byproduct" of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of a coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 Teslas to 0.02 Teslas and lengths from 25000 km to 75000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets...

  3. Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Reale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronal loops are the building blocks of the X-ray bright solar corona. They owe their brightness to the dense confined plasma, and this review focuses on loops mostly as structures confining plasma. After a brief historical overview, the review is divided into two separate but not independent parts: the first illustrates the observational framework, the second reviews the theoretical knowledge. Quiescent loops and their confined plasma are considered and, therefore, topics such as loop oscillations and flaring loops (except for non-solar ones, which provide information on stellar loops are not specifically addressed here. The observational section discusses the classification, populations, and the morphology of coronal loops, its relationship with the magnetic field, and the loop stranded structure. The section continues with the thermal properties and diagnostics of the loop plasma, according to the classification into hot, warm, and cool loops. Then, temporal analyses of loops and the observations of plasma dynamics, hot and cool flows, and waves are illustrated. In the modeling section, some basics of loop physics are provided, supplying fundamental scaling laws and timescales, a useful tool for consultation. The concept of loop modeling is introduced and models are divided into those treating loops as monolithic and static, and those resolving loops into thin and dynamic strands. More specific discussions address modeling the loop fine structure and the plasma flowing along the loops. Special attention is devoted to the question of loop heating, with separate discussion of wave (AC and impulsive (DC heating. Large-scale models including atmosphere boxes and the magnetic field are also discussed. Finally, a brief discussion about stellar coronal loops is followed by highlights and open questions.

  4. Understanding the Atmospheric Response to Ocean Heat Transport: a Model Inter-Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B.

    2012-12-01

    The oceans' contribution to poleward heat transport (1 to 2 PW) is dwarfed by the atmosphere, and yet ocean heat transport (OHT) exerts a powerful climatic influence by exciting various atmospheric feedbacks. OHT drives polar-amplified greenhouse warming through a dynamical redistribution of tropospheric water vapor, and helps set the strength and position of the ITCZ. These complex responses explicitly couple tropical and extra-tropical processes, and depend on interactions between large-scale dynamics and moist physics. Considerable insights have been drawn from recent idealized experiments with aquaplanet GCMs coupled to slab oceans with prescribed OHT convergence (q-flux). However sensitivity to uncertain model parameterizations pose a barrier to deeper understanding. I will introduce a new multi-institution collaboration called the Q-flux / Aquaplanet Model Inter-comparison Project (QAquMIP), designed to test the robustness of the climatic impact of OHT and its relationship to traditional climate sensitivity. A standardized set of GCM experiments, repeated across a broad range of models, are forced by a few simple analytical q-fluxes. Experimental controls include the meridional scale of poleward OHT, strength of inter-hemispheric OHT, and zonally asymmetric equatorial heating. I will compare robust spatial patterns of temperature and precipitation changes associated with OHT forcing to those driven by CO2, and discuss the underlying spatial pattern of atmospheric feedbacks. A recurring theme is the key role of moist convection in communicating sea surface heating signals throughout the atmosphere, with consequences for clouds, water vapor, radiation, and hydrology. QAquMIP will better constrain the possible role of the oceans in past warm climates, provide a standard framework for testing new parameterizations, and advance our fundamental understanding of the moist processes contributing to present-day climate sensitivity.

  5. Average Heating Rate of Hot Atmospheres in Distant Clusters by Radio AGN: Evidence for Continuous AGN Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, C -J; Nulsen, P E J; Schaffer, R; Vikhlinin, A

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations of nearby clusters and galaxies have shown that energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is heating hot atmospheres and is probably the principal agent that is offsetting cooling flows. Here we examine AGN heating in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within the central 250 kpc that is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. We find no significant correlation between radio power, hence jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in redshift range 0.1 - 0.6. The detection frequency of radio AGN is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in...

  6. Simulation of atmospheric pressure microplasma in Ar on the basis of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masanori; Yagisawa, Takashi; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2011-10-01

    In a decade, atmospheric pressure microplasmas have been applied to wide range of fields based on the characteristics of high plasma density. The underlying mechanism for sustaining a stable glow discharge, however, is not well understood. In this study, the microplasma characteristics at atmospheric pressure are numerically investigated, particularly focusing on a heat transfer in the whole system. We consider a capacitively coupled plasma with the characteristic size of several hundred micrometers, driven by radio frequency (13.56 MHz) in a cylindrical reactor under atmospheric pressure of pure Ar. A plasma fluid model is coupled with a neutral gas dynamics model including the temperature and flow in gas phase. A wall heating caused by energetic ions and metastables coming from the plasma is also incorporated in the model. Under a constant gas pressure, the local depletion of a neutral gas density occurs due to a gas heating, simply shown by ideal gas law. The influence of the local gas density on the structure of the microplasma will be mainly discussed in a periodic steady state.

  7. Sensitivity of global ocean heat content from reanalyses to the atmospheric reanalysis forcing: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storto, Andrea; Yang, Chunxue; Masina, Simona

    2016-05-01

    The global ocean heat content evolution is a key component of the Earth's energy budget and can be consistently determined by ocean reanalyses that assimilate hydrographic profiles. This work investigates the impact of the atmospheric reanalysis forcing through a multiforcing ensemble ocean reanalysis, where the ensemble members are forced by five state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalyses during the meteorological satellite era (1979-2013). Data assimilation leads the ensemble to converge toward robust estimates of ocean warming rates and significantly reduces the spread (1.48 ± 0.18 W/m2, per unit area of the World Ocean); hence, the impact of the atmospheric forcing appears only marginal for the global heat content estimates in both upper and deeper oceans. A sensitivity assessment performed through realistic perturbation of the main sources of uncertainty in ocean reanalyses highlights that bias correction and preprocessing of in situ observations represent the most crucial component of the reanalysis, whose perturbation accounts for up to 60% of the ocean heat content anomaly variability in the pre-Argo period. Although these results may depend on the single reanalysis system used, they reveal useful information for the ocean observation community and for the optimal generation of perturbations in ocean ensemble systems.

  8. The Great Ice Age cycles associated with the variation of the atmospheric heat engine efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤懋苍; 郭维栋

    2000-01-01

    Investigating all the Great Ice Age events throughout the Earth’s history, each was found to follow a strong mountain-making process. Therefore, a hypothesis was put forward with its causality chain as: strong mountain-making process→great disparity in topography on the Earth surface→introducing efficient atmospheric circulation system (plateau monsoon)→increase in global atmospheric heat engine efficiency →generating more atmospheric kinetic energy → enhancing the planetary westerly (under the condition that the huge relief is longitudinal on the whole )→widening the temperature difference between the equator and the polar regions (restrained by the thermal wind law)→sharp cooling in high latitudes and the polars (supposing the solar radiation was approximately constant)→forming a Great Ice Age event.

  9. The Great Ice Age cycles associated with the variation of the atmospheric heat engine efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Investigating all the Great Ice Age events throughout the Earth's history, each was found to follow a strong mountain-making process. Therefore, a hypothesis was put forward with its causality chain as: strong mountain-making process→great disparity in topography on the Earth surface→introducing efficient atmospheric circulation system (plateau monsoon)→increase in global atmospheric heat engine efficiency→generating more atmospheric kinetic energy→enhancing the planetary westerly (under the condition that the huge relief is longitudinal on the whole )→widening the temperature difference between the equator and the polar regions (restrained by the thermal wind law)→sharp cooling in high latitudes and the polars (supposing the solar radiation was approximately constant)→forming a Great Ice Age event.

  10. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of dilute alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanofluids at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Joong; McKrell, Tom [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo, E-mail: jacopo@mit.ed [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Hu Linwen [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In a previous paper, we reported on subcooled flow boiling CHF experiments with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (<=0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure, which revealed a substantial CHF enhancement (approx40-50%) at the highest mass flux (G = 2500 kg/m{sup 2} s) and concentration (0.1 vol.%) for all nanoparticle materials (). In this paper, we focus on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient data collected in the same tests. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient are similar (within +-20%). The heat transfer coefficient increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. A confocal microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticle deposition on the boiling surface occurred during nanofluid boiling. Such deposition changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also changes the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found.

  11. Spatial structures in the heat budget of the Antarctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van de Berg

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Output from the regional climate model RACMO2/ANT is used to calculate the heat budget of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer (ABL. The main feature of the wintertime Antarctic ABL is a persistent temperature deficit compared to the free atmosphere. The magnitude of this deficit is controlled by the heat budget. During winter, transport of heat towards the surface by turbulence and net longwave emission are the primary ABL cooling terms. These processes show horizontal spatial variability only on continental scales. Vertical and horizontal advection of heat are the main warming terms. Over regions with convex ice sheet topography, i.e. domes and ridges, warming by downward vertical advection is enhanced due to divergence of the ABL wind field. Horizontal advection balances any excess warming caused by vertical advection, hence the ABL over domes and ridges tends to have a relatively weak temperature deficit. Conversely, vertical advection is reduced in regions with concave topography, i.e. valleys, where the ABL temperature deficit is enlarged. Along the coast, horizontal and vertical advection is governed by the inability of the large-scale circulation to adapt to small scale topographic features. Meso-scale (~10 km topographic structures have thus a strong impact on the ABL winter temperature, besides latitude and surface elevation. During summer, this mechanism is much weaker; and the horizontal variability of ABL temperatures is smaller.

  12. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of atmospheric particles during heating period in Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Likun Huang; Guangzhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric particles (total suspended particles (TSPs); particulate matter (PM) with particle size below 10 μm,PM10; particulate matter with particle size below 2.5 μm,PM2.5)were collected and analyzed during heating and non-heating periods in Harbin.The sources of PM10 and PM2.5 were identified by the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model.Results indicated that PM2.5/TSP was the most prevalent and PM2.5 was the main component of PM10,while the presence of PM10-100 was relatively weak.SC42-and NO3-concentrations were more significant than other ions during the heating period.As compared with the non-heating period,Mn,Ni,Pb,S,Si,Ti,Zn,As,Ba,Cd,Cr,Fe and K were relatively higher during the heating period.In particular,Mn,Ni,S,Si,Ti,Zn and As in PM2.5 were obviously higher during the heating period.Organic carbon (OC) in the heating period was 2-5 times higher than in the non-heating period.Elemental carbon (EC) did not change much.OC/EC ratios were 8-11 during the heating period,which was much higher than in other Chinese cities (OC/EC:4-6).Results from the CMB indicated that 11 pollution sources were identified,of which traffic,coal combustion,secondary sulfate,secondary nitrate,and secondary organic carbon made the greatest contnbution.Before the heating period,dust and petrochemical industry made a larger contribution.In the heating period,coal combustion and secondary sulfate were higher.After the heating period,dust and petrochemical industry were highen Some hazardous components in PM2.5 were higher than in PM10,because PM2.5 has a higher ability to absorb toxic substances.Thus PM2.5 pollution is more significant regarding human health effects in the heating period.

  13. Heating Mechanisms in the Low Solar Atmosphere through Magnetic Reconnection in Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun; Roussev, Ilia I.; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2016-12-01

    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere; the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature (≳8 × 104 K) and low temperature (˜104 K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere (100-600 km above the solar surface). The plasma β controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high β magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low β magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over 8 × 104 K. Gravity in the low chromosphere can strongly hinder the plasmoid instability and the formation of slow-mode shocks in a vertical current sheet. Only small secondary islands are formed; these islands, however, are not as well developed as those in the horizontal current sheets. This work can be applied to understand the heating mechanism in the low solar atmosphere and could possibly be extended to explain the formation of common low temperature Ellerman bombs (˜104 K) and the high temperature Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) bombs (≳8 × 104) in the future.

  14. Saturation of poleward atmospheric heat transport in warm climates and the low-gradient paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, R.; Langen, P.

    2004-12-01

    The equable climates of the deep past featured higher atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, greater global-mean surface temperatures and much weaker equator-to-pole temperature contrasts than today. Climate models readily reproduce the higher mean temperatures, given sufficient increases in greenhouse gases, but they have proved incapable of matching the low meridional gradients indicated by proxy data. A crucial step in resolving this 'low-gradient paradox' is uderstanding why climate models fail to reproduce the correct feedback between global mean temperature and its meridional gradient. Though models do achieve some reduction in temperature gradients, mostly through snow and sea-ice albedo feedback, the remaining discrepancy must be accounted for by either more exotic forms of radiative forcing feedback, which are not represented in current models, or by more efficient oceanic and/or atmospheric poleward heat transports, which the models for some reason do not capture. This latter feature is especially puzzling for the atmosphere, since there are plausible reasons to expect atmospheric energy transport to be be considerably more efficient in a warmer climate. We explore this issue by systematically studying the response of atmospheric heat transpor in a GCM to a very broad range of global mean temperatures and meridional gradients. We find that heat transport increases with global mean temperature when the latter is less than about 15C; above this value, heat transport saturates, becoming insensitive to surface temperature. This behavior has a dynamical origin traceble to changes in the structure of the atmosphere's general circulation. Mean tropospheric static stability increases with surface temperature, reducing baroclinicity and suppressing storm-track eddy activity. Furthermore, as temperature increases the storm-tracks as a whole migrate poleward over cooler waters, and thus do not experience the full global-mean surface temperature increase. These

  15. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Jhih eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51-54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  16. Heating mechanisms in the low solar atmosphere through magnetic reconnection in current sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Roussev, Ilia I; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere, the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature($ \\gtrsim 8\\times10^4$~K) and low temperature($\\sim 10^4$~K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere ($100\\sim600$~km above the solar surface). The plasma $\\beta$ controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high $\\beta$ magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low $\\beta$ magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over $8...

  17. Magnetospheric Structure and Atmospheric Joule Heating of Habitable Planets Orbiting M-dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, O; Glocer, A; Garraffo, C; Poppenhaeger, K; Bell, J M; Ridley, A J; Gombosi, T I

    2014-01-01

    We study the magnetospheric structure and the ionospheric Joule Heating of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone using a set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. The stellar wind solution is used to drive a model for the planetary magnetosphere, which is coupled with a model for the planetary ionosphere. Our simulations reveal that the space environment around close-in habitable planets is extreme, and the stellar wind plasma conditions change from sub- to super-Alfvenic along the planetary orbit. As a result, the magnetospheric structure changes dramatically with a bow shock forming in the super-Alfvenic sectors, while no bow shock forms in the sub-Alfvenic sectors. The planets reside most of the time in the sub-Alfvenic sectors with poor atmospheric protection. A significant amount of Joule Heating is provided at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the planetary interaction with the stellar wind. For the steady-state solution, the heating is about 0.1-3\\% of the total incoming stellar ir...

  18. The Fundamental Structure of Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Warren, Harry; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Golub, Leon; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Weber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    During the past ten years, solar physicists have attempted to infer the coronal heating mechanism by comparing observations of coronal loops with hydrodynamic model predictions. These comparisons often used the addition of sub ]resolution strands to explain the observed loop properties. On July 11, 2012, the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi ]C) was launched on a sounding rocket. This instrument obtained images of the solar corona was 0.2 ]0.3'' resolution in a narrowband EUV filter centered around 193 Angstroms. In this talk, we will compare these high resolution images to simultaneous density measurements obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on Hinode to determine whether the structures observed with Hi ]C are resolved.

  19. First use of synoptic vector magnetograms for global nonlinear force free coronal magnetic field models

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Tilaye; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.; Macneice, P.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimension of the field lines into the solar atmosphere. For the ...

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Self-Heating Effect Induced by Electron Beam Plasma in Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永锋; 谭畅; 韩先伟; 谭永华

    2012-01-01

    For exploiting advantages of electron beam air plasma in some unusual applications, a Monte Carlo (MC) model coupled with heat transfer model is established to simulate the characteristics of electron beam air plasma by considering the self-heating effect. Based on the model, the electron beam induced temperature field and the related plasma properties are investigated. The results indicate that a nonuniform temperature field is formed in the electron beam plasma region and the average temperature is of the order of 600 K. Moreover, much larger volume pear-shaped electron beam plasma is produced in hot state rather than in cold state. The beam ranges can, with beam energies of 75 keV and 80 keV, exceed 1.0 m and 1.2 m in air at pressure of 100 torr, respectively. Finally, a well verified formula is obtained for calculating the range of high energy electron beam in atmosphere.

  1. [Effects of temperature and heating time on armco iron spectral emissivity in atmospheric environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Wang, Wen-Bao; Zhang, Kai-Hua; Liu, Yu-Fang

    2014-09-01

    The spectral emissivity of pure iron at 1.55 μm was investigated systematically by using our self-designed reflective experimental apparatus based on the Kirchhoff's law, and the influences of temperature and heating time on the spectral emissivity of pure iron were also discussed. The experimental data showed that the spectral emissivity of pure iron increased with temperature rising and its peak value and valley value appeared at certain temperatures. By analyzing the emissivity model of metal with oxidation layer, the variation of the spectral emissivity of pure iron was illustrated. The influence of heating time on the spectral emissivity was different at different temperature. The research results will further enrich pure iron spectral emissivity data, and provide the experimental basis for its application in atmospheric environment.

  2. Evaporation of an intensively heated sessile droplet into the open atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of a heated sessile water drop was studied experimentally at a temperature difference between the substrate and surrounding atmosphere from 30 to 60°C. The studies were performed on the substrates with micro- and nanocoatings with different wettability. The features of evaporation were studied for the pinned, partially pinned and depinned contact line (solid-liquid-gas interface. It is found that during the evaporation process the specific evaporation rate (mass loss per unit of the drop surface area increases, particularly at the last stage of the drop lifetime.

  3. Turbulent circulation above the surface heat source in stably stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, A. F.; Kurbatskaya, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    The 3-level RANS approach for simulating a turbulent circulation over the heat island in a stably stratified environment under nearly calm conditions is formulated. The turbulent kinetic energy its spectral consumption (dissipation) and the dispersion of turbulent fluctuations of temperature are found from differential equations, thus the correct modeling of transport processes in the interface layer with the counter-gradient heat flux is assured. The three-parameter turbulence RANS approach minimizes difficulties in simulating the turbulent transport in a stably stratified environment and reduces efforts needed for the numerical implementation of the 3-level RANS approach. Numerical simulation of the turbulent structure of the penetrative convection over the heat island under conditions of stably stratified atmosphere demonstrates that the three-equation model is able to predict the thermal circulation induced by the heat island. The temperature distribution, root-mean-square fluctuations of the turbulent velocity and temperature fields and spectral turbulent kinetic energy flux are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model describes such thin physical effects, as a crossing of vertical profiles of temperature of a thermal plume with the formation of the negative buoyancy area testifying to development of the dome-shaped form at the top part of a plume in the form of "hat".

  4. Heat Flux Characterization of DC Laminar-plasma Jets Impinging on a Flat Plate at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟显; 潘文霞; 张文宏; 吴承康

    2001-01-01

    By using steady and transient methods, the total heat fluxes and the distributions of the heat flux were measured experimentally for an argon DC laminar plasma jet impinging normally on a flat plate at atmospheric pressure. Results show that the total heat fluxes measured with a steady method are a little bit higher than those with a transient method. Numerical simulation work was executed to compare with the experimental results.

  5. Stellar Coronal Response to Differential Rotation and Flux Emergence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibb, G P S; Jardine, M M; Yeates, A R

    2016-01-01

    We perform a numerical parameter study to determine what effect varying differential rotation and flux emergence has on a star's non-potential coronal magnetic field. In particular we consider the effects on the star's surface magnetic flux, open magnetic flux, mean azimuthal field strength, coronal free magnetic energy, coronal heating and flux rope eruptions. To do this, we apply a magnetic flux transport model to describe the photospheric evolution, and couple this to the non-potential coronal evolution using a magnetofrictional technique. A flux emergence model is applied to add new magnetic flux onto the photosphere and into the corona. The parameters of this flux emergence model are derived from the solar flux emergence profile, however the rate of emergence can be increased to represent higher flux emergence rates than the Sun's. Overall we find that flux emergence has a greater effect on the non-potential coronal properties compared to differential rotation, with all the aforementioned properties incr...

  6. A self-consistent derivation of ion drag and Joule heating for atmospheric dynamics in the thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermosphere is subject to additional electric and magnetic forces, not important in the middle and lower atmosphere, due to its partially ionized atmosphere. The effects of charged particles on the neutral atmospheric dynamics are often parameterized by ion drag in the momentum equations and Joule heating in the energy equation. Presented in this paper are a set of more accurate parameterizations for the ion drag and Joule heating for the neutral atmosphere that are functions of the difference between bulk ion velocity and neutral wind. The parameterized expressions also depend on the magnetic field, the Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and the ratio of the ion cyclotron frequency to the ion-neutral collision frequency. The formal relationship between the electromagnetic energy, atmospheric kinetic energy, and Joule heating is illustrated through the conversion terms between these three types of energy. It is shown that there will always be an accompanying conversion of kinetic energy into Joule heating when electromagnetic energy is generated through the dynamo mechanism of the atmospheric neutral wind. Likewise, electromagnetic energy cannot be fully converted into kinetic energy without producing Joule heating in the thermosphere.

  7. Experimental Research on Water Boiling Heat Transfer on Horizontal Copper Rod Surface at Sub-Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water (R718 as a kind of natural refrigerant—which is environmentally-friendly, safe and cheap—has been reconsidered by scholars. The systems of using water as the refrigerant, such as water vapor compression refrigeration and heat pump systems run at sub-atmospheric pressure. So, the research on water boiling heat transfer at sub-atmospheric pressure has been an important issue. There are many research papers on the evaporation of water, but there is a lack of data on the characteristics at sub-atmospheric pressures, especially lower than 3 kPa (the saturation temperature is 24 °C. In this paper, the experimental research on water boiling heat transfer on a horizontal copper rod surface at 1.8–3.3 kPa is presented. Regression equations of the boiling heat transfer coefficient are obtained based on the experimental data, which are convenient for practical application.

  8. Implementation of a boundary layer heat flux parameterization into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. McGrath-Spangler

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of atmospheric carbon dioxide to a given amount of surface flux is inversely proportional to the depth of the boundary layer. Overshooting thermals that entrain free tropospheric air down into the boundary layer modify the characteristics and depth of the lower layer through the insertion of energy and mass. This alters the surface energy budget by changing the Bowen ratio and thereby altering the vegetative response and the surface boundary conditions. Although overshooting thermals are important in the physical world, their effects are unresolved in most regional models. A parameterization to include the effects of boundary layer entrainment was introduced into a coupled ecosystem-atmosphere model (SiB-RAMS. The parameterization is based on a downward heat flux at the top of the boundary layer that is proportional to the heat flux at the surface. Results with the parameterization show that the boundary layer simulated is deeper, warmer, and drier than when the parameterization is turned off. These results alter the vegetative stress factors thereby changing the carbon flux from the surface. The combination of this and the deeper boundary layer change the concentration of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer.

  9. Observing coronal nanoflares in active region moss

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; DeLuca, Ed; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; Title, Alan; Weber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (~0.3-0.4 arcsec) and temporal (5.5s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ~15s, significantly shorter than the minute scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by SDO/AIA in the 94A channel, and by Hinode/XRT. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few $10^{23}rg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C...

  10. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, L. E.; Valluri, M.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2016-10-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. The detection and characterization of these regions is important for testing theories of their formation and evolution, and also from a space weather perspective because they are the source of the fast solar wind. Coronal holes are detected in full-disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than the surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind observations, and qualitatively match the coronal holes segmented by other methods. The means to identify a coronal hole without specifying a final intensity threshold may allow this algorithm to be more robust across multiple datasets, regardless of data type, resolution, and quality.

  11. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, L. E.; Valluri, M.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2016-09-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. The detection and characterization of these regions is important for testing theories of their formation and evolution, and also from a space weather perspective because they are the source of the fast solar wind. Coronal holes are detected in full-disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than the surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind observations, and qualitatively match the coronal holes segmented by other methods. The means to identify a coronal hole without specifying a final intensity threshold may allow this algorithm to be more robust across multiple datasets, regardless of data type, resolution, and quality.

  12. Pre-flare coronal dimmings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q M; Ji, H S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the pre-flare coronal dimmings. We report our multiwavelength observations of the GOES X1.6 solar flare and the accompanying halo CME produced by the eruption of a sigmoidal magnetic flux rope (MFR) in NOAA active region (AR) 12158 on 2014 September 10. The eruption was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms were observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard SDO. The soft X-ray (SXR) fluxes were recorded by the GOES spacecraft. The halo CME was observed by the white light coronagraphs of the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) aboard SOHO.} {About 96 minutes before the onset of flare/CME, narrow pre-flare coronal dimmings appeared at the two ends of the twisted MFR. They extended very slowly with their intensities decreasing with time, while their apparent widths (8$-$9 Mm) nearly kept constant. During the impulsive and decay phases of flare, typical fanlike ...

  13. Magnetic shuffling of coronal downdrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Channelled fragmented downflows are ubiquitous in magnetized atmospheres, and have recently been addressed based on an observation after a solar eruption. Aims: We study the possible back-effect of the magnetic field on the propagation of confined flows. Methods: We compared two 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of dense supersonic plasma blobs that fall down along a coronal magnetic flux tube. In one, the blobs move strictly along the field lines; in the other, the initial velocity of the blobs is not perfectly aligned with the magnetic field and the field is weaker. Results: The aligned blobs remain compact while flowing along the tube, with the generated shocks. The misaligned blobs are disrupted and merge through the chaotic shuffling of the field lines. They are structured into thinner filaments. Alfvén wave fronts are generated together with shocks ahead of the dense moving front. Conclusions: Downflowing plasma fragments can be chaotically and efficiently mixed if their motion is misaligned with field lines, with broad implications for disk accretion in protostars, coronal eruptions, and rain, for example. Movies associated to Figs. 2 and 3 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Energy Transport Effects in Flaring Atmospheres Heated by Mixed Particle Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Zharkov, Sergei; Macrae, Connor; Druett, Malcolm; Scullion, Eamon

    2016-07-01

    We investigate energy and particle transport in the whole flaring atmosphere from the corona to the photosphere and interior for the flaring events on the 1st July 2012, 6 and 7 September 2011 by using the RHESSI and SDO instruments as well as high-resolution observations from the Swedish 1-metre Solar Telescope (SST3) CRISP4 (CRisp Imaging Spectro-polarimeter). The observations include hard and soft X-ray emission, chromospheric emission in both H-alpha 656.3 nm core and continuum, as well as, in the near infra-red triplet Ca II 854.2 nm core and continuum channels and local helioseismic responses (sunquakes). The observations are compared with the simulations of hard X-ray emission and tested by hydrodynamic simulations of flaring atmospheres of the Sun heated by mixed particle beams. The temperature, density and macro-velocity variations of the ambient atmospheres are calculated for heating by mixed beams and the seismic response of the solar interior to generation of supersonic shocks moving into the solar interior. We investigate the termination depths of these shocks beneath the quiet photosphere levels and compare them with the parameters of seismic responses in the interior, or sunquakes (Zharkova and Zharkov, 2015). We also present an investigation of radiative conditions modelled in a full non-LTE approach for hydrogen during flare onsets with particular focus on Balmer and Paschen emission in the visible, near UV and near IR ranges and compare them with observations. The links between different observational features derived from HXR, optical and seismic emission are interpreted by different particle transport models that will allow independent evaluation of the particle transport scenarios.

  15. Formation of Sunquakes in Hydrodynamic Flaring Atmospheres Heated by Mixed Particle Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Zharkov, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of flaring atmospheres of the Sun heated by mixed particle beams and investigate their effects on the solar interior beneath the photosphere for production of acoustic waves, or sunquakes. The temperature, density and macro-velocity variations are calculated as functions of both column and linear depths for different mixed beams revealing strong sweeping of a flaring atmosphere under the quiet photosphere level (QFL). This results in subsequent plasma evaporation into the upper atmosphere and formation of supersonic shocks moving into the solar interior and terminating at depths of 300-5000 km beneath the QFL. The shocks deposited at different depths below the photosphere are found to define the parameters of seismic responses in the interior and their observation as sunquakes, according to the hydrodynamic model of wave propagation (Zharkov, 2013). In addition, we compare temporal and spatial distributions of HXR and optical emission in a few acoustically active flares with those produced by the complex simulations above, in attempt to resolve the puzzle of co-spatial formation of HXR and WL emission reported by Martinez-Oliveros et al. (2012).

  16. Parameter Study of Plasma-Induced Atmospheric Sputtering and Heating at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Leblanc, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Atoms and molecules in Mars’ upper atmosphere are lost predominately through sputtering, caused by the impact of ions into the exosphere, dissociative recombination, and thermal escape. While all three processes are thought to occur on Mars, a detailed understanding must ascertain the relative importance of each process, due to time variations in pick-up and solar wind ions. In this project, using case studies of an oxygen atmosphere modeled with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo techniques, we have endeavored to categorize when the momentum transfer or thermal escape is more likely to occur. To do this, we vary the incident plasma flux and energy based on models of the interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere. We first repeat the heating and sputtering rates due to a flux of pick-up O+ examined previously (Johnson et al. 2000; Michael and Johnson 2005; Johnson et al 2013). We have used multiple examples of particle fluxes for various solar wind conditions, from steady solar wind conditions (Luhmann et al. 1992; Chaufray et al. 2007) to more extreme cases (Fang et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014), which are thought to increase escape by several orders of magnitude. The goal is to explore the escape parameter space in preparation for the expected data from MAVEN on hot atoms and molecules in the Martian exosphere.

  17. MHD Waves and Coronal Seismology: an overview of recent results

    CERN Document Server

    De Moortel, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed that MHD waves and oscillations are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, with a wide range of periods. We give a brief review of some aspects of MHD waves and coronal seismology which have recently been the focus of intense debate or are newly emerging. In particular, we focus on four topics: (i) the current controversy surrounding propagating intensity perturbations along coronal loops, (ii) the interpretation of propagating transverse loop oscillations, (iii) the ongoing search for coronal (torsional) Alfven waves and (iv) the rapidly developing topic of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in solar flares.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic waves and coronal seismology: an overview of recent results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Ineke; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2012-07-13

    Recent observations have revealed that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, with a wide range of periods. We give a brief review of some aspects of MHD waves and coronal seismology that have recently been the focus of intense debate or are newly emerging. In particular, we focus on four topics: (i) the current controversy surrounding propagating intensity perturbations along coronal loops, (ii) the interpretation of propagating transverse loop oscillations, (iii) the ongoing search for coronal (torsional) Alfvén waves, and (iv) the rapidly developing topic of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares.

  19. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  20. Analysis of Coronal Rain Observed by IRIS, HINODE/SOT, and SDO/AIA: Transverse Oscillations, Kinematics, and Thermal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohutova, P.; Verwichte, E.

    2016-08-01

    Coronal rain composed of cool plasma condensations falling from coronal heights along magnetic field lines is a phenomenon occurring mainly in active region coronal loops. Recent high-resolution observations have shown that coronal rain is much more common than previously thought, suggesting its important role in the chromosphere-corona mass cycle. We present the analysis of MHD oscillations and kinematics of the coronal rain observed in chromospheric and transition region lines by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Two different regimes of transverse oscillations traced by the rain are detected: small-scale persistent oscillations driven by a continuously operating process and localized large-scale oscillations excited by a transient mechanism. The plasma condensations are found to move with speeds ranging from few km s-1 up to 180 km s-1 and with accelerations largely below the free-fall rate, likely explained by pressure effects and the ponderomotive force resulting from the loop oscillations. The observed evolution of the emission in individual SDO/AIA bandpasses is found to exhibit clear signatures of a gradual cooling of the plasma at the loop top. We determine the temperature evolution of the coronal loop plasma using regularized inversion to recover the differential emission measure (DEM) and by forward modeling the emission intensities in the SDO/AIA bandpasses using a two-component synthetic DEM model. The inferred evolution of the temperature and density of the plasma near the apex is consistent with the limit cycle model and suggests the loop is going through a sequence of periodically repeating heating-condensation cycles.

  1. Global Coronal Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P F

    2016-01-01

    After the {\\em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory} ({\\em SOHO}) was launched in 1996, the aboard Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) observed a global coronal wave phenomenon, which was initially named "EIT wave" after the telescope. The bright fronts are immediately followed by expanding dimmings. It has been shown that the brightenings and dimmings are mainly due to plasma density increase and depletion, respectively. Such a spectacular phenomenon sparked long-lasting interest and debates. The debates were concentrated on two topics, one is about the driving source, and the other is about the nature of this wavelike phenomenon. The controversies are most probably because there may exist two types of large-scale coronal waves that were not well resolved before the {\\em Solar Dynamics Observatory} ({\\em SDO}) was launched: one is a piston-driven shock wave straddling over the erupting coronal mass ejection (CME), and the other is an apparently propagating front, which may correspond to the CME frontal...

  2. Observational constraints on atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports: revisiting the precipitation asymmetry problem in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Cheng, Anning; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Allan, Richard P.

    2016-05-01

    Satellite based top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget observations are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence and tendency from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Hemispheric contrasts in the energy budget terms are used to determine the radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to the cross-equatorial heat transports in the atmosphere (AHTEQ) and ocean (OHTEQ). The contrast in net atmospheric radiation implies an AHTEQ from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) (0.75 PW), while the hemispheric difference in sensible and latent heat implies an AHTEQ in the opposite direction (0.51 PW), resulting in a net NH to SH AHTEQ (0.24 PW). At the surface, the hemispheric contrast in the radiative component (0.95 PW) dominates, implying a 0.44 PW SH to NH OHTEQ. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models with excessive net downward surface radiation and surface-to-atmosphere sensible and latent heat transport in the SH relative to the NH exhibit anomalous northward AHTEQ and overestimate SH tropical precipitation. The hemispheric bias in net surface radiative flux is due to too much longwave surface radiative cooling in the NH tropics in both clear and all-sky conditions and excessive shortwave surface radiation in the SH subtropics and extratropics due to an underestimation in reflection by clouds.

  3. Are Spicules the Primary Source of Hot Coronal Plasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of Type II spicules has generated considerable excitement. It has even been suggested that these ejections can account for a majority of the hot plasma observed in the corona, thus obviating the need for "coronal" heating. If this is the case, however, then there should be observational consequences. We have begun to examine some of these consequences and find reason to question the idea that spicules are the primary source of hot coronal plasma.

  4. Observing the formation of flare-driven coronal rain

    OpenAIRE

    Scullion, E.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Antolin, P.; Wedemeyer, S.; Vissers, G.; E. P. Kontar; Gallagher, P

    2016-01-01

    PA. GV are funded by the European Research Council under the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC grant agreement nr. 291058 Flare-driven coronal rain can manifest from rapidly cooled plasma condensations near coronal loop-tops in thermally unstable post-flare arcades. We detect 5 phases that characterise the post-flare decay:heating, evaporation, conductive cooling dominance for ~120 s, radiative/ enthalpy cooling dominance for ~4700 s and finally catastrophic ...

  5. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar Corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and Momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from Corona] holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature above the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer instrument (UVCS), and with the Ulysses/Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun instrument (SWOOPS) proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 and 5 solar radii (2 and 5 R(sub S)) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201.-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta [19941. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al. [1998], and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub S), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models [e.g., Steinolfson et al., 1982; also G. A. Gary and D. Alexander, Constructing the coronal magnetic field, submitted to Solar Physics, 1998].

  6. Wave-mean flow interaction and its relationship with the atmospheric energy cycle with diabatic heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Anmin; WU Guoxiong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the traditional theory of wave mean flow interaction, an improved quasi-geostrophic Eliassen-Palm flux with diabatic heating included is deduced. It is shown that there exists an intrinsic relation between the atmospheric energy cycle derived by Lorenz and the wave energy transfer derived by Eliassen and Palm. From this relation it becomes clear that the energy propagation process of large-scale stationary wave is indeed a part of Lorenz energy cycle, and the energy transform from mean flow to wave equals the global mass integral of the divergence of local wave energy flux or the global integral of local wave energy. The diagnostic results by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data suggest that the classical adiabatic Eliassen-Palm flux relation can present only the wintertime wave energy transformation. For other seasons, however, the diabatic effect must be taken into account.

  7. Convective heat transport in stratified atmospheres at low and high Mach number

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Convection in astrophysical systems is stratified and often occurs at high Rayleigh number (Ra) and low Mach number (Ma). Here we study stratified convection in the context of plane-parallel, polytropically stratified atmospheres. We hold the density stratification ($n_{\\rho}$) and Prandtl number (Pr) constant while varying Ma and Ra to determine the behavior of the Nusselt number (Nu), which quantifies the efficiency of convective heat transport. As Ra increases and $\\text{Ma} \\rightarrow 1$, a scaling of Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{0.45}$ is observed. As Ra increases to a regime where Ma $\\geq 1$, this scaling gives way to a weaker Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{0.19}$. In the regime of Ma $\\ll 1$, a consistent Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{0.31}$ is retrieved, reminiscent of the Nu $\\propto$ Ra$^{2/7}$ seen in Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection.

  8. Bridging the Gap between Coronal and Non-Coronal Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Program "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)" enables investigations of a broad range of problems including the character and dynamics of the wind and chromosphere of cool stars. This paper presents an investigation of the change in spectral characteristics when transitioning from the cool non-coronal objects with fluorescent emission spectra from the iron group elements, molecular hydrogen, and carbon monoxide to the warmer stars on the blue side of the Linsky-Haish dividing line in the HR diagram. These warmer objects exhibit chromospheric emission from significantly hotter environments in addition to coronal signatures, while the hybrid stars overlap in the HR-diagram with some of the non-coronal objects and share many spectral characteristics but show differences in the wind properties. We show how the wind, fluorescent features, and hot stellar signatures dramatically change with spectral class by comparing the already analyzed non-coronal objects (Alpha Ori, Gamma Cru) with the hybrid stars (Gamma Dra, Beta Gem and Alpha Aqr) and the coronal object Beta Dra. We aim to gain understanding of the physical processes in these objects' outer atmospheres and their evolutionary tracks.

  9. Standing Slow-Mode Waves in Hot Coronal Loops: Observations, Modeling, and Coronal Seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tongjiang

    2010-01-01

    Strongly damped Doppler shift oscillations are observed frequently associated with flarelike events in hot coronal loops. In this paper, a review of the observed properties and the theoretical modeling is presented. Statistical measurements of physical parameters (period, decay time, and amplitude) have been obtained based on a large number of events observed by SOHO/SUMER and Yohkoh/BCS. Several pieces of evidence are found to support their interpretation in terms of the fundamental standing longitudinal slow mode. The high excitation rate of these oscillations in small- or micro-flares suggest that the slow mode waves are a natural response of the coronal plasma to impulsive heating in closed magnetic structure. The strong damping and the rapid excitation of the observed waves are two major aspects of the waves that are poorly understood, and are the main subject of theoretical modeling. The slow waves are found mainly damped by thermal conduction and viscosity in hot coronal loops. The mode coupling seems ...

  10. Dynamics and heat and mass transfer under spreading of liquid-droplet aviation fuel in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Vladimir; Zharova, Irina; Kozlov, Eugene; Tkachenko, Aleksey

    2014-08-01

    A physical-mathematical model of dynamics and heat and mass transfer during spreading of liquid-droplet aviation fuel in the atmosphere is presented. The optimal emergency discharge height of kerosene for different Russian regions was evaluated based on the proposed mathematical model. The developed model can be used to select the height limit of reset kerosene, guaranteeing complete evaporation of the droplets in the atmosphere to the different aircraft velocities.

  11. The Coronal Loop Inventory Project: Expanded Analysis and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Christian, G. M.; Chastain, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have expanded upon earlier work that investigates the relative importance of coronal loops with isothermal versus multithermal cross-field temperature distributions. These results are important for determining if loops have substructure in the form of unresolved magnetic strands. We have increased the number of loops targeted for temperature analysis from 19 to 207 with the addition of 188 new loops from multiple regions. We selected all loop segments visible in the 171 Å images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) that had a clean background. Eighty-six of the new loops were rejected because they could not be reliably separated from the background in other AIA filters. Sixty-one loops required multithermal models to reproduce the observations. Twenty-eight loops were effectively isothermal, that is, the plasma emission to which AIA is sensitive could not be distinguished from isothermal emission, within uncertainties. Ten loops were isothermal. Also, part of our inventory was one small flaring loop, one very cool loop whose temperature distribution could not be constrained by the AIA data, and one loop with inconclusive results. Our survey can confirm an unexpected result from the pilot study: we found no isothermal loop segments where we could properly use the 171-to-193 ratio method, which would be similar to the analysis done for many loops observed with TRACE and EIT. We recommend caution to observers who assume the loop plasma is isothermal, and hope that these results will influence the direction of coronal heating models and the effort modelers spend on various heating scenarios.

  12. 3D MHD modeling of twisted coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Reale, F; Guarrasi, M; Mignone, A; Peres, G; Hood, A W; Priest, E R

    2016-01-01

    We perform MHD modeling of a single bright coronal loop to include the interaction with a non-uniform magnetic field. The field is stressed by random footpoint rotation in the central region and its energy is dissipated into heating by growing currents through anomalous magnetic diffusivity that switches on in the corona above a current density threshold. We model an entire single magnetic flux tube, in the solar atmosphere extending from the high-beta chromosphere to the low-beta corona through the steep transition region. The magnetic field expands from the chromosphere to the corona. The maximum resolution is ~30 km. We obtain an overall evolution typical of loop models and realistic loop emission in the EUV and X-ray bands. The plasma confined in the flux tube is heated to active region temperatures (~3 MK) after ~2/3 hr. Upflows from the chromosphere up to ~100 km/s fill the core of the flux tube to densities above 10^9 cm^-3. More heating is released in the low corona than the high corona and is finely ...

  13. 3D MHD modeling of twisted coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Guarrasi, M.; Mignone, A.; Peres, G.; Hood, A. W.; Priest, E. R.

    2016-10-01

    We perform MHD modeling of a single bright coronal loop to include the interaction with a non-uniform magnetic field. The field is stressed by random footpoint rotation in the central region and its energy is dissipated into heating by growing currents through anomalous magnetic diffusivity that switches on in the corona above a current density threshold. We model an entire single magnetic flux tube in the solar atmosphere extending from the high-β chromosphere to the low-β corona through the steep transition region. The magnetic field expands from the chromosphere to the corona. The maximum resolution is ∼30 km. We obtain an overall evolution typical of loop models and realistic loop emission in the EUV and X-ray bands. The plasma confined in the flux tube is heated to active region temperatures (∼3 MK) after ∼2/3 hr. Upflows from the chromosphere up to ∼100 km s‑1 fill the core of the flux tube to densities above 109 cm‑3. More heating is released in the low corona than the high corona and is finely structured both in space and time.

  14. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves over the Chickasaw Nation in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Basara Richter, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (>2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (>1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  15. Inferring heat recirculation and albedo for exoplanetary atmospheres: Comparing optical phase curves and secondary eclipse data

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, P; Bordé, P; Selsis, F

    2015-01-01

    Basic atmospheric properties such as albedo and heat redistribution between day and nightside have been inferred for a number of planets using observations of secondary eclipses and thermal phase curves. Optical phase curves have not yet been used to constrain these atmospheric properties consistently. We re-model previously published phase curves of CoRoT-1b, TrES-2b and HAT-P-7b and infer albedos and recirculation efficiencies. These are then compared to previous estimates based on secondary eclipse data. We use a physically consistent model to construct optical phase curves. This model takes Lambertian reflection, thermal emission, ellipsoidal variations and Doppler boosting into account. CoRoT-1b shows a non-negligible scattering albedo (0.11

  16. The effect of stellar radiation on exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Our project aims to investigate the influence of stellar activity and high-energy radiation on short-period transiting exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss. Mass loss in closely orbiting gaseous exoplanets could be significant enough to evaporate a significant portion of the atmosphere over the total system lifetime. A current question of interest is how Neptune-class gas giants might change over time from being exposed to intense X-ray and UV flux radiated from the star. Our research aims to estimate current and total mass loss for four Neptune-class exoplanets that have both measured radii and masses. We use computer software to reduce and analyze Chandra X-ray observations of Neptune-class exoplanets, including HAT-P-11b and archival data of GJ 436b, to calculate the high-energy incident flux for each planet. We then estimate the current-epoch mass-loss rate and construct integrated mass-loss histories. We test whether planets receiving the greatest dose of high-energy radiation also tend to be the lowest mass and the most dense, suggestive of evaporation. These observations provide essential empirical input for understanding and modeling the potential evolutionary transformation of hot gas giants into less massive and more dense remnants.

  17. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Tropical Energy Budget Using TRMM-based Atmospheric Radiative Heating Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Ecuyer, T.; McGarragh, G.; Ellis, T.; Stephens, G.; Olson, W.; Grecu, M.; Shie, C.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D.; Li, J.; Tian, B.

    2008-05-01

    It is widely recognized that clouds and precipitation exert a profound influence on the propagation of radiation through the Earth's atmosphere. In fact, feedbacks between clouds, radiation, and precipitation represent one of the most important unresolved factors inhibiting our ability to predict the consequences of global climate change. Since its launch in late 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has collected more than a decade of rainfall measurements that now form the gold standard of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Although not as widely advertised, the instruments aboard TRMM are also well-suited to the problem of characterizing the distribution of atmospheric heating in the tropics and a series of algorithms have recently been developed for estimating profiles of radiative and latent heating from these measurements. This presentation will describe a new multi-sensor tropical radiative heating product derived primarily from TRMM observations. Extensive evaluation of the products using a combination of ground and satellite-based observations is used to place the dataset in the context of existing techniques for quantifying atmospheric radiative heating. Highlights of several recent applications of the dataset will be presented that illustrate its utility for observation-based analysis of energy and water cycle variability on seasonal to inter-annual timescales and evaluating the representation of these processes in numerical models. Emphasis will be placed on the problem of understanding the impacts of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric heating on large spatial scales, one of the primary benefits of satellite observations like those provided by TRMM.

  18. Forward Modelling of Standing Kink Modes in Coronal Loops I. Synthetic Views

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are frequently observed in various magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere. They may contribute significantly to coronal heating and could be used as a tool to diagnose the solar plasma. In this study, we synthesise the \\ion{Fe}{9} $\\lambda171.073$ emission of a coronal loop supporting a standing kink MHD mode. The kink MHD wave solution of a plasma cylinder is mapped into a semi-torus structure to simulate a curved coronal loop. We decompose the solution into a quasi-rigid kink motion and a quadrupole term, which dominate the plasma inside and outside the flux tube, respectively. At the loop edges, the line-of-sight integrates relatively more ambient plasma, and the background emission becomes significant. The plasma motion associated with the quadrupole term causes spectral line broadening and emission suppression. The periodic intensity suppression will modulate the integrated intensity and the effective loop width, which both exhibit oscillatory variations at half ...

  19. FORWARD MODELING OF STANDING KINK MODES IN CORONAL LOOPS. I. SYNTHETIC VIEWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ding; Doorsselaere, Tom Van, E-mail: DYuan2@uclan.ac.uk [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are frequently observed in various magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere. They may contribute significantly to coronal heating and could be used as a tool to diagnose the solar plasma. In this study, we synthesize the Fe ix λ171.073 Å emission of a coronal loop supporting a standing kink MHD mode. The kink MHD wave solution of a plasma cylinder is mapped into a semi-torus structure to simulate a curved coronal loop. We decompose the solution into a quasi-rigid kink motion and a quadrupole term, which dominate the plasma inside and outside of the flux tube, respectively. At the loop edges, the line of sight integrates relatively more ambient plasma, and the background emission becomes significant. The plasma motion associated with the quadrupole term causes spectral line broadening and emission suppression. The periodic intensity suppression will modulate the integrated intensity and the effective loop width, which both exhibit oscillatory variations at half of the kink period. The quadrupole term can be directly observed as a pendular motion at the front view.

  20. MHD modeling of coronal loops: injection of high-speed chromospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Petralia, A; Orlando, S; Klimchuk, J A

    2014-01-01

    Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upwardly moving fronts in the corona observed in the EUV band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are unlikely to be the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes, and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. We simulate the propagation of a dense $10^4$ K chromospheric jet upwards along a coronal loop, by means of a 2-D cylindrical MHD model, including gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool ($\\sim 0.8$ MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet's initial speed is 70 km/s, its initial density is $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We explore also other values of jet speed and density in 1-...

  1. Quantitative estimates of past changes in ITCZ position and cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, D.; Donohoe, A.; Marshall, J.; Ferreira, D.

    2012-12-01

    The mean position and seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) govern the intensity, spatial distribution and seasonality of precipitation throughout the tropics as well as the magnitude and direction of interhemispheric atmospheric heat transport (AHT). As a result of these links to global tropical precipitation and hemispheric heat budgets, paleoclimate studies have commonly sought to use reconstructions of local precipitation and surface winds to identify past shifts in the ITCZ's mean position or seasonal extent. Records indicate close ties between ITCZ position and interhemispheric surface temperature gradients in past climates, with the ITCZ shifting toward the warmer hemisphere. This shift would increase AHT into the cooler hemisphere to at least partially compensate for cooling there. Despite widespread qualitative evidence consistent with ITCZ shifts, few proxy records offer quantitative estimates of the distance of these shifts or of the associated changes in AHT. Here we present a strategy for placing quantitative limits on past changes in mean annual ITCZ position and interhemispheric AHT based on explorations of the modern seasonal cycle and models of present and past climates. We use reconstructions of tropical sea surface temperature gradients to place bounds on globally averaged ITCZ position and interhemispheric AHT during the Last Glacial Maximum, Heinrich Stadial 1, and the Mid-Holocene (6 ka). Though limited by the small number of SST records available, our results suggest that past shifts in the global mean ITCZ were small, typically less than 1 degree of latitude. Past changes in interhemispheric AHT may have been substantial, with anomalies approximately equal to the magnitude of modern interhemispheric AHT. Using constraints on the invariance of the total (ocean+atmosphere) heat transport we suggest possible bounds on fluctuations of the OHT and AMOC during Heinrich Stadial 1. We also explore ITCZ shifts in models and

  2. Transverse Oscillations in a Coronal Loop Triggered by a Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Pant, V.; Srivastava, A. K.; Banerjee, D.

    2016-11-01

    We detect and analyse transverse oscillations in a coronal loop, lying at the south-east limb of the Sun as seen from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The jet is believed to trigger transverse oscillations in the coronal loop. The jet originates from a region close to the coronal loop on 19 September 2014 at 02:01:35 UT. The length of the loop is estimated to be between 377 - 539 Mm. Only one complete oscillation is detected with an average period of about 32±5 min. Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) seismologic inversion techniques, we estimate the magnetic field inside the coronal loop to be between 2.68 - 4.5 G. The velocity of the hot and cool components of the jet is estimated to be 168 km s^{-1} and 43 km s^{-1}, respectively. The energy density of the jet is found to be greater than the energy density of the oscillating coronal loop. We therefore conclude that the jet triggered transverse oscillations in the coronal loop. To our knowledge, this is the first coronal loop seismology study using the properties of a jet propagation to trigger oscillations.

  3. MAGNETIC FLUX SUPPLEMENT TO CORONAL BRIGHT POINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Jiao, Fangran; Hou, Zhenyong [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China); Madjarska, Maria S., E-mail: z.huang@sdu.edu.cn [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-10

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of an MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.

  4. Solar and stellar magnetic fields and atmospheric structures - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical understanding of the role of magnetic fields in the formation of solar atmospheric structure is reviewed. The origin of the solar magnetic field, the dynamical behavior of the azimuthal field in the convective zone, the fibril state of the field in the photosphere, the formation of sunspots and prominences, and the spontaneous formation of current sheets in the bipolar field above the solar surface are addressed. The relation of the latter to coronal heating and flare formation is considered.

  5. SOLAR JET–CORONAL HOLE COLLISION AND A CLOSELY RELATED CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Li, Chuanyang, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, 264209, Weihai (China)

    2016-03-10

    Jets are defined as impulsive, well-collimated upflows, occurring in different layers of the solar atmosphere with different scales. Their relationship with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), another type of solar impulsive events, remains elusive. Using high-quality imaging data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory, we show a well-observed coronal jet event, in which the part of the jet with embedding coronal loops runs into a nearby coronal hole (CH) and gets bounced in the opposite direction. This is evidenced by the flat shape of the jet front during its interaction with the CH and the V-shaped feature in the time-slice plot of the interaction region. About a half-hour later, a CME with an initially narrow and jet-like front is observed by the LASCO C2 coronagraph propagating along the direction of the post-collision jet. We also observe some 304 Å dark material flowing from the jet–CH interaction region toward the CME. We thus suggest that the jet and the CME are physically connected, with the jet–CH collision and the large-scale magnetic topology of the CH being important in defining the eventual propagating direction of this particular jet–CME eruption.

  6. Coronal loops above an Active Region - observation versus model

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a high-resolution numerical simulation of the solar corona above a stable active region. The aim is to test the field-line braiding mechanism for a sufficient coronal energy input. We also check the applicability of scaling laws for coronal loop properties like the temperature and density. Our 3D-MHD model is driven from below by Hinode observations of the photosphere, in particular a high-cadence time series of line-of-sight magnetograms and horizontal velocities derived from the magnetograms. This driving applies stress to the magnetic field and thereby delivers magnetic energy into the corona, where currents are induced that heat the coronal plasma by Ohmic dissipation. We compute synthetic coronal emission that we directly compare to coronal observations of the same active region taken by Hinode. In the model, coronal loops form at the same places as they are found in coronal observations. Even the shapes of the synthetic loops in 3D space match those found from a stereoscopic reconstruction ...

  7. Coronal Plumes in the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velli, Marco; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of a coronal hole filled with a discrete number of higher density coronal plumes is simulated using a time-dependent two-dimensional code. A solar wind model including an exponential coronal heating function and a flux of Alfven waves propagating both inside and outside the structures is taken as a basic state. Different plasma plume profiles are obtained by using different scale heights for the heating rates. Remote sensing and solar wind in situ observations are used to constrain the parameter range of the study. Time dependence due to plume ignition and disappearance is also discussed. Velocity differences of the order of approximately 50 km/s, such as those found in microstreams in the high-speed solar wind, may be easily explained by slightly different heat deposition profiles in different plumes. Statistical pressure balance in the fast wind data may be masked by the large variety of body and surface waves which the higher density filaments may carry, so the absence of pressure balance in the microstreams should not rule out their interpretation as the extension of coronal plumes into interplanetary space. Mixing of plume-interplume material via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability seems to be possible within the parameter ranges of the models defined here, only at large di stances from the Sun, beyond 0.2-0.3 AU. Plasma and composition measurements in the inner heliosphere, such as those which will become available with Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus, should therefore definitely be able to identify plume remnants in the solar wind.

  8. The Asian monsoon's role in atmospheric heat transport responses to orbital and millennial-scale climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, D.; Green, B.; Donohoe, A.; Marshall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have provided a framework for understanding the zonal-mean position of the tropical rain belt by documenting relationships between rain belt latitude and atmospheric heat transport across the equator (Donohoe et al., 2013). Modern seasonal and interannual variability in globally-averaged rain belt position (often referred to as 'ITCZ position') reflects the interhemispheric heat balance, with the rain belt's displacement toward the warmer hemisphere directly proportional to atmospheric heat transport into the cooler hemisphere. Model simulations suggest that rain belt shifts are likely to have obeyed the same relationship with interhemispheric heat transport in response to past changes in orbital parameters, ice sheets, and ocean circulation. This relationship implies that even small (±1 degree) shifts in the mean rain belt require large changes in hemispheric heat budgets, placing tight bounds on mean rain belt shifts in past climates. This work has primarily viewed tropical circulation in two dimensions, as a pair of zonal-mean Hadley cells on either side of the rain belt that are displaced north and south by perturbations in hemispheric energy budgets, causing the atmosphere to transport heat into the cooler hemisphere. Here we attempt to move beyond this zonal-mean perspective, motivated by arguments that the Asian monsoon system, rather than the zonal-mean circulation, plays the dominant role in annual-mean heat transport into the southern hemisphere in the modern climate (Heaviside and Czaja, 2012; Marshall et al., 2014). We explore a range of climate change experiments, including simulations of North Atlantic cooling and mid-Holocene climate, to test whether changes in interhemispheric atmospheric heat transport are primarily driven by the mean Hadley circulation, the Asian monsoon system, or other regional-scale atmospheric circulation changes. The scalings that this work identifies between Asian monsoon changes and atmospheric heat

  9. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  10. Variance Method to Determine Turbulent Fluxes of Momentum And Sensible Heat in The Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, ¿u and ¿T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it yi

  11. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  12. Measurement of vapor pressures and heats of sublimation of dicarboxylic acids using atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Emily A; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2012-06-21

    Vapor pressures of low volatility compounds are important parameters in several atmospheric processes, including the formation of new particles and the partitioning of compounds between the gas phase and particles. Understanding these processes is critical for elucidating the impacts of aerosols on climate, visibility, and human health. Dicarboxylic acids are an important class of compounds in the atmosphere for which reported vapor pressures often vary by more than an order of magnitude. In this study, atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS), a relatively new atmospheric pressure ionization technique, is applied for the first time to the measurement of vapor pressures and heats of sublimation of a series of dicarboxylic acids. Pyrene was also studied because its vapor pressures and heat of sublimation are relatively well-known. The heats of sublimation measured using ASAP-MS were in good agreement with published values. The vapor pressures, assuming an evaporation coefficient of unity, were typically within a factor of ∼3 lower than published values made at similar temperatures for most of the acids. The underestimation may be due to diffusional constraints resulting from evaporation at atmospheric pressure. However, this study establishes that ASAP-MS is a promising new technique for such measurements.

  13. Chemical Fractionation and Abundances in Coronal Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J

    2003-01-01

    Much of modern astrophysics is grounded on the observed chemical compositions of stars and the diffuse plasma that pervades the space between stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. X-ray and EUV spectra of the hot plasma in the outer atmospheres of stars have demonstrated that these environments are subject to chemical fractionation in which the abundances of elements can be enhanced and depleted by an order of magnitude or more. These coronal abundance anomalies are discussed and some of the physical mechanisms that might be responsible for producing them are examined. It is argued that coronal abundances can provide important new diagnostics on physical processes at work in solar and stellar coronae. It seems likely that other hot astrophysical plasmas will be subject to similar effects.

  14. Solar coronal observations at high frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Katsiyannis, A C; Phillips, K J H; Williams, D R; Keenan, F P

    2001-01-01

    The Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS) is a simple and extremely fast, high-resolution imaging instrument designed for studies of the solar corona. Light from the corona (during, for example, a total solar eclipse) is reflected off a heliostat and passes via a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and beam splitter to two CCD cameras capable of imaging at 60 frames a second. The cameras are attached via SCSI connections to a purpose-built PC that acts as the data acquisition and storage system. Each optical channel has a different filter allowing observations of the same events in both white light and in the green line (Fe XIV at 5303 A). Wavelet analysis of the stabilized images has revealed high frequency oscillations which may make a significant contribution on the coronal heating process. In this presentation we give an outline of the instrument and its future development.

  15. Performance testing of cross flow heat exchanger operating in the atmosphere of flue gas particulate with vapor condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntaphan, A.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance testing of a cross flow heat exchanger operating under the atmosphere of flue gas particulate from combustion was carried out in this work. This heat exchanger exchanges heat between flue gas from the fuel oil combustion and cold water. The heat exchanger is composed of a spiral finned tube bank having 3 rows and 8 tubes per row with a staggered arrangement. The fin spacings considered are 2.85 and 6.10 mm. The theories of thermodynamics and heat transfer are used for analyzing the performance of this system.In this experiment, the flue gas temperature of 200ºC from combustion having 0.35 kg/s mass flow rate flows along outside surface of the heat exchanger and transfers heat to the 25ºC cooling water having 0.15 kg/s mass flow rate flowing in the tube side. Each experiment uses 750 hr for testing. During the testing, part of flue gas condenses on the heat transfer surface.From the experiment, it was found that the heat transfer rate of both heat exchangers tended to decrease with time while the airside pressure drop increased. These results come from the fouling on the heat transfer surface. Moreover, it is found that the heat exchanger having 2.85 mm fin spacing has an approximately 4 times higher fouling resistance than that of the 6.10 mm fin spacing.In this work a model for calculating the fouling resistance is also developed as a the function of time. The model is developed from that of Kern and Seaton and the mean deviation of the model is 0.789.

  16. TRANSITION-REGION/CORONAL SIGNATURES AND MAGNETIC SETTING OF SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL JETS: HINODE (SOT/FG), Hi-C, AND SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Mail Code ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Alpert, Shane E., E-mail: sanjiv.k.tiwari@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    Penumbral microjets (PJs) are transient narrow bright features in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae, first characterized by Katsukawa et al. using the Ca ii H-line filter on Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). It was proposed that the PJs form as a result of reconnection between two magnetic components of penumbrae (spines and interspines), and that they could contribute to the transition region (TR) and coronal heating above sunspot penumbrae. We propose a modified picture of formation of PJs based on recent results on the internal structure of sunspot penumbral filaments. Using data of a sunspot from Hinode/SOT, High Resolution Coronal Imager, and different passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we examine whether PJs have signatures in the TR and corona. We find hardly any discernible signature of normal PJs in any AIA passbands, except for a few of them showing up in the 1600 Å images. However, we discovered exceptionally stronger jets with similar lifetimes but bigger sizes (up to 600 km wide) occurring repeatedly in a few locations in the penumbra, where evidence of patches of opposite-polarity fields in the tails of some penumbral filaments is seen in Stokes-V images. These tail PJs do display signatures in the TR. Whether they have any coronal-temperature plasma is unclear. We infer that none of the PJs, including the tail PJs, directly heat the corona in active regions significantly, but any penumbral jet might drive some coronal heating indirectly via the generation of Alfvén waves and/or braiding of the coronal field.

  17. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-08-01

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  18. Evaluation of the Minifilament-Eruption Scenario for Solar Coronal Jets in Polar Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikie, Tomi K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David; Moore, Ronald L.; Savage, Sabrina L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are suspected to result from magnetic reconnection low in the Sun's atmosphere. Sterling et al. (2015) looked as 20 jets in polar coronal holes, using X-ray images from the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). They suggested that each jet was driven by the eruption of twisted closed magnetic field carrying a small-scale filament, which they call a 'minifilament', and that the jet was produced by reconnection of the erupting field with surrounding open field. In this study, we carry out a more extensive examination of polar coronal jets. From 180 hours of XRT polar coronal hole observations spread over two years (2014-2016), we identified 130 clearly-identifiable X-ray jet events and thus determined an event rate of over 17 jets per day per in the Hinode/XRT field of view. From the broader set, we selected 25 of the largest and brightest events for further study in AIA 171, 193, 211, and 304 Angstrom images. We find that at least the majority of the jets follow the minifilament-eruption scenario, although for some cases the evolution of the minifilament in the onset of its eruption is more complex than presented in the simplified schematic of Sterling et al. (2015). For all cases in which we could make a clear determination, the spire of the X-ray jet drifted laterally away from the jet-base-edge bright point; this spire drift away from the bright point is consistent with expectations of the minifilament-eruption scenario for coronal-jet production. This work was supported with funding from the NASA/MSFC Hinode Project Office, and from the NASA HGI program.

  19. Development of a Model for Water and Heat Exchange Between the Atmosphere and a Water Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shufen; YAN Jinfeng; XIA Nan; SUN Changhai

    2007-01-01

    A model for studying the heat and mass exchange between the atmosphere and a water body is developed,in which the phase change process of water freezing in winter and melting in summer and the function of the convective mixing process are taken into consideration. The model uses enthalpy rather than temperature as the predictive variable. It helps to set up governing equations more concisely, to deal with the phase change process more easily, and make the numerical scheme simpler. The model is verified by observed data from Lake Kinneret for a non-frozen lake in summer time, and Lake Lower Two Medicine for a frozen lake in winter time. Reasonably good agreements between the model simulations and observed data indicate that the model can serve as a component for a water body in a land surface model. In order to more efficiently apply the scheme in a climate system model, a sensitivity study of various division schemes with less layers in the vertical direction in the water body is conducted. The results of the study show that the division with around 10 vertical layers could produce a prediction accuracy that is comparable to the fine division with around 40 layers.

  20. Atmosphere expansion and mass loss of close-orbit giant exoplanets heated by stellar XUV. I. Modeling of hydrodynamic escape of upper atmospheric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khodachenko, M. L.; Sasunov, Yu. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Acad. Sci., Graz (Austria); Erkaev, N. V., E-mail: maxim.khodachenko@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of Computational Modelling, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-10

    In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study in a comprehensive way the effects of the intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (a so-called hot Jupiter) on atmospheric material escape and the formation of a planetary inner magnetosphere, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to an investigation of the role of the specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free and restricted flow) are formed. A comparative study is performed of different processes, such as X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) heating, material ionization and recombination, H{sub 3}{sup +} cooling, adiabatic and Lyα cooling, and Lyα reabsorption. We confirm the basic consistency of the outcomes of our modeling with the results of other hydrodynamic models of expanding planetary atmospheres. In particular, we determine that, under the typical conditions of an orbital distance of 0.05 AU around a Sun-type star, a hot Jupiter plasma envelope may reach maximum temperatures up to ∼9000 K with a hydrodynamic escape speed of ∼9 km s{sup –1}, resulting in mass loss rates of ∼(4-7) · 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1}. In the range of the considered stellar-planetary parameters and XUV fluxes, that is close to the mass loss in the energy-limited case. The inclusion of planetary intrinsic magnetic fields in the model is a subject of the follow-up paper (Paper II).

  1. Sensible and latent heating of the atmosphere as inferred from DST-6 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, G. F.; Schubert, S. D.; Johnson, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    The average distribution of convective latent heating, boundary layer sensible heat flux, and vertical velocity are determined for the winter 1976 DST period from GLAS model diagnostics. Key features are the regions of intense latent heating over Brazil, Central Africa, and Indonesia; and the regions of strong sensible heating due to air mass modification over the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans.

  2. Charge States of Solar Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Acceleration Times and Coronal Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffolo, D

    1997-01-01

    We examine effects on the charge states of energetic ions associated with gradual solar flares due to shock heating and stripping at high ion velocities. Recent measurements of the mean charges of various elements after the flares of 1992 Oct 30 and 1992 Nov 2 allow one to place limits on the product of the electron density times the acceleration or coronal residence time. In particular, any residence in coronal loops must be for < 0.03 s, which rules out models of coronal transport in loops, such as the bird cage model. The results do not contradict models of shock acceleration of energetic ions from coronal plasma at various solar longitudes.

  3. Solar jet-coronal hole collision and a related coronal mass ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Du, Guohui; Li, Chuanyang

    2016-01-01

    Jets are defined as impulsive, well-collimated upflows, occurring in different layers of the solar atmosphere with different scales. Their relationship with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), another type of solar impulsive events, remains elusive. Using the high-quality imaging data of AIA/SDO, here we show a well-observed coronal jet event, in which part of the jets, with the embedding coronal loops, runs into a nearby coronal hole (CH) and gets bounced towards the opposite direction. This is evidenced by the flat-shape of the jet front during its interaction with the CH and the V-shaped feature in the time-slice plot of the interaction region. About a half-hour later, a CME initially with a narrow and jet-like front is observed by the LASCO C2 coronagraph, propagating along the direction of the post-collision jet. We also observe some 304 A dark material flowing from the jet-CH interaction region towards the CME. We thus suggest that the jet and the CME are physically connected, with the jet-CH collision and t...

  4. Transverse oscillations in a coronal loop triggered by a jet

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, S; Srivastava, A K; Banerjee, D

    2016-01-01

    We detect and analyse transverse oscillations in a coronal loop, lying at the south east limb of the Sun as seen from the \\textit{{Atmospheric Imaging Assembly}} (AIA) onboard \\textit{{Solar Dynamics Observatory}} (SDO). The jet is believed to trigger transverse oscillations in the coronal loop. The jet originates from a region close to the coronal loop on 19$^{\\rm th}$ September 2014 at 02:01:35 UT. The length of the loop is estimated to be between 377-539~Mm. Only one complete oscillation is detected with an average period of about $32\\pm5$~min. Using MHD seismologic inversion techniques, we estimate the magnetic field inside the coronal loop to be between $2.68 -4.5$~G. The velocity of the hot and cool components of the jet is estimated to be 168~km~s$^{-1}$ and 43~km~s$^{-1}$, respectively. The energy density of the jet is found to be greater than the energy density of the oscillating coronal loop. Therefore, we conclude that the jet {triggered} transverse oscillations in the coronal loop. To our knowledg...

  5. Coronal radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, H S; Frewen, S F N; DeRosa, M L

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona has a large-scale dipole character, which maps into the bipolar field in the solar wind. Using standard representations of the coronal field, we show that high-energy ions can be trapped stably in these large-scale closed fields. The drift shells that describe the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant may have complicated geometries. Particles trapped in these zones would resemble the Van Allen Belts and could have detectable consequences. We discuss potential sources of trapped particles.

  6. Optimizing Global Coronal Magnetic Field Models Using Image-Based Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Shaela I; Uritsky, Vadim M

    2015-01-01

    The coronal magnetic field directly or indirectly affects a majority of the phenomena studied in space physics. It provides energy for coronal heating, controls the release of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and drives heliospheric and magnetospheric activity, yet the coronal magnetic field itself has proven difficult to measure. This difficulty has prompted a decades-long effort to develop accurate, timely, models of the field - an effort that continues today. We have developed a method for improving global coronal magnetic field models by incorporating the type of morphological constraints which could be derived from coronal images. Here we report promising initial tests of this approach on two theoretical problems, and discuss opportunities for application.

  7. Hydrodynamics of the plasma confined inside coronal loops: flare and microflare models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betta, R.; Peres, G.; Reale, F.; Serio, S.

    instability occurs (due to the large amount of plasma evaporated in the corona which causes an increased emission): as a consequence, the plasma temperature drops to almost chromosperic values. Continuing the simulations for a few hours, since the steady-state energy balance term is included in the equations, the atmosphere returns to the initial configuration. In the microflare heating model we assume that on average, the loop is maintained close to the coronal conditions predicted by steady-state models. Some preliminary results of microflare simulations may be found in Peres, Reale and Serio (1993). A sequence of short heating pulses is released inside the loop. The time interval between two heating events can be either random following a Poisson distribution, or periodic. The pulse has a different random duration but the total power given during each heating event is such that the integral over time and space equals the total amount of energy needed to balance losses in the hydrostatic equations and mantain a steady-state. We have studied the dynamics using heating pulses of different frequencies in order to find possible diagnostics of random heating in coronal loops.

  8. Dimensional changes and phase transformation of TiO2 nanotubes heat-treated under oxygen-containing atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangmin; Min, Dongryoul; Jeong, Sehoon; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyunpil; Park, Sangwon

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensional changes and phase transition of nanotubular titanium oxide arrays after heat treatment under an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The thermodynamic background for the oxidation of titanium to titanium oxide was theoretically investigated as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. The anodized titanium nanotubes had lengths between 400 and 500 nm, thicknesses of 11 nm and an amorphous structure. The specimens heat-treated at higher oxygen partial pressures preferentially had rutile phase rather than anatase phase. The thickness of the TiO2 nanotubes was increased at a lower oxygen partial pressure.

  9. Analytical Solutions to the Near-Neutral Atmospheric Surface Energy Balance with and without Heat Storage for Urban Climatological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, C. P.; Chan, B. K.; Hashim, M. A.

    1991-04-01

    Analytical solutions are presented to the near-neutral atmospheric surface energy balance with the new approach of including the participation of heat storage in the building substrate. Analytical solutions are also presented for the first time for the case without heat storage effect. By a linearization process, the governing equations are simplified to a set of time-dependent, linear, first-order equations from which explicit solutions are readily obtainable. The results compare well with those obtained by numerical solutions upon the set without linearization when applied to the tropical city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  10. The Contribution of Coronal Jets To The Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Lionello, R; Titov, V S; Leake, J E; MikiĆ, Z; Linker, J A; Linton, M G

    2016-01-01

    Transient collimated plasma eruptions in the solar corona, commonly known as coronal (or X-ray) jets, are among the most interesting manifestations of solar activity. It has been suggested that these events contribute to the mass and energy content of the corona and solar wind, but the extent of these contributions remains uncertain. We have recently modeled the formation and evolution of coronal jets using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code with thermodynamics in a large spherical domain that includes the solar wind. Our model is coupled to 3D MHD flux-emergence simulations, i.e, we use boundary conditions provided by such simulations to drive a time-dependent coronal evolution. The model includes parametric coronal heating, radiative losses, and thermal conduction, which enables us to simulate the dynamics and plasma properties of coronal jets in a more realistic manner than done so far. Here we employ these simulations to calculate the amount of mass and energy transported by coronal j...

  11. Chromospheric Nanoflares as a Source of Coronal Plasma: II. Repeating Nanoflares

    CERN Document Server

    Bradshaw, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The million degree plasma of the solar corona must be supplied by the underlying layers of the atmosphere. The mechanism and location of energy release, and the precise source of coronal plasma, remain unresolved. In earlier work we pursued the idea that warm plasma is supplied to the corona via direct heating of the chromosphere by nanoflares, contrary to the prevailing belief that the corona is heated in-situ and the chromosphere is subsequently energized and ablated by thermal conduction. We found that single (low-frequency) chromospheric nanoflares could not explain the observed intensities, Doppler-shifts, and red/blue asymmetries in Fe XII and XIV emission lines. In the present work we follow up on another suggestion that the corona could be powered by chromospheric nanoflares that repeat on a timescale substantially shorter than the cooling/draining timescale. That is, a single magnetic strand is re-supplied with coronal plasma before the existing plasma has time to cool and drain. We perform a series ...

  12. FORWARD MODELING OF STANDING KINK MODES IN CORONAL LOOPS. II. APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ding; Doorsselaere, Tom Van, E-mail: DYuan2@uclan.ac.uk [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves are believed to play a significant role in coronal heating, and could be used for remote diagnostics of solar plasma. Both the heating and diagnostic applications rely on a correct inversion (or backward modeling) of the observables into the thermal and magnetic structures of the plasma. However, due to the limited availability of observables, this is an ill-posed issue. Forward modeling is designed to establish a plausible mapping of plasma structuring into observables. In this study, we set up forward models of standing kink modes in coronal loops and simulate optically thin emissions in the extreme ultraviolet bandpasses, and then adjust plasma parameters and viewing angles to match three events of transverse loop oscillations observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We demonstrate that forward models could be effectively used to identify the oscillation overtone and polarization, to reproduce the general profile of oscillation amplitude and phase, and to predict multiple harmonic periodicities in the associated emission intensity and loop width variation.

  13. Characteristics of polar coronal hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrashekhar, K; Banerjee, D; Gupta, G R; Teriaca, L

    2013-01-01

    High spatial- and temporal-resolution images of coronal hole regions show a dynamical environment where mass flows and jets are frequently observed. These jets are believed to be important for the coronal heating and the acceleration of the fast solar wind. We studied the dynamics of two jets seen in a polar coronal hole with a combination of imaging from EIS and XRT onboard Hinode. We observed drift motions related to the evolution and formation of these small-scale jets, which we tried to model as well. We found observational evidence that supports the idea that polar jets are very likely produced by multiple small-scale reconnections occurring at different times in different locations. These eject plasma blobs that flow up and down with a motion very similar to a simple ballistic motion. The associated drift speed of the first jet is estimated to be $\\approx$ 27 km s$^{-1}$. The average outward speed of the first jet is $\\approx 171$ km s$^{-1}$, well below the escape speed, hence if simple ballistic motio...

  14. Coupled atmosphere-mixed layer ocean response to ocean heat flux convergence along the Kuroshio current extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Oh [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Department, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Deser, Clara [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Cassou, Christophe [CNRS-CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-06-15

    The winter response of the coupled atmosphere-ocean mixed layer system to anomalous geostrophic ocean heat flux convergence in the Kuroshio Extension is investigated by means of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to an entraining ocean mixed layer model in the extra-tropics. The direct response consists of positive SST anomalies along the Kuroshio Extension and a baroclinic (low-level trough and upper-level ridge) circulation anomaly over the North Pacific. The low-level component of this atmospheric circulation response is weaker in the case without coupling to an extratropical ocean mixed layer, especially in late winter. The inclusion of an interactive mixed layer in the tropics modifies the direct coupled atmospheric response due to a northward displacement of the Pacific Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone which drives an equivalent barotropic anomalous ridge over the North Pacific. Although the tropically driven component of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation response is comparable to the direct response in terms of sea level pressure amplitude, it is less important in terms of wind stress curl amplitude due to the mitigating effect of the relatively broad spatial scale of the tropically forced atmospheric teleconnection. (orig.)

  15. Long-period Intensity Pulsations in Coronal Loops Explained by Thermal Non-equilibrium Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, C.; Auchère, F.; Aulanier, G.; Mikić, Z.; Bocchialini, K.; Buchlin, E.; Solomon, J.

    2017-02-01

    In solar coronal loops, thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) is a phenomenon that can occur when the heating is both highly stratified and quasi-constant. Unambiguous observational identification of TNE would thus permit us to strongly constrain heating scenarios. While TNE is currently the standard interpretation of coronal rain, the long-term periodic evolution predicted by simulations has never been observed. However, the detection of long-period intensity pulsations (periods of several hours) has been recently reported with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/EIT, and this phenomenon appears to be very common in loops. Moreover, the three intensity-pulsation events that we recently studied with the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) show strong evidence for TNE in warm loops. In this paper, a realistic loop geometry from linear force-free field (LFFF) extrapolations is used as input to 1D hydrodynamic simulations. Our simulations show that, for the present loop geometry, the heating has to be asymmetrical to produce TNE. We analyze in detail one particular simulation that reproduces the average thermal behavior of one of the pulsating loop bundle observed with AIA. We compare the properties of this simulation with those deduced from the observations. The magnetic topology of the LFFF extrapolations points to the presence of sites of preferred reconnection at one footpoint, supporting the presence of asymmetric heating. In addition, we can reproduce the temporal large-scale intensity properties of the pulsating loops. This simulation further strengthens the interpretation of the observed pulsations as signatures of TNE. This consequently provides important information on the heating localization and timescale for these loops.

  16. Heat engines and heat pumps in a hydrostatic atmosphere: How surface pressure and temperature control wind power output and circulation cell size

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Shearman, P L; Li, B -L

    2015-01-01

    The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the poleward cell extension via a relationship between the meridional differences in surface pressure and temperature $\\Delta p_s$ and $\\Delta T_s$: an upper limit to cell size exists when $\\Delta p_s$ increases sublinearly with $\\Delta T_s$. This is the case for the Hadley cells as demonstrated here using data from MERRA re-analysis. The limited cell size necessitates the appearance of heat pumps -- circulation cells with negative work output where the low-level air moves towards colder areas. These cells consume the positive work output of heat engines -- cells where the low-level air moves towards the warmer areas -- and can in principle drive the global efficiency of atmo...

  17. On the Sensitivity of Atmospheric Model Implied Ocean Heat Transport to the Dominant Terms of the Surface Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, P J

    2004-11-03

    The oceanic meridional heat transport (T{sub o}) implied by an atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) can help evaluate a model's readiness for coupling with an ocean GCM. In this study we examine the T{sub o} from benchmark experiments of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, and evaluate the sensitivity of T{sub o} to the dominant terms of the surface energy balance. The implied global ocean TO in the Southern Hemisphere of many models is equatorward, contrary to most observationally-based estimates. By constructing a hybrid (model corrected by observations) T{sub o}, an earlier study demonstrated that the implied heat transport is critically sensitive to the simulated shortwave cloud radiative effects, which have been argued to be principally responsible for the Southern Hemisphere problem. Systematic evaluation of one model in a later study suggested that the implied T{sub o} could be equally as sensitive to a model's ocean surface latent heat flux. In this study we revisit the problem with more recent simulations, making use of estimates of ocean surface fluxes to construct two additional hybrid calculations. The results of the present study demonstrate that indeed the implied T{sub o} of an atmospheric model is very sensitive to problems in not only the surface net shortwave, but the latent heat flux as well. Many models underestimate the shortwave radiation reaching the surface in the low latitudes, and overestimate the latent heat flux in the same region. The additional hybrid transport calculations introduced here could become useful model diagnostic tests as estimates of implied ocean surface fluxes are improved.

  18. Observing coronal nanoflares in active region moss

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; DeLuca, Ed; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; Title, Alan; Weber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (~0.3-0.4 arcsec) and temporal (5.5s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ~15s, significantly shorter than the minute scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss r...

  19. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  20. Excess molar enthalpies and heat capacities of dimethyl sulfoxide + seven normal alkanols at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubini, Katia [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita deg.li Studi, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Francesconi, Romolo [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita deg.li Studi, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Bigi, Adriana [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita deg.li Studi, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Comelli, Fabio [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita (ISOF)-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: comelli@isof.cnr.it

    2007-01-15

    Excess molar enthalpies and heat capacities of binary mixtures containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + seven normal alkanols, namely methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, and decan-1-ol, have been determined at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. With the exception of the DMSO-methanol system, which shows negative values, all mixtures show positive values of excess molar enthalpies over the whole range of mole fraction, increasing as the number of carbon atoms increases. Heat capacities of pure components have been determined in the range 288.15 < T (K) < 325.15. Molar heat capacities of the mixtures are always positive and decrease as the number of carbon atoms decreases. The results were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Molecular interactions in the mixtures are interpreted on the basis of the results obtained.

  1. An estimate of solar wind velocity profiles in an coronal hole and a coronal streamer area (6-40 solar radius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Using the total electron content data obtained by the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment during the superior solar conjunction in summer 1991, we selected two data sets, one associated with a coronal hole and the other one with coronal streamer crossings. By doing this data splitting, we find two entirely different density profiles varying as r(exp -2.7) and r(exp -2.3) for the coronal hole and coronal streamers, respectively. Assuming mass flux conservation from the inner corona to one AU, an estimate for the velocity profiles or acceleration in these two different regions can be determined. The more negative exponent of the coronal hole density profile indicates a more extended heating and acceleration region or more flaring, or both. Various possible explanations will be discussed.

  2. The coronal fricative problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Dow, Michael C.; Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Green, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a range of predicted versus attested error patterns involving coronal fricatives (e.g. [s, z, θ, ð]) as targets and repairs in the early sound systems of monolingual English-acquiring children. Typological results are reported from a cross-sectional study of 234 children with phonological delays (ages 3 years; 0 months to 7;9). Our analyses revealed different instantiations of a putative developmental conspiracy within and across children. Supplemental longitudinal evidence is also presented that replicates the cross-sectional results, offering further insight into the life-cycle of the conspiracy. Several of the observed typological anomalies are argued to follow from a modified version of Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains (McCarthy, 2007). PMID:24790247

  3. The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: monitoring water vapour isotopic composition along an atmospheric river event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Sodemann, Harald; Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Risi, Camille; Werner, Martin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Fettweis, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    In July 2012, an extreme warm event occurred in Greenland, leading to surface melt over almost all the ice sheet. This event was recorded in the isotopic composition of water vapour measured by the IASI satellite along the transport pathway and at two sites where continuous in situ surface vapour isotopic measurements were conducted, situated at a coastal station of South Greenland (Ivittuut) and further North on top of the ice sheet (NEEM, NW Greenland). These observations allowed us to monitor the isotopic composition of the air mass at different stages of its advection towards Greenland, which can inform on processes along this trajectory, such as cloud properties and moisture sources. In addition, two simulations of this event, using the atmospheric general circulation models LMDZiso and ECHAM5wiso equipped with water stable isotopes and nudged towards large scale wind fields, are investigated. Furthermore, a regional high-resolution model was used to study the moisture transport to Greenland during this event using tagged water tracers of the North Atlantic ocean and coastal land evaporation. Using moisture source diagnostic based on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Flexpart, we show that this 2012 heat wave event corresponds to moisture sources located over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where intense evaporation was caused by dry air masses associated with the US intense summer drought. This moisture was then advected northward along a narrow band, due to a very stationary surface cyclone southwest of Greenland, reached southern Greenland and Ivittuut coastal station on July 9th, travelled along the west coast of Greenland, continued eastwards above the ice sheet and arrived above the NEEM deep drilling camp on July 11th. Surface isotopic observations during the event show larger variations at NEEM than in Ivittuut, strongly reducing the isotopic and deuterium excess latitudinal gradient usually observed between South and North Greenland. This

  4. Heat Exchangers for Condensation and Evaporation Applications Operating in a Low Pressure Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a state-of-the-art study of a heat transfer process in liquid spraying heat exchangers placed in a vacuum chamber. The experimental case studied here describes the behavior of a falling film evaporation and condensation mode on horizontal tube bundles. The study aims to obtain the heat transfer coefficient and its correlations by means of a mathematical model.

  5. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Shie, Chung-Lin; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1-QR) in regions of precipitation. The TMI heating algorithm (TRAIN) is calibrated, or "trained" using relatively accurate estimates of heating based upon spaceborne Precipitation Radar (PR) observations collocated with the TMI observations over a one-month period. The heating estimation technique is based upon a previously described Bayesian methodology, but with improvements in supporting cloud-resolving model simulations, an adjustment of precipitation echo tops to compensate for model biases, and a separate scaling of convective and stratiform heating components that leads to an approximate balance between estimated vertically-integrated condensation and surface precipitation. Estimates of Q1-QR from TMI compare favorably with the PR training estimates and show only modest sensitivity to the cloud-resolving model simulations of heating used to construct the training data. Moreover, the net condensation in the corresponding annual mean satellite latent heating profile is within a few percent of the annual mean surface precipitation rate over the tropical and subtropical oceans where the algorithm is applied. Comparisons of Q1 produced by combining TMI Q1-QR with independently derived estimates of QR show reasonable agreement with rawinsonde-based analyses of Q1 from two field campaigns, although the satellite estimates exhibit heating profile structure with sharper and more intense heating peaks than the rawinsonde estimates. 2

  6. Coronal Response to an EUV Wave from DEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanninathan, K.; Veronig, A. M.; Dissauer, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Hannah, I. G.; Kontar, E. P.

    2015-10-01

    Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) waves are globally propagating disturbances that have been observed since the era of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Exteme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope instrument. Although the kinematics of the wave front and secondary wave components have been widely studied, there is not much known about the generation and plasma properties of the wave. In this paper we discuss the effect of an EUV wave on the local plasma as it passes through the corona. We studied the EUV wave, generated during the 2011 February 15 X-class flare/coronal mass ejection event, using Differential Emission Measure diagnostics. We analyzed regions on the path of the EUV wave and investigated the local density and temperature changes. From our study we have quantitatively confirmed previous results that during wave passage the plasma visible in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171 Å channel is getting heated to higher temperatures corresponding to AIA 193 and 211 Å channels. We have calculated an increase of 6%-9% in density and 5%-6% in temperature during the passage of the EUV wave. We have compared the variation in temperature with the adiabatic relationship and have quantitatively demonstrated the phenomenon of heating due to adiabatic compression at the wave front. However, the cooling phase does not follow adiabatic relaxation but shows slow decay indicating slow energy release being triggered by the wave passage. We have also identified that heating is taking place at the front of the wave pulse rather than at the rear. Our results provide support for the case that the event under study here is a compressive fast-mode wave or a shock.

  7. Coronal seismology waves and oscillations in stellar coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, Alexander; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2012-01-01

    This concise and systematic account of the current state of this new branch of astrophysics presents the theoretical foundations of plasma astrophysics, magneto-hydrodynamics and coronal magnetic structures, taking into account the full range of available observation techniques -- from radio to gamma. The book discusses stellar loops during flare energy releases, MHD waves and oscillations, plasma instabilities and heating and charged particle acceleration. Current trends and developments in MHD seismology of solar and stellar coronal plasma systems are also covered, while recent p

  8. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2. Surface heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    the associated latent heat loss, promoting a net annual heat gain. In the northern Gulf of California, however, tidal mixing appears to play a key role in the observed gain of heat. Deep mixing in the island region produces a persistent pool of cold water which is mixed horizontally by the large-scale circulation, lowering surface temperatures over most of the northern gulf. These cold SSTs decrease evaporation by reducing the saturation vapor pressure of the overlying air. As a result, heat loss is substantially reduced, even when humidities are low. By removing heat from the surface, tidal mixing alters the time scale of air-sea interaction and reduces or possibly even inhibits the formation of deep water masses via convection. Over climatological timescales, it may be tidal mixing that ultimately maintains the estuarinelike circulation in the northern Gulf of California, differentiating it from the Mediterranean and Red seas, which lose heat to the atmosphere.

  9. The Nature of CME-Flare Associated Coronal Dimming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, J X

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by coronal dimming evident in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray observations. The locations of dimming are sometimes considered to map footpoints of the erupting flux rope. As the emitting material expands in the corona, the decreased plasma density leads to reduced emission observed in spectral and irradiance measurements. Therefore, signatures of dimming may reflect properties of CMEs in the early phase of its eruption. In this study, we analyze the event of flare, CME, and coronal dimming on December 26, 2011. We use the data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatories (SDO) for disk observations of the dimming, and analyze images taken by EUVI, COR1, and COR2 onboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories to obtain the height and velocity of the associated CMEs observed at the limb. We also measure magnetic reconnection rate from flare observations. Dimming occurs in a few locations next to the flare ribbons,...

  10. Sodium enrichment on glass surface during heating of heavy-metal-containing glasses under a reductive atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Okada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium enrichment occurs on the surface of the glass that is in contact with the gas phase during the heat treatment of lead-containing glass under a reductive atmosphere. This technique was previously found to promote lead recovery in waste-glass treatment, and may be potentially applied to glasses containing other heavy metal oxides. Thus, the efficiencies of sodium enrichment were compared among glasses with different heavy metal species (PbO, CuO, and ZnO in the heat-treatment under a CO-containing atmosphere. The sodium enrichment efficiencies in the treatment of the PbO- and CuO-containing glasses were higher than that in the treatment of the ZnO containing glass. This was because the efficiencies were related to the reduction of the heavy metal oxides. The mass ratio of Na to Si on the glass surface increased as the PbO concentration decreased via reduction of PbO. The sodium-rich phase was separated together with a copper-concentrated phase that was generated via the reduction of CuO. However, ZnO in the glass is thermodynamically more difficult to reduce in the CO-containing atmosphere used in the study, resulting in the lower efficiency of the sodium enrichment.

  11. MHD modeling of coronal loops: the transition region throat

    CERN Document Server

    Guarrasi, M; Orlando, S; Mignone, A; Klimchuk, J A

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of coronal loops in the transition region may considerably influence the diagnostics of the plasma emission measure. The cross sectional area of the loops is expected to depend on the temperature and pressure, and might be sensitive to the heating rate. The approach here is to study the area response to slow changes in the coronal heating rate, and check the current interpretation in terms of steady heating models. We study the area response with a time-dependent 2D MHD loop model, including the description of the expanding magnetic field, coronal heating and losses by thermal conduction and radiation from optically thin plasma. We run a simulation for a loop 50 Mm long and quasi-statically heated to about 4 MK. We find that the area can change substantially with the quasi-steady heating rate, e.g. by ~40% at 0.5 MK as the loop temperature varies between 1 and 4 MK, and, therefore, affects the interpretation of DEM(T) curves.

  12. INTERANNUAL VARIATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC HEAT SOURCES AND MOISTURE SINKS OVER THE EQUATORIAL PACIFIC AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE SST ANOMALIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝光东; 温之平; 贺海晏

    2004-01-01

    The interannual variations of atmospheric heat sources and moisture sinks over the Equatorial Pacific and their relations with the SST anomalies are studied using ECMWF reanalysis data from 1979 to 1993. It is found by singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis that the region in the tropical Pacific with high positive correlation between the vertically integrated heat source anomaly and the SST anomaly, and between the vertically integrated moisture sink anomaly and the SST anomaly, is mainly located in a long and narrow belt to the east of 170 (E between 5 (S and 5 (N. The analysis of the vertical structure of atmospheric heat sources and moisture sinks shows that the interannual variations of Q1, Q2 and SST in the equatorial central and eastern Pacific are strongly and positively correlated in the whole troposphere except the bottom (962.5 hPa) and the top (85 hPa) layers. However, in the western Pacific, the interannual variations of Q1 below 850 hPa is negatively related to the SST. The correlation coefficient at the level 962.5 hPa reaches even -0.59. In other layers the positive correlation between the interannual variations of Q1, Q2 and the SST are weak in the western Pacific.

  13. Characterizing the Properties of Coronal Magnetic Null Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Graham; DeRosa, Marc; Wagner, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The topology of the coronal magnetic field plays a role in a wide range of phenomena, from Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) through heating of the corona. One fundamental topological feature is the null point, where the magnetic field vanishes. These points are natural sites of magnetic reconnection, and hence the release of energy stored in the magnetic field. We present preliminary results of a study using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to characterize the properties and evolution of null points in a Potential Field Source Surface model of the coronal field. The main properties considered are the lifetime of the null points, their distribution with height, and how they form and subsequently vanish.This work is supported by NASA/LWS Grant NNX14AD45G, and by NSF/SHINE grant 1357018.

  14. Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous Coronal Plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nagendra Kumar; Pradeep Kumar; Shiv Singh; Anil Kumar

    2008-03-01

    We study the propagation and dissipation of slow magnetoacoustic waves in an inhomogeneous viscous coronal loop plasma permeated by uniform magnetic field. Only viscosity and thermal conductivity are taken into account as dissipative processes in the coronal loop. The damping length of slow-mode waves exhibit varying behaviour depending upon the physical parameters of the loop in an active region AR8270 observed by TRACE. The wave energy flux associated with slow magnetoacoustic waves turns out to be of the order of 106 erg cm-2 s-1 which is high enough to replace the energy lost through optically thin coronal emission and the thermal conduction belowto the transition region. It is also found that only those slow-mode waves which have periods more than 240 s provide the required heating rate to balance the energy losses in the solar corona. Our calculated wave periods for slow-mode waves nearly match with the oscillation periods of loop observed by TRACE.

  15. 太阳光球磁亮点的基本特征研究及其对日冕加热的贡献%Studies of Magnetic Bright Points in the Photosphere and Their Contribution to the Coronal Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霄; 林隽; 吴宁

    2014-01-01

    在太阳光球表面出现的磁亮点是目前观测手段能够分辨的最小磁结构,也被认为是日冕中的磁绳在光球足点运动的可靠示踪者。磁亮点的尺度约为100∼300 km,寿命从几分钟到几十分钟。磁亮点被观测到不仅具有漩涡运动现象,还有很强的振荡现象。磁亮点是在磁通量管的对流坍缩过程中形成的,这已被观测和数值模拟所验证;磁亮点的运动导致其所在的磁通量管产生振荡,或者与其他磁通量管发生扭绞。理论上认为,这些振荡会以波的形式向色球和日冕传送能量,而磁通量管之间的扭绞会在色球和日冕中发生磁重联并释放能量,从而加热色球和日冕。为了解开日冕加热和色球加热等未解之谜,对磁亮点的研究显示出它特殊的重要性。对磁亮点的基本特征、形成原理、观测证据、光球磁亮点和太阳大气其他亮点之间的关系,以及磁亮点对日冕加热贡献等方面进行了介绍和讨论。%Magnetic bright points in the photosphere are the smallest structures that the present observational technique could resolve. They are regarded as a reliable tracer of footpoints of the coronal magnetic field in the photosphere. The energy conversion and transportation caused by the motion of these footpoints is considered as one of the most important energy source of heating the chromosphere and the corona by waves or magnetic reconnection through twist magnetic tubes. Currently, we have known some important facts about the elementary structures and the basic features of magnetic bright points. For example, magnetic bright points have sizes about 100∼300 km and their lifetimes range from several to tens of minutes. Furthermore, their velocities are around 1∼2 km·s-1 on average in the horizontal direction. Especially, some magnetic bright points whirl along a logarithm path in granulation lanes, which can trace large scales swirling down

  16. Climatic features of atmospheric heat source/sink over theQinghai-Xizang Plateau in 35 years and its relation torainfall in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the 1961—1995 monthly averaged meteorological data from 148 surface stationsin the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP) and its surrounding areas, calculation of the 35-year atmos-pheric heat source/sink () and an analysis on its climatic features and relation to rainfall inChina have been made. It is found that on the average, the atmospheric heat source over the QXPis the strongest in June (78 W / m2) and cold source is the strongest in December (-72 W/m2). Thesensible heat of the surface increases remarkably over the southwest of the QXP, causing the ob-vious increase of there in February and March, which makes a center of the atmospheric heatsource appear over the north slope of the Himalayas. Afterwards, this center continues to intensifyand experiences noticeable migration westwards twice, separately occurring in April and June. Thetime when the atmosphere over the east of the QXP becomes heat source and reaches strongestis one month later than that over the southwest of the QXP. In summer, the latent heat of conden-sation becomes a heating factor as important as the sensible heat and is also a main factor thatmakes the atmospheric heat source over the east of the QXP continue growing. On the interde-cadal time scale, of the QXP shows an abrupt change in 1977 and a remarkable increase after1977. The atmospheric heat source of the spring over the QXP is a good indicator for the subse-quent summer rainfall over the valleys of the Changjiang and Huaihe rivers and South China andNorth China. There is remarkable positive correlation between the QXP heat source of summerand the summer rainfall in the valleys of the Changjiang River

  17. Test evaluation of potential heat shield contamination of an Outer Planet Probe's atmospheric sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. C.; Woeller, F. H.; Wilkins, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    An Outer Planets Probe which retains the charred heatshield during atmospheric descent must deploy a sampling tube through the heatshield to extract atmospheric samples for analysis. Once the sampling tube is deployed, the atmospheric samples ingested must be free of contaminant gases generated by the heatshield. Outgassing products such as methane and water vapor are present in planetary atmospheres and hence, ingestion of such species would result in gas analyzer measurement uncertainties. This paper evaluates the potential for, and design impact of, the extracted atmospheric samples being contaminated by heatshield outgassing products. Flight trajectory data for Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus entries are analyzed to define the conditions resulting in the greatest potential for outgassing products being ingested into the probe's sampling system. An experimental program is defined and described which simulates the key flow field features for a planetary flight in a ground-based test facility. The primary parameters varied in the test include: sampling tube length, injectant mass flow rate and angle of attack. Measured contaminant levels predict the critical sampling tube length for contamination avoidance. Thus, the study demonstrates the compatibility of a retained heatshield concept and high quality atmospheric trace species measurements.

  18. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  19. Decay of Activity Complexes, Formation of Unipolar Magnetic Regions and Coronal Holes in their Causal Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Golubeva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    North-south asymmetry of sunspot activity resulted in an asynchronous reversal of the Sun's polar fields in the current cycle. The asymmetry is also observed in the formation of polar coronal holes. A stable coronal hole was first formed at the South Pole, despite the later polar-field reversal there. The aim of this study is to understand processes making this situation possible. Synoptic magnetic maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group and corresponding coronal-hole maps from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory are analyzed here to study a causal relationship between the decay of activity complexes, evolution of large-scale magnetic fields, and formation of coronal holes. Ensembles of coronal holes associated with decaying active regions and activity complexes are presented. These ensembles take part in global rearrangements of the Sun's open magnetic flux. In particular, the...

  20. Coronal Holes and Open Magnetic Flux over Cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Chris; Qiu, Jiong; Leamon, Robert

    2017-01-01

    As the observational signature of the footprints of solar magnetic field lines open into the heliosphere, coronal holes provide a critical measure of the structure and evolution of these lines. Using a combination of Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO/EIT), Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (STEREO/EUVI A/B) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations spanning 1996 - 2015 (nearly two solar cycles), coronal holes are automatically detected and characterized. Coronal hole area distributions show distinct behavior in latitude, defining the domain of polar and low-latitude coronal holes. The northern and southern polar regions show a clear asymmetry, with a lag between hemispheres in the appearance and disappearance of polar coronal holes.

  1. Effect of coronal temperature on the scale of solar chromospheric jets

    CERN Document Server

    Iijima, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of coronal temperature on the formation process of solar chromospheric jets using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the region from the upper convection zone to the lower corona. We develop a new radiative magnetohydrodynamic code for the dynamic modeling of the solar atmosphere, employing a LTE equation of state, optically thick radiative loss in the photosphere, optically thin radiative loss in the chromosphere and the corona, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. Many chromospheric jets are produced in the simulations by shock waves passing through the transition region. We find that these jets are projected farther outward when the coronal temperature is lower (similar to that in coronal holes) and shorter when the coronal temperature is higher (similar to that in active regions). When the coronal temperature is high, the deceleration of the chromospheric jets is consistent with the model in which deceleration is determined by the periodic chromo...

  2. Spectral Characteristics of Large-Scale Radio Emission Areas in Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Prosovetsky, D V; Kochanov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of the coronal hole radio emission in solar cycles 23 and 24 have been studied based on RATAN-600 data in the 4-16.5 GHz range at frequencies of 5.7 and 17 GHz and 327 MHz. It has been found that bright features of coronal hole microwave emission at 17 GHz and dark features at 5.7 GHz can exist in coronal holes when the spectral index is 1.25-1.5 in the 6.5-16.5 GHz range; the radio spectrum in this range is flat when coronal holes are indiscernible against the background of a quiet Sun. The possible vertical scale of the solar atmosphere over coronal holes is discussed.

  3. Characteristics of Atmospheric Heat Sources over Asia in Summer:Comparison of Results Calculated Using Multiple Reanalysis Datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; CHEN Longxun; HE Jinhai; ZHU Congwen; LI Wei

    2009-01-01

    Using 1979-2000 daily NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data (version 1, hereafter referred to as NCEP1; version 2, hereafter referred to as NCEP2), ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis data (ERA), and the Global Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) reanalysis data in summer 1998, the vertically integrated heat source (Q1) in summer is calculated, and results obtained using different datasets are com-pared. The distributions of (Q1) calculated by using NCEP1 are in good agreement with rainfall observations over the Arabian Sea/Indian Peninsula, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), and East China. The distributions of (Q1)revealed by using NCEP2 are unrealistic in the southern Indian Peninsula, the BOB, and the South China Sea. Using ERA, the heat sources over the tropical Asia are in accordance with the summer precipitation,however, the distributions of (Q1) in East China are unreasonable. In the tropical region, the distributions of the summer heat source given by NCEP1 and ERA seem to be more accurate than those revealed by NCEP2. The NCEP1 and NCEP2 data are better for calculating heat sources over the subtropical and eastern regions of mainland China.

  4. Relationships of surface air temperature anomalies over Europe to persistence of atmospheric circulation patterns conducive to heat waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kyselý

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are among natural hazards with the most severe consequences for human society, including pronounced mortality impacts in mid-latitudes. Recent studies have hypothesized that the enhanced persistence of atmospheric circulation may affect surface climatic extremes, mainly the frequency and severity of heat waves. In this paper we examine relationships between the persistence of the Hess-Brezowsky circulation types conducive to summer heat waves and air temperature anomalies at stations over most of the European continent. We also evaluate differences between temperature anomalies during late and early stages of warm circulation types in all seasons. Results show that more persistent circulation patterns tend to enhance the severity of heat waves and support more pronounced temperature anomalies. Recent sharply rising trends in positive temperature extremes over Europe may be related to the greater persistence of the circulation types, and if similar changes towards enhanced persistence affect other mid-latitudinal regions, analogous consequences and implications for temperature extremes may be expected.

  5. Heat flux to the helium cryogenic system elements in the case of incidental vacuum vessel ventilation with atmospheric air

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The selection process for size in safety equipment for cold vessels or process pipes in cryogenic systems should take into consideration the incidental ventilation of the vacuum vessel with atmospheric air. In this case, a significant heat input toward the cold elements of the system can be expected. A number of experimental investigations have been done for the elements at liquid helium temperature which have been covered with 10 layers of MLI. The typical values of the heat flux were measured in a range of 3.7 to 5.0 kW/m2 of the element surface. The helium temperature parts are typically surrounded by thermal shields that are kept in a temperature range of 50-80K. On the external side, the thermal shields are covered with 30-40 layers of MLI while on the internal side, the shields are bare. The theoretical calculations of heat flux to the thermal shield, with respect to the possibility of air condensation and freezing on the bare side of the thermal shield, show that the heat flux to the thermal shield can...

  6. Tutorial models of the climate and habitability of Proxima Centauri b: a thin atmosphere is sufficient to distribute heat given low stellar flux

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Proxima Centauri b, an Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of our nearest stellar neighbour, has just been discovered. A theoretical framework of synchronously rotating planets, in which the risk of a runaway greenhouse on the sunlight side and atmospheric collapse on the reverse side are mutually ameliorated via heat transport is discussed. This is developed via simple (tutorial) models of the climate. These show that lower incident stellar flux means that less heat transport, so less atmospheric mass, is required. The incident stellar flux at Proxima Centauri b is indeed low, which may help enhance habitability if it has suffered some atmospheric loss or began with a low volatile inventory.

  7. High-spatial-resolution microwave and related observations as diagnostics of coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1986-01-01

    High spatial resolution microwave observations of coronal loops, together with theoretical models for the loop emission, can provide detailed information about the temperature, density, and magnetic field within the loop, as well as the environment around the loop. The capability for studying magnetic fields is particularly important, since there is no comparable method for obtaining direct information about coronal magnetic fields. Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and structure in coronal loops is important for understanding both coronal heating and flares. With arc-second-resolution microwave observations from the Very Large Array (VLA), supplemental high-spectral-resolution microwave data from a facility such as the Owens Valley frequency-agile interferometer, and the ability to obtain second-of-arc resolution EUV aor soft X ray images, the capability already exists for obtaining much more detailed information about coronal plasma and magnetic structures than is presently available. This capability is discussed.

  8. Unresolved Fine-scale Structure in Solar Coronal Loop-tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, E.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Wedemeyer, S.; Antolin, P.

    2014-12-01

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer substructures within coronal loop cross-sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop substructures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope/CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High-resolution imaging of the chromospheric Hα 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in Hα) known as a coronal rain, to investigate their fine-scale structure. We identify, through analysis of three data sets, large-scale catastrophic cooling in coronal loop-tops and the existence of multi-thermal, multi-stranded substructures. Many cool strands even extend fully intact from loop-top to footpoint. We discover that coronal loop fine-scale strands can appear bunched with as many as eight parallel strands within an AIA coronal loop cross-section. The strand number density versus cross-sectional width distribution, as detected by CRISP within AIA-defined coronal loops, most likely peaks at well below 100 km, and currently, 69% of the substructure strands are statistically unresolved in AIA coronal loops.

  9. Influence of leads widths distribution on turbulent heat transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Leads are linear-like structures of open water within the sea ice cover that develop as the result of fracturing due to divergence or shear. Through leads, air and water come into contact and directly exchange latent and sensible heat through convective processes driven by the large temperature and moisture differences between them. In the central Arctic, leads only cover 1 to 2% of the ocean during winter, but account for more than 80% of the heat fluxes. Furthermore, narrow leads (several meters are more than twice as efficient at transmitting turbulent heat than larger ones (several hundreds of meters. We show that lead widths are power law distributed, P(X~X−a with a>1, down to very small spatial scales (20 m or below. This implies that the open water fraction is by far dominated by very small leads. Using two classical formulations, which provide first order turbulence closure for the fetch-dependence of heat fluxes, we find that the mean heat fluxes (sensible and latent over open water are up to 55 % larger when considering the lead width distribution obtained from a SPOT satellite image of the ice cover, compared to the situation where the open water fraction constitutes one unique large lead and the rest of the area is covered by ice, as it is usually considered in climate models at the grid scale. This difference may be even larger if we assume that the power law scaling of lead widths extents down to smaller (~1 m scales. Such estimations may be a first step towards a subgrid scale parameterization of the spatial distribution of open water for heat fluxes calculations in ocean/sea ice coupled models.

  10. A Bayesian Approach to Period Searching in Solar Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Bryan; McKenzie, David

    2017-03-01

    We have applied a Bayesian generalized Lomb–Scargle period searching algorithm to movies of coronal loop images obtained with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) to search for evidence of periodicities that would indicate resonant heating of the loops. The algorithm makes as its only assumption that there is a single sinusoidal signal within each light curve of the data. Both the amplitudes and noise are taken as free parameters. It is argued that this procedure should be used alongside Fourier and wavelet analyses to more accurately extract periodic intensity modulations in coronal loops. The data analyzed are from XRT Observation Program #129C: “MHD Wave Heating (Thin Filters),” which occurred during 2006 November 13 and focused on active region 10293, which included coronal loops. The first data set spans approximately 10 min with an average cadence of 2 s, 2″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-mesh analysis filter. The second data set spans approximately 4 min with a 3 s average cadence, 1″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. The final data set spans approximately 22 min at a 6 s average cadence, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. In total, 55 periods of sinusoidal coronal loop oscillations between 5.5 and 59.6 s are discussed, supporting proposals in the literature that resonant absorption of magnetic waves is a viable mechanism for depositing energy in the corona.

  11. Coronal Seismology -- Achievements and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael

    Coronal seismology is a new and fast developing branch of the solar physics. The main idea of coronal seismology is the same as of any branches of seismology: to determine basic properties of a medium using properties of waves propagating in this medium. The waves and oscillations in the solar corona are routinely observed in the late space missions. In our brief review we concentrate only on one of the most spectacular type of oscillations observed in the solar corona - the transverse oscillations of coronal magnetic loops. These oscillations were first observed by TRACE on 14 July 1998. At present there are a few dozens of similar observations. Shortly after the first observation of the coronal loop transverse oscillations they were interpreted as kink oscillations of magnetic tubes with the ends frozen in the dense photospheric plasma. The frequency of the kink oscillation is proportional to the magnetic field magnitude and inversely proportional to the tube length times the square root of the plasma density. This fact was used to estimate the magnetic field magnitude in the coronal loops. In 2004 the first simultaneous observation of the fundamental mode and first overtone of the coronal loop transverse oscillation was reported. If we model a coronal loop as a homogeneous magnetic tube, then the ratio of the frequencies of the first overtone and the fundamental mode should be equal to 2. However, the ratio of the observed frequencies was smaller than 2. This is related to the density variation along the loop. If we assume that the corona is isothermal and prescribe the loop shape (usually it is assumed that it has the shape of half-circle), then, using the ratio of the two frequencies, we can determine the temperature of the coronal plasma. The first observation of transverse oscillations of the coronal loops showed that they were strongly damped. This phenomenon was confirmed by the subsequent observations. At present, the most reliable candidate for the

  12. Multi-wavelength Analysis to Solar Corona Heating Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Ji, Hai-sheng; Li, Hao-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    With the advent and successful operation of the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO/NST), solar observation has entered the era of high resolution better than 0.1". This permits us to carry out the case studies of single coronal heating events, to provide the original high-resolution observational evidence for finally solving the problem of coronal heating. By combining the high-resolution Helium I 10830 Å, TiO 7057 Å, and Ha blue-wing (-0.7 Å) imaging data from the NST with the imaging data of extreme ultraviolet and longitudinal magnetic field observed simultaneously by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we have analyzed the evolution of magnetic field in two tiny dynamical events of coronal heating (brightening of magnetic loops) that originate from the solar intergranular lanes. It is found that the footpoints of both brightening magnetic loops were all located in the one side of nearby neutral line of magnetic fields, the footpoints of one magnetic loop were accompanied by the disappearance of a small longitudinal magnetic element and the newly formed connection between two granulations, while the footpoints of another magnetic loop were accompanied by a weak variation of longitudinal magnetic field and the breakdown of a granulation. The observed result tends to suggest that the low-temperature and high-temperature outflows were produced simultaneously by the magnetic reconnection occurred among the solar granulations in the low-layer atmosphere. Meanwhile, it is noted that the high-resolution and high-accuracy polarization measurement of photospheric magnetic field is crucial for finally solving the problem of coronal heating.

  13. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  14. Extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code for coronal simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implemented the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfv{\\'e}n and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be...

  15. A Moreton Wave and its Coronal Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francile, Carlos N.; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Long, David; Cremades, Hebe; Lopez, Fernando M.; Luoni, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    On 29 March 2014, a Moreton wave was detected in AR 12017 with the Halpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) in association with an X1 flare. Several phenomena took place in various regimes in connection with this event, such as low coronal waves and a coronal mass ejection (CME). We investigate their role and relationship with the Moreton wave to shed light on issues so far under debate. We analyze its connection with waves observed in the low corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA), as well as with the ensuing CME, via kinematics analyses. We build stack plots from sequences of images obtained at different wavelengths to track wave fronts along several directions and find links between the features observed in the chromosphere and low corona, as well as in the associated CME. We also derive the shock front properties. We propose a geometrical model of the wave to explain the observed wave fronts as the photospheric and chromospheric traces of an expanding and outward-traveling bubble intersecting the Sun.

  16. First use of synoptic vector magnetograms for global nonlinear force free coronal magnetic field models

    CERN Document Server

    Tadesse, Tilaye; Gosain, S; MacNeice, P; Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimension of the field lines into the solar atmosphere. For the first time, synoptic maps of photospheric vector magnetic field synthesized from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. We solve the nonlinear force-free field equations using optimizatio...

  17. Convectively Forced Gravity Waves and their Sensitivity to Heating Profile and Atmospheric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Oliver; Parker, Douglas; Griffiths, Stephen; Vosper, Simon; Stirling, Alison

    2016-04-01

    It has been known for some time that convective heating is communicated to its environment by gravity waves. Despite this, the radiation of gravity waves in macro-scale models, which are typically forced at the grid-scale by meso-scale parameterization schemes, is not well understood. We present here theoretical work directed toward improving our fundamental understanding of convectively forced gravity wave effects at the meso-scale, in order to begin to address this problem. Starting with the hydrostatic, non-rotating, 2D, Boussinesq equations in a slab geometry, we find a radiating, analytical solution to prescribed sensible heat forcing for both the vertical velocity and potential temperature response. Both Steady and pulsed heating with adjustable horizontal structure is considered. From these solutions we construct a simple model capable of interrogating the spatial and temporal sensitivity to chosen heating functions of the remote forced response in particular. By varying the assumed buoyancy frequency, the influence of the model stratosphere on the upward radiation of gravity waves, and in turn, on the tropospheric response can be understood. Further, we find that the macro-scale response to convection is highly dependent on the radiation characteristics of gravity waves, which are in turn dependent upon the temporal and spatial structure of the source, and upper boundary condition of the domain.

  18. Modeling Atmospheric Activity of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.

    2003-10-01

    This review discusses a set of simple models for cool-star activity with which we compute (1) photospheric field patterns on stars of different activity levels, (2) the associated outer-atmospheric field configurations, and (3) the soft X-ray emission that is expected to result from the ensemble of loop atmospheres in the coronae of these stars. The model is based on empirically-determined properties of solar activity. It allows us to extrapolate to stars of significantly higher and lower activity than seen on the present-day Sun through its cycle. With it, we can, for example, gain insight into stellar field patterns (including a possible formation mechanism for polar starspots), as well as in the properties of coronal heating (helpful in the identification of the quiescent coronal heating mechanism). Lacking comprehensive theoretical understanding, the model's reliance on empirical solar data means that the multitude of processes involved are approximated to be independent of rotation rate, activity level, and fundamental stellar parameters, or -- where unavoidably necessary -- assumed to simply scale with activity. An evaluation of the most important processes involved guides a discussion of the limits of the model, of the limitations in our knowledge, and of future needs. "I propose to adopt such rules as will ensure the testability of scientific statements; which is to say, their falsifiability." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

  19. Low-frequency variability and heat transport in a low-order nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    CERN Document Server

    Vannitsem, Stéphane; De Cruz, Lesley; Ghil, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and study a low-order nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model with an emphasis on the impact of radiative and heat fluxes and of the frictional coupling between the two components. This model version extends a previous 24-variable version by adding a dynamical equation for the passive advection of temperature in the ocean, together with an energy balance model. The bifurcation analysis and the numerical integration of the model reveal the presence of low-frequency variability (LFV) concentrated on and near a long-periodic, attracting orbit. This orbit combines atmospheric and oceanic modes, and it arises for large values of the meridional gradient of radiative input and of frictional coupling. Chaotic behavior develops around this orbit as it loses its stability; this behavior is still dominated by the LFV on decadal and multi-decadal time scales that is typical of oceanic processes. Atmospheric diagnostics also reveals the presence of predominant low- and high-pressure zones, as well as of a su...

  20. Kinematics and amplitude evolution of global coronal extreme ultraviolet waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Li; Jun Zhang; Shu-Hong Yang; Wei Liu

    2012-01-01

    With the observations of the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),we analyze in detail the kinematics of global coronal waves together with their intensity amplitudes (so-called "perturbation profiles").We use a semi-automatic method to investigate the perturbation profiles of coronal waves.The location and amplitude of the coronal waves are calculated over a 30° sector on the sphere,where the wave signal is strongest.The position with the strongest perturbation at each time is considered as the location of the wave front.In all four events,the wave velocities vary with time for most of their lifetime,up to 15 min,while in the event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly there is an additional early phase with a much higher velocity.The velocity varies greatly between different waves from 216 to 440 km s-1.The velocity of the two waves initially increases,subsequently decreases,and then increases again.Two other waves show a deceleration followed by an acceleration.Three categories of amplitude evolution of global coronal waves are found for the four events.The first is that the amplitude only shows a decrease.The second is that the amplitude initially increases and then decreases,and the third is that the amplitude shows an orderly increase,a decrease,an increase again and then a decrease.All the extreme ultraviolet waves show a decrease in amplitude while propagating farther away,probably because the driver of the global coronal wave (coronal mass ejection) is moving farther away from the solar surface.

  1. Qualification of Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Jeanmonod, N.

    2006-04-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 1015 neutronsṡcm-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the LHC. The monitoring equipment was installed in a remote radiation protected area. This paper presents the results of the radiation qualification campaign with emphasis on the reliability and accuracy of the pressure sensors under the test conditions.

  2. Qualification of Sub-atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmonod, N; Casas-Cubillos, J

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers [1] located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 10**15 neutrons·cm**-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the L...

  3. Coronal Mass Ejections An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In times of growing technological sophistication and of our dependence on electronic technology, we are all affected by space weather. In its most extreme form, space weather can disrupt communications, damage and destroy spacecraft and power stations, and increase radiation exposure to astronauts and airline passengers. Major space weather events, called geomagnetic storms, are large disruptions in the Earth’s magnetic field brought about by the arrival of enormous magnetized plasma clouds from the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) contain billions of tons of plasma and hurtle through space at speeds of several million miles per hour. Understanding coronal mass ejections and their impact on the Earth is of great interest to both the scientific and technological communities. This book provides an introduction to coronal mass ejections, including a history of their observation and scientific revelations, instruments and theory behind their detection and measurement, and the status quo of theories describing...

  4. Motion magnification in coronal seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Anfinogentov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features, observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT$\\mathbb{C}$WT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes imitating exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes provided they are sufficiently small. Also, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/A...

  5. Analysis of the solar coronal green line profiles from eclipse observations

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhakar, Maya; Chandrasekhar, T

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the solar coronal green line profiles reveals information regarding the physical conditions of the solar corona like temperature, density, Doppler velocity, non-thermal velocity etc. It provides insights to the unresolved problems like the coronal heating and the acceleration of the solar winds. Recent studies have reported excess blueshifts in the coronal line profiles and are interpreted as due to nanoflare heating, type II spicules and nascent solar wind flow. We have analyzed a time series of Fabry-Perot interferograms of the solar corona obtained during the total solar eclipse of 2001 June 21 from Lusaka, Zambia. The spatial behavior of the coronal green line profiles were examined and variations in intensity, linewidth, Doppler velocity and line asymmetry were obtained. Several line profiles showed asymmetry indicating the presence of multicomponents. Such line profiles were fitted with double Gaussian curves. It has been found that 42% of the line profiles were single components, 34% were b...

  6. The long term recovery of heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere following fire in Australia's tropical savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, N.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Coutts, A.

    2003-04-01

    Fire is probably the greatest natural and anthropogenic environmental disturbance in Australia's tropical savannas, with the vast area burned each year (up to 250,000 km^2) likely to increase with predicted regional climate change. Globally savanna ecosystems cover 11.5% of the global landscape (Scholes and Hall 1996). As much as 75% of this landscape burns annually (Hao et al., 1990), accounting for more than 40% of all global biomass consumed (Hao and Ward 1993). These landscape-scale fires undoubtedly have massive impacts on regional water, energy and carbon dioxide exchanges and as a result may have important feedbacks to the atmosphere and regional climate. Fire may influence climate directly through the emission of smoke and trace gases from burning, but there are other important impacts of fire that may affect the atmosphere. Fire and the subsequent fire scars are likely to radically alter the surface energy budgets of tropical savannas through reduced surface albedo, increased available energy for partitioning into the convective fluxes, and increased substrate heat flux. The aerodynamic and biological properties of the ecosystem may also change, affecting surface-atmosphere coupling. There is a clear potential to influence atmospheric motion and moist convection at a range of scales. Potential fire scar impacts such as those mentioned above have previously been largely ignored and are the focus of the Savanna Fire Experiment (SAFE). Tower measurements of radiation, heat, moisture and CO_2 fluxes above burned and unburned savanna near Darwin, Australia, were initiated in August 2001 to observe the impacts of fire and fire scarring on flux exchange with the atmosphere, along with the longer term post-fire recovery of fluxes. Intensive field campaigns were mounted in the dry (fire) seasons of both 2001 and 2002, with flux recovery observed into the each of the subsequent monsoon seasons. Results and an early analysis of the time series of heat and moisture

  7. A Solar Coronal Jet Event Triggers A Coronal Mass Ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiajia; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Kai; Pan, Zonghao; Wang, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the multi-point and multi-wavelength observation and analysis on a solar coronal jet and coronal mass ejection (CME) event in this paper. Employing the GCS model, we obtained the real (three-dimensional) heliocentric distance and direction of the CME and found it propagate in a high speed over 1000 km/s . The jet erupted before and shared the same source region with the CME. The temporal and spacial relation- ship between them guide us the possibility that the jet triggered the CME and became its core. This scenario could promisingly enrich our understanding on the triggering mechanism of coronal mass ejections and their relations with coronal large-scale jets. On the other hand, the magnetic field configuration of the source region observed by the SDO/HMI instrument and the off- limb inverse Y-shaped configuration observed by SDO/AIA 171 A passband, together provide the first detailed observation on the three-dimensional reconnection process of large-scale jets as simulated in Pariat et al. 2009. ...

  8. Coronal ``Wave'': Magnetic Footprint of a Coronal Mass Ejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Gemma D. R.; Harra, Louise K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Démoulin, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the properties of two ``classical'' EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) coronal waves. The two source regions of the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) possess opposite helicities, and the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep core dimmings near the flare site and also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We also report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions and simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behavior is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME magnetic field and quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings and the widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process.

  9. Transition-Region/Coronal Signatures of Penumbral Microjets: Hi-C, SDO/AIA and Hinode (SOT/FG) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Alpert, Shane E.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Penumbral microjets are bright, transient features seen in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae. Katsuaka et al. (2007) noted their ubiquity and characterized them using the Ca II H-line filter on Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The jets are 1000{4000 km in length, 300{400 km in width, and last less than one minute. It was proposed that these penumbral microjets could contribute to the transition-region and coronal heating above sunspots. We examine whether these microjets appear in the transition-region (TR) and/or corona or are related{ temporally and spatially{ to similar brightenings in the TR and/or corona. First, we identify penumbral microjets with the SOT's Ca II H-line filter. The chosen sunspot is observed on July 11, 2012 from 18:50:00 UT to 20:00:00 UT at approx. 14 inches, -30 inches. We then examine the sunspot in the same field of view and at the same time in other wavelengths. We use the High Resolution Coronal Imager Telescope (Hi-C) at 193A and the 1600A, 304A, 171A, 193A, and 94A passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We include examples of these jets and where they should appear in the other passbands, but find no signifcant association, except for a few jets with longer lifetimes and bigger sizes seen at locations in the penumbra with repeated stronger brightenings. We conclude that the normal microjets are not heated to transition-region/coronal temperatures, but the larger jets are.

  10. Instability of oxidation front during laser heating of metals in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, D.T.; Bunkin, V.F.; Edvabnyj, I.V.; Kirichenko, N.A.; Luk' yanchuk, B.S.; Khabibullaev, P.K. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    Consideration is given to the features of a heterogeneous reaction - oxidation of metals by laser heating in the air. It is shown that even at uniform distribution of irradiation along the metal surface there can be local instabilities leading to nonuniformities of the oxide layer thickness. The development of localized (axially symmetric) perturbations is investigated. The role of surface and thermal diffusion in the development of instabilities is analysed in detail. In particular, it is shown that diffusion processes can lead to stabilization of instabilities of spatial scale considerably differing from the characteristic length of reagent diffusion up to the moment of a reaction.

  11. New techniques for the characterisation of dynamical phenomena in solar coronal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbrecht, E.

    2007-02-01

    During a total solar eclipse, a narrow strip of the Earth's surface is shielded completely by the Moon from the disk of the Sun. In this strip, the corona appears crown-like around the shade of the Moon. It was uncertain until the middle of the 20th century whether the corona was a solar phenomenon or if it was related to the Moon or whether it represented an artifact produced by the Earth's atmosphere. The answer to this question was provided by Grotrian (1939) and Edlèn (1942). Based on studies of iron emission lines, they suggested that the surface of the Sun is surrounded by a hot tenuous gas having a temperature of million degrees Kelvin and thus in a state of high ionization. This discovery was a result from spectroscopy, a field of research which started in 1666 with Sir Isaac Newton's observations of sunlight, dispersed by a prism. It is now clear that the hot solar corona is made of a low density plasma, highly structured by the magnetic field on length scales ranging from the Sun's diameter to the limit of angular resolution (e.g. Démoulin and Klein 2000). The need to resolve and study the corona down to such scales has determined a vigorous scientific and technological impulse toward the development of solar Ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray telescopes with high spatial and temporal resolution. With the advent of the satellite SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, see chapter 1), the picture of a quiet corona was definitely sent to the past. EUV (Extreme UV) image sequences of the lower solar corona revealed a finely structured medium constantly agitated by a wide variety of transients (e.g. Harrison 1998). Active regions consisting of large magnetic loops with enhanced temperature and density are observed, as well as "quiet" areas, coronal holes and numerous structures of different scales such as plumes, jets, spicules, X-ray bright points, blinkers, all structured by magnetic fields. Launched in 1998, the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE

  12. Satellite-Observed Urbanization Characters in Shanghai, China: Aerosols, Urban Heat Island Effect, and Land–Atmosphere Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization reflects how human-activities affect natural climate system. Accurately assessing the urban system by comparing it with the nearby rural regions helps to identify the impacts of urbanization. This work uses the recent satellite observed aerosol, skin temperature, land cover, albedo, cloud fraction and water vapor measurements to reveal how the city of Shanghai, one of the biggest, dense urban areas in East Asia, affects land surface and atmosphere conditions. In addition, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ground observations from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET is also used to reveal diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations of the heavy aerosol load over Shanghai region. Furthermore, Shanghai reduces surface albedo, total column water vapor, cloud fraction and increases land skin temperature than rural region. These observations prove that Shanghai significantly modifies local and regional land surface physical properties as well as physical processes, which lead to the urban heat island effect (UHI.

  13. Data-driven coronal evolutionary model of active region 11944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent availability of systematic measurements of vector magnetic fields and Doppler velocities has allowed us to utilize a data-driven approach for modeling observed active regions (AR), a crucial step for understanding the nature of solar flare initiation. We use a sequence of vector magnetograms and Dopplergrams from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the SDO to drive magnetofrictional (MF) model of the coronal magnetic field in the the vicinity of AR 11944, where an X1.2 flare on January 7 2014 occurred. To drive the coronal field we impose a time-dependent boundary condition based on temporal sequences of magnetic and electric fields at the bottom of the computational domain, i.e. the photosphere. To derive the electric fields we use a recently improved poloidal-toroidal decomposition (PTD), which we call the ``PTD-Doppler-FLCT-Ideal'' or PDFI technique. We investigate the results of the simulated coronal evolution, compare those with EUV observations from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and discuss what we could learn from them. This work is a a collaborative effort from the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), Stanford University, and Lockheed-Martin and is a part of Coronal Global Evolutionary (CGEM) Model, funded jointly by NASA and NSF.

  14. The Effects of Irradiation on Hot Jovian Atmospheres: Heat Redistribution and Energy Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Perna, Rosalba; Pont, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Hot Jupiters, due to the proximity to their parent stars, are subjected to a strong irradiating flux which governs their radiative and dynamical properties. We compute a suite of 3D circulation models with dual-band radiative transfer, exploring a relevant range of irradiation temperatures (770K <~ Tirr <~ 3000K), both with and without temperature inversions. We find that, for irradiation temperatures Tirr <~ 2000K, heat redistribution is very efficient, producing comparable day- and night-side fluxes. For Tirr ~ 2200-2400K, redistribution starts to break down, resulting in a high day-night flux contrast. Our simulations support the physical intuition that the efficiency of heat transfer is primarily governed by the ratio of advective to radiative timescales. For the same Tirr, models with temperature inversions display a higher day-night contrast, but we find this opacity-driven effect to be secondary to irradiation. The hotspot offset from the substellar point is large when insolation is weak and r...

  15. Exploring Coronal Structures with SOHO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Μ. Karovska; Β. Wood; J. Chen; J. Cook; R. Howard

    2000-09-01

    We applied advanced image enhancement techniques to explore in detail the characteristics of the small-scale structures and/or the low contrast structures in several Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by SOHO. We highlight here the results from our studies of the morphology and dynamical evolution of CME structures in the solar corona using two instruments on board SOHO: LASCO and EIT.

  16. Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y. K.; Auchere, F.; Casini, R.; Fineschi, S.; Gibson, S. E.; Knoelker, M.; Korendyke, C.; Laming, J. M.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Moses, J. D.; Romoli, M.; Rybak, J.; Socker, D. G.; Strachan, L.; Tomczyk, S.; Vourlidas, A.; Wu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere provide the energy for most varieties of solar activity, including high-energy electromagnetic radiation, solar energetic particles, flares, and coronal mass ejections, as well as powering the solar wind. Despite the fundamental role of magnetic fields in solar and heliospheric physics, there exists only very limited measurements of the field above the base of the corona. What is needed are direct measurements of not only the strength and orientation of the magnetic field but also the signatures of wave motions in order to better understand coronal structure, solar activity and the role of MHD waves in heating and accelerating the solar wind. Fortunately, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make magnetic field measurements is also well suited for measuring the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. With this in mind, we are proposing the WAMIS (Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere) investigation. WAMIS will take advantage of greatly improved infrared (IR) detectors, forward models, advanced diagnostic tools and inversion codes to obtain a breakthrough in the measurement of coronal magnetic fields and in the understanding of the interaction of these fields with space plasmas. This will be achieved with a high altitude balloon borne payload consisting of a coronagraph with an IR spectro-polarimeter focal plane assembly. The balloon platform provides minimum atmospheric absorption and scattering at the IR wavelengths in which these observations are made. Additionally, a NASA long duration balloon flight mission from the Antarctic can achieve continuous observations over most of a solar rotation, covering all of the key time scales for the evolution of coronal magnetic fields. With these improvements in key technologies along with experience gained from current ground-based instrumentation, WAMIS will provide a low-cost mission with a high technology readiness leve.

  17. Heat and Water Transfer at the Land-Atmosphere Interface - Interweaving Experimental and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K. M.; Trautz, A.; Cihan, A.; Wallen, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of vegetation, evaporation occurs entirely from the soil and can lead to considerable water losses. Considering the increase of water limited environments throughout the world and their potential for expansion over the coming years, it is critical that we are able to properly understand and model evaporation. Evaporation is affected by atmospheric conditions (e.g., humidity, temperature, wind velocity, solar radiation) and soil thermal and hydraulic properties (e.g., thermal and hydraulic conductivity, porosity), all of which are strongly coupled. However, for most conventional models, many of these mechanisms are crudely parameterized and inconsistent with current physical understanding due to the complexity of the problem in field scenarios and the scarcity of field or laboratory data capable of testing and refining energy and mass transfer theories. In this work, we investigated different physical processes that are often overlooked in models of flux exchange and how these processes may become significant in modeling arid and semi-arid environments. A non-isothermal model that allows for the coupling of single-phase (gas) two-component (air and water vapor) atmospheric flow and two-phase (gas, liquid) two-component (air and water vapor) flow in porous media was modified to better account for dry soil conditions. Numerical results were tested with precision experimental data. Results demonstrate that proper coupling of the thermal and mass flux processes allows us to better understand vapor transport and phase change processes that control shallow subsurface soil moisture and ultimately improve models predicting mass and energy fluxes.

  18. Investigation of Coronal Large Scale Structures Utilizing Spartan 201 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Madhulika

    1998-01-01

    Two telescopes aboard Spartan 201, a small satellite has been launched from the Space Shuttles, on April 8th, 1993, September 8th, 1994, September 7th, 1995 and November 20th, 1997. The main objective of the mission was to answer some of the most fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics-What accelerates the solar wind and what heats the corona? The two telescopes are 1) Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) provided by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory which uses ultraviolet emissions from neutral hydrogen and ions in the corona to determine velocities of the coronal plasma within the solar wind source region, and the temperature and density distributions of protons and 2) White Light Coronagraph (WLC) provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center which measures visible light to determine the density distribution of coronal electrons within the same region. The PI has had the primary responsibility in the development and application of computer codes necessary for scientific data analysis activities, end instrument calibration for the white-light coronagraph for the entire Spartan mission. The PI was responsible for the science output from the WLC instrument. PI has also been involved in the investigation of coronal density distributions in large-scale structures by use of numerical models which are (mathematically) sufficient to reproduce the details of the observed brightness and polarized brightness distributions found in SPARTAN 201 data.

  19. Effects of orbital forcing on atmosphere and ocean heat transports in Holocene and Eemian climate simulations with a comprehensive Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fischer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orbital forcing does not only exert direct insolation effects, but also alters climate indirectly through feedback mechanisms that modify atmosphere and ocean dynamics and meridional heat and moisture transfers. We investigate the regional effects of these changes by detailed analysis of atmosphere and ocean circulation and heat transports in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-biosphere general circulation model (ECHAM5/JSBACH/MPI-OM. We perform long term quasi equilibrium simulations under pre-industrial, mid-Holocene (6000 years before present – yBP, and Eemian (125 000 yBP orbital boundary conditions. Compared to pre-industrial climate, Eemian and Holocene temperatures show generally warmer conditions at higher and cooler conditions at lower latitudes. Changes in sea-ice cover, ocean heat transports, and atmospheric circulation patterns lead to pronounced regional heterogeneity. Over Europe, the warming is most pronounced over the north-eastern part in accordance with recent reconstructions for the Holocene. We attribute this warming to enhanced ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas and enhanced ocean-atmosphere heat flux over the Barents Shelf in conduction with retreat of sea ice and intensified winter storm tracks over northern Europe.

  20. Effect of transient solar wind pulses on atmospheric heating at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, J N; Guio, P

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have presented the first study to investigate the response of the Jovian thermosphere to transient variations in solar wind dynamic pressure, using a coupled, azimuthally symmetric global circulation model coupled with a simple magnetosphere model. This work (Yates et al., 2013, submitted) described the response of thermospheric flows, momentum sources, and the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents to transient compressions and expansions in the magnetosphere. The present study describes the response of thermospheric heating, cooling and the auroral emissions to the aforementioned transient events. We find that transient compressions and expansions, on time scales = 25 K and a ~2000 TW increase in the total power dissipated in the thermosphere. In terms of auroral processes, transient compressions increase main oval UV emission by a factor of ~4.5 whilst transient expansions increase this main emission by a more modest 37%. Both types of transient event cause shifts in the position of the ...

  1. Variance Method to Determine Turbulent Fluxes of Momentum And Sensible Heat in The Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Hartogensis, O. K.

    2005-08-01

    Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, σ u and σ T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it yields fluxes from measurements that can be obtained with two-dimensional sonic anemometers. These instruments are increasingly being used at official weather stations, where they replace the standard cup anemometer wind vane system. With methods such as the one described in this note, a widespread, good quality, flux network can be established, which would greatly benefit the modelling community. It is shown that a ‘variance’ dimensionless height (ζ σ) defined from σ u and σ T is highly related to the ‘conventional’ dimensionless stability parameter ζ=z/L, where z is height and L is the Obukhov length. Empirical functions for ζ σ are proposed that allow direct calculation of heat and momentum fluxes from σ u and σ T. The method performs fairly well also during a night of intermittent turbulence.

  2. Thermally Induced Chemistry of Meteoritic Complex Organic Molecules: A New Heat-Diffusion Model for the Atmospheric Entry of Meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Shingledecker, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Research over the past four decades has shown a rich variety of complex organic molecular content in some meteorites. This current study is an attempt to gain a better insight into the thermal conditions experienced by these molecules inside meteorites during atmospheric entry. In particular, we wish to understand possible chemical processes that can occur during entry and that might have had an effect on complex organic or prebiotic species that were delivered in this way to the early Earth. A simulation was written in Fortran to model heating by the shock generated during entry and the subsequent thermal diffusion inside the body of a meteorite. Experimental data was used for the thermal parameters of several types of meteorites, including iron-nickel and several classes of chondrites. A Sutton-Graves model of stagnation-point heating was used to calculate peak surface temperatures and an explicit difference formula was used to generate thermal diffusion profiles for both chondrites and iron-nickel type met...

  3. ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SUMMER RAINFALL IN CHINA AND THE ATMOSPHERIC HEAT SOURCES OVER THE EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU AND THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简茂球; 罗会邦; 乔云亭

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between the summer rainfall in China and the atmospheric heat sources over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific warm pool were analyzed comparatively, using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily data. The strong (weak) heat source in summer over the eastern Tibetan Plateau will lead to abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the Yangtze River basin, and scarce/abundant summer rainfall in the eastern part of Southern China. While the strong (weak) heat source in summer over the western Pacific warm pool will lead to another pattern of abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and scarce (abundant) summer rainfall in Southern China and in the region of northern Jiangsu to southern Shandong. Comparatively, the heat source over the eastern Tibetan Plateau affects a larger area of summer rainfall than the heat source over the western Pacific. In both cases of the heat source anomalies over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and over the western Pacific, there exist EAP-like teleconnection patterns in East Asia. The summer rainfall in China is influenced directly by the abnormal vertical motion, which is related closely to the abnormal heat sources in the atmosphere. The ridge line of the western Pacific High locates far south (north) in summer in the case of strong (weak) heat sources over the two areas mentioned above.

  4. Decay of Activity Complexes, Formation of Unipolar Magnetic Regions, and Coronal Holes in Their Causal Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E. M.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The peculiar development of solar activity in the current cycle resulted in an asynchronous reversal of the Sun's polar fields. The asymmetry is also observed in the formation of polar coronal holes. A stable coronal hole was first formed at the South Pole, despite the later polar-field reversal there. The aim of this study is to understand the processes making this situation possible. Synoptic magnetic maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group and corresponding coronal-hole maps from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory are analyzed here to study the causal relationship between the decay of activity complexes, evolution of large-scale magnetic fields, and formation of coronal holes. Ensembles of coronal holes associated with decaying active regions and activity complexes are presented. These ensembles take part in global rearrangements of the Sun's open magnetic flux. In particular, the south polar coronal hole was formed from an ensemble of coronal holes that came into existence after the decay of multiple activity complexes observed during 2014.

  5. Alfv\\'en Wave Driven High Frequency Waves in the Solar Atmosphere: Implications for Ion Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh

    2014-01-01

    This work is an extension of Kaghashvili [1999] where ion-cyclotron wave dissipation channel for Alfv\\'en waves was discussed. While our earlier study dealt with the mode coupling in the commonly discussed sense, here we study changes in the initial waveform due to interaction of the initial driver Alfv\\'en wave and the plasma inhomogeneity, which are implicitly present in the equations, but were not elaborated in Kaghashvili [1999]. Using a cold plasma approximation, we show how high frequency waves (higher than the initial driver Alfv\\'en wave frequency) are generated in the inhomogeneous solar plasma flow. The generation of the high frequency forward and backward propagating modified fast magnetosonic/whistler waves as well as the generation of the driven Alfv\\'en waves is discussed in the solar atmosphere. The generated high frequency waves have a shorter dissipation timescale, and they can also resonant interact with particles using both the normal cyclotron and anomalous cyclotron interaction channels. ...

  6. Short-term fluctuations in the eddy heat flux and baroclinic stability of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P. H.; Ghan, S. J.; Spiegel, D.; Rambaldi, S.

    1982-01-01

    National Meteorological Center data from midlatitudes for three Januaries is used in calculating time series of the zonal mean meridional eddy heat flux and the zonal mean baroclinic stability, as measured by the difference between the zonal wind shear and the critical value of the shear in two-level models. Time-lagged correlations between the two series reveal a highly significant negative correlation for short time lags, peaking at approximately -0.4 when the stability parameter lags one half day behind the eddy flux. They also reveal that strongly unstable conditions are not followed by significant increases in the eddy flux. These results are seen as indicating that the synoptic variations of the zonal mean eddy flux are not closely related to the degree of baroclinic instability of the zonal mean flow. The autocorrelation of the eddy flux is then compared with those expected for autoregressive processes. A Bayesian information criterion suggests that the behavior is represented best by a damped oscillation, with a damping time of 0.8 day and a period of five days.

  7. Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Atmospheric Blocking and Associated Heat Waves During Northern Summer Over Eurasia in the CMIP5 Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chunho

    2012-01-01

    The Russia heat wave and wild fires of the summer of 2010 was the most extreme weather event in the history of the country. Studies show that the root cause of the 2010 Russia heat wave/wild fires was an atmospheric blocking event which started to develop at the end of June and peaked around late July and early August. Atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010 was anomalous in terms of the size, duration, and the location, which shifted to the east from the normal location. This and other similar continental scale severe summertime heat waves and blocking events in recent years have raised the question of whether such events are occurring more frequently and with higher intensity in a warmer climate induced by greenhouse gases. We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric blocking and associated heat waves for northern summer over Eurasia based on CMIPS model simulations. To examine the global warming induced change of atmospheric blocking and heat waves, experiments for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.S) and a medium mitigation scenario (RCP4.S) are compared to the 20th century simulations (historical). Most models simulate the mean distributions of blockings reasonably well, including major blocking centers over Eurasia, northern Pacific, and northern Atlantic. However, the models tend to underestimate the number of blockings compared to MERRA and NCEPIDOE reanalysis, especially in western Siberia. Models also reproduced associated heat waves in terms of the shifting in the probability distribution function of near surface temperature. Seven out of eight models used in this study show that the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the Europe will likely decrease in a warmer climate, but slightly increase over the western Siberia. This spatial pattern resembles the blocking in the summer of 2010, indicating the possibility of more frequent occurrences of heat waves in western Siberia. In this talk, we will also

  8. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; van Noort, M.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  9. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  10. Intrinsic Instability of Coronal Streamers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y; Song, H Q; Shi, Q Q; Feng, S W; Xia, L D; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1936

    2009-01-01

    Plasma blobs are observed to be weak density enhancements as radially stretched structures emerging from the cusps of quiescent coronal streamers. In this paper, it is suggested that the formation of blobs is a consequence of an intrinsic instability of coronal streamers occurring at a very localized region around the cusp. The evolutionary process of the instability, as revealed in our calculations, can be described as follows: (1) through the localized cusp region where the field is too weak to sustain the confinement, plasmas expand and stretch the closed field lines radially outward as a result of the freezing-in effect of plasma-magnetic field coupling; the expansion brings a strong velocity gradient into the slow wind regime providing the free energy necessary for the onset of a subsequent magnetohydrodynamic instability; (2) the instability manifests itself mainly as mixed streaming sausage-kink modes, the former results in pinches of elongated magnetic loops to provoke reconnections at one or many loc...

  11. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued longitudinal wavenumber $k$ at given real angular frequencies $\\omega$. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of $\\omega_{\\rm c}$, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for $\\omega$ much lower than $\\omega_{\\rm c}$. However, while able to direct their energy upwards, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping ...

  12. Motion Magnification in Coronal Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinogentov, Sergey; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features that have been observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTℂWT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes that imitated exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability, and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes, provided these are sufficiently small. In addition, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/AIA EUV data cubes of a non-flaring active region allowed for the improved detection of low-amplitude decay-less oscillations in the majority of loops.

  13. Momentum, heat, and neutral mass transport in convective atmospheric pressure plasma-liquid systems and implications for aqueous targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander; Anderson, Carly; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 μ m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results from this study include the presence of a 10 K temperature drop in the gas boundary layer adjacent to the interface that arises from convective cooling. Though the temperature magnitudes may vary among atmospheric discharge types (different amounts of plasma-gas heating), this relative difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures is expected to be present for any system in which convection is significant. Accounting for the resulting difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures has a significant impact on reaction kinetics; factor of two changes in terminal aqueous species concentrations like H2O2, NO2- , and NO3- are observed in this study if the effect of evaporative cooling is not included.

  14. The Effect of Cumulus Cloud Field Anisotropy on Domain-Averaged Solar Fluxes and Atmospheric Heating Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelman, Laura M.; Evans, K. Franklin; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Cumulus clouds can become tilted or elongated in the presence of wind shear. Nevertheless, most studies of the interaction of cumulus clouds and radiation have assumed these clouds to be isotropic. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain-averaged solar fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce twenty three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of cloud scenes from a large eddy simulation. Progressively greater degrees of x-z plane tilting and horizontal stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes was produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Domain-average transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. The mechanisms by which anisotropy interacts with solar fluxes were investigated by comparisons to independent pixel approximation and tilted independent pixel approximation computations for the same scenes. Cumulus anisotropy was found to most strongly impact solar radiative transfer by changing the effective cloud fraction, i.e., the cloud fraction when the field is projected on a surface perpendicular to the direction of the incident solar beam.

  15. Inferring the Coronal Density Irregularity from EUV Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the density structure of the solar corona is important for modeling both coronal heating and the solar wind. Direct measurements are difficult because of line-of-sight integration and possible unresolved structures. We present a new method for quantifying such structure using density-sensitive EUV line intensities to derive a density irregularity parameter, a relative measure of the amount of structure along the line of sight. We also present a simple model to relate the inferred irregularities to physical quantities, such as the filling factor and density contrast. For quiet Sun regions and interplume regions of coronal holes, we find a density contrast of at least a factor of three to ten and corresponding filling factors of about 10-20%. Our results are in rough agreement with other estimates of the density structures in these regions. The irregularity diagnostic provides a useful relative measure of unresolved structure in various regions of the corona.

  16. Coronal Streamers and Their Associated Solar Wind Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, M. P.; Landi, E.; Cranmer, S. R.; Cohen, O.; Raymond, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    We use the EUV spectrometers aboard SOHO and Hinode and white-light coronagraphs to characterize the physical properties of coronal streamers during Earth/Ulysses quadrature configurations for the previous two solar minimum periods. In addition, comparisons between coronal observations and in situ measurements of solar wind plasma properties are being used to further characterize the origins of slow wind streams. In order to investigate slow solar wind heating and acceleration, we also compare with predictions from three-dimensional MHD models. We aim to use the empirical measurements to distinguish between different proposed physical processes for slow wind acceleration (e.g., waves/turbulence versus reconnection). This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AQ58G to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  17. Elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] can dramatically increase wheat yields in semi-arid environments and buffer against heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Tausz, Michael; O'Leary, Garry; Mollah, Mahabubur R; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Seneweera, Saman; Mock, Ivan; Löw, Markus; Partington, Debra L; McNeil, David; Norton, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Wheat production will be impacted by increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 [CO2 ], which is expected to rise from about 400 μmol mol(-1) in 2015 to 550 μmol mol(-1) by 2050. Changes to plant physiology and crop responses from elevated [CO2 ] (e[CO2 ]) are well documented for some environments, but field-level responses in dryland Mediterranean environments with terminal drought and heat waves are scarce. The Australian Grains Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility was established to compare wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth and yield under ambient (~370 μmol(-1) in 2007) and e[CO2 ] (550 μmol(-1) ) in semi-arid environments. Experiments were undertaken at two dryland sites (Horsham and Walpeup) across three years with two cultivars, two sowing times and two irrigation treatments. Mean yield stimulation due to e[CO2 ] was 24% at Horsham and 53% at Walpeup, with some treatment responses greater than 70%, depending on environment. Under supplemental irrigation, e[CO2 ] stimulated yields at Horsham by 37% compared to 13% under rainfed conditions, showing that water limited growth and yield response to e[CO2 ]. Heat wave effects were ameliorated under e[CO2 ] as shown by reductions of 31% and 54% in screenings and 10% and 12% larger kernels (Horsham and Walpeup). Greatest yield stimulations occurred in the e[CO2 ] late sowing and heat stressed treatments, when supplied with more water. There were no clear differences in cultivar response due to e[CO2 ]. Multiple regression showed that yield response to e[CO2 ] depended on temperatures and water availability before and after anthesis. Thus, timing of temperature and water and the crop's ability to translocate carbohydrates to the grain postanthesis were all important in determining the e[CO2 ] response. The large responses to e[CO2 ] under dryland conditions have not been previously reported and underscore the need for field level research to provide mechanistic understanding for adapting crops to a changing

  18. Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO2 atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Nettles, W. Robert; Phillips, Jana R.; Krassovski, Misha B.; Hook, Leslie A.; Gu, Lianhong; Richardson, Andrew D.; Aubrecht, Donald M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Barbier, Charlotte

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the operational methods to achieve and measure both deep-soil heating (0-3 m) and whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) appropriate to the scale of tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods were developed to allow scientists to provide a plausible set of ecosystem-warming scenarios within which immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles) could be measured. Elevated CO2 was also incorporated to test how temperature responses may be modified by atmospheric CO2 effects on carbon cycle processes. The WEW approach was successful in sustaining a wide range of aboveground and belowground temperature treatments (+0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C) in large 115 m2 open-topped enclosures with elevated CO2 treatments (+0 to +500 ppm). Air warming across the entire 10 enclosure study required ˜ 90 % of the total energy for WEW ranging from 64 283 mega Joules (MJ) d-1 during the warm season to 80 102 MJ d-1 during cold months. Soil warming across the study required only 1.3 to 1.9 % of the energy used ranging from 954 to 1782 MJ d-1 of energy in the warm and cold seasons, respectively. The residual energy was consumed by measurement and communication systems. Sustained temperature and elevated CO2 treatments were only constrained by occasional high external winds. This paper contrasts the in situ WEW method with closely related field-warming approaches using both aboveground (air or infrared heating) and belowground-warming methods. It also includes a full discussion of confounding factors that need to be considered carefully in the interpretation of experimental results. The WEW method combining aboveground and deep-soil heating approaches enables observations of future temperature conditions not available in the current observational record, and therefore provides a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions.

  19. Zoning of the territory of Russia by the effectiveness of low-potential heat of the ground and atmospheric air for heating buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Kolesova, M. V.; Gornov, V. F.; Yurchenko, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article represents the results of researches to zone the territory of Russia and Europe division into districts of by efficiency of using for the heat supply of buildings of low-potential thermal energy of ground and free air and their combination. While modeling the heat regime of geothermal HPS in climatic conditions of different regions of the territory of Russia, the influence of the long-term extraction of geothermal heat energy on the ground heat regime has been taken into account as well as the influence of phase transitions of pore moisture in ground on the efficiency of operation of geothermal heat-pump heat-supply systems. Also considered were the sinking of temperatures of ground massif by long-term extraction of the heat energy from the ground as calculation parameters of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of ground massif temperatures.

  20. Hot gaseous atmospheres in galaxy groups and clusters are both heated and cooled by X-ray cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Temi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Expanding X-ray cavities observed in hot gas atmospheres of many galaxy groups and clusters generate shock waves and turbulence that are primary heating mechanisms required to avoid uninhibited radiatively cooling flows which are not observed. However, we show here that the evolution of buoyant cavities also stimulates radiative cooling of observable masses of low-temperature gas. During their early evolution, radiative cooling occurs in the wakes of buoyant cavities in two locations: in thin radial filaments parallel to the buoyant velocity and more broadly in gas compressed beneath rising cavities. Radiation from these sustained compressions removes entropy from the hot gas. Gas experiencing the largest entropy loss cools first, followed by gas with progressively less entropy loss. Most cooling occurs at late times, $\\sim 10^8-10^9$ yrs, long after the X-ray cavities have disrupted and are impossible to detect. During these late times, slightly denser low entropy gas sinks slowly toward the centers of the h...

  1. A SOLAR CORONAL JET EVENT TRIGGERS A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Kai; Pan, Zonghao; Wang, S. [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Earh and Space Science School, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, JinZhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-11-10

    In this paper, we present multi-point, multi-wavelength observations and analysis of a solar coronal jet and coronal mass ejection (CME) event. Employing the GCS model, we obtained the real (three-dimensional) heliocentric distance and direction of the CME and found it to propagate at a high speed of over 1000 km s{sup −1}. The jet erupted before the CME and shared the same source region. The temporal and spacial relationship between these two events lead us to the possibility that the jet triggered the CME and became its core. This scenario hold the promise of enriching our understanding of the triggering mechanism of CMEs and their relations to coronal large-scale jets. On the other hand, the magnetic field configuration of the source region observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/HMI instrument along with the off-limb inverse Y-shaped configuration observed by SDO/AIA in the 171 Å passband provide the first detailed observation of the three-dimensional reconnection process of a large-scale jet as simulated in Pariat et al. The eruption process of the jet highlights the importance of filament-like material during the eruption of not only small-scale X-ray jets, but likely also of large-scale EUV jets. Based on our observations and analysis, we propose the most probable mechanism for the whole event, with a blob structure overlaying the three-dimensional structure of the jet, to describe the interaction between the jet and the CME.

  2. Observational Signatures of Transverse Magnetohydrodynamic Waves and Associated Dynamic Instabilities in Coronal Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, P.; De Moortel, I.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Yokoyama, T.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves permeate the solar atmosphere and constitute potential coronal heating agents. Yet, the waves detected so far may be but a small subset of the true existing wave power. Detection is limited by instrumental constraints but also by wave processes that localize the wave power in undetectable spatial scales. In this study, we conduct 3D MHD simulations and forward modeling of standing transverse MHD waves in coronal loops with uniform and non-uniform temperature variation in the perpendicular cross-section. The observed signatures are largely dominated by the combination of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI), resonant absorption, and phase mixing. In the presence of a cross-loop temperature gradient, we find that emission lines sensitive to the loop core catch different signatures compared to those that are more sensitive to the loop boundary and the surrounding corona, leading to an out-of-phase intensity and Doppler velocity modulation produced by KHI mixing. In all of the considered models, common signatures include an intensity and loop width modulation at half the kink period, a fine strand-like structure, a characteristic arrow-shaped structure in the Doppler maps, and overall line broadening in time but particularly at the loop edges. For our model, most of these features can be captured with a spatial resolution of 0.″33 and a spectral resolution of 25 km s‑1, although we do obtain severe over-estimation of the line width. Resonant absorption leads to a significant decrease of the observed kinetic energy from Doppler motions over time, which is not recovered by a corresponding increase in the line width from phase mixing and KHI motions. We estimate this hidden wave energy to be a factor of 5–10 of the observed value.

  3. Climatic features of atmospheric heat source/sink over theQinghai-Xizang Plateau in 35 years and its relation torainfall in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Ping

    2001-01-01

    [1]Yeh, T. C., Gao, Y. X., The Meteorology of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1979, 2-59.[2]Ji, G. L., Yao, L. C., Yuan, F. M. et al., Characteristics of surface and atmospheric heating fields over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau during the winter in 1982, Science in China, Ser. B, 1986, 29(8): 876-888.[3]Chen. L. X., Reiter, E. R., Feng, Z. Q., The atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan plateau: May-August 1979. Mon.Wea. Rev., 1985, 113(10): 1771-1790.[4]Yanai, M., Li, C., Song, Z. S., Seasonal heating of the Tibetan plateau and its effects on the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 1992, 70(1): 319-350.[5]Zhao, P., Chen, L. X., The climate characteristics of surface turbulent exchange coefficients and surface heat source over the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 2000, 14(1): 13-29.[6]Zhao, P., Chen, L. X., The calculation of solar albedo and radiation balance and the analysis of their climate characteristics over the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 2000, 17(1): 140-156.[7]Fu, C. B., Wang, Q., The definition and detection of the abrupt climatic change, Scientia Atmospheria Sinica (in Chinese),1992. 16 (4): 482-493.

  4. AN MHD AVALANCHE IN A MULTI-THREADED CORONAL LOOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, A. W.; Cargill, P. J.; Tam, K. V. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Browning, P. K., E-mail: awh@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-20

    For the first time, we demonstrate how an MHD avalanche might occur in a multithreaded coronal loop. Considering 23 non-potential magnetic threads within a loop, we use 3D MHD simulations to show that only one thread needs to be unstable in order to start an avalanche even when the others are below marginal stability. This has significant implications for coronal heating in that it provides for energy dissipation with a trigger mechanism. The instability of the unstable thread follows the evolution determined in many earlier investigations. However, once one stable thread is disrupted, it coalesces with a neighboring thread and this process disrupts other nearby threads. Coalescence with these disrupted threads then occurs leading to the disruption of yet more threads as the avalanche develops. Magnetic energy is released in discrete bursts as the surrounding stable threads are disrupted. The volume integrated heating, as a function of time, shows short spikes suggesting that the temporal form of the heating is more like that of nanoflares than of constant heating.

  5. Patterns of Nanoflare Storm Heating Exhibited by an Active Region Observed with SDO/AIA

    CERN Document Server

    Viall, Nicholeen M

    2011-01-01

    It is largely agreed that many coronal loops---those observed at a temperature of about 1 MK--- are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated by storms of impulsive nanoflares. The nature of coronal heating in hotter loops and in the very important but largely ignored diffuse component of active regions is much less clear. Are these regions also heated impulsively, or is the heating quasi steady? The spectacular new data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescopes on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) offer an excellent opportunity to address this question. We analyze the light curves of coronal loops and the diffuse corona in 6 different AIA channels and compare them with the predicted light curves from theoretical models. Light curves in the different AIA channels reach their peak intensities with predictable orderings as a function the nanoflare storm properties. We show that while some sets of light curves exhibit clear evidence of cooling after nanoflare storms, other cases are less stra...

  6. From Forbidden Coronal Lines to Meaningful Coronal Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G; Landi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We review methods to measure magnetic fields within the corona using the polarized light in magnetic-dipole (M1) lines. We are particularly interested in both the global magnetic-field evolution over a solar cycle, and the local storage of magnetic free energy within coronal plasmas. We address commonly held skepticisms concerning angular ambiguities and line-of-sight confusion. We argue that ambiguities are in principle no worse than more familiar remotely sensed photospheric vector-fields, and that the diagnosis of M1 line data would benefit from simultaneous observations of EUV lines. Based on calculations and data from eclipses, we discuss the most promising lines and different approaches that might be used. We point to the S-like [Fe {\\sc XI}] line (J=2 to J=1) at 789.2nm as a prime target line (for ATST for example) to augment the hotter 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm Si-like lines of [Fe {\\sc XIII}] currently observed by the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP). Significant breakthroughs will be made possibl...

  7. Diagnostics of Coronal Magnetic Fields Through the Hanle Effect in UV and IR Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Raouafi, N E; Gibson, S; Fineschi, S; Solanki, S K

    2016-01-01

    The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. We use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the H I Ly-$\\alpha$ and the He I 10830 {\\AA} lines. We show that the selected lines are useful for reliable diagnosis of coronal magnetic fields. The results show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for deducing coronal magne...

  8. EFFECT OF CORONAL TEMPERATURE ON THE SCALE OF SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima; Yokoyama, T.H., E-mail: h.iijima@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-10-20

    We investigate the effect of coronal temperature on the formation process of solar chromospheric jets using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the region from the upper convection zone to the lower corona. We develop a new radiative magnetohydrodynamic code for the dynamic modeling of the solar atmosphere, employing an LTE equation of state, optically thick radiative loss in the photosphere, optically thin radiative loss in the chromosphere and the corona, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. Many chromospheric jets are produced in the simulations by shock waves passing through the transition region. We find that these jets are projected farther outward when the coronal temperature is lower (similar to that in coronal holes) and shorter when the coronal temperature is higher (similar to that in active regions). When the coronal temperature is high, the deceleration of the chromospheric jets is consistent with the model in which deceleration is determined by the periodic chromospheric shock waves. However, when the coronal temperature is low, the gravitational deceleration becomes more important and the chromospheric jets approach ballistic motion.

  9. Extension of the MURaM Radiative MHD Code for Coronal Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new version of the MURaM radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implement the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction, and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfvén and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be obtained with values of the reduced speed of light just marginally larger than the maximum sound speed. Overall this leads to a fully explicit code that can compute the time evolution of the solar corona in response to photospheric driving using numerical time steps not much smaller than 0.1 s. Numerical simulations of the coronal response to flux emergence covering a time span of a few days are well within reach using this approach.

  10. Sub-photosphere to Solar Atmosphere Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komm, Rudolf; De Moortel, Ineke; Fan, Yuhong; Ilonidis, Stathis; Steiner, Oskar

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic fields extend from the solar interior through the atmosphere. The formation and evolution of active regions can be studied by measuring subsurface flows with local helioseismology. The emergence of magnetic flux from the solar convection zone is associated with acoustic perturbation signatures. In near-surface layers, the average dynamics can be determined for emerging regions. MHD simulations of the emergence of a twisted flux tube show how magnetic twist and free energy are transported from the interior into the corona and the dynamic signatures associated with such transport in the photospheric and sub-photospheric layers. The subsurface twisted flux tube does not emerge into the corona as a whole in emerging active regions. Shear flows at the polarity inversion line and coherent vortical motions in the subsurface flux tubes are the major means by which twist is transported into the corona, leading to the formation of sigmoid-shaped coronal magnetic fields capable of driving solar eruptions. The transport of twist can be followed from the interior by using the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows as a proxy of magnetic helicity; this quantity holds great promise for improving the understanding of eruptive phenomena. Waves are not only vital for studying the link between the solar interior and the surface but for linking the photosphere with the corona as well. Acoustic waves that propagate from the surface into the magnetically structured, dynamic atmosphere undergo mode conversion and refraction. These effects enable atmospheric seismology to determine the topography of magnetic canopies in the solar atmosphere. Inclined magnetic fields lower the cut-off frequency so that low frequency waves can leak into the outer atmosphere. Recent high resolution, high cadence observations of waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere, have lead to a renewed interest in the potential role of waves as a heating mechanism. In light of their potential contribution

  11. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.

  12. Coronal energy input and dissipation in a solar active region 3D MHD model

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2015-01-01

    Context. We have conducted a 3D MHD simulation of the solar corona above an active region in full scale and high resolution, which shows coronal loops, and plasma flows within them, similar to observations. Aims. We want to find the connection between the photospheric energy input by field-line braiding with the coronal energy conversion by Ohmic dissipation of induced currents. Methods. To this end we compare the coronal energy input and dissipation within our simulation domain above different fields of view, e.g. for a small loops system in the active region (AR) core. We also choose an ensemble of field lines to compare, e.g., the magnetic energy input to the heating per particle along these field lines. Results. We find an enhanced Ohmic dissipation of currents in the corona above areas that also have enhanced upwards-directed Poynting flux. These regions coincide with the regions where hot coronal loops within the AR core are observed. The coronal density plays a role in estimating the coronal temperatur...

  13. The Temperature-Dependent Nature of Coronal Dimmings

    CERN Document Server

    Robbrecht, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The opening-up of the magnetic field during solar eruptive events is often accompanied by a dimming of the local coronal emission. From observations of filament eruptions recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imager on STEREO during 2008-2009, it is evident that these dimmings are much more pronounced in 19.5 nm than in the lower-temperature line 17.1 nm, as viewed either on the disk or above the limb. We conclude that most of the cooler coronal plasma is not ejected but remains gravitationally bound when the loops open up. This result is consistent with Doppler measurements by Imada and coworkers, who found that the upflow speeds in a transient coronal hole increased dramatically above a temperature of 1 MK; it is also consistent with the quasistatic behavior of polar plumes, as compared with the hotter interplume regions that are the main source of the fast solar wind. When the open flux reconnects and closes down again, the trapped plasma is initially heated to such high temperatures that it is no longer v...

  14. Solar coronal loops associated with small-scale mixed polarity surface magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chitta, L P; Solanki, S K; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Riethmueller, T L; van Noort, M; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suarez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martinez; Knoelker, M

    2016-01-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca II H images obtained from the S...

  15. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Singh, T.; Kiss, T. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2017-03-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  16. The Inconvenient Truth About Coronal Dimmings

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a coronal dimming using a combination of high resolution spectro-polarimetric, spectral and broadband images which span from the deep photosphere into the corona. These observations reinforce the belief that coronal dimmings, or transient coronal holes as they are also known, are indeed the locations of open magnetic flux in the corona resulting from the launch of a CME. We will see that, as open magnetic regions, they must act just as coronal holes and be sources of the fast solar wind, but only temporarily. An inescapable question therefore arises - what impact does this source of fast wind have on the propagation and in-flight characteristics of the CME that initiates the coronal dimming in the first place?

  17. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern recognition of coronal loops in EUV images, (ii) automated pairing of corresponding loop patterns from two different aspect angles, and (iii) stereoscopic triangulation of 3D loop coordinates. We perform tests with simulated stereoscopic EUV images and quantify the accuracy of all three procedures. In addition we test the performance of the blind stereoscopy code as a function of the spacecraft-separation angle and as a function of the spatial resolution. We also test the sensitivity to magnetic non-potentiality. The automated code develo...

  18. Plasma Heating of Titan's Exobase and Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, M.; Smith, H. T.; Tucker, O. J.; Johnson, R. E.; de La Haye, V.; Waite, J. H.; Young, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Cassini data have shown that the dominant heating process for Titan's atmospheric corona and exobase region is as yet uncertain (DeLaHaye et al. 2007). We have speculated that the incident plasma, both the slowed and deflected ambient ions and the pick-up ions, may be responsible for all or a significant fraction of the non-thermal component of Titan's corona (De La Haye et al. 2007). Our earlier models of the net incident plasma heating (Michael et al. 2004; 2005) fall short in describing the coronal structure seen by INMS on Ta, Tb and T5. Since heating of the corona and exobase affects atmospheric escape, it is critical for describing the evolution of Titan's atmosphere (Johnson 2004). Here we describe an empirical approach to this problem. INMS data and the preliminary CAPS flux data clearly indicate, not surprisingly, that the heating is spatially non-uniform and is variable, but there is as yet no correlation with the plasma flow models. Therefore, we haev analyzed INMS data for the atmospheric structure near the exobase for a large number of Cassini passes through the exobase region and we have analyzed certain CAPS data for the plasma flow near the exobase. The goal is to develop a model for the spatial variations in the plasma heating near the exobase with the goal of improving our knowledge of atmospheric escape. De La Haye, V.. et al., JGR 112, A07309, doi:10.1029/2006JA012222, 2007 Johnson, R.E. ApJ 609, L99, 2004 Michael, M., and R. E. Johnson. PSS 53, 1510, 2005. Michael, M., et al. Icarus, 175, 263, 2005.

  19. Study of the Dependence Effectiveness of Low-potential Heat of the Ground and Atmospheric Air for Heating Buildings from Climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of researches for division into districts of the territory of Russia and Europe by efficiency of using for the heat supply of buildings of low-potential thermal energy of ground and free air and their combination. While modeling of the heat regime of geothermal HPS in climatic conditions of different regions of the territory of Russia, the influence has been taken into account of the long-term extraction of geothermal heat energy on the ground heat regime as well as the influence of phase transitions of pore moisture in ground on the efficiency of operation of geothermal heat-pump heat-supply systems. While realization of the division into districts, the sinking of temperatures of ground massive was been taken into account which has been called by long-term extraction of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of ground massive temperatures, the ground temperatures were used which are waited for the 5-th year of operation of geothermal HPS.

  20. An East Asian land-sea atmospheric heat source difference index and its relation to general circulation and summer rainfall over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using a monthly precipitation dataset of 160 stations over China and a daily and monthly National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset from 1961 to 2006, we here define an East Asian land-sea atmospheric heat source difference index ILSQD and investigate its relationship to summer rainfall in China and East Asian general circulation. The results show that ILSQD more closely reflects the anomalous variations in summer monsoon phenomena; in the high-index (HI) cases, the strong low-level southerlies over East China and the strong high-level westerlies over middle latitudes indicate an active summer monsoon, and vice versa in the low-index (LI) cases. This index also reflects summer rainfall anomalies over East China; in the HI (LI) cases rainfall increases (decreases) over North China and at the same time decreases (increases) over the mid-lower Yangtze River valley and the southern Yangtze River. Hence, ILSQD can be utilized as a summer monsoon index. There is also remarkable correlation between ILSQD in March and the following summer rainfall over the mid-lower Yangtze River valley. Finally, the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3.1 (CAM3.1) of NCAR is used to run numerical experiments, which verify that the anomalous summer precipitation in simulations is similar to that of diagnosis analysis based on the anomalous summer atmospheric heating forcing. Similarly, the atmospheric heating rate in March can force summer rainfall anomalies in the simulations just as observed in the data.

  1. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experimental results indicated that coal weight reduction ratio to gases followed the Arrhenius equation with increasing coal temperature; further which were increased around 5% with adding H2O in CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, coal-water mixtures with different water/coal mass ratio were used in order to investigate roles of water vapor in the process of coal gasification and combustion. Furthermore, char-water mixtures with different water/char mass ratio were also measured in order to discuss the generation ratio of CO/CO2, and specified that the source of Hydrocarbons is volatile matter from coal. Moreover, it was confirmed that generations of CO and Hydrocarbons gases are mainly dependent on coal temperature and O2 concentration, and they are stimulated at temperature over 1000°C in the CO2-rich atmosphere.

  2. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Solar Wind: From the Coronal Base to the Outer Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanov, A. V; Goldstein, M. L.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a global fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model for the region that extends from the coronal base to 100 AU. The simulation domain consists of tree spherical shell subdomains with computational boundaries between them placed at 20 solar radii and 0.3 AU. The location of the first boundary ensures that the flow at the boundary is both supersonic and super-Alfvenic. A steady-state solution in the innermost (coronal) region is obtained by the time-relaxation method. The solution uses a tilted dipole model or solar magnetograms as the boundary condition at the coronal base and includes a flux of Alfven waves in the WKB approximation which provide additional acceleration for the coronal outflow in the open field regions. The intermediate region solution is constructed by the integration of steady-state equations along radius using a marching scheme. The outer region solution (0.3-100 AU) is obtained again by the time relaxation and takes into account turbulence transport and heating as well as heating, flow deceleration, and other effects due to the interstellar pickup protons treated as a separate fluid. We use the model to simulate the global steady-state structure of the solar wind from the coronal base to the heliospheric boundary and compare the results with Ulysses and Voyager observations.

  3. Fundamental-Mode Oscillations of Two Coronal Loops within a Solar Magnetic Arcade

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rekha; Hindman, B W

    2015-01-01

    We analyse intensity variations, as measured by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in the 171 {\\AA} passband, in two coronal loops embedded within a single coronal magnetic arcade. We detect oscillations in the fundamental mode with periods of roughly 2 minutes and decay times of 5 minutes. The oscillations were initiated by interaction of the arcade with a large wavefront issuing from a flare site. Further, the power spectra of the oscillations evince signatures consistent with oblique propagation to the field lines and for the existence of a 2-D waveguide instead of a 1-D one.

  4. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zimbardo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.

  5. FORWARD: A toolset for multiwavelength coronal magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Kucera, Therese; White, Stephen; Dove, James; Fan, Yuhong; Forland, Blake; Rachmeler, Laurel; Downs, Cooper; Reeves, Katharine

    2016-03-01

    Determining the 3D coronal magnetic field is a critical, but extremely difficult problem to solve. Since different types of multiwavelength coronal data probe different aspects of the coronal magnetic field, ideally these data should be used together to validate and constrain specifications of that field. Such a task requires the ability to create observable quantities at a range of wavelengths from a distribution of magnetic field and associated plasma -- i.e., to perform forward calculations. In this paper we describe the capabilities of the FORWARD SolarSoft IDL package, a uniquely comprehensive toolset for coronal magnetometry. FORWARD is a community resource that may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare synthetic observables to existing data. It enables forward fitting of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties. FORWARD can also be used to generate synthetic test beds from MHD simulations in order to facilitate the development of coronal magnetometric inversion methods, and to prepare for the analysis of future large solar telescope data.

  6. FORWARD: A toolset for multiwavelength coronal magnetometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eGibson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the 3D coronal magnetic field is a critical, but extremely difficult problem to solve. Since different types of multiwavelength coronal data probe different aspects of the coronal magnetic field, ideally these data should be used together to validate and constrain specifications of that field. Such a task requires the ability to create observable quantities at a range of wavelengths from a distribution of magnetic field and associated plasma -- i.e., to perform forward calculations. In this paper we describe the capabilities of the FORWARD SolarSoft IDL package, a uniquely comprehensive toolset for coronal magnetometry. FORWARD is a community resource that may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare synthetic observables to existing data. It enables forward fitting of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties. FORWARD can also be used to generate synthetic test beds from MHD simulations in order to facilitate the development of coronal magnetometric inversion methods, and to prepare for the analysis of future large solar telescope data.

  7. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2: Surface heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite infrared imagery and coastal meteorological data for March 1984 through February 1985 are used to estimate the net annual surface heat flux for the northern Gulf of California. The average annual surface heat flux for the area north of Guaymas and Santa Rosalia is estimated to be +74 W/sq m for the 1984-1985 time period. This is comparable to the +20-50 W/sq m previously obtained from heat and freshwater transport estimates made with hydrographic surveys from different years and months. The spatial distribution of the net surface heat flux shows a net gain of heat over the whole northern gulf. Except for a local maximum near San Esteban Island, the largest heat gain (+110-120 W/sq m) occurs in the Ballenas and Salsipuedes channels, where strong tidal mixing produces anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over much of the year. The lowest heat gain occurs in the Guayamas Basin (+40-50 W/sq m), where SSTs are consistently warmer. In the relatively shallow northern basin the net surface heat flux is farily uniform, with a net annual gain of approxmately +70 W/sq m. A local minimum in heat gain (approximately +60 W/sq m) is observed over the shelf in the northwest, where spring and summer surface temperatures are particularly high. A similar minimum in heat gain over the shelf was observed in a separate study in which historical SSTs and 7 years (1979-1986) of meteorological data from Puerto Penasco were used to estimate the net surface heat flux for the northern basin. In that study, however, the heat fluxes were higher, with a gain of +100 W/sq m over the shelf and +114 W/sq m in the northern basin. These larger values are directly attributable to the higher humidities in the 1979-1986 study compared to the 1984-1985 satellite study. High humidities reduce evaporation and the associated latent heat loss, promoting a net annual heat gain. In the norther Gulf of California, however, tidal mixing appears to play a key role in the observed gain of

  8. Atmospheric evaporation in super-Earth exoplanet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Spencer; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the influence of stellar activity on atmospheric heating and evaporation in four super-Earth exoplanets: HD 97658 b, GJ 1214 b, 55 Cnc e, and CoRoT-7 b. We use X-ray observations of the host stars to estimate planetary mass loss. We extracted net count rates from a soft band image, converted it to flux using PIMMS for a standard coronal model, calculated the intrinsic stellar luminosity, and estimated the current-epoch mass-loss rate and the integrated mass lost. Our aim is to determine under what circumstances current super-Earths will have experienced significant mass loss through atmospheric irradiation over the system lifetime. We hypothesize that closely-orbiting exoplanets receiving the greatest amount of high-energy stellar radiation will also tend to be sculpted into lower mass and more dense remnant cores.

  9. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  10. Empirical relationships between summertime oceanic heat anomalies in the Nordic seas and large-scale atmospheric circulation in the following winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichtholz, Pawel

    2016-09-01

    A lagged regression analysis between an index of observed summertime Atlantic water temperature (AWT) variability at the entrance to the Barents Sea in the period 1982-2005 and year-round atmospheric (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data is used to show that subsurface oceanic heat anomalies in high latitudes are significant precursors of wintertime atmospheric variability in middle latitudes. In particular, positive AWT anomalies precede predominantly westerly wind anomalies in high latitudes and easterly wind anomalies in middle latitudes. The mid-latitude wind anomalies, while being generally equivalent barotropic in the upper troposphere, have a strong low-level baroclinic contribution over Eurasia. The near-surface easterly wind anomalies in this area are locally deflected southward, maintaining cold spots near orography. The summertime oceanic anomalies explain about 40 % of the variance in the surface air temperature averaged over Eurasia from 35° to 45°N and about 50 % of the variance in surface winds over the Far East Asia in the following winter. We suggest that the remote connections arise from reorganization of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The AWT anomalies explain about 60 % of the variance in the upper-tropospheric storm track activity averaged over the Pacific and Eurasia from 35° to 55°N and in the lower-tropospheric poleward synoptic eddy heat flux over western Eurasia. Finally, we show that the AWT-associated wintertime atmospheric anomalies appear in quadrature with the concurrent anomalies associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. These findings suggest that oceanic heat anomalies in high latitudes may be a useful predictor of atmospheric variability.

  11. Imaging solar coronal magnetic structures in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, N. P.

    The study of solar coronal structures and, in particular prominences, is a key part of understanding the highly complex physical mechanisms occurring in the Sun's atmosphere. Solar prominences are important in their own right and some of the most puzzling questions in solar theory have arisen through their study. For example, how do they form and how is their mass continuously replenished? How can the magnetic field provide their continuous support against gravity over time periods of several months? How can such cool, dense material exist in thermal equilibrium in the surrounding coronal environment? Why do they erupt? A study of their structure and that of the surrounding medium is important in determining the nature of the coronal plasma and magnetic field. Also, prominences are closely associated with other key phenomena such as coronal mass ejections and eruptive solar flares which occur as a prominence loses equilibrium and rises from the solar surface. Our current understanding of these fascinating structures is extremely limited and we know very little about their basic global structure. In fact, recent prominence observations have caused our basic paradigms to be challenged (Priest, 1996) and so we must set up new models in order to gain even a fundamental understanding. Prominences are highly nonlinear, three-dimensional structures. Large feet (or barbs) reach out from the main body of a prominence and reach down to the photosphere where the dense material continuously drains away. These provide a real clue to the three-dimensional nature of the coronal field and its relation to the photospheric field. It is important, therefore, to make stereographic observations of prominences in order to gain a basic understanding of their essentially three-dimensional nature and attempt to formulate new paradigms for their structure and evolution. There is no doubt that the study of prominences in three dimensions is a crucial exercise if we are to develop a better

  12. Enhancement of Terrestrial Diffuse X-ray Emission Associated With Coronal Mass Ejection and Geomagnetic Storm

    CERN Document Server

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Terada, Naoki; Oishi, Shihoko; Ohashi, Takaya

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of a Suzaku observation taken during the geomagnetic storm of 2005 August 23-24. We found time variation of diffuse soft X-ray emission when a coronal mass ejection hit Earth and caused a geomagnetic storm. The diffuse emission consists of fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays and exospheric solarwind charge exchange. The former is characterized by a neutral oxygen emission line due to strong heating of the upper atmosphere during the storm time, while the latter is dominated by a sum of C V, C VI, N VI, N VII, O VII, and O VIII emission lines due to the enhanced solar wind flux in the vicinity of the exosphere. Using the solar wind data taken with the ACE and WIND satellites,a time correlation between the solar wind and the strong O VII line flux were investigated. We estimated necessary column densities for the solar X-ray scattering and exospheric SWCX. From these results, we argue that a part of the solar wind ions enter inside the magnetosphere and cause the SWCX reaction.

  13. Multidimensional modeling of coronal rain dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, X; Keppens, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations which capture the initial formation and the long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in-situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match with modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into $V$-shaped like features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views on blobs which evaporate in situ, or get siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys o...

  14. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ν. Gopalswamy; Κ. Shibasaki; Μ. Salem

    2000-09-01

    We report on the statistical properties of the microwave enhancement (brightness temperature, area, fine structure, life time and magnetic field strength) in coronal holes observed over a period of several solar rotations.

  15. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  16. Physical properties of erupting plasma associated with coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Reeves, K. K.; Moon, Y.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the physical properties (temperature, density, and mass) of erupting plasma observed in X-rays and EUV, which are all associated with coronal mass ejections observed by SOHO/LASCO. The erupting plasmas are observed as absorption or emission features in the low corona. The absorption feature provides a lower limit to the cold mass while the emission feature provides an upper limit to the mass of observed plasma in X-ray and EUV. We compare the mass constraints for each temperature response and find that the mass estimates in EUV and XRT are smaller than the total mass in the coronagraph. Several events were observed by a few passbands in the X-rays, which allows us to determine the temperature of the eruptive plasma using a filter ratio method. The temperature of one event is estimated at about 8.6 MK near the top of the erupting plasma. This measurement is possibly an average temperature for higher temperature plasma because the XRT is more sensitive at higher temperatures. In addition, a few events show that the absorption features of a prominence or a loop change to emission features with the beginning of their eruptions in all EUV wavelengths of SDO/AIA, which indicates the heating of the plasma. By estimating the physical properties of the erupting plasmas, we discuss the heating of the plasmas associated with coronal mass ejections in the low corona.

  17. Soft X-ray emission in flaring coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, R F; Brun, A S

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy which can be released impulsively and account for the heating of the plasma in flares. We investigate the temporal, spectral and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes using a series of MHD simulations. We deduce emission diagnostics and their temporal evolution and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to observations. The numerical setup used consists of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, compute the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) and deduce the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. During the initial phase of the instability plasma heating is mostly ...

  18. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  19. Modeling coronal magnetic field using spherical geometry: cases with several active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tadesse, Tilaye; Olson, K; MacNeice, P J

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere structure the plasma, store free magnetic energy and produce a wide variety of active solar phenomena, like flare and coronal mass ejections(CMEs). The distribution and strength of magnetic fields are routinely measured in the solar surface(photosphere). Therefore, there is considerable interest in accurately modeling the 3D structure of the coronal magnetic field using photospheric vector magnetograms. Knowledge of the 3D structure of magnetic field lines also help us to interpret other coronal observations, e.g., EUV images of the radiating coronal plasma. Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models are thought to be viable tools for those task. Usually those models use Cartesian geometry. However, the spherical nature of the solar surface cannot be neglected when the field of view is large. In this work, we model the coronal magnetic field above multiple active regions using NLFFF extrapolation code using vector magnetograph data from the Synoptic Optical Long-term...

  20. Coronal structure and brightness profile of the total solar eclipse on August 1,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HaiBin; LIN QiSheng; CHEN YiPing; JIN Sheng; GUAN ZhenBiao; HU Zhongwei

    2009-01-01

    Solar corona is the outermost part of the solar atmosphere.Coronal activities influence space environment between the Sun and the Earth,space weather and the Earth itself.The total solar eclipse (TSE) is the best opportunity to observe the solar corona on ground.During the TSE 2008,a series of images of the corona and partial eclipse of solar disk were obtained using telescope and CCD camera.After image processing,preliminary results of coronal structure are given,and radial brightness profiles of the corona in directions of pole and equator of the Sun are measured.Though in solar activity minimum,the shape and structure of the corona are not symmetry.The equatorial regions are more extent than the polar one,and there are also larger differences between the east and west equatorial regions and between the south and north polar regions.Coronal streamers on east side of the equator,particularly the largest one in east-south direction,are very obvious.The coronal plume in south polar region consists of more polar rays than that in north polar region.These structures are also shown in other observations and data of SOHO.The radial brightness profiles in directions of pole and equator are similar to those of the Van de Hulst model in solar minimum,but there are a few differences due to coronal activity,which is shown in the isophote map of the corona.

  1. Observational Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    2003. Peameis, D.V., Magntetic topology of imspumlsive assd gradutal solar energetic particle Xic. H., L. Ofmran, and G. Lawvrence, Cone model for...425, 1097, 2004. Yashiro, S., N. Gopalssvamy, G. Michalek, assd R.A. Hosvard, Properties of narrow coronal Sltatstnigara~jU, A., Y.-i. Mootn, M. Dryer...G.M.,’FTit relatiomtslip hetwseen prominence ermtptions assd coronal mnass ejections.. 107(A8), 1223, doi: 10. 1029/2001 JAOO9 143, 2002. .1. Atssnn.s

  2. Non-inductive current driven by Alfvén waves in solar coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfimov, A. G.; de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.

    1996-08-01

    It has been shown that Alfvén waves can drive non-inductive current in solar coronal loops via collisional or collisionless damping. Assuming that all the coronal-loop density of dissipated wave power (W= 10-3 erg cm-3 s-1), which is necessary to keep the plasma hot, is due to Alfvén wave electron heating, we have estimated the axial current density driven by Alfvén waves to be ≈ 103 105 statA cm-2. This current can indeed support the quasi-stationary equilibrium and stability of coronal loops and create the poloidal magnetic field up to B θ≈1-5 G.

  3. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nistico', G; Patsourakos, S; Zimbardo, G

    2010-01-01

    Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km/s, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km/s2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 minutes, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and eq...

  4. An Estimate of Solar Wind Density and Velocity Profiles in a Coronal Hole and a Coronal Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1996-01-01

    Using the total electron content data obtained by the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment (SCE) during the first solar conjunction in summer 1991, two data sets were selected, one associated with a coronal hole and the other associated with coronal streamer crossings. In order to determine coronal streamer density profiles, the electron content of the tracking passes embedded in a coronal streamer were corrected for the contributions from coronal hole densities.

  5. Structural Variation of an Atmospheric Heat Source over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and Its Influence on Precipitation in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Na; GONG Yuanfa; HE Jinhai

    2009-01-01

    NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and a 47-year precipitation dataset are utilized to analyze the relationship between an atmospheric heat source (hereafter called ) over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP) and its surrounding area and precipitation in northwest China.Our main conclusions are as follows:(1) The horizontal distribution of and its changing trend are dramatic over QXP in the summer.There are three strong centers of over the south side of QXP with obvious differences in the amount of yearly precipitation and the number of heat sinks predominate in the arid and semi-arid regions of northwest China (NWC),beside the northern QXP with an obvious higher intensity in years with less precipitation.(2) In the summer,the variation of the heat source's vertical structure is obviously different between greater and lesser precipitation years in eastern northwest China (ENWC).The narrow heat sink belt forms between the northeast QXP and the southwestern part of Lake Baikal.In July and August of greater precipitation years,the heating center of the eastern QXP stays nearly over 35°N,and at 400 hPa of the eastern QXP,the strong upward motion of the heating center constructs a closed secondary vertical circulation cell over the northeast QXP (40°-46°N),which is propitious to add precipitation over the ENWC.Otherwise,the heating center shifts to the south of 30°N and disappears in July and August of lesser precipitation years,an opposite secondary circulation cell forms over the northeast QXP,which is a disadvantage for precipitation.Meanwhile,the secondary circulation cell in years with more or less precipitation over the ENWC is also related to the heat source over the Lake Baikal. (3) The vertical structure of the heat source over the western QXP has obvious differences between greater and lesser precipitation years in western northwest China in June and July.The strong/weak heat source over the western QXP produces relatively strong/weak ascending motion and

  6. An Ab Initio approach to Solar Coronal Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Gudiksen, B V

    2004-01-01

    Data from recent numerical simulations of the solar corona and transition region are analysed and the magnetic field connection between the low corona and the photosphere is found to be close to that of a potential field. The fieldline to fieldline displacements follow a power law distribution with typical displacements of just a few Mm. Three loops visible in emulated Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE) filters are analysed in detail and found to have significantly different heating rates and distributions thereof, one of them showing a small scale heating event. The dynamical structure is complicated even though all the loops are visible in a single filter along most of their lengths. None of the loops are static, but are in the process of evolving into loops with very different characteristics. Differential Emission Measure (DEM) curves along one of the loops illustrate that DEM curves have to be treated carefully if physical characteristics are to be extracted.

  7. Bulk transfer coefficients of the atmospheric momentum and sensible heat over desert and Gobi in arid climate region of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 卫国安; 黄荣辉; 曹晓彦

    2002-01-01

    By utilizing the data of the intensive observation period (May-June, 2000) of Dunhuang land-surface process field experiment that belongs to "Land-atmosphere Interactive Field Experiment over Arid Region of Northwest China", the bulk momentum transfer coefficient Cd and bulk sensible heat transfer coefficient Ch between surface and atmosphere over desert and Gobi in the arid region are determined according to three different methods. The result shows that, though these bulk transfer coefficients are different, they are in the same order. Especially, the means of Cd and Ch are close. Moreover, through analyzing the wind direction, the interference of the building near the observational station with the data is eliminated. From this, the relation between the bulk transfer coefficients and the bulk Richardson number and the range of the typical values of the bulk transfer coefficients over desert and Gobi in the typical arid region are obtained.

  8. The groundwater buffering effect on heat waves and precipitation: coupled groundwater-atmosphere simulations over Europe and North America with a WRF-LEAFHYDRO system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Gómez, Breogán; Regueiro-Sanfiz, Sabela; Georgescu, Matei

    2016-04-01

    We present coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations with the WRF regional climate model and the LEAFHYDRO LSM, including groundwater dynamics. Simulations are carried out for the coupled system for the growing season (February to October) over Europe at 2.5km resolution over land and 20km over the atmosphere. Initial conditions for the land surface, groundwater and rivers are from 10 year off-line simulations, performed continuously over the same domain and period, forced by atmospheric data from the Earth2Observe FP7 project. We show that the presence of a shallow water table over portions of the European continent enhances evapotranspiration in dry periods under increasing atmospheric demand. The impact of the coupling between groundwater and the soil vegetation system on land surface fluxes results in decreases in air temperature and an increase in low level mixing ratios, which under certain convective regimes induces more precipitation. We illustrate for the heat wave of 2003 that models that do not include this groundwater buffering effect may enhance significantly the intensity of such temperature extreme cases. The effect on precipitation is mostly seen over inland areas where warm season convection is important. We show with results of additional simulations over North America, where summer convection over the interior of the continent is very relevant, that the effect of groundwater-enhanced evapotranspiration may have a sizeable impact on climate at the global scale.

  9. Solar Atmospheric Magnetic Energy Coupling: Radiative Redistribution Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, N. Brice; Gendre, Bruce; Morris, David C.; Chesny, David

    2016-07-01

    Essential to many outstanding solar and stellar physics problems is elucidating the dynamic magnetic to radiative energy coupling of their atmospheres. Using three years of Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Heliosemic Magnetic Imager data of gross atmospheric feature classes, an investigation of magnetic and radiative energy redistribution is detailed. Self-consistent radiative to temperature distributions, that include magnetic weighting, of each feature class is revealed via utilizing the upper limit of thermodynamic atmospheric conditions provided by Active Region Cores (ARCs). Distinctly interesting is that our radiative energy distributions, though indicative to a linearly coupling with temperature, highlight the manifestation of diffuse ``unorganized" emission at upper transition region -- lower coronal regimes. Results we emphasize as correlating remarkably with emerging evidence for similar dependencies of magnetic energy redistribution efficiency with temperature, i.e., linearly with an embedded diffuse emitting region. We present evidence that our magnetic and radiative energy coupling descriptions are consistent with established universal scaling laws for large solar atmospheric temperature gradients and descriptions to the unresolved emission, as well as their insight to a potential origin of large variability in their previous reports. Finally, our work casts new light on the utility of narrowband observations as ad hoc tools for detailing solar atmospheric thermodynamic profiles, thus, presenting significant provisions to the field of solar and stellar physics, i.e., nature of coronae heating.

  10. Correlation analysis of the urban heat island effect and the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric particulates using TM images in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L Y; Xie, X D; Li, S

    2013-07-01

    This study combines the methods of observation statistics and remote sensing retrieval, using remote sensing information including the urban heat island (UHI) intensity index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference water index (NDWI), and the difference vegetation index (DVI) to analyze the correlation between the urban heat island effect and the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of atmospheric particulates in Beijing. The analysis establishes (1) a direct correlation between UHI and DVI; (2) an indirect correlation among UHI, NDWI and DVI; and (3) an indirect correlation among UHI, NDVI, and DVI. The results proved the existence of three correlation types with regional and seasonal effects and revealed an interesting correlation between UHI and DVI, that is, if UHI is below 0.1, then DVI increases with the increase in UHI, and vice versa. Also, DVI changes more with UHI in the two middle zones of Beijing.

  11. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  12. Transition-Region/Coronal Signatures and Magnetic Setting of Sunspot Penumbral Jets: {\\it Hinode} (SOT/FG), Hi-C and {\\it SDO}/AIA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K; Winebarger, Amy R; Alpert, Shane E

    2015-01-01

    Penumbral microjets (PJs) are transient narrow bright features in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae, first characterized by Katsukawa et al (2007) using the \\CaII\\ H-line filter on {\\it Hinode}'s Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). It was proposed that the PJs form as a result of reconnection between two magnetic components of penumbra (spines and interspines), and that they could contribute to the transition region (TR) and coronal heating above sunspot penumbrae. We propose a modified picture of formation of PJs based on recent results on internal structure of sunspot penumbral filaments. Using data of a sunspot from {\\it Hinode}/SOT, High Resolution Coronal Imager, and different passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the {\\it Solar Dynamics Observatory}, we examine whether PJs have signatures in the TR and corona. We find hardly any discernible signature of normal PJs in any AIA passbands, except a few of them showing up in the 1600 \\AA\\ images. However, we discovered exceptionally stro...

  13. Unresolved fine-scale structure in solar coronal loop-tops

    CERN Document Server

    Scullion, Eamon; Wedemeyer, Sven; Antolin, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer sub-structures within coronal loop cross sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop sub-structures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1- m Solar Telescope (SST) / CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) / Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High resolution imaging of the chromospheric H-alpha 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in H-alpha...

  14. Computation and Prediction of plasma drag on Orbiting Satellites due to Space Environmental Perturbation by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Certain earth pointing Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) induce geomagnetic storms, which significantly affect human activities. Satellites orbiting earth are particularly vulnerable to blasts of solar energy resulting from this phenomenon. It is known that the huge amount of energetic ultraviolet radiation from this space environmental disturbance can heat up the outer atmosphere, causing it to expand. This can cause a significant drag on Earth-Orbiting satellites and even degrade the precision of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measurements. However, CMEs are more damaging. They are more frequent during the active (solar maximum) Phase of the sun's approximately 11-year cycle. As we approach another maximum in 2012-2013, it is instructive to make an estimate of average daily production of energetic proton flux based on GOES data on earth-pointing CMEs in the past solar cycle. We also compute the drag on satellites due to atmospheric perturbations by CMEs and make predictions of how the existing satellite orbits could be affected near the peak of next solar cycle maximum.

  15. Coronal "wave": Magnetic Footprint Of A Cme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Gemma; Harra, L. K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Demoulin, P.; Wuelser, J.

    2007-05-01

    We propose a new mechanism for the generation of "EUV coronal waves". This work is based on new analysis of data from SOHO/EIT, SOHO/MDI & STEREO/EUVI. Although first observed in 1997, the interpretation of coronal waves as flare-induced or CME-driven remains a debated topic. We investigate the properties of two "classical" SOHO/EIT coronal waves in detail. The source regions of the associated CMEs possess opposite helicities & the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep dimmings near the flare site & also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions & simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behaviour is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME & quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings & widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process. In addition we present some of the first analysis of a STEREO/EUVI limb coronal wave. We show how the evolution of the diffuse bright front & dimmings can be understood in terms of the model described above. We show that an apparently stationary part of the bright front can be understood in terms of magnetic interchange reconnections between the expanding CME & the "open" magnetic field of a low-latitude coronal hole. We use both the SOHO/EIT & STEREO/EUVI events to demonstrate that through successive reconnections, this new model provides a natural mechanism via which CMEs can become large-scale in the lower corona.

  16. The Evolution and Space Weather Effects of Solar Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista, Larisza; Gallagher, P.

    2011-05-01

    As solar activity is the foremost important aspect of space weather, the forecasting of flare and CME related transient geomagnetic storms has become a primary initiative. Minor magnetic storms caused by coronal holes (CHs) have also proven to be important due to their long-lasting and recurrent geomagnetic effects. In order to forecast CH related geomagnetic storms, the author developed the Coronal Hole Automated Recognition and Monitoring (CHARM) algorithm to replace the user-dependent CH detection methods commonly used. CHARM uses an intensity thresholding method to identify low intensity regions in EUV or X-ray images. Since CHs are regions of "open” magnetic field and predominant polarity, magnetograms were used to differentiate CHs from other low intensity regions. The Coronal Hole Evolution (CHEVOL) algorithm was developed and used in conjunction with CHARM to study the boundary evolution of CHs. It is widely accepted that the short-term changes in CH boundaries are due to the interchange reconnection between the CH open field lines and small loops. We determined the magnetic reconnection rate and the diffusion coefficient at CH boundaries in order to test the interchange reconnection model. The author also developed the Minor Storm (MIST) package to link CHs to high-speed solar wind (HSSW) periods detected at Earth. Using the algorithm the relationship between CHs, the corresponding HSSW properties, and geomagnetic indices were studied between 2000-2009. The results showed a strong correlation between the velocity and HSSW proton plasma temperature, which indicates that the heating and acceleration of the solar wind plasma in CHs are closely related, and perhaps caused by the same mechanism. The research presented here includes analysis of CHs on small and large spatial/temporal scales, allowing us to further our understanding of CHs as a whole.

  17. The Imaginary Plane Mothod of Radiation Heat Transfer in The Freeboard of Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHuilin; BaoYiling; 等

    1993-01-01

    An imaginary plane method for calcuation of radiative heat transfer and its application in the freeboard of AFBC boiler is presented in this paper,The combustion reaction and particle concentration are taken into account in this method.With is method,one-dimensional freeboard model for radiative heat transfer has been made.Results from this model have been compared with the experimental results of a 130t/h AFBC boiler.The distribution of flue gas temperature and heat flux at the waterwall are obtained .It is shown that this model has the advantage of good accuracy and requiring less computation time.The applicability of the predicted results in the AFBC boiler design and operation was also discussed.

  18. Influence of sea ice lead-width distribution on turbulent heat transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Leads are linear-like structures of open water within the sea ice cover that develop as the result of fracturing due to divergence or shear. Through leads, air and water come into contact and directly exchange latent and sensible heat through convective processes driven by the large temperature and moisture differences between them. In the central Arctic, leads only cover 1 to 2% of the ocean during winter, but account for more than 70% of the upward heat fluxes. Furthermore, narrow leads (several meters are more than twice as efficient at transmitting turbulent heat than larger ones (several hundreds of meters. We show that lead widths are power law distributed, P(X~X−a with a>1, down to very small spatial scales (20 m or below. This implies that the open water fraction is by far dominated by very small leads. Using two classical formulations, which provide first order turbulence closure for the fetch-dependence of heat fluxes, we find that the mean heat fluxes (sensible and latent over open water are up to 55% larger when considering the lead-width distribution obtained from a SPOT satellite image of the ice cover, compared to the situation where the open water fraction constitutes one unique large lead and the rest of the area is covered by ice, as it is usually considered in climate models at the grid scale. This difference may be even larger if we assume that the power law scaling of lead widths extends down to smaller (~1 m scales. Such estimations may be a first step towards a subgrid scale parameterization of the spatial distribution of open water for heat fluxes calculations in ocean/sea ice coupled models.

  19. Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2016-01-01

    Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops are investigated since decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and the coronal heating. Aims. We test such scaling laws against a large-scale 3D MHD model of the Solar corona, which became feasible with nowadays high-performance computing. Methods. We drive an active region simulation a with photospheric observations and found strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and EUV wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations showed that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compare scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents well hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before only based on observations. Results. Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the RTV scali...

  20. Coronal loop seismology using damping of standing kink oscillations by mode coupling. II. additional physical effects and Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Anfinogentov, S.; Nisticò, G.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The strong damping of kink oscillations of coronal loops can be explained by mode coupling. The damping envelope depends on the transverse density profile of the loop. Observational measurements of the damping envelope have been used to determine the transverse loop structure which is important for understanding other physical processes such as heating. Aims: The general damping envelope describing the mode coupling of kink waves consists of a Gaussian damping regime followed by an exponential damping regime. Recent observational detection of these damping regimes has been employed as a seismological tool. We extend the description of the damping behaviour to account for additional physical effects, namely a time-dependent period of oscillation, the presence of additional longitudinal harmonics, and the decayless regime of standing kink oscillations. Methods: We examine four examples of standing kink oscillations observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We use forward modelling of the loop position and investigate the dependence on the model parameters using Bayesian inference and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. Results: Our improvements to the physical model combined with the use of Bayesian inference and MCMC produce improved estimates of model parameters and their uncertainties. Calculation of the Bayes factor also allows us to compare the suitability of different physical models. We also use a new method based on spline interpolation of the zeroes of the oscillation to accurately describe the background trend of the oscillating loop. Conclusions: This powerful and robust method allows for accurate seismology of coronal loops, in particular the transverse density profile, and potentially reveals additional physical effects.

  1. Ectopic folliculosebaceous units at the coronal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2014-12-01

    Tyson glands were described in the 17th century as modified sebaceous glands of the coronal sulcus of the penis. However, this description and other early texts supporting the existence of Tyson glands were not accompanied by illustrations. The existence of such glands has been passing through the literature without adequate graphical demonstration, which has contributed to controversial debates. Herein we present a case of a partial penectomy performed on a 65-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. In this case we identified sebaceous glands as well as folliculosebaceous units in the coronal sulcus. We also comparatively examined 12 cases of partial penectomy to search for sebaceous glands or folliculosebaceous units in the coronal sulcus or the preputium. We found neither sebaceous glands nor folliculosebaceous units at the coronal sulcus or the mucosal aspect of the prepuce. We conclude that: (1) folliculosebaceous units are possible in the coronal sulcus, as the current case illustrates for the first time in literature and (2) the current case is an oddity, probably induced by the accompanying squamous cell carcinoma, and therefore it may represent an ectopic folliculosebaceous unit rather than an anatomic variation.

  2. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION OF A CORONAL BRIGHT POINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Tian, Hui, E-mail: tsamanta@iiap.res.in, E-mail: hui.tian@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are small-scale luminous features seen in the solar corona. Quasi-periodic brightenings are frequently observed in the BPs and are generally linked with underlying magnetic flux changes. We study the dynamics of a BP seen in the coronal hole using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetogram on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and spectroscopic data from the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The detailed analysis shows that the BP evolves throughout our observing period along with changes in underlying photospheric magnetic flux and shows periodic brightenings in different EUV and far-UV images. With the highest possible spectral and spatial resolution of IRIS, we attempted to identify the sources of these oscillations. IRIS sit-and-stare observation provided a unique opportunity to study the time evolution of one footpoint of the BP as the slit position crossed it. We noticed enhanced line profile asymmetry, enhanced line width, intensity enhancements, and large deviation from the average Doppler shift in the line profiles at specific instances, which indicate the presence of sudden flows along the line-of-sight direction. We propose that transition region explosive events originating from small-scale reconnections and the reconnection outflows are affecting the line profiles. The correlation between all these parameters is consistent with the repetitive reconnection scenario and could explain the quasi-periodic nature of the brightening.

  3. Forbush decreases associated to Stealth Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, B.; Wallmann, C.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst K.; Kühl, P.; Dumbovic, M.; Vršnak, B.; Veronig, A.; Temmer, M.; Möstl, C.; Dalla, S.

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are structures in the solar wind that are the counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun. It is commonly believed that enhanced magnetic fields in interplanetary shocks and solar ejecta as well as the increased turbulence in the solar wind sheath region are the cause of Forbush decreases (FDs) representing decreases of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensities. Recently, stealth CMEs i.e.~CMEs with no apparent solar surface association have become a subject in recent studies of solar activity. Whether all of such stealth CMEs can drive a FD is difficult to investigate on the basis of neutron monitor NM measurements because these measurements not only reflect the GCR intensity variation in interplanetary space but also the variation of the geomagnetic field as well as the conditions in the Earth atmosphere. Single detector counter from spacecraft instrumentation, here SOHO and Chandra EPHIN, exceed counting statistic of NMs allowing to determine intensity variation of less than 1 permil in interplanetary space on the basis of 30 minute count rate averages. Here we present the ongoing analysis of eleven stealth CMEs.

  4. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Su, W; Ding, M D; Chen, P F; Sun, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only with a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of $\\sim$ 600 km s$^{-1}$ during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is in particular explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure (DEM) method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The ...

  5. Heat and mass exchange within the Soil-Plant canopy-Atmosphere system: A theoretical approach and its validation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Kilani, R.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Heat, mass and momentum transfer between the canopy air layer and the layer of air above has a very intermittent nature. This intermittent nature is due to the passage at the canopy top of coherent structures which have a length scale at least as large as the canopy height. The periodic passage of t

  6. Reconnection-Driven Coronal-Hole Jets with Gravity and Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Pariat, E.

    2017-01-01

    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfvén wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.

  7. Observing the formation of flare-driven coronal rain

    CERN Document Server

    Scullion, E; Antolin, P; Wedemeyer, S; Vissers, G; Kontar, E P; Gallagher, P

    2016-01-01

    Flare-driven coronal rain can manifest from rapidly cooled plasma condensations near coronal loop-tops in thermally unstable post-flare arcades. We detect 5 phases that characterise the post-flare decay: heating, evaporation, conductive cooling dominance for ~120 s, radiative / enthalpy cooling dominance for ~4700 s and finally catastrophic cooling occurring within 35-124 s leading to rain strands with s periodicity of 55-70 s. We find an excellent agreement between the observations and model predictions of the dominant cooling timescales and the onset of catastrophic cooling. At the rain formation site we detect co-moving, multi-thermal rain clumps that undergo catastrophic cooling from ~1 MK to ~22000 K. During catastrophic cooling the plasma cools at a maximum rate of 22700 K s-1 in multiple loop-top sources. We calculated the density of the EUV plasma from the DEM of the multi-thermal source employing regularised inversion. Assuming a pressure balance, we estimate the density of the chromospheric componen...

  8. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, M. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, Maui, HI 96768 (United States); Tomczyk, S., E-mail: kramar@cua.edu, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tomczyk@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.

  9. Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, C.; Somot, S.; Deque, M.; Sevault, F. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Calmanti, S.; Carillo, A.; Dell' Aquilla, A.; Sannino, G. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Elizalde, A.; Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Gualdi, S.; Oddo, P.; Scoccimarro, E. [INGV, Bologna (Italy); L' Heveder, B.; Li, L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Within the CIRCE project ''Climate change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment'', an ensemble of high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCMs) are used to simulate the Mediterranean climate for the period 1950-2050. For the first time, realistic net surface air-sea fluxes are obtained. The sea surface temperature (SST) variability is consistent with the atmospheric forcing above it and oceanic constraints. The surface fluxes respond to external forcing under a warming climate and show an equivalent trend in all models. This study focuses on the present day and on the evolution of the heat and water budget over the Mediterranean Sea under the SRES-A1B scenario. On the contrary to previous studies, the net total heat budget is negative over the present period in all AORCMs and satisfies the heat closure budget controlled by a net positive heat gain at the strait of Gibraltar in the present climate. Under climate change scenario, some models predict a warming of the Mediterranean Sea from the ocean surface (positive net heat flux) in addition to the positive flux at the strait of Gibraltar for the 2021-2050 period. The shortwave and latent flux are increasing and the longwave and sensible fluxes are decreasing compared to the 1961-1990 period due to a reduction of the cloud cover and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and SSTs over the 2021-2050 period. The AORCMs provide a good estimates of the water budget with a drying of the region during the twenty-first century. For the ensemble mean, he decrease in precipitation and runoff is about 10 and 15% respectively and the increase in evaporation is much weaker, about 2% compared to the 1961-1990 period which confirm results obtained in recent studies. Despite a clear consistency in the trends and results between the models, this study also underlines important differences in the model set-ups, methodology and choices of some physical parameters inducing

  10. An estimate of the coronal magnetic field near a solar coronal mass ejection from low-frequency radio observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, K.; Ramesh, R.; Kishore, P.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: khariharan@iiap.res.in [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We report ground-based, low-frequency (<100 MHz) radio imaging, spectral, and polarimeter observations of the type II radio burst associated with the solar coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2013 May 2. The spectral observations indicate that the burst has fundamental (F) and harmonic (H) emission components with split-band and herringbone structures. The imaging observations at 80 MHz indicate that the H component of the burst was located close to leading edge of the CME at a radial distance of r ≈ 2 R {sub ☉} in the solar atmosphere. The polarimeter observations of the type II burst, also at 80 MHz, indicate that the peak degree of circular polarization (dcp) corresponding to the emission generated in the corona ahead of and behind the associated MHD shock front are ≈0.05 ± 0.02 and ≈0.1 ± 0.01, respectively. We calculated the magnetic field B in the above two coronal regions by adopting the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic plasma emission and the values are ≈(0.7-1.4) ± 0.2 G and ≈(1.4-2.8) ± 0.1 G, respectively.

  11. MAVEN observations of the response of Mars to an interplanetary coronal mass ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B M; Grebowsky, J M; Luhmann, J G; Connerney, J; Eparvier, F; Ergun, R; Halekas, J; Larson, D; Mahaffy, P; McFadden, J; Mitchell, D F; Schneider, N; Zurek, R; Bougher, S; Brain, D; Ma, Y J; Mazelle, C; Andersson, L; Andrews, D; Baird, D; Baker, D; Bell, J M; Benna, M; Chaffin, M; Chamberlin, P; Chaufray, Y-Y; Clarke, J; Collinson, G; Combi, M; Crary, F; Cravens, T; Crismani, M; Curry, S; Curtis, D; Deighan, J; Delory, G; Dewey, R; DiBraccio, G; Dong, C; Dong, Y; Dunn, P; Elrod, M; England, S; Eriksson, A; Espley, J; Evans, S; Fang, X; Fillingim, M; Fortier, K; Fowler, C M; Fox, J; Gröller, H; Guzewich, S; Hara, T; Harada, Y; Holsclaw, G; Jain, S K; Jolitz, R; Leblanc, F; Lee, C O; Lee, Y; Lefevre, F; Lillis, R; Livi, R; Lo, D; Mayyasi, M; McClintock, W; McEnulty, T; Modolo, R; Montmessin, F; Morooka, M; Nagy, A; Olsen, K; Peterson, W; Rahmati, A; Ruhunusiri, S; Russell, C T; Sakai, S; Sauvaud, J-A; Seki, K; Steckiewicz, M; Stevens, M; Stewart, A I F; Stiepen, A; Stone, S; Tenishev, V; Thiemann, E; Tolson, R; Toublanc, D; Vogt, M; Weber, T; Withers, P; Woods, T; Yelle, R

    2015-11-01

    Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ongoing ion loss to space, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft made comprehensive measurements of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact in March 2015. Responses include changes in the bow shock and magnetosheath, formation of widespread diffuse aurora, and enhancement of pick-up ions. Observations and models both show an enhancement in escape rate of ions to space during the event. Ion loss during solar events early in Mars history may have been a major contributor to the long-term evolution of the Mars atmosphere.

  12. 不同气氛对TATB基含铝炸药爆热的影响%Detonation Heat of TATB-based Aluminized Explosive in Different Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹威; 郭向利; 段英良; 昝继超; 韩勇; 刘世俊

    2016-01-01

    [ ABSTRACT] To measure the heat generation of triaminotrinitrobenzene( TATB)-based aluminized explosive in different atmospheres, the exotherm of pressed charge in vacuum, 0. 1 MPa nitrogen, 0. 1 MPa air, 0. 1 MPa oxygen and 1. 5 MPa oxygen were measured by adiabatic calorimetric bomb and the energy release rule was studied. Then the solid explosion products were detected by X-ray diffraction ( XRD) . Results show that the heat output of TATB-based aluminized explosive increased gradually in the sequence of vacuum, 0. 1 MPa nitrogen, 0. 1 MPa air, 0. 1 MPa oxygen and 1. 5 MPa oxygen;the increase of atmospheric pressure results in the increase of heat output, which is shown that the heat output in 0. 1 MPa nitrogen increased by 15. 7% than that in vacuum; and the heat output increases with the increase of oxygen amount in atmosphere, which is verified by the conclusion that the heat output in 0. 1 MPa air was 7. 8% larger than that in 0. 1 MPa nitrogen, the heat output in 0. 1 MPa oxygen was 49. 7% higher than that in 0. 1 MPa nitrogen, and the heat output in 1. 5 MPa oxygen was 146. 1% higher than that in 0. 1 MPa nitrogen. In the case that the heat output of TATB-based aluminized explosive was measured in oxygen-rich atmosphere, the measured heat output was close to the combustion heat, and the XRD of the explosion products verified that the aluminum powders were almost completely oxidized. Meanwhile, AlN was not detected in 0. 1MPa nitrogen. It provides a method to measure the heat output of aluminized explosives and analyze the existing form of aluminum element in explosion products.%为了测定三氨基三硝基苯( TATB)基含铝炸药在不同气氛中的爆热,使用绝热式量热弹对其压装药在真空、0.1 MPa氮气、0.1 MPa空气、0.1 MPa氧气和1.5 MPa氧气条件下的爆热进行了测量,研究了其能量释放规律,并使用X射线衍射(XRD)对固相产物成分进行了分析。结果表明:TATB基含铝炸药在真空、0.1 MPa

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of Coronal Evolution and Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Flux cancellation, defined observationally as the mutual disappearance of magnetic fields of opposite polarity at the neutral line separating them, has been found to occur frequently at the site of filaments (called prominences when observed on the limb of the Sun). During the second year of this project, we have studied theoretically the role that flux cancellation may play in prominence formation, prominence eruption, and the initiation of coronal mass ejections. This work has been in published in two papers: "Magnetic Field Topology in Prominences" by Lionello, Mikic, Linker, and Amari and "Flux Cancellation and Coronal Mass Ejections" by Linker, Mikic, Riley, Lionello, Amari, and Odstrcil.

  14. Attaining Whole-Ecosystem Warming Using Air and Deep Soil Heating Methods with an Elevated CO2 Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Paul J.; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Nettles, W. Robert; Phillips, Jana R.; Krassovski, Misha B.; Hook, Leslie A.; Gu, Lianhong; Richardson, Andrew D.; Aubrecht, Donald M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Barbier, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operational methods to achieve and measure both deep soil heating (0–3 m) and whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) appropriate to the scale of tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods were developed to allow scientists to provide a plausible set of ecosystem warming scenarios within which immediate and longer term (one decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles) could be me...

  15. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline; Hallinan, Gregg; Monroe, Ryan; Bourke, Stephen; Starburst Program Team

    2017-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. My thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs.Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), detecting 12 bright (>10 mJy) radio bursts in 58 hours. This survey’s ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light.To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the JVLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission.These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially with the advent of large low

  16. High-temperature differential emission measure and altitude variations in the temperature and density of solar flare coronal X-ray sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of plasma heating and acceleration region properties presents a major observational challenge in solar flare physics. Using the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), the high temperature differential emission measure, DEM(T), and the energy-dependent spatial structure of solar flare coronal sources are studied quantitatively. The altitude of the coronal X-ray source is observed to increase with energy by ~+0.2 arcsec/keV between 10 and 25 keV. Although...

  17. 2D cellular automaton model for the evolution of active region coronal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Marcelo López

    2016-01-01

    We study a 2D cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the XRT telescope on board Hinode we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy to understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of -2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in t...

  18. Unravelling the Components of a Multi-thermal Coronal Loop using Magnetohydrodynamic Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Prasad, S.; Jess, D. B.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Banerjee, D.

    2017-01-01

    Coronal loops, constituting the basic building blocks of the active Sun, serve as primary targets to help understand the mechanisms responsible for maintaining multi-million Kelvin temperatures in the solar and stellar coronae. Despite significant advances in observations and theory, our knowledge on the fundamental properties of these structures is limited. Here, we present unprecedented observations of accelerating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal loop that show differential propagation speeds in two distinct temperature channels, revealing the multi-stranded and multithermal nature of the loop. Utilizing the observed speeds and employing nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolations, we derive the actual temperature variation along the loop in both channels, and thus are able to resolve two individual components of the multithermal loop for the first time. The obtained positive temperature gradients indicate uniform heating along the loop, rather than isolated footpoint heating.

  19. Unravelling the components of a multi-thermal coronal loop using magnetohydrodynamic seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, S Krishna; Klimchuk, J A; Banerjee, D

    2016-01-01

    Coronal loops, constituting the basic building blocks of the active Sun, serve as primary targets to help understand the mechanisms responsible for maintaining multi-million Kelvin temperatures in the solar and stellar coronae. Despite significant advances in observations and theory, our knowledge on the fundamental properties of these structures is limited. Here, we present unprecedented observations of accelerating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal loop that show differential propagation speeds in two distinct temperature channels, revealing the multi-stranded and multi-thermal nature of the loop. Utilizing the observed speeds and employing nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolations, we derive the actual temperature variation along the loop in both channels, and thus are able to resolve two individual components of the multi-thermal loop for the first time. The obtained positive temperature gradients indicate uniform heating along the loop, rather than isolated footpoint heating.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade of coronal loop magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappazzo, A F; Velli, M

    2011-06-01

    The Parker model for coronal heating is investigated through a high resolution simulation. An inertial range is resolved where fluctuating magnetic energy EMk[Please see symbol]) [Please see symbol] k[Please see symbol](-2.7) exceeds kinetic energy EK(k[Please see symbol])[Please see symbol]k[Please see symbol](-0.6). Increments scale as δbℓ ~/= ℓ(-0.85) and δuℓ ~/= ℓ(+0.2) with velocity increasing at small scales, indicating that magnetic reconnection plays a prime role in this turbulent system. We show that spectral energy transport is akin to standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence even for a system of reconnecting current sheets sustained by the boundary. In this new MHD turbulent cascade, kinetic energy flows are negligible while cross-field flows are enhanced, and through a series of "reflections" between the two fields, cascade more than half of the total spectral energy flow.

  1. On interplanetary coronal mass ejection identification at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, T.; Russell, C. T.; Gosling, J. T.

    1999-06-01

    Coronal mass ejections are believed to be produced in the corona from closed magnetic regions not previously participating in the solar wind expansion. At 1 AU their interplanetary counterparts (ICMEs) generally have a number of distinct plasma and field signatures that distinguish them from the ambient solar wind. These include heat flux dropouts, bi-directional streaming, enhanced alpha particle events, times of depressed proton temperatures, intervals of distorted or enhanced magnetic field, and times of large magnetic field rotations characteristic of magnetic clouds. The first three of these signatures are phenomena that occur at some point within the ICME, but do not necessarily persist throughout the entire ICME. The large scale magnetic field rotations, distortions and enhancements, and the proton temperature depressions tend to mark more accurately the beginning and end of the ICME proper. We examine herein the reliability with which each of these markers identifies ICMEs utilizing ISEE-3 data from 1978-1980.

  2. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  3. Temperature-Pressure Profile of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b from HST Sodium Observations: Detection of Upper Atmospheric Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Huitson, Catherine M; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Ballester, Gilda E; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Désert, Jean-Michel; Pont, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    We present transmission spectra of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard HST. The spectra cover the wavelength range 5808-6380 Ang with a resolving power of R=5000. We detect absorption from the NaI doublet within the exoplanet's atmosphere at the 9 sigma confidence level within a 5 Ang band (absorption depth 0.09 +/- 0.01%) and use the data to measure the doublet's spectral absorption profile. We detect only the narrow cores of the doublet. The narrowness of the feature could be due to an obscuring high-altitude haze of an unknown composition or a significantly sub-solar NaI abundance hiding the line wings beneath a H2 Rayleigh signature. We compare the spectral absorption profile over 5.5 scale heights with model spectral absorption profiles and constrain the temperature at different atmospheric regions, allowing us to construct a vertical temperature profile. We identify two temperature regimes; a 1280 +/- 240 K region derived from the NaI doublet line wings ...

  4. Numerical simulation of an atmospheric pressure RF-driven plasma needle and heat transfer to adjacent human skin using COMSOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Maximilian; Ochoa, Angel; Breitkopf, Cornelia

    2015-06-07

    Plasma medicine is an emerging field where plasma physics is used for therapeutical applications. Temperature is an important factor to take into account with respect to the applications of plasma to biological systems. During the treatment, the tissue temperature could increase to critical values. In this work, a model is presented, which is capable of predicting the skin temperature during a treatment with a radio frequency driven plasma needle. The main gas was helium. To achieve this, a discharge model was coupled to a heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results provide maximum application times for different power depositions in order to avoid reaching critical skin temperatures.

  5. The relationship between the magnetic field and the coronal activities in the polar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, Masumi

    The image of the polar region of the sun is changing based on the observations taken by the three telescopes aboard the Hinode satellite. Based on the data of Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard Hinode, Tsuneta et al. (2007) reported that there are many localized magnetic poles in the polar region, and the magnetic strength of the magnetic poles is over thousand Gauss. They called the strong magnetic pole in the polar region "kG-pathce". And, Cirtain, et al. (2007) and Savcheva, et al. (2007) presented that the occurrence rate of X-ray jets in the polar region is very high and 10 events/hour. Their result was obtained by the high resolution observations by X-ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode. These results are very important for understanding the fast solar wind that blows from the polar region. On the other hand, in order to understand the activities in the polar region, it is very important to investigate the relationship between the magnetic environments and the coronal structures/activities. In the paper, for the purpose, we aligned the photospheric images (G-band, Stoke-IQUV of FeI), the chromospheric images (Ca II H line, Stokes-V of Na) and coronal images (X-ray) obtained by Hinode, and investigate the relationship. Basically, the co-alignment process was done based on the alignment information of the telescopes reported by Shimizu et al. (2007). And, we aligned the images using the curve of the solar limb, finally. As the result of the co-alignments, we found the following things. 1) On most kG-patches in the polar coronal hole, there is any coronal structure. 2) X-ray jets in the polar coronal hole are not always associated with the kG-patches. Some X-ray jets are associated with very weak magnetic field. And, the jets are strongly associated with the emerging/cancelling magnetic flux. The first one suggests that the coronal heating is not effective only in the magnetic field strong, such as the center of the sunspot. The second result indicates that the

  6. THERMAL STRUCTURE OF CORONAL LOOPS AS SEEN WITH NORIKURA CORONAGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Singh, Jagdev [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Ichimoto, K., E-mail: krishna@iiap.res.in [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan)

    2013-03-10

    The thermal structure of a coronal loop, both along and across the loop, is vital in determining the exact plasma heating mechanism. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the off-limb corona were made using the 25 cm Norikura coronagraph, located at Norikura, Japan. Observations on a number of days were made simultaneously in four forbidden iron emission lines, namely, the [Fe XI] 7892 A line, the [Fe XIII] 10747 A and 10798 A lines, and the [Fe XIV] 5303 A line and on some days made only in the [Fe XI] 7892 A and [Fe X] 6374 A lines. Using temperature sensitive emission line ratios [Fe XIV] 5303 A/[Fe XIII] 10747 A and [Fe XI] 7892 A/[Fe X] 6374 A, we compute the electron temperatures along 18 different loop structures observed on different days. We find a significant negative temperature gradient in all of the structures observed in Fe XIV and Fe XIII and a positive temperature gradient in the structures observed in Fe XI and Fe X. Combining these results with the previous investigations by Singh and his collaborators, we infer that the loop tops, in general, appear hotter when observed in colder lines and colder when observed in relatively hotter lines as compared to their coronal foot points. We suggest that this contrasting trend observed in the temperature variation along the loop structures can be explained by a gradual interaction of different temperature plasma. The exact mechanism responsible for this interaction must be investigated further and has the potential to constrain loop heating models.

  7. Hinode, SDO AIA, and CoMP Observations of a Coronal Cavity with a Hot Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K.; Jibben, P.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal cavities are low emission regions often situated around quiescent prominences. Prominences may exist for days or months prior to eruption and the magnetic structure of the cavity during the quiescent period is important to understanding the pre-eruption phase. We describe observations of a coronal cavity with a hot core situated above a polar crown prominence. The cavity, visible on the southwest limb, was observed for a period of three hours as a Hinode Coordinated Observation (HOP 114). Using Hinode's X-ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) we present the thermal emission properties and coronal velocity structures of the cavity. We find the core has hotter temperatures than the surrounding plasma and there is evidence of turbulent velocities within the cavity. We also investigate the interaction of the cavity with the prominence material using Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data and H-alpha data from Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We find evidence of hot plasma at the spine of the prominence reaching into the cavity. These observations suggest a cylindrical flux tube best represents the cavity structure. The magnetic structure of the cavity is further discussed using data from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP). This work is supported by under contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO and grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO.

  8. Observations of a Coronal Cavity and Prominence with Hinode, IRIS, and AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Katharine

    2015-04-01

    Coronal cavities are low emission regions above quiescent prominences. The interaction of the prominence material and coronal cavity is still poorly understood. We present observations of a coronal cavity and prominence system observed on 9 October 2014. The observations are part of a joint observation program (HOP264) including Hinode and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). A small cavity is seen just above the prominence in the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) images. Using data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and IRIS, multi-thermal plasma can be seen traveling along the cavity loops. During this time, a brightening is seen near the center of the cavity in the XRT images suggesting hot material has been trapped inside the cavity. In addition to presenting the cavity dynamics, we characterize the cavity velocity structures using the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and discuss the magnetic structure of the cavity using data from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP). This work is supported by under contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO and grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO.

  9. A Solar Coronal Cavity with a Hot Core Observed by Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2014-06-01

    Coronal cavities are large low density regions often observed above high latitude filament channels. These cavities will sometimes have areas of bright X-ray emission near their centers. Using Hinode satellite data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) we examine the thermal emission properties and coronal velocity structures of a cavity, containing a central bright X-ray emission, observed on 23 February 2012. We investigate the interaction between the coronal cavity and the prominence material using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and H-α data from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We use a non-linear force-free field model to understand the magnetic field structure that gives rise to the coronal emission in this cavity. A comparison of AIA and XRT data reveal emission in 171 that outlines the hot core of the cavity; consistent with the modeled magnetic field structure.This work is supported by under contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO and grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO.

  10. Vector Magnetic Field Measurements along a Cooled Stereo-imaged Coronal Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, T. A.; Penn, M. J.; Lin, H.; Judge, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The variation of the vector magnetic field along structures in the solar corona remains unmeasured. Using a unique combination of spectropolarimetry and stereoscopy, we infer and compare the vector magnetic field structure and three-dimensional morphology of an individuated coronal loop structure undergoing a thermal instability. We analyze spectropolarimetric data of the He i λ10830 triplet (1s2s{}3{S}1-1s2p{}3{P}{2,1,0}) obtained at the Dunn Solar Telescope with the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter on 2011 September 19. Cool coronal loops are identified by their prominent drainage signatures in the He i data (redshifts up to 185 km s-1). Extinction of EUV background radiation along these loops is observed by both the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board spacecraft A of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and is used to stereoscopically triangulate the loop geometry up to heights of 70 Mm (0.1R Sun) above the solar surface. The He i polarized spectra along this loop exhibit signatures indicative of atomic-level polarization, as well as magnetic signatures through the Hanle and Zeeman effects. Spectropolarimetric inversions indicate that the magnetic field is generally oriented along the coronal loop axis, and provide the height dependence of the magnetic field intensity. The technique we demonstrate is a powerful one that may help better understand the thermodynamics of coronal fine-structure magnetism.

  11. The formation heights of coronal shocks from 2D density and Alfv\\'en speed maps

    CERN Document Server

    Zucca, Pietro; Bloomfield, D Shaun; Gallagher, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Super-Alfv\\'enic shock waves associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can produce radio emission known as Type II bursts. In the absence of direct imaging, accurate estimates of coronal electron densities, magnetic field strengths and Alfv\\'en speeds are required in order to calculate the kinematics of shocks. To date, 1D radial models have been used, but these are not appropriate for shocks propagating in non-radial directions. Here, we study a coronal shock wave associated with a CME and Type II radio burst using 2D electron density and Alfv\\'en speed maps to determine the locations that shocks are excited as the CME expands through the corona. Coronal density maps were obtained from emission measures derived from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory ($SDO$) and polarized brightness measurements from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ($SOHO$). Alfv\\'en speed maps were calculated using these dens...

  12. Characterisation of Off-Limb Coronal Bright Fronts Observed with SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen; Kendrick, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Shocks associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in interplanetary space are known to accelerate ions to multi-MeV/nuc energies, creating solar energetic particles (SEPs). In the last five years, there have been multiple EUV observations of coronal bright fronts (CBFs), which may be the coronal counterparts of interplanetary shocks. However, it is not presently known how efficient these low-coronal shocks are in accelerating particles to SEP energies. We investigate a number of CME events over a period from 2010-2014, using an automated algorithm to measure the kinematics of the associated CBFs in data by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, as well as ground-based radio observations. We focus on off-limb events, since they allow for better determination of the three-dimensional structure of CBFs. Using a new suite of analysis tools, we automatically compute velocities and accelerations of the observed CBFs. We perform analysis of shock evolution and particle acceleration efficiency using data-driven magnetic field observations and differential emission measure modeling.

  13. Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta radiances and profiles in polar coronal holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Curdt, Werner; Vial, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen Lyman-alpha plays a dominant role in the radiative energy transport in the lower transition region, and is important for the stud- ies of transition-region structure as well as solar wind origin. We investigate the Ly-alpha profiles obtained by SUMER in coronal holes and quiet Sun. In a subset of these observations, also the Hi Lyman-beta, Si iii, and O vi lines were (quasi-) simultaneously recorded. We find that the distances between the two peaks of Ly-alpha profiles are larger in coronal holes than in the quiet Sun, indicating a larger opacity in coronal holes. This difference might result from the different magnetic structures or the different radiation fields in the two regions. Most of the Ly-beta profiles in the coronal hole have a stronger blue peak, in contrast to those in quiet-Sun regions. Whilst in both regions the Ly-alpha profiles are stronger in the blue peak. Although the asymmetries are likely to be produced by differential flows in the solar atmosphere, their detailed formation ...

  14. Reconnection-Driven Coronal-Hole Jets with Gravity and Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Karpen, J T; Antiochos, S K; Pariat, E

    2016-01-01

    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in solar coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagat...

  15. Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Warmuth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating bright fronts. Coronal waves, as these perturbations are usually referred to, have now been observed in a wide range of spectral channels, yielding a wealth of information. Many findings have supported the “classical” interpretation of the disturbances: fast-mode MHD waves or shocks that are propagating in the solar corona. However, observations that seemed inconsistent with this picture have stimulated the development of alternative models in which “pseudo waves” are generated by magnetic reconfiguration in the framework of an expanding coronal mass ejection. This has resulted in a vigorous debate on the physical nature of these disturbances. This review focuses on demonstrating how the numerous observational findings of the last one and a half decades can be used to constrain our models of large-scale coronal waves, and how a coherent physical understanding of these disturbances is finally emerging.

  16. Magnetic Topology of Coronal Hole Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In recent work, Antiochos and coworkers argued that the boundary between the open and closed field regions on the Sun can be extremely complex with narrow corridors of open ux connecting seemingly disconnected coronal holes from the main polar holes, and that these corridors may be the sources of the slow solar wind. We examine, in detail, the topology of such magnetic configurations using an analytical source surface model that allows for analysis of the eld with arbitrary resolution. Our analysis reveals three important new results: First, a coronal hole boundary can join stably to the separatrix boundary of a parasitic polarity region. Second, a single parasitic polarity region can produce multiple null points in the corona and, more important, separator lines connecting these points. Such topologies are extremely favorable for magnetic reconnection, because it can now occur over the entire length of the separators rather than being con ned to a small region around the nulls. Finally, the coronal holes are not connected by an open- eld corridor of finite width, but instead are linked by a singular line that coincides with the separatrix footprint of the parasitic polarity. We investigate how the topological features described above evolve in response to motion of the parasitic polarity region. The implications of our results for the sources of the slow solar wind and for coronal and heliospheric observations are discussed.

  17. Influence of temperature on flammability limits of heat treating atmosphere%温度对热处理气氛可燃极限的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dwyer John; Hansel James G.; Philips Tom; Chen Wayne; 侯学涛

    2011-01-01

    讨论了热处理气氛中常用气体成分的可燃极限,分析了上下可燃极限与温度的关系。提出了一个应用CAFT理论推断气氛可燃极限的方法,同时解释了温度对热处理炉安全操作的影响。%The flammability limits of gas constituents commonly used in heat treating atmospheres were discussed.The upper and lower flammability limits,with respect to temperature,were analyzed.A method was described for determining these limits using CAFT theory.This temperature factor and its impact on safe furnace practices were addressed.

  18. Self-Consistent MHD Modeling of a Coronal Mass Ejection, Coronal Dimming, and a Giant Cusp-Shaped Arcade Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiota, D; Chen, P F; Yamamoto, T T; Sakajiri, T; Shibata, K; Shiota, Daikou; Isobe, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Sakajiri, Takuma; Shibata, Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    We performed magnetohydrodynamic simulation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated giant arcade formations, and the results suggested new interpretations of observations of CMEs. We performed two cases of the simulation: with and without heat conduction. Comparing between the results of the two cases, we found that reconnection rate in the conductive case is a little higher than that in the adiabatic case and the temperature of the loop top is consistent with the theoretical value predicted by the Yokoyama-Shibata scaling law. The dynamical properties such as velocity and magnetic fields are similar in the two cases, whereas thermal properties such as temperature and density are very different.In both cases, slow shocks associated with magnetic reconnectionpropagate from the reconnection region along the magnetic field lines around the flux rope, and the shock fronts form spiral patterns. Just outside the slow shocks, the plasma density decreased a great deal. The soft X-ray images synthesized from t...

  19. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  20. Using coronal seismology to estimate the magnetic field strength in a realistic coronal model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Coronal seismology is extensively used to estimate properties of the corona, e.g. the coronal magnetic field strength are derived from oscillations observed in coronal loops. We present a three-dimensional coronal simulation including a realistic energy balance in which we observe oscillations of a loop in synthesised coronal emission. We use these results to test the inversions based on coronal seismology. From the simulation of the corona above an active region we synthesise extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from the model corona. From this we derive maps of line intensity and Doppler shift providing synthetic data in the same format as obtained from observations. We fit the (Doppler) oscillation of the loop in the same fashion as done for observations to derive the oscillation period and damping time. The loop oscillation seen in our model is similar to imaging and spectroscopic observations of the Sun. The velocity disturbance of the kink oscillation shows an oscillation period of 52.5s and a damping tim...

  1. Self modulation of slow magnetosonic waves and turbulence generation in solar coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Sharma, Prachi; Yadav, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    A mechanism based on turbulence for solar coronal heating has been introduced in the present work. Turbulence is considered as an important tool for heating. In the present work, turbulence generation takes place due to the nonlinear interaction of the magnetohydrodynamic waves. Slow magnetosonic waves get localized due to the density perturbations, which are assumed to be present in the background. These perturbations are associated with the low frequency slow magnetosonic waves that are supposed to be propagating in the coronal environment. The dynamics of high (0.01 Hz) and low frequency (0.001 Hz) slow magnetosonic waves have been studied by the two-fluid model and simulate numerically with the pseudo-spectral method. The power law index having a value of nearly -5/3 is obtained, which represents Kolmogorov scaling before the first break point. Based on the fact that the energy flux calculated from the Kolmogorov scaling is sufficient to heat the coronal loops as mentioned in the literature, the proposed interaction can be considered a source for turbulence generation having Kolmogorov scaling.

  2. The circulation pattern and day-night heat transport in the atmosphere of a synchronously rotating aquaplanet: Dependence on planetary rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, S.; Ishiwatari, M.; Nakajima, K.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Onishi, M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Kuramoto, K.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate a possible variety of atmospheric states realized on a synchronously rotating aquaplanet, an experiment studying the impact of planetary rotation rate is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with simplified hydrological and radiative processes. The entire planetary surface is covered with a swamp ocean. The value of planetary rotation rate is varied from zero to the Earth's, while other parameters such as planetary radius, mean molecular weight and total mass of atmospheric dry components, and solar constant are set to the present Earth's values. The integration results show that the atmosphere reaches statistically equilibrium states for all runs; none of the calculated cases exemplifies the runaway greenhouse state. The circulation patterns obtained are classified into four types: Type-I characterized by the dominance of a day-night thermally direct circulation, Type-II characterized by a zonal wave number one resonant Rossby wave over a meridionally broad westerly jet on the equator, Type-III characterized by a long time scale north-south asymmetric variation, and Type-IV characterized by a pair of mid-latitude westerly jets. With the increase of planetary rotation rate, the circulation evolves from Type-I to Type-II and then to Type-III gradually and smoothly, whereas the change from Type-III to Type-IV is abrupt and discontinuous. Over a finite range of planetary rotation rate, both Types-III and -IV emerge as statistically steady states, constituting multiple equilibria. In spite of the substantial changes in circulation, the net energy transport from the day side to the night side remains almost insensitive to planetary rotation rate, although the partition into dry static energy and latent heat energy transports changes. The reason for this notable insensitivity is that the outgoing longwave radiation over the broad area of the day side is constrained by the radiation limit of a moist atmosphere, so that the

  3. Standing sausage modes in curved coronal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Magnetohydrodynamic waveguides such as dense coronal loops can support standing modes. The ratios of the periods of oscillations for different longitudinal harmonics depend on the dispersive nature of the waveguide and so may be used as a seismological tool to determine coronal parameters. Aims: We extend models of standing sausage modes in low β coronal loops to include the effects of loop curvature. The behaviour of standing sausage modes in this geometry is used to explain the properties of observed oscillations that cannot be accounted for using straight loop models. Methods: We perform 2D numerical simulations of an oscillating coronal loop, modelled as a dense slab embedded in a potential magnetic field. The loop is field-aligned and so experiences expansion with height in addition to being curved. Standing sausage modes are excited by compressive perturbations of the loop and their properties are studied. Results: The spatial profiles of standing sausage modes are found to be modified by the expanding loop geometry typical for flaring loops and modelled by a potential magnetic field in our simulations. Longitudinal harmonics of order n > 1 have anti-nodes that are shifted towards the loop apex and the amplitude of anti-nodes near the loop apex is smaller than those near the loop footpoints. Conclusions: We find that the observation of standing sausage modes by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph in a flaring coronal loop on 12 January 2000 is consistent with interpretation in terms of the global mode (n = 1) and third harmonic (n = 3). This interpretation accounts for the period ratio and spatial structure of the observed oscillations.

  4. Nonlinear Force-free Coronal Magnetic Stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifu, Iulia; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Insights into the 3D structure of the solar coronal magnetic field have been obtained in the past by two completely different approaches. The first approach are nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations, which use photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The second approach uses stereoscopy of coronal magnetic loops observed in EUV coronal images from different vantage points. Both approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. Extrapolation methods are sensitive to noise and inconsistencies in the boundary data, and the accuracy of stereoscopy is affected by the ability of identifying the same structure in different images and by the separation angle between the view directions. As a consequence, for the same observational data, the 3D coronal magnetic fields computed with the two methods do not necessarily coincide. In an earlier work (Paper I) we extended our NLFFF optimization code by including stereoscopic constrains. The method was successfully tested with synthetic data, and within this work, we apply the newly developed code to a combined data set from SDO/HMI, SDO/AIA, and the two STEREO spacecraft. The extended method (called S-NLFFF) contains an additional term that monitors and minimizes the angle between the local magnetic field direction and the orientation of the 3D coronal loops reconstructed by stereoscopy. We find that when we prescribe the shape of the 3D stereoscopically reconstructed loops, the S-NLFFF method leads to a much better agreement between the modeled field and the stereoscopically reconstructed loops. We also find an appreciable decrease by a factor of two in the angle between the current and the magnetic field. This indicates the improved quality of the force-free solution obtained by S-NLFFF.

  5. The synthesis of tungsten trioxide gel by dissolution of tungsten in hydrogen peroxide and its transformations during the heat treatment in oxidation and reduction atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgijević Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and the thermal behavior of WO3 samples in air and in reduction atmosphere were studied. The sample I was prepared by the dissolution of fine metallic tungsten powder in hydrogen peroxide followed by solvent evaporation in the air at 60°C. Sample II was obtained by draining a part of the sample I at 60°C and then heating it up to 430°C. By the means of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis it was evidenced that the sample I was the amorphous hydrated gel, with the WO3•1.5H2O composition, while the second one was the anhidrous monoclinic WO3 with the mean particle size of 100 nm. Additionally, using the thermogravimetric and the differential thermal analysis simultaneously in the reduction atmosphere, both samples types were examined. After reduction the distribution of the metal particles number in respect to the diameters of the anhidrous sample was examined using the electron microscopy.

  6. Estimating sensible heat exchange between screen-covered canopies and the atmosphere using the surface renewal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Achiman, Ori; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Screenhouses and screen-covers are widely used in arid and semi-arid agriculture to protect crops from direct solar radiation and high wind speed, and to increase water use efficiency. However, accurate estimation of crop water use under screens is still a challenge. The most reliable method that directly measures evapotranspiration, the Eddy Covariance (EC), is both expensive and complex in data collection and processing. This renders it unfeasible for day to day use by farmers. A simpler alternative is the Surface Renewal (SR) technique which utilizes high frequency temperature readings of low-cost fine-wire thermocouples, to estimate the sensible heat flux. Assuming energy conservation and employing relatively cheap complementary measurements, the evapotranspiration can be estimated. The SR technique uses a structure function mathematical analysis that filters out noise and involves a time lag parameter to provide amplitude and time period of a ramp-like temperature signal. This behavior arises from the detachment of air parcels that have been heated or cooled near the surface and sequentially renewed by air parcels from above. While the SR technique is relatively simple to employ, it requires calibration against direct measurements. The aim of this research is to investigate the applicability of the SR technique in two different types of commonly used screenhouses in Israel. Two field campaigns were carried out: In the first campaign we studied a banana plantation grown in a shading screenhouse located in the coastal plain of northern Israel. The second campaign was located in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel, where a pepper plantation cultivated in an insect-proof screenhouse, with a much denser screen, was examined. In the two campaigns, SR sensible heat flux estimates were calibrated against simultaneous eddy covariance measurements. To optimize the SR operation, in each campaign fine-wire (50-76 μm) exposed T-type thermocouples were placed at

  7. Momentum, Heat, and Neutral Mass Transport in Convective Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Liquid Systems and Implications for Aqueous Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Alexander; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 $\\mu$m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results fro...

  8. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the intensity of urban heat island and urban cold island in Poznań, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Półrolniczak, Marek; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2017-02-01

    The study has analyzed influence of an atmospheric circulation on urban heat island (UHI) and urban cold island (UCI) in Poznań. Analysis was conducted on the basis of temperature data from two measurement points situated in the city center and in the Ławica airport (reference station) and the data concerning the air circulation (Niedźwiedź's calendar of circulation types and reanalysis of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)). The cases with UHI constitute about 85 % of all data, and UCI phenomena appear with a frequency of 14 % a year. The intensity of UHI phenomenon is higher in the anticyclonic circulation types. During the year in anticyclonic circulation, intensity of UHI is 1.2 °C on average while in cyclonic is only 0.8 °C. The occurring of UHI phenomena is possible throughout all seasons of the year in all hours of the day usually in anticyclonic circulation types. The cases with highest UHI intensity are related mostly to nighttime. The cases of UCI phenomena occurred almost ever on the daytime and the most frequently in colder part of the year together with cyclonic circulation. Study based on reanalysis data indicates that days with large intensity of UHI (above 4, 5, and 6 °C) are related to anticyclonic circulation. Anticyclonic circulation is also promoting the formation of the strongest UCI. Results based on both reanalysis and the atmospheric circulation data (Niedźwiedź's circulation type) confirm that cases with the strongest UHI and UCI during the same day occur in strong high-pressure system with the center situated above Poland or central Europe.

  9. Potential effect of atmospheric warming on grapevine phenology and post-harvest heat accumulation across a range of climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew; Mathews, Adam J.; Holzapfel, Bruno P.

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are accumulated within the perennial structure of grapevines when their production exceeds the requirements of reproduction and growth. The period between harvest and leaf-fall (the post-harvest period) is a key period for carbohydrate accumulation in relatively warmer grape-growing regions. The level of carbohydrate reserves available for utilisation in the following season has an important effect on canopy growth and yield potential and is therefore an important consideration in vineyard management. In a warming climate, the post-harvest period is lengthening and becoming warmer, evidenced through studies in wine regions worldwide that have correlated recent air temperature increases with changing grapevine phenology. Budbreak, flowering, veraison, and harvest have all been observed to be occurring earlier than in previous decades. Additionally, the final stage of the grapevine phenological cycle, leaf-fall, occurs later. This study explored the potential for increased post-harvest carbohydrate accumulation by modelling heat accumulation following harvest dates for the recent climate (1975-2004) and two warmer climate projections with mean temperature anomalies of +1.26 and +2.61 °C. Summaries of post-harvest heat accumulation between harvest and leaf-fall were produced for each of Australia's Geographical Indications (wine regions) to provide comparisons from the base temperatures to projected warmer conditions across a range of climates. The results indicate that for warmer conditions, all regions observe earlier occurring budbreak and harvest as well as increasing post-harvest growing degree days accumulation before leaf-fall. The level of increase varies depending upon starting climatic condition, with cooler regions experiencing the greatest change.

  10. First Use of Synoptic Vector Magnetograms for Global Nonlinear, Force-Free Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.; MacNeice, P.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently, there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimensional field lines into the solar atmosphere. Aims. For the first time, synoptic maps of a photospheric-vector magnetic field synthesized from the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. Methods. We solve the nonlinear force-free field equations using an optimization principle in spherical geometry. The resulting threedimensional magnetic fields are used to estimate the magnetic free energy content E(sub free) = E(sub nlfff) - E(sub pot), which is the difference of the magnetic energies between the nonpotential field and the potential field in the global solar corona. For comparison, we overlay the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Results. For a single Carrington rotation 2121, we find that the global nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic energy density is 10.3% higher than the potential one. Most of this free energy is located in active regions.

  11. Periodic Variations in the Coronal Green Line Intensity and their Connection with the White-light Coronal Structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Milan Minarovjech; Milan Rybansky; Vojtech Rusin

    2000-09-01

    We present an analysis of short time-scale intensity variations in the coronal green line as obtained with high time resolution observations. The observed data can be divided into two groups. The first one shows periodic intensity variations with a period of 5 min. the second one does not show any significant intensity variations. We studied the relation between regions of coronal intensity oscillations and the shape of whitelight coronal structures. We found that the coronal green-line oscillations occur mainly in regions where open white-light coronal structures are located.

  12. Radio AGN in galaxy clusters: heating hot atmospheres and driving supermassive black hole growth over cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, C -J; Nulsen, P E J

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the average radio-AGN (mechanical) power deposited into the hot atmospheres of galaxy clusters over more than three quarters of the age of the Universe. Our sample was drawn from eight major X-ray cluster surveys, and includes 685 clusters in the redshift range 0.1

  13. The Coronal Global Evolutionary Model (CGEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, George H.; DeRosa, M. L.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2013-07-01

    The Coronal Global Evolutionary Model, or CGEM, is a collaborative effort from the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), Stanford University, and Lockheed-Martin. In work that led up to the selection of this project, the team demonstrated its capability to use sequences of vector magnetograms and Dopplergrams from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument aboard the SDO to drive a magnetofrictional (MF) model of the coronal magnetic field in AR 11158, which produced an X2.2 flare. We will implement this MF model in spherical coordinates to enable real-time, long-term modeling of the non-potential coronal magnetic field, both globally and for individual active region (ARs). The model's Earth-facing hemisphere will be driven using electric fields derived from the observed evolution of photospheric line-of-sight magnetic fields and electric currents. Far-side data inputs will be from an existing flux transport code, combined with HMI far-side observations of new active regions, with empirical parametrizations of orientation and flux. Because this model includes large-scale coronal electric currents, it is a substantial improvement over existing real-time global coronal models, which assume potential fields. Data products available from the model will include: 1) the evolving photospheric electric field, Poynting flux, and helicity flux; 2) estimates of coronal free energy and non-potential geometry and topology; 3) initial and time-dependent boundary conditions for MHD modeling of active regions; and 4) time-dependent boundary conditions and flux tube expansion factors for MHD and empirical solar wind models. Unstable configurations found from MF models will be dynamically evolved with local and global MHD codes. Modules used to derive surface electric fields from magnetic evolution will be incorporated into the SDO/HMI data pipeline, and data products will be distributed through the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) and directly to space

  14. Reconnection and Spire Drift in Coronal Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Falconer, David

    2015-04-01

    It is observed that there are two morphologically-different kinds of X-ray/EUV jets in coronal holes: standard jets and blowout jets. In both kinds: (1) in the base of the jet there is closed magnetic field that has one foot in flux of polarity opposite that of the ambient open field of the coronal hole, and (2) in coronal X-ray/EUV images of the jet there is typically a bright nodule at the edge of the base. In the conventional scenario for jets of either kind, the bright nodule is a compact flare arcade, the downward product of interchange reconnection of closed field in the base with impacted ambient open field, and the upper product of this reconnection is the jet-outflow spire. It is also observed that in most jets of either kind the spire drifts sideways away from the bright nodule. We present the observed bright nodule and spire drift in an example standard jet and in two example blowout jets. With cartoons of the magnetic field and its reconnection in jets, we point out: (1) if the bright nodule is a compact flare arcade made by interchange reconnection, then the spire should drift toward the bright nodule, and (2) if the bright nodule is instead a compact flare arcade made, as in a filament-eruption flare, by internal reconnection of the legs of the erupting sheared-field core of a lobe of the closed field in the base, then the spire, made by the interchange reconnection that is driven on the outside of that lobe by the lobe’s internal convulsion, should drift away from the bright nodule. Therefore, from the observation that the spire usually drifts away from the bright nodule, we infer: (1) in X-ray/EUV jets of either kind in coronal holes the interchange reconnection that generates the jet-outflow spire usually does not make the bright nodule; instead, the bright nodule is made by reconnection inside erupting closed field in the base, as in a filament eruption, the eruption being either a confined eruption for a standard jet or a blowout eruption (as

  15. Flare plasma dynamics obseved with the YOHKOH Bragg crystal spectrometer. III. Spectral signatures of electron-beam-heated atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriska, John. T.

    1995-05-01

    Using numerical simulations of an electon-beam-heated solar flare, we investigate the observational consequences of variations in the electron beam total energy flux and the low-energy cut off value for models with both low and high initial densities. To do this we use the evolution of the physical parameters of the simulated flares to synthesize the time evolution of the spectrum in the wavelength region surrounding tha Ca xix resonance line. These spectra are then summed over a 9 s time interval to simulate typical spectra from the Yohkoh Bragg crystal spectometer and the first three moments are computed for comparison with observational results. This comparison shows that no single low or high initial density model satisfies the observed average behavior of the Ca xix resonance line. Low initial density models produce too large a blue shift velocity, while high initial density model have lines that are too narrow. Comparison of these models with the Yohkok data suggests that the key problem for models of the impulsive phase ofa solar flare is producing significant amounts of stationary hot plasma early in the flare.

  16. New analytical and numerical models of solar coronal loop: I. Application to forced vertical kink oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Murawski, K; Kraskiewicz, J; Srivastava, A K

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We construct a new analytical model of a solar coronal loop that is embedded in a gravitationally stratified and magnetically confined atmosphere. On the basis of this analytical model, we devise a numerical model of solar coronal loops. We adopt it to perform the numerical simulations of its vertical kink oscillations excited by an external driver. Methods. Our model of the solar atmosphere is constructed by adopting a realistic temperature distribution and specifying the curved magnetic field lines that constitute a coronal loop. This loop is described by 2D, ideal magnetohydro- dynamic equations that are numerically solved by the FLASH code. Results. The vertical kink oscillations are excited by a periodic driver in the vertical component of velocity, acting at the top of the photosphere. For this forced driver with its amplitude 3 km/s, the excited oscillations exhibit about 1.2 km/s amplitude in their velocity and the loop apex oscillates with its amplitude in displacement of about 100 km. Conclusi...

  17. GLOBAL CORONAL SEISMOLOGY IN THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA THROUGH FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES OBSERVED BY STEREO SECCHI COR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Kramar, Maxim; Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chae, Jongchul [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Jie [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    We present global coronal seismology for the first time, which allows us to determine inhomogeneous magnetic field strength in the extended corona. From the measurements of the propagation speed of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the coronal background density distribution derived from the polarized radiances observed by the STEREO SECCHI COR1, we determined the magnetic field strengths along the trajectories of the wave at different heliocentric distances. We found that the results have an uncertainty less than 40%, and are consistent with values determined with a potential field model and reported in previous works. The characteristics of the coronal medium we found are that (1) the density, magnetic field strength, and plasma β are lower in the coronal hole region than in streamers; (2) the magnetic field strength decreases slowly with height but the electron density decreases rapidly so that the local fast magnetosonic speed increases while plasma β falls off with height; and (3) the variations of the local fast magnetosonic speed and plasma β are dominated by variations in the electron density rather than the magnetic field strength. These results imply that Moreton and EIT waves are downward-reflected fast magnetosonic waves from the upper solar corona, rather than freely propagating fast magnetosonic waves in a certain atmospheric layer. In addition, the azimuthal components of CMEs and the driven waves may play an important role in various manifestations of shocks, such as type II radio bursts and solar energetic particle events.

  18. “Dandelion” Filament Eruption and Coronal Waves Associated with a Solar Flare on 2011 February 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Denis P.; Martínez, Lurdes M.; Buleje, Yovanny J.; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Ishitsuka, José K.; Morita, Satoshi; Asai, Ayumi; UeNo, Satoru; Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Takasao, Shinsuke; Yoshinaga, Yusuke; Otsuji, Kenichi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Coronal disturbances associated with solar flares, such as Hα Moreton waves, X-ray waves, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal waves, are discussed herein in relation to magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves or shocks in the corona. To understand the mechanism of coronal disturbances, full-disk solar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution over multiple wavelengths are of crucial importance. We observed a filament eruption, whose shape is like a “dandelion,” associated with the M1.6 flare that occurred on 2011 February 16 in Hα images taken by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at Ica University, Peru. We derive the three-dimensional velocity field of the erupting filament. We also identify winking filaments that are located far from the flare site in the Hα images, whereas no Moreton wave is observed. By comparing the temporal evolution of the winking filaments with those of the coronal wave seen in the EUV images data taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead, we confirm that the winking filaments were activated by the EUV coronal wave.

  19. The plasma structure of coronal hole solar wind: Origins and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2016-06-01

    Whereas slow solar wind is known to be highly structured, the fast (coronal hole origin) wind is usually considered to be homogeneous. Using measurements from Helios 1 + 2, ACE, Wind, and Ulysses, structure in the coronal hole origin solar wind is examined from 0.3 AU to 2.3 AU. Care is taken to collect and analyze intervals of "unperturbed coronal hole plasma." In these intervals, solar wind structure is seen in the proton number density, proton temperature, proton specific entropy, magnetic field strength, magnetic field to density ratio, electron heat flux, helium abundance, heavy-ion charge-state ratios, and Alfvenicity. Typical structure amplitudes are factors of 2, far from homogeneous. Variations are also seen in the solar wind radial velocity. Using estimates of the motion of the solar wind origin footpoint on the Sun for the various spacecraft, the satellite time series measurements are converted to distance along the photosphere. Typical variation scale lengths for the solar wind structure are several variations per supergranule. The structure amplitude and structure scale sizes do not evolve with distance from the Sun from 0.3 to 2.3 AU. An argument is quantified that these variations are the scale expected for solar wind production in open magnetic flux funnels in coronal holes. Additionally, a population of magnetic field foldings (switchbacks, reversals) in the coronal hole plasma is examined: this population evolves with distance from the Sun such that the magnetic field is mostly Parker spiral aligned at 0.3 AU and becomes more misaligned with distance outward.

  20. The Magnetic Structure of H-alpha Macrospicules in Solar Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.; Wang, H.; Sakurai, T.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements by Ulysses in the high-speed polar solar wind have shown the wind to carry some fine-scale structures in which the magnetic field reverses direction by having a switchback fold in it. The lateral span of these magnetic switchbacks, translated back to the Sun, is of the scale of the lanes and cells of the magnetic network in which the open magnetic field of the polar coronal hole and polar solar wind are rooted. This suggests that the magnetic switchbacks might be formed from network-scale magnetic loops that erupt into the corona and then undergo reconnection with the open field. This possibility motivated us to undertake the study reported here of the structure of Ha macrospicules observed at the limb in polar coronal holes, to determine whether a significant fraction of these eruptions appear to be erupting loops. From a search of the polar coronal holes in 6 days of image- processed full-disk Ha movies from Big Bear Solar Observatory, we found a total of 35 macrospicules. Nearly all of these (32) were of one or the other of two different forms: 15 were in the form of an erupting loop, and 17 were in the form of a single column spiked jet. The erupting-loop macrospicules are appropriate for producing the magnetic switchbacks in the polar wind. The spiked-jet macrospicules show the appropriate structure and evolution to be driven by reconnection between network-scale closed field (a network bipole) and the open field rooted against the closed field. This evidence for reconnection in a large fraction of our macrospicules (1) suggests that many spicules may be generated by similar but smaller reconnection events and (2) supports the view that coronal heating and solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and in quiet regions are driven by explosive reconnection events in the magnetic network.

  1. DETECTION OF A FINE-SCALE DISCONTINUITY OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELDS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLAR CORONAL LOOP BRIGHTENINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Park, Soyoung [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lim, Eun-Kyung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We present the transient brightening of a coronal loop and an associated fine-scale magnetic discontinuity detected in the photosphere. Utilizing the high-resolution data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we detect a narrow lane of intense horizontal magnetic field representing a magnetic discontinuity. It was visible as a dark lane partially encircling a pore in the continuum image, and was located near one of the footpoints of a small coronal loop that experienced transient brightenings. The horizontal field strength gradually increased before the loop brightening, and then rapidly decreased in the impulsive phase of the brightening, suggesting the increase of the magnetic non-potentiality at the loop footpoint and the sudden release of magnetic energy via magnetic reconnection. Our results support the nanoflare theory that coronal heating events are caused by magnetic reconnection events at fine-scale magnetic discontinuities.

  2. Selamento coronário em Endodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rui Pedro Barra de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A Endodontia é a especialidade da Medicina Dentária responsável pelo estudo e tratamento da câmara pulpar, de todo o sistema de canais radiculares e dos tecidos periapicais, bem como das doenças que os afetam. O selamento da porção coronária dos dentes alvo de tratamento endodôntico apresenta-se como um critério determinante no sucesso ou insucesso do tratamento. São vários os fatores que podem proporcionar um correto selamento coronário evitando assim a microinfiltração de ...

  3. Magnetic Topology of Coronal Hole Linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, V S; Linker, J A; Lionello, R; Antiochos, S K

    2010-01-01

    In recent work, Antiochos and coworkers argued that the boundary between the open and closed field regions on the Sun can be extremely complex with narrow corridors of open flux connecting seemingly disconnected coronal holes from the main polar holes, and that these corridors may be the sources of the slow solar wind. We examine, in detail, the topology of such magnetic configurations using an analytical source surface model that allows for analysis of the field with arbitrary resolution. Our analysis reveals three important new results: First, a coronal hole boundary can join stably to the separatrix boundary of a parasitic polarity region. Second, a single parasitic polarity region can produce multiple null points in the corona and, more important, separator lines connecting these points. It is known that such topologies are extremely favorable for magnetic reconnection, because they allow this process to occur over the entire length of the separators rather than being confined to a small region around the...

  4. Damped transverse oscillations of interacting coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Damped transverse oscillations of magnetic loops are routinely observed in the solar corona. This phenomenon is interpreted as standing kink magnetohydrodynamic waves, which are damped by resonant absorption owing to plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field. The periods and damping times of these oscillations can be used to probe the physical conditions of the coronal medium. Some observations suggest that interaction between neighboring oscillating loops in an active region may be important and can modify the properties of the oscillations compared to those of an isolated loop. Here we theoretically investigate resonantly damped transverse oscillations of interacting non-uniform coronal loops. We provide a semi-analytic method, based on the T-matrix theory of scattering, to compute the frequencies and damping rates of collective oscillations of an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylindrical loops. The effect of resonant damping is included in the T-matrix scheme in the thin boundary approximation. ...

  5. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Paul; Webb, David F; Thompson, Barbara J; Colaninno, Robin C; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar flare, as is often the case, the flare component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37 dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011, plus an event on 2010 August 7 analyzed in a previous paper, to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to t...

  6. Development and Study of Hard-Facing Materials on the Base of Heat-Resisting High-Hardness Steels for Plasma-Jet Hard- Facing in Shielding-Doping Nitrogen Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malushin, N. N.; Kovalev, A. P.; Valuev, D. V.; Shats, E. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The authors develop hard-facing materials on the base of heat-resisting highhardness steels for plasma-jet hard-facing in nitrogen atmosphere for manufacturing parts of mining and metallurgic equipment which significantly simplify the production process and effect a saving when producing bimetallic parts and tools.

  7. Coronal Mass Ejections of Solar Cycle 23

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nat Gopalswamy

    2006-06-01

    I summarize the statistical, physical, and morphological properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) of solar cycle 23, as observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. The SOHO data is by far the most extensive data, which made it possible to fully establish the properties of CMEs as a phenomenon of utmost importance to Sun–Earth connection as well as to the heliosphere. I also discuss various subsets of CMEs that are of primary importance for their impact on Earth.

  8. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    calculate the time-dependent dynamics of coronal hole boundaries rigorously and test our conjectures. We describe below our numerical simulations of...radiation and thermal conduction are needed in order to test such a model. It is tempting to conjecture that this process of releasing the closed-field... HTP , TR&T, and SR&T Programs, and has benefited greatly from the authors’ participation in the NASA TR&T focused science team on the solar

  9. Modelling the Global Solar Corona II: Coronal Evolution and Filament Chirality Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Yeates, A R; Van Ballegooijen, A A

    2007-01-01

    The hemispheric pattern of solar filaments is considered using newly-developed simulations of the real photospheric and 3D coronal magnetic fields over a 6-month period, on a global scale. The magnetic field direction in the simulation is compared directly with the chirality of observed filaments, at their observed locations. In our model the coronal field evolves through a continuous sequence of nonlinear force-free equilibria, in response to the changing photospheric boundary conditions and the emergence of new magnetic flux. In total 119 magnetic bipoles with properties matching observed active regions are inserted. These bipoles emerge twisted and inject magnetic helicity into the solar atmosphere. When we choose the sign of this active-region helicity to match that observed in each hemisphere, the model produces the correct chirality for up to 96% of filaments, including exceptions to the hemispheric pattern. If the emerging bipoles have zero helicity, or helicity of the opposite sign, then this percenta...

  10. A scenario of planet erosion by coronal radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz-Forcada, J; Micela, G; Pollock, A M T; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Solano, E; Eiroa, C

    2010-01-01

    Context: According to theory, high-energy emission from the coronae of cool stars can severely erode the atmospheres of orbiting planets. No observational tests of the long term effects of erosion have yet been made. Aims: To analyze the current distribution of planetary mass with X-ray irradiation of the atmospheres in order to make an observational assessment of the effects of erosion by coronal radiation. Methods: We study a large sample of planet-hosting stars with XMM-Newton, Chandra and ROSAT; make a careful identification of X-ray counterparts; and fit their spectra to make accurately measurements of the stellar X-ray flux. Results: The distribution of the planetary masses with X-ray flux suggests that erosion has taken place: most surviving massive planets, (M_p sin i >1.5 M_J), have been exposed to lower accumulated irradiation. Heavy erosion during the initial stages of stellar evolution is followed by a phase of much weaker erosion. A line dividing these two phases could be present, showing a stron...

  11. Coronal Structure of Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Pauline; Donati, Jean-Francois; Morin, Julien; Vidotto, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the change in stellar magnetic topology across the fully-convective boundary and its effects on coronal properties. We consider both the magnitude of the open flux that influences angular momentum loss in the stellar wind and X-ray emission measure. We use reconstructed maps of the radial magnetic field at the stellar surface and the potential-field source surface method to extrapolate a 3D coronal magnetic field for a sample of early-to-mid M dwarfs. During the magnetic reconstruction process it is possible to force a solution towards field geometries that are symmetric or antisymmetric about the equator but we demonstrate that this has only a modest impact on the coronal tracers mentioned above. We find that the dipole component of the field, which governs the large-scale structure, becomes increasingly strong as the stellar mass decreases, while the magnitude of the open (wind-bearing) magnetic flux is proportional to the magnitude of the reconstructed magnetic flux. By assuming a hydrostati...

  12. A Mechanism for Coronal Hole Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, D A N

    2008-01-01

    Bald patches are magnetic topologies in which the magnetic field is concave up over part of a photospheric polarity inversion line. A bald patch topology is believed to be the essential ingredient for filament channels and is often found in extrapolations of the observed photospheric field. Using an analytic source-surface model to calculate the magnetic topology of a small bipolar region embedded in a global magnetic dipole field, we demonstrate that although common in closed-field regions close to the solar equator, bald patches are unlikely to occur in the open-field topology of a coronal hole. Our results give rise to the following question: What happens to a bald patch topology when the surrounding field lines open up? This would be the case when a bald patch moves into a coronal hole, or when a coronal hole forms in an area that encompasses a bald patch. Our magnetostatic models show that, in this case, the bald patch topology almost invariably transforms into a null point topology with a spine and a fa...

  13. The formation of an equatorial coronal hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liheng; Jiang, Yunchun; Zhang, Jun

    2010-02-01

    The formation of an equatorial coronal hole (CH) from 2006 January 9 to 12 was simultaneously observed by GOES-12/SXI, SOHO/EIT and SOHO/MDI instruments. The varieties of soft X-ray and EUV brightness, coronal temperature, and total magnetic flux in the CH were examined and compared with that of a quiet-sun (QS) region nearby. The following results are obtained. (1) A preexisting dark lane appeared on the location of the followed CH and was reinforced by three enhanced networks. (2) The CH gradually formed in about 81 hours and was predominated by positive magnetic flux. (3) During the formation, the soft X-ray and EUV brightness, coronal temperature, and total magnetic flux obviously decreased in the CH, but were almost no change in the QS region. The decrease of the total magnetic flux may be the result of magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic lines, probably indicating the physical mechanism for the birth of the CH.

  14. Propagating magnetohydrodynamics waves in coronal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, I

    2006-02-15

    High cadence Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observations show that outward propagating intensity disturbances are a common feature in large, quiescent coronal loops, close to active regions. An overview is given of measured parameters of such longitudinal oscillations in coronal loops. The observed oscillations are interpreted as propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves and are unlikely to be flare-driven. A strong correlation, between the loop position and the periodicity of the oscillations, provides evidence that the underlying oscillations can propagate through the transition region and into the corona. Both a one- and a two-dimensional theoretical model of slow magnetoacoustic waves are presented to explain the very short observed damping lengths. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the TRACE observations and show that a combination of the area divergence and thermal conduction agrees well with the observed amplitude decay. Additionally, the usefulness of wavelet analysis is discussed, showing that care has to be taken when interpreting the results of wavelet analysis, and a good knowledge of all possible factors that might influence or distort the results is a necessity.

  15. Dynamics of Coronal-Hole Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Higginson, A K; DeVore, C R; Wyper, P F; Zurbuchen, T H

    2016-01-01

    Remote and in-situ observations suggest that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix-Web (S-Web) theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions, at the scale of supergranules, are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the inferred necessary transfer of plasma from closed to open field lines. We use 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. We find that a supergranular-scale photospheric motion at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer results in prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. This reconnection acts to smooth the large- and small-scale structure introduced by the photospheric flows. Magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences m...

  16. The Lower Chromosphere in a Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitskaya, R. B.; Turova, I. P.; Ozhogina, O. A.

    2007-07-01

    We study the Ca ii K, H, and λ 849.8 nm line profiles in two regions of the quiet Sun, one being located in the extensive low-latitude coronal hole observed on 3 through 5 August 2003, and the other being located outside the coronal hole. Comparison of the profiles was carried out separately for cells and cell boundaries of the chromospheric network. Our principal result is that space- and time-averaged profiles of the central self-reversal in the coronal hole sites differ from those outside of the hole: Intensities of the K3 and H3 central depressions are increased in the cells but are unchanged in the network; the height of the K2 peaks is reduced in the cells and particularly in the network; the central self-reversal asymmetry is intensified in the network. Distinctions appear at a high confidence level. Line wings as well as average characteristics of the infrared line remain practically unchanged. We discuss probable causes for this behavior of the lower chromosphere lines.

  17. Precipitation rates and atmospheric heat transport during the Cenomanian greenhouse warming in North America: Estimates from a stable isotope mass-balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Gonzalez, L.; Grocke, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    correlate with a mean annual average heat loss of 48??W/m2 at 10??N paleolatitude (present, 8??W/m2 at 15??N). The increased precipitation flux and moisture surplus in the mid-latitudes corresponds to a mean average annual heat gain of 180??W/m2 at 50??N paleolatitude (present, 17??W/m2 at 50??N). The Cenomanian low-latitude moisture deficit is similar to that of the Albian, however the mid-latitude (40-60??N) precipitation flux values and precipitation rates are significantly higher (Albian: 2200??mm/yr at 45??N; Cenomanian: 3600??mm/yr at 45??N). Furthermore, the heat transferred to the atmosphere via latent heat of condensation was approximately 10.6?? that of the present at 50??N. The intensified hydrologic cycle of the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse warming may have played a significant role in the poleward transfer of heat and more equable global conditions. Paleoclimatological reconstructions from multiple time periods during the mid-Cretaceous will aid in a better understanding of the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle and latent heat flux during greenhouse world conditions.

  18. 大气温室效应的一维辐射传热分析%One Dimensional Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Atmosphere Greenhouse Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 帅永; 谈和平

    2011-01-01

    大气中温室气体对地面长波热辐射的吸收和再发射导致了温室效应.计算了大气不同高度200~50000 cm-1(0.2~50 μm)光谱吸收系数,采用一维大气介质模型和射线踪迹-节点分析法(RTNAM)的多层模型对大气中二氧化碳及水蒸气不同浓度情况下的大气温度进行了计算.结果表明标准大气CO2浓度增加1倍,对流层的温度上升0.453°C,若水蒸气浓度降低,CO2的温室效应更加明显.%Greenhouse gases absorb the thermal radiation from earth surface and reemit part of energy back. This progress leads to the greenhouse effects. Absorption coefficients at different latitude were calculated form 200 cm-1 to 50000 cm- 1(0.2~50μm). Using a one-dimensional radiative heat transfer model for atmosphere combined with multilayered model by Ray-Tracing/Nodal-Analyzing Method (RTNAM), atmospheric temperature fields were calculated under different CO2 and/or H2O concentration conditions. The results show that temperature in troposphere rise 0.453℃ if doubling of CO2Concentration, and if the concentration of H2O is lower, greenhouse effects of CO2 become more obvious.

  19. Tracing the Chromospheric and Coronal Magnetic Field with AIA, IRIS, IBIS, and ROSA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Reardon, Kevin; Jess, Dave B.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the suitability of chromospheric images for magnetic modeling of active regions. We use high-resolution images (≈ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 2{--}0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 3), from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer in the Ca ii 8542 Å line, the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument in the Hα 6563 Å line, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph in the 2796 Å line, and compare non-potential magnetic field models obtained from those chromospheric images with those obtained from images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in coronal (171 Å, etc.) and in chromospheric (304 Å) wavelengths. Curvi-linear structures are automatically traced in those images with the OCCULT-2 code, to which we forward-fitted magnetic field lines computed with the Vertical-current Approximation Nonlinear Force Free Field code. We find that the chromospheric images: (1) reveal crisp curvi-linear structures (fibrils, loop segments, spicules) that are extremely well-suited for constraining magnetic modeling; (2) that these curvi-linear structures are field-aligned with the best-fit solution by a median misalignment angle of {μ }2≈ 4^\\circ -7° (3) the free energy computed from coronal data may underestimate that obtained from cromospheric data by a factor of ≈ 2-4, (4) the height range of chromospheric features is confined to h≲ 4000 km, while coronal features are detected up to h = 35,000 km; and (5) the plasma-β parameter is β ≈ {10}-5{--}{10}-1 for all traced features. We conclude that chromospheric images reveal important magnetic structures that are complementary to coronal images and need to be included in comprehensive magnetic field models, something that is currently not accomodated in standard NLFFF codes.

  20. The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Fan

    2016-03-01

    We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field at the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.

  1. Shock Formation and Energy Dissipation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2003-01-01

    We study the shock formation and energy dissipation of slow magnetosonic waves in coronal plumes. The wave parameters and the spreading function of the plumes as well as the base magnetic field strength are given by empirical constraints mostly from SOHO/UVCS. Our models show that shock formation occurs at low coronal heights, i.e., within 1.3 bun, depending on the model parameters. In addition, following analytical estimates, we show that scale height of energy dissipation by the shocks ranges between 0.15 and 0.45 Rsun. This implies that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is relevant at most heights, even though this type of waves is apparently not a solely operating energy supply mechanism.

  2. Simulating the Environment Around Planet-Hosting Stars - I. Coronal Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarado-Gómez, J D; Cohen, O; Drake, J J; Garraffo, C; Grunhut, J; Gombosi, T I

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed numerical simulation of the circumstellar environment around three exoplanet-hosting stars. A state-of-the-art global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is considered, including Alfv\\'en wave dissipation as a self-consistent coronal heating mechanism. This paper contains the description of the numerical set-up, evaluation procedure, and the simulated coronal structure of each system (HD 1237, HD 22049 and HD 147513). The simulations are driven by surface magnetic field maps, recovered with the observational technique of Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI). A detailed comparison of the simulations is performed, where two different implementations of this mapping routine are used to generate the surface field distributions. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the coronae of these systems are presented, including synthetic high-energy emission maps in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) and Soft X-rays (SXR) ranges. Using the simulation results, we are able to recover similar trend...

  3. Anomalous Cooling of Coronal Loops with Turbulent Suppression of Thermal Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Watters, Jonathan M.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Emslie, A. Gordon

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the impact of turbulent suppression of parallel heat conduction on the cooling of post-flare coronal loops. Depending on the value of the mean free path {λ }T associated with the turbulent scattering process, we identify four main cooling scenarios. The overall temperature evolution, from an initial temperature in excess of 107 K, is modeled in each case, highlighting the evolution of the dominant cooling mechanism throughout the cooling process. Comparison with observed cooling times allows the value of {λ }T to be constrained, and interestingly this range corresponds to situations where collision-dominated conduction plays a very limited role, or even no role at all, in the cooling of post-flare coronal loops.

  4. Anomalous Cooling of Coronal Loops with Turbulent Suppression of Thermal Conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Nicolas H; Kontar, Eduard P; Emslie, A Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of turbulent suppression of parallel heat conduction on the cooling of post-flare coronal loops. Depending on the value of the mean free path $\\lambda_T$ associated with the turbulent scattering process, we identify four main cooling scenarios. The overall temperature evolution, from an initial temperature in excess of $10^7$~K, is modeled in each case, highlighting the evolution of the dominant cooling mechanism throughout the cooling process. Comparison with observed cooling times allows the value of $\\lambda_T$ to be constrained, and interestingly this range corresponds to situations where collision-dominated conduction plays a very limited role, or even no role at all, in the cooling of post-flare coronal loops.

  5. 某常减压装置换热网络节能改造%Retrofit heat exchanger network of an oil refinery atmospheric-vacuum distillation unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智勇; 姜涛; 尹兆明

    2013-01-01

    应用夹点技术对某炼油厂常减压蒸馏装置换热器网络的用能状况进行分析,找出其瓶颈所在,对整个网络进行调优,提高拔头油换热终温、网络可操作性和操作弹性,求得最小网络投资和操作费用.根据现有换热网络流程结构,收集、提取相关冷热流股的数据,按照问题表格法进行夹点计算,确定原换网的最小传热温差、夹点位置及相关用能信息.绘制原换热网络格子图进行用能诊断,分析其中存在的不合理用能问题,确定能量回收目标和节能潜力;依据夹点设计法基本原则,同时考虑到现行换热网络结构,分两步进行整体调优.优化连接方式、换热顺序,充分利用原有换热器,首先考虑夹点处物流的匹配,然后分别向两头进行物流间的匹配换热,重新匹配某些冷热流股,调整局部传热温差,使换热器的负荷及温差更趋于合理.制定出两套改造方案,计算了改造费用和投资回收期,分析了两方案的优劣.两方案均消除了原换热网络中违反夹点设计基本原则的不合理用能现象,节约了加热和冷却公用工程费用,在原生产换热网络的基础上,两方案分别将拔头原油的换热终温提高了12℃和17℃,同时提高了整套装置操作弹性.%The pinch technology was applied to analysis and study on Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) of an oil refinery atmospheric-vacuum distillation unit to find out the bottleneck of its energy utilization and optimize the entire network to improving topped oil heat temperature,network operation and flexibility,to achieve the minimum network investment and operation cost.Based on the existing heat exchanger networks structure,collection,extraction associated with hot and cold stream data,in accordance with the problem table Algorithm for pinch point of the HEN,the original exchange network's △Tmin,the pinch point position and related information was determined.Grid Diagram of original

  6. Spicules and their on-disk counterparts, the main driver for solar chromospheric heating?

    CERN Document Server

    Puschmann, Klaus Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The question how the outer solar atmosphere is heated from solar photospheric temperatures of about 5800K up to solar chromospheric and coronal temperatures of about 20 000K and millions of degrees respectively, remained without any satisfying answer for centuries. On 4 May 2005, I recorded several time series of Halpha line scans with the GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer, still deployed at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), for different solar limb and on-disc positions as well for quiet sun at solar disk center. The spatially and temporally highly resolved time series of Halpha line parameters reveal the entire and detailed complexity as well as the overwhelming dynamics of spicules covering the entire solar disk, thus apparently confirming spicules as the potential driver for chromospheric heating of both the Sun and sun-like stars.

  7. Solar coronal observations at high frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Katsiyannis, A. C.; Mathioudakis, M.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Williams, D. R.; F. P. Keenan

    2001-01-01

    The Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS) is a simple and extremely fast, high-resolution imaging instrument designed for studies of the solar corona. Light from the corona (during, for example, a total solar eclipse) is reflected off a heliostat and passes via a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and beam splitter to two CCD cameras capable of imaging at 60 frames a second. The cameras are attached via SCSI connections to a purpose-built PC that acts as the data acquisition and storage syst...

  8. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, Thomas N.; Webb, David F.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar flare, as is often the case, the flare component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37 dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011 plus an event on 2010 August 7, analyzed in a previous paper to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to the dimming light curves, and compare the dimming parameters with corresponding CME parameters of mass and speed. The best linear relationships found are \\begin{eqnarray*}{v}{CME} ≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{{km}}{{{s}}}\\right] & ≈ & 2.36× {10}6 ≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{{km}}{ % }\\right]× {s}\\dim ≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{ % }{{{s}}}\\right]\\ {m}{CME} [{{g}}] & ≈ & 2.59× {10}15≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{g}{ % }\\right]× \\sqrt{{d}\\dim } [ % ].\\end{eqnarray*} These relationships could be used for space weather operations of estimating CME mass and speed using near-real-time irradiance dimming measurements.

  9. Heating and Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Alfvén Wave Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present numerical simulations of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in a magnetic flux tube at the center of a polar coronal hole. The model for the background atmosphere is a solution of the momentum equation and includes the effects of wave pressure on the solar wind outflow. Alfvén waves are launched at the coronal base and reflect at various heights owing to variations in Alfvén speed and outflow velocity. The turbulence is driven by nonlinear interactions between the counterpropagating Alfvén waves. Results are presented for two models of the background atmosphere. In the first model the plasma density and Alfvén speed vary smoothly with height, resulting in minimal wave reflections and low-energy dissipation rates. We find that the dissipation rate is insufficient to maintain the temperature of the background atmosphere. The standard phenomenological formula for the dissipation rate significantly overestimates the rate derived from our RMHD simulations, and a revised formula is proposed. In the second model we introduce additional density variations along the flux tube with a correlation length of 0.04 R⊙ and with relative amplitude of 10%. These density variations simulate the effects of compressive MHD waves on the Alfvén waves. We find that such variations significantly enhance the wave reflection and thereby the turbulent dissipation rates, producing enough heat to maintain the background atmosphere. We conclude that interactions between Alfvén and compressive waves may play an important role in the turbulent heating of the fast solar wind.

  10. A closer look at a coronal loop rooted in a sunspot umbra

    CERN Document Server

    Chitta, L P; Young, P R

    2015-01-01

    Extreme UV (EUV) and X-ray loops in the solar corona connect regions of enhanced magnetic activity, but usually they are not rooted in the dark umbrae of sunspots. This is because there the strong magnetic field suppresses convection and thus the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the upper atmosphere is not significant within the umbra, as long as there are no light bridges, umbral dots. Here we report a rare observation of a coronal loop rooted in the dark umbra of a sunspot without any traces of light bridges or umbral dots. We used the slit-jaw images and spectroscopic data from the IRIS and concentrate on the line profiles of O IV and Si IV that show persistent strong redshifted components in the loop rooted in the umbra. Using the ratios of O IV, we can estimate the density and thus investigate the mass flux. The coronal context and temperature diagnostics of these observations is provided through the EUV channels of the AIA. The coronal loop, embedded within cooler downflows, is hosting supersonic d...

  11. Nonlinear Resonant Excitation of Fast Sausage Waves in Current-Carrying Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalyaev, B. B.; Bembitov, D. B.

    2014-11-01

    We consider a model of a coronal loop that is a cylindrical magnetic tube with two surface electric currents. Its principal sausage mode has no cut-off in the long-wavelength limit. For typical coronal conditions, the period of the mode is between one and a few minutes. The sausage mode of flaring loops could cause long-period pulsations observed in microwave and hard X-ray ranges. There are other examples of coronal oscillations: long-period pulsations of active-region quiet loops in the soft X-ray emission are observed. We assume that these can also be caused by sausage waves. The question arises of how the sausage waves are generated in quiet loops. We assume that they can be generated by torsional oscillations. This process can be described in the framework of the nonlinear three-wave interaction formalism. The periods of interacting torsional waves are similar to the periods of torsional oscillations observed in the solar atmosphere. The timescale of the sausage-wave excitation is not much longer than the periods of interacting waves, so that the sausage wave is excited before torsional waves are damped.

  12. Atmospheric heating due to black carbon aerosol during the summer monsoon period over Ballia: A rural environment over Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S.; Dumka, U. C.; Hopke, P. K.; Tunved, P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Chakrabarty, R. K.

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols are one of the most uncertain drivers of global climate change. The prevailing view is that BC mass concentrations are low in rural areas where industrialization and vehicular emissions are at a minimum. As part of a national research program called the "Ganga Basin Ground Based Experiment-2014 under the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) Phase-III" of Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, the continuous measurements of BC and particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, were conducted in a rural environment in the highly-polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain region during 16th June to 15th August (monsoon period), 2014. The mean mass concentration of BC was 4.03 (± 0.85) μg m- 3 with a daily variability between 2.4 and 5.64 μg m- 3, however, the mean mass PM concentrations [near ultrafine (PM1.0), fine (PM2.5) and inhalable (PM10)] were 29.1(± 16.2), 34.7 (± 19.9) and 43.7 (± 28.3) μg m- 3, respectively. The contribution of BC in PM1.0 was approximately 13%, which is one of the highest being recorded. Diurnally, the BC mass concentrations were highest (mean: 5.89 μg m- 3) between 20:00 to 22:00 local time (LT) due to the burning of biofuels/biomass such as wood, dung, straw and crop residue mixed with dung by the local residents for cooking purposes. The atmospheric direct radiative forcing values due to the composite and BC aerosols were determined to be + 78.3, + 44.9, and + 45.0 W m- 2 and + 42.2, + 35.4 and + 34.3 W m- 2 during the months of June, July and August, respectively. The corresponding atmospheric heating rates (AHR) for composite and BC aerosols were 2.21, 1.26 and 1.26; and 1.19, 0.99 and 0.96 K day- 1 for the month of June, July and August, respectively, with a mean of 1.57 and 1.05 K day- 1 which was 33% lower AHR (BC) than for the composite particles during the study period. This high AHR underscores the importance of absorbing aerosols such as BC contributed by

  13. Decadal Relationship Between Atmospheric Heat Source and Winter-Spring Snow Cover over the Tibetan Plateau and Rainfall in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yuxiang; DING Yihui; XU Huaigang

    2008-01-01

    By using a reverse computation method and the NCEP/NCAR daily reanalysis data from 1960 to 2004,the atmospheric heat source(AHS)was calculated and analyzed.The resuIts show that AHS over the Tibetan Plateau(TP)and its neighboring areas takes on a persistent downtrend in spring and summer during the foregone 50 years.especially the latest 20 years.Snow depth at 50 stations over the TP in winter and spring presents an increase,especially the spring Snow depth exhibits a sharp increase in the late 1970s.A close negative correlation exists between snow cover and AHS over the TP and its neighboring areas,as revealed by an SVD analysis,namely if there is more snow over the TP in winter and spring,then the weaker AHS would appear over the TP in spring and summer.The SVD analysis between AHS over the TP in spring and summer and rainfall at 160 stations indicates that the former has a negative correlation with summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,and a positive correlation with that in South China and North China.The SVD allalysis of both snow cover over the TP in winter and spring and rainfall at the same 160 stations indicates that the former has a marked positive correlation with precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,and a reversed correlation in South China and North China.On the decadal scale,the AHS and winter and spring snow cover over the TP have a close correlation with the decadal precipitation pattern shift(southern flood and northern drought)in East China.The mechanism on how the AHS over the TP influences rainfall in East China is discussed.The weakening of AHS over the TP in spring and summer reduces the thermodynamic diirerence between ocean and continent,leading to a weaker East Asian summer monsoon,which brings more water vapor to the Yangtze Rivet Valley and less water vapor to North China.Meanwhile.the weakening of AHS over the TP renders the position of the subtropical high further

  14. Statistical Evidence for the Existence of Alfv\\'enic Turbulence in Solar Coronal Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiajia; De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James; Bethge, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have demonstrated that waves which are capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which time and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfv\\'enic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study [De Moortel et al., ApJL, 782:L34, 2014] by analyzing thirty-seven clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) instrument. We observe Alfv\\'enic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250-750 km/s and periods from 140-270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high frequency wave-power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfv\\'enic turbu...

  15. SAUSAGE OSCILLATIONS OF CORONAL PLASMA STRUCTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakariakov, V. M.; Hornsey, C. [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Melnikov, V. F., E-mail: V.Nakariakov@warwick.ac.uk [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 196140 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-20

    The dependence of the period of sausage oscillations of coronal loops on length together with the depth and steepness of the radial profile are determined. We performed a parametric study of linear axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic (sausage) oscillations of coronal loops modeled as a field-aligned low-{beta} plasma cylinder with a smooth inhomogeneity of the plasma density in the radial direction. The density decreases smoothly in the radial direction. Sausage oscillations are impulsively excited by a perturbation of the radial velocity, localized at the cylinder axis and with a harmonic dependence on the longitudinal coordinate. The initial perturbation results in either a leaky or a trapped sausage oscillation, depending upon whether the longitudinal wavenumber is smaller or greater than a cutoff value, respectively. The period of the sausage oscillations was found to always increase with increasing longitudinal wavelength, with the dependence saturating in the long-wavelength limit. Deeper and steeper radial profiles of the Alfven speed correspond to more efficient trapping of sausage modes: the cutoff value of the wavelength increases with the steepness and the density (or Alfven speed) contrast ratio. In the leaky regime, the period is always longer than the period of a trapped mode of a shorter wavelength in the same cylinder. For shallow density profiles and shorter wavelengths, the period increases with wavelength. In the long-wavelength limit, the period becomes independent of the wavelength and increases with the depth and steepness of the radial profile of the Alfven speed.

  16. Modified Homogeneous Data Set of Coronal Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorotovič, I.; Minarovjech, M.; Lorenc, M.; Rybanský, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences has published the intensities, recalibrated with respect to a common intensity scale, of the 530.3 nm (Fe xiv) green coronal line observed at ground-based stations up to the year 2008. The name of this publication is Homogeneous Data Set (HDS). We have developed a method that allows one to successfully substitute the ground-based observations by satellite observations and, thus, continue with the publication of the HDS. For this purpose, the observations of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, were exploited. Among other data the EIT instrument provides almost daily 28.4 nm (Fe xv) emission-line snapshots of the corona. The Fe xiv and Fe xv data (4051 observation days) taken in the period 1996 - 2008 have been compared and good agreement was found. The method to obtain the individual data for the HDS follows from the correlation analysis described in this article. The resulting data, now under the name of Modified Homogeneous Data Set (MHDS), are identical up to 1996 to those in the HDS. The MHDS can be used further for studies of the coronal solar activity and its cycle. These data are available at http://www.suh.sk.

  17. Analytical investigations on the Coronation Gospels manuscript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Crivello, Fabrizio; Griesser, Martina; Kirchweger, Franz; Uhlir, Katharina; Puyo, Patricia Roger

    2017-01-01

    The Coronation Gospels or Krönungsevangeliar is a manuscript kept in Vienna at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, datable to the end of VIII century A.D. and produced at Charlemagne court. It is an example of a purple codex, i.e. its parchment is coloured in purple. It has to be considered as one of the most important medieval codices, according to its use to take oath in the coronation ceremony of kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire up to 1792. In order to gather information of the manufacture of the manuscript and its present conservation state, a diagnostic investigation campaign has been carried out in situ with totally non-invasive techniques. X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optical fibres (FORS), spectrofluorimetry, optical microscopy and multispectral analysis have been applied in order to identify the colourants used in the decoration of the manuscript, with the main concern to the dye used to impart the purple hue to the parchment. The information collected was useful in order to address some of the questions raised by art historians concerning its history.

  18. Energetics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, P; Subramanian, Prasad; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate if solar coronal mass ejections are driven mainly by coupling to the ambient solar wind, or through the release of internal magnetic energy. Methods: We examine the energetics of 39 flux-rope like coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun using data in the distance range $\\sim$ 2--20 $R_{{\\o}dot}$ from the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronograph (LASCO) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). This comprises a complete sample of the best examples of flux-rope CMEs observed by LASCO in 1996-2001. Results: We find that 69% of the CMEs in our sample experience a clearly identifiable driving power in the LASCO field of view. For these CMEs which are driven, we examine if they might be deriving most of their driving power by coupling to the solar wind. We do not find conclusive evidence in favor of this hypothesis. On the other hand, we find that their internal magnetic energy is a viable source of the required driving power. We have estimated upper and lower limits on the power th...

  19. Magnetic Flux Cancelation as the Trigger of Solar Quiet-region Coronal Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Chakrapani, Prithi

    2016-11-01

    We report observations of 10 random on-disk solar quiet-region coronal jets found in high-resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and having good coverage in magnetograms from the SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a small-scale filament (called a minifilament). However, the trigger of these eruptions is still unknown. In the present study, we address the question: what leads to the jet-driving minifilament eruptions? The EUV observations show that there is a cool-transition-region-plasma minifilament present prior to each jet event and the minifilament eruption drives the jet. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in the line of sight photospheric magnetic field, we observe that each pre-jet minifilament resides over the neutral line between majority-polarity and minority-polarity patches of magnetic flux. In each of the 10 cases, the opposite-polarity patches approach and merge with each other (flux reduction between 21% and 57%). After several hours, continuous flux cancelation at the neutral line apparently destabilizes the field holding the cool-plasma minifilament to erupt and undergo internal reconnection, and external reconnection with the surrounding coronal field. The external reconnection opens the minifilament field allowing the minifilament material to escape outward, forming part of the jet spire. Thus, we found that each of the 10 jets resulted from eruption of a minifilament following flux cancelation at the neutral line under the minifilament. These observations establish that magnetic flux cancelation is usually the trigger of quiet-region coronal jet eruptions.

  20. A Filament-Associated Halo Coronal Mass Ejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There are only a few observations published so far that show the