Sample records for atmosphere coronal heating

  1. Mechanisms of Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Sun is a mysterious star. The high temperature of the chromosphere and corona present one of the most puzzling problems of solar physics. Observations show that the solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in solar corona.

  2. Heating solar coronal holes (United States)

    Parker, E. N.


    It has been shown that the coronal hole, and the associated high-speed stream in the solar wind, are powered by a heat input of the order of 500,000 ergs/sq cm s, with most of the heat injected in the first 1-2 solar radii, and perhaps 100,000 ergs/sq cm s introduced at distances of several solar radii to provide the high speed of the issuing solar wind. The traditional view has been that this energy is obtained from Alfven waves generated in the subphotospheric convection, which dissipate as they propagate outward, converting the wave energy into heat. This paper reviews the generation of waves and the known wave dissipation mechanisms, to show that the necessary Alfven waves are not produced under the conditions presently understood to exist in the sun, nor would such waves dissipate significantly in the first 1-2 solar radii if they existed. Wave dissipation occurs only over distances of the order of 5 solar radii or more.

  3. Magnetic fields and coronal heating (United States)

    Golub, L.; Maxson, C.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.; Serio, S.


    General considerations concerning the scaling properties of magnetic-field-related coronal heating mechanisms are used to build a two-parameter model for the heating of closed coronal regions. The model predicts the way in which coronal temperature and electron density are related to photospheric magnetic field strength and the size of the region, using the additional constraint provided by the scaling law of Rosner, Tucker, and Vaiana. The model duplicates the observed scaling of total thermal energy content with total longitudinal flux; it also predicts a relation between the coronal energy density (or pressure) and the longitudinal field strength modified by the region scale size.

  4. Generation of Electron Suprathermal Tails in the Upper Solar Atmosphere: Implications for Coronal Heating (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Wong, Hung K.; Klimas, Alexander J.


    We present a mechanism for the generation of non-Maxwellian electron distribution function in the upper regions of the solar atmosphere in the presence of collisional damping. It is suggested that finite amplitude, low frequency, obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves can carry a substantial electric field component parallel to the mean magnetic field that can be significantly larger than the Dreicer electric field. This long wavelength electric fluctuation is capable of generating high frequency electron plasma oscillations and low frequency ion acoustic-like waves. The analysis has been performed using 1-1/2D Vlasov and PIC numerical simulations in which both electrons and ions are treated kinetically and self consistently. The simulation results indicate that high frequency electron plasma oscillations and low frequency ion acoustic-like waves are generated. The high frequency electron plasma oscillation drives electron plasma turbulence, which subsequently is damped out by the background electrons. The turbulence damping results in electron acceleration and the generation of non-Maxwellian suprathermal tails on time scales short compared to collisional damping. Bulk heating also occurs if the fluctuating parallel electric field is strong enough. This study suggests that finite amplitude, low frequency, obliquely propagating, electromagnetic waves can play a significant role in the acceleration and heating of the solar corona electrons and in the coupling of medium and small-scale phenomena.

  5. Key aspects of coronal heating (United States)

    Klimchuk, James A.


    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  6. Heating of solar coronal holes by reflected Alfven waves (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.


    As a continuation of the work of Moore et al. (1991), who found evidence that coronal holes are heated by Alfven waves that are reflected back down within the coronal holes, this paper shows that to demonstrate this evidence, it is only necessary to consider a subset of the Moore et al. models, namely, those having radial magnetic field. Using these models, it is shown that the Alfven velocity is not constant in the atmosphere of coronal holes, but changes with height (or radius), causing downward reflection of all upward Alfven waves of sufficiently long wavelength (or period).

  7. Mechanisms of Coronal Heating S. R. Verma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Sun is a mysterious star. The high temperature of the chromosphere and corona present one of the most puzzling problems of solar physics. Observations show that the solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in solar ...

  8. Turbulent resistive heating of solar coronal arches (United States)

    Benford, G.


    The possibility that coronal heating occurs by means of anomalous Joule heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is examined, with consideration given to currents running from foot of a loop to the other. It is assumed that self-fields generated by the currents are absent and currents follow the direction of the magnetic field, allowing the plasma cylinder to expand radially. Ion and electron heating rates are defined within the cylinder, together with longitudinal conduction and convection, radiation and cross-field transport, all in terms of Coulomb and turbulent effects. The dominant force is identified as electrostatic ion cyclotron instability, while ion acoustic modes remain stable. Rapid heating from an initial temperature of 10 eV to 100-1000 eV levels is calculated, with plasma reaching and maintaining a temperature in the 100 eV range. Strong heating is also possible according to the turbulent Ohm's law and by resistive heating.

  9. Coronal Heating Observed with Hi-C (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.


    The recent launch of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) as a sounding rocket has offered a new, different view of the Sun. With approx 0.3" resolution and 5 second cadence, Hi-C reveals dynamic, small-scale structure within a complicated active region, including coronal braiding, reconnection regions, Alfven waves, and flows along active region fans. By combining the Hi-C data with other available data, we have compiled a rich data set that can be used to address many outstanding questions in solar physics. Though the Hi-C rocket flight was short (only 5 minutes), the added insight of the small-scale structure gained from the Hi-C data allows us to look at this active region and other active regions with new understanding. In this talk, I will review the first results from the Hi-C sounding rocket and discuss the impact of these results on the coronal heating problem.

  10. Observations and Numerical Models of Solar Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontieu, B. De; Martinez-Sykora, J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Building 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Moortel, I. De [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); McIntosh, S. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)


    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the mass and energy balance of the corona. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side. Therefore, it remains unclear whether plasma is heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region (TR) with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures associated with spicular mass ejections and heating of plasma to TR and coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances. Our observations are supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  11. New Evidence that Magnetoconvection Drives Solar–Stellar Coronal Heating

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    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Mail Code ST 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Thalmann, Julia K., E-mail: [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universittsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria)


    How magnetic energy is injected and released in the solar corona, keeping it heated to several million degrees, remains elusive. Coronal heating generally increases with increasing magnetic field strength. From a comparison of a nonlinear force-free model of the three-dimensional active region coronal field to observed extreme-ultraviolet loops, we find that (1) umbra-to-umbra coronal loops, despite being rooted in the strongest magnetic flux, are invisible, and (2) the brightest loops have one foot in an umbra or penumbra and the other foot in another sunspot’s penumbra or in unipolar or mixed-polarity plage. The invisibility of umbra-to-umbra loops is new evidence that magnetoconvection drives solar-stellar coronal heating: evidently, the strong umbral field at both ends quenches the magnetoconvection and hence the heating. Broadly, our results indicate that depending on the field strength in both feet, the photospheric feet of a coronal loop on any convective star can either engender or quench coronal heating in the loop’s body.

  12. Free Magnetic Energy and Coronal Heating (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Moore, Ron; Falconer, David


    Previous work has shown that the coronal X-ray luminosity of an active region increases roughly in direct proportion to the total photospheric flux of the active region's magnetic field (Fisher et al. 1998). It is also observed, however, that the coronal luminosity of active regions of nearly the same flux content can differ by an order of magnitude. In this presentation, we analyze 10 active regions with roughly the same total magnetic flux. We first determine several coronal properties, such as X-ray luminosity (calculated using Hinode XRT), peak temperature (calculated using Hinode EIS), and total Fe XVIII emission (calculated using SDO AIA). We present the dependence of these properties on a proxy of the free magnetic energy of the active region

  13. Microflares as Possible Sources for Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a preliminary study of 27 microflares observed by Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission during July 2003 to August 2006. We found that all 27 microflares show the Fe-line feature peaking around 6.7 keV, which is an indicator of the presence of coronal plasma temperature ≥ 9 MK. On the other hand, the ...

  14. Solar transition region and coronal response to heating rate perturbations (United States)

    Mariska, John T.


    Observations of Doppler shifts in UV emission lines formed in the solar transition region show continual plasma downflows and impulsive plasma upflows. Using numerical simulations, the authors examine the conjecture that areas of downflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating is gradually decreasing and that areas of upflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating rate is gradually increasing. Beginning with a coronal loop in equilibrium, the heating rate is reduced on time scales of 100, 1000, and 2000 s to 10 percent and 1 percent of the initial value, and the loop is allowed to evolve to a new equilibrium. The heating rate for the cooled models is then increased back to the initial value on the same time scales. While significant mass motions do develop in the simulations, both the emission measure and the velocity at 100,000 K do not show the characteristics present in UV observations.

  15. Coronal closed structures. IV - Hydrodynamical stability and response to heating perturbations (United States)

    Peres, G.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Rosner, R.


    The response of magnetically confined atmospheres to perturbations in the temperature and density distribution, and the local heating rate by means of a one-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamical code, which incorporates the full energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is studied. These studies extend the linear instability analysis of Habbal and Rosner (1979) into the finite-amplitude regime, and generalize the confined atmosphere models of Serio et al., to the time-dependent domain. The results show that closed coronal atmospheres are stable against finite-amplitude perturbations if the chromospheric response is taken into account; and observed correlated increases in coronal density and temperature can only be achieved under quiescent conditions by increasing the heat deposition rate relatively more in the chromosphere than in the corona.

  16. Microflares as Possible Sources for Coronal Heating Meera Gupta ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar flares: microflares, Fe-line feature—coronal heating. 1. Introduction. The solar corona is some 200 times .... standard OSPEX software in SolarSoft package. Fig. 1 shows, as an example, the light .... that the microflare reveals Fe line complex (red colour) peaking at 6.7 keV. However,. Fe/Ni line complex was not visible ...

  17. A new way to convert Alfven waves into heat in solar coronal holes - Intermittent magnetic levitation (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Hammer, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.


    In our recent analysis of Alfven wave reflection in solar coronal holes, we found evidence that coronal holes are heated by reflected Alfven waves. This result suggests that the reflection is inherent to the process that dissipates these Alfven waves into heat. We propose a novel dissipation process that is driven by the reflection, and that plausibly dominates the heating in coronal holes.

  18. Heating coronal holes and accelerating the solar wind (United States)

    Parker, E. N.


    The special energy requirements of a coronal hole combined with current knowledge of the limited dissipation of Alfven and fast mode MHD waves in the solar corona suggest a unique source of heat for the coronal hole. The near coronal hole requires approximately 3 - 4 x 10 exp 5 ergs/sq cm s, which can come only from the fluid jets, fast particles, and short period MHD waves from the network activity. The high speed streams of solar wind from coronal holes show that there is substantial heating, of 1 - 2 x 10 exp 5 ergs/sq cm s, beyond the sonic point in the wind, which can come only from the dissipation by thermal conduction of long period (approximately equal or greater than 100 sec) MHD waves from subphotospheric convection. Although the Alfven wave flux from the photosphere is generally taken for granted in the literature, we point out that it is a crucial phenomenon that has yet to be established on either a theoretical or observational scientific basis.

  19. Predicting observational signatures of coronal heating by Alfvén waves and Nanoflares (United States)

    Antolin, Patrick


    The subject of this thesis is the coronal heating problem, a long standing problem not only in solar physics but in astrophysics, since it is addressed to all stars that possess a corona. The Sun, a middle aged main sequence star of class G2V, has been unveiling many mysteries to us in the last century, especially since the advent of the space era. More than 70 years ago a very hot temperature component in the corona was discovered, reaching temperatures as high as a few million degrees. Such a hot corona came as a surprise to astrophysicists, since it seemed to contradict the second law of thermodynamics being 200 times hotter than the underlying photosphere, the source of its energy. Since then the coronal heating problem has spawned an active research community in solar physics that aims to unveil yet another mystery. This thesis has as purpose to shed some light into the fascinating subject of coronal heating. In the first chapter we give an introduction to the field, in which we discuss the main heating candidate mechanisms: Alfvén wave heating and nanoflare-reconnection heating. Predicting unique observational signatures of each heating mechanism which would allow their distinction during observations is the main purpose of this thesis and the subject of the second chapter. In this chapter we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a corona in a magnetic flux tube obtained, separately, with the two heating mechanisms. We derive a series of observational features which may allow the clear distinction between the two heating mechanisms during observations. In chapter 3 we further investigate the role of Alfvén wave heating in the solar atmosphere. We concentrate our study on magnetic flux tubes (loops), which are closed magnetic structures which populate the solar atmosphere. In the considered model Alfvén waves are generated at the footpoints of a loop and can dissipate their energy mainly through the mode conversion mechanism. A parameter survey is

  20. Heating by transverse waves in simulated coronal loops (United States)

    Karampelas, K.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Antolin, P.


    Context. Recent numerical studies of oscillating flux tubes have established the significance of resonant absorption in the damping of propagating transverse oscillations in coronal loops. The nonlinear nature of the mechanism has been examined alongside the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which is expected to manifest in the resonant layers at the edges of the flux tubes. While these two processes have been hypothesized to heat coronal loops through the dissipation of wave energy into smaller scales, the occurring mixing with the hotter surroundings can potentially hide this effect. Aims: We aim to study the effects of wave heating from driven and standing kink waves in a coronal loop. Methods: Using the MPI-AMRVAC code, we perform ideal, three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of both (a) footpoint driven and (b) free standing oscillations in a straight coronal flux tube, in the presence of numerical resistivity. Results: We have observed the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz eddies at the loop boundary layer of all three models considered here, as well as an increase of the volume averaged temperature inside the loop. The main heating mechanism in our setups was Ohmic dissipation, as indicated by the higher values for the temperatures and current densities located near the footpoints. The introduction of a temperature gradient between the inner tube and the surrounding plasma, suggests that the mixing of the two regions, in the case of hotter environment, greatly increases the temperature of the tube at the site of the strongest turbulence, beyond the contribution of the aforementioned wave heating mechanism. Three movies associated to Fig. 1 are available in electronic form at

  1. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere. (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo


    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role Of Torsional Alfvén Waves in Coronal Heating (United States)

    Antolin, P.; Shibata, K.


    In the context of coronal heating, among the zoo of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves that exist in the solar atmosphere, Alfvén waves receive special attention. Indeed, these waves constitute an attractive heating agent due to their ability to carry over the many different layers of the solar atmosphere sufficient energy to heat and maintain a corona. However, due to their incompressible nature these waves need a mechanism such as mode conversion (leading to shock heating), phase mixing, resonant absorption, or turbulent cascade in order to heat the plasma. Furthermore, their incompressibility makes their detection in the solar atmosphere very difficult. New observations with polarimetric, spectroscopic, and imaging instruments such as those on board the Japanese satellite Hinode, or the Crisp spectropolarimeter of the Swedish Solar Telescope or the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter, are bringing strong evidence for the existence of energetic Alfvén waves in the solar corona. In order to assess the role of Alfvén waves in coronal heating, in this work we model a magnetic flux tube being subject to Alfvén wave heating through the mode conversion mechanism. Using a 1.5 dimensional MHD code, we carry out a parameter survey varying the magnetic flux tube geometry (length and expansion), the photospheric magnetic field, the photospheric velocity amplitudes, and the nature of the waves (monochromatic or white-noise spectrum). The regimes under which Alfvén wave heating produces hot and stable coronae are found to be rather narrow. Independently of the photospheric wave amplitude and magnetic field, a corona can be produced and maintained only for long (>80 Mm) and thick (area ratio between the photosphere and corona >500) loops. Above a critical value of the photospheric velocity amplitude (generally a few km s-1) the corona can no longer be maintained over extended periods of time and collapses due to the large momentum of the waves. These results establish several

  3. Plasma Heating During the Parametric Excitation of Acoustic Waves in Coronal Magnetic Loops (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kislyakova, K. G.

    When studying microwave emission of active regions on the Sun, an effect of parametric resonance between 5-min velocity oscillations in the solar photosphere and sound oscillations of coronal magnetic loops modulating the microwave emission has been discovered for the first time. The effect shows itself as simultaneous excitation in coronal magnetic loop oscillations with periods 5, 10, and 3 min, which correspond to the pumping frequency, subharmonic, and the first upper frequency of parametric resonance. The parametric resonance can serve as an effective channel of transporting the energy of photospheric oscillations into the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. The energy of acoustic waves excited in a coronal magnetic loop, rate of dissipation of acoustic waves, and rate of heating of the coronal plasma are determined. The maximum temperature predicted for the apex of the loop is calculated as a function of velocity of photospheric oscillations, length of the loop, and electric current in the loop. It is shown that the mechanism proposed can explain the origin of quasi-stationary X-ray loops with temperatures of 3-6 MK. The lengths of these loops are resonant for acoustic waves excited by the 5-min photospheric oscillations. The use of the proposed mechanism to explain heating of the X-ray loops expected to be on stars of late spectral types is discussed.

  4. Multifractal Solar EUV Intensity Fluctuations and their Implications for Coronal Heating Models (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Rivera, Y. J.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jennings, P. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.


    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15-45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  5. The Parker Problem and the Theory of Coronal Heating (United States)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Sneyd, A. D.


    To illustrate his theory of coronal heating, Parker initially considers the problem of disturbing a homogeneous vertical magnetic field that is line-tied across two infinite horizontal surfaces. It is argued that, in the absence of resistive effects, any perturbed equilibrium must be independent of z. As a result random footpoint perturbations give rise to magnetic singularities, which generate strong Ohmic heating in the case of resistive plasmas. More recently these ideas have been formalized in terms of a magneto-static theorem but no formal proof has been provided. In this paper we investigate the Parker hypothesis by formulating the problem in terms of the fluid displacement. We find that, contrary to Parker's assertion, well-defined solutions for arbitrary compressibility can be constructed which possess non-trivial z-dependence. In particular, an analytic treatment shows that small-amplitude Fourier disturbances violate the symmetry ∂z = 0 for both compact and non-compact regions of the (x, y) plane. Magnetic relaxation experiments at various levels of gas pressure confirm the existence and stability of the Fourier mode solutions. More general footpoint displacements that include appreciable shear and twist are also shown to relax to well-defined non-singular equilibria. The implications for Parker's theory of coronal heating are discussed.

  6. Identification of coronal heating events in 3D simulations (United States)

    Kanella, Charalambos; Gudiksen, Boris V.


    Context. The solar coronal heating problem has been an open question in the science community since 1939. One of the proposed models for the transport and release of mechanical energy generated in the sub-photospheric layers and photosphere is the magnetic reconnection model that incorporates Ohmic heating, which releases a part of the energy stored in the magnetic field. In this model many unresolved flaring events occur in the solar corona, releasing enough energy to heat the corona. Aims: The problem with the verification and quantification of this model is that we cannot resolve small scale events due to limitations of the current observational instrumentation. Flaring events have scaling behavior extending from large X-class flares down to the so far unobserved nanoflares. Histograms of observable characteristics of flares show powerlaw behavior for energy release rate, size, and total energy. Depending on the powerlaw index of the energy release, nanoflares might be an important candidate for coronal heating; we seek to find that index. Methods: In this paper we employ a numerical three-dimensional (3D)-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation produced by the numerical code Bifrost, which enables us to look into smaller structures, and a new technique to identify the 3D heating events at a specific instant. The quantity we explore is the Joule heating, a term calculated directly by the code, which is explicitly correlated with the magnetic reconnection because it depends on the curl of the magnetic field. Results: We are able to identify 4136 events in a volume 24 × 24 × 9.5 Mm3 (I.e., 768 × 786 × 331 grid cells) of a specific snapshot. We find a powerlaw slope of the released energy per second equal to αP = 1.5 ± 0.02, and two powerlaw slopes of the identified volume equal to αV = 1.53 ± 0.03 and αV = 2.53 ± 0.22. The identified energy events do not represent all the released energy, but of the identified events, the total energy of the largest events

  7. Heating of coronal plasma by anomalous current dissipation. [induced by solar magnetic flux (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Coppi, B.; Vaiana, G. S.


    It is shown that there exist heating mechanisms which connect the observed radiative properties of the inner corona in a simple way to the underlying solar magnetic field. The mechanisms considered involve the generation and consequent dissipation of coronal currents. It is argued that the spatially and temporally inhomogeneous nature of the erupting solar magnetic field is an essential element of coronal heating. Unlike heating theories conceived in the context of the 'homogeneous' corona, this class of current heating models incorporates the observed stochastic coronal structuring at the onset, and does not view it as a complication of an otherwise straightforward model. Attention is given to the generation of coronal currents, the flux-tube emergence, the gradual growth and decay of active regions, the energetics of current dissipation, current sheath geometry and heat transport, and anomalous current dissipation.

  8. Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments (United States)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve


    Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfvén speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.

  9. Heating of solar coronal loops by resonant absorption of Alfven waves (United States)

    Grossmann, William; Smith, Robert A.


    Numerical calculations governing the efficiency of coronal loop heating by the resonant absorption of shear Alfven waves are reported. The loop structure is modeled by a class of axisymmetric force-free equilibria of a long straight cylinder, approximating a large aspect ratio loop. For a range of parameters characterizing the evolution of solar coronal loops, the absorption bandwidth falls in the frequency range of the photospheric motions due to granulation and p-modes. Resonant Alfven wave absorption is thus a viable mechanism for coronal loop heating.


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    Tajfirouze, E.; Reale, F.; Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Testa, P., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    A previous work of ours found the best agreement between EUV light curves observed in an active region core (with evidence of super-hot plasma) and those predicted from a model with a random combination of many pulse-heated strands with a power-law energy distribution. We extend that work by including spatially resolved strand modeling and by studying the evolution of emission along the loops in the EUV 94 Å and 335 Å channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using the best parameters of the previous work as the input of the present one, we find that the amplitude of the random fluctuations driven by the random heat pulses increases from the bottom to the top of the loop in the 94 Å channel and from the top to the bottom in the 335 Å channel. This prediction is confirmed by the observation of a set of aligned neighboring pixels along a bright arc of an active region core. Maps of pixel fluctuations may therefore provide easy diagnostics of nanoflaring regions.

  11. A new approach for modelling chromospheric evaporation in response to enhanced coronal heating. II. Non-uniform heating (United States)

    Johnston, C. D.; Hood, A. W.; Cargill, P. J.; De Moortel, I.


    We proposed that the use of an approximate "jump condition" at the solar transition region permits fast and accurate numerical solutions of the one dimensional hydrodynamic equations when the corona undergoes impulsive heating. In particular, it eliminates the need for the very short timesteps imposed by a highly resolved numerical grid. This paper presents further examples of the applicability of the method for cases of non-uniform heating, in particular, nanoflare trains (uniform in space but non-uniform in time) and spatially localised impulsive heating, including at the loop apex and base of the transition region. In all cases the overall behaviour of the coronal density and temperature shows good agreement with a fully resolved one dimensional model and is significantly better than the equivalent results from a 1D code run without using the jump condition but with the same coarse grid. A detailed assessment of the errors introduced by the jump condition is presented showing that the causes of discrepancy with the fully resolved code are (I) the neglect of the terms corresponding to the rate of change of total energy in the unresolved atmosphere; (II) mass motions at the base of the transition region and (III) for some cases with footpoint heating, an over-estimation of the radiative losses in the transition region.

  12. The Solar Atmosphere at Three Temperatures During a Coronal Mass Ejection (United States)

    Zhitnik, I.; Pertzov, A.; Oparin, S.; Oraevsky, V.; Slemzin, V.; Sobelman, I.; Feynman, J.; Goldstein, B.


    On April 14, 1994 a major coronal mass ejection (CME) occured while the solar atmosphere was being observed in XUV by the Terek C instrument aboard the CORONAS spacecraft. We here compare the TEREK data before and after the CME with the Yohkoh soft x-ray data and the National Solar Observatory He I 10830 data from April 13 and 14.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Krucker, Säm [Also at Institute of 4-D Technologies, School of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch, Switzerland. (Switzerland); Lin, Robert P., E-mail: [Also at Physics Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. (United States)


    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ∼11 MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (∼100 × 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  14. Turbulence and Heating in the Flank and Wake Regions of a Coronal Mass Ejection (United States)

    Fan, Siteng; He, Jiansen; Yan, Limei; Tomczyk, Steven; Tian, Hui; Song, Hongqiang; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Lei


    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) passes, the flank and wake regions are typically strongly disturbed. Various instruments, including the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP), observed a CME close to the east limb on 26 October 2013. A hot ({≈} 10 MK) rising blob was detected on the east limb, with an initial ejection flow speed of {≈} 330 km s^{-1}. The magnetic structures on both sides and in the wake of the CME were strongly distorted, showing initiation of turbulent motions with Doppler-shift oscillations enhanced from {≈} ± 3 km s^{-1} to {≈} ± 15 km s^{-1} and effective thermal velocities from {≈} 30 km s^{-1} to {≈} 60 km s^{-1}, according to the CoMP observations at the Fe xiii line. The CoMP Doppler-shift maps suggest that the turbulence behaved differently at various heights; it showed clear wave-like torsional oscillations at lower altitudes, which are interpreted as the antiphase oscillation of an alternating red/blue Doppler shift across the strands at the flank. The turbulence seems to appear differently in the channels of different temperatures. Its turnover time was {≈} 1000 seconds for the Fe 171 Å channel, while it was {≈} 500 seconds for the Fe 193 Å channel. Mainly horizontal swaying rotations were observed in the Fe 171 Å channel, while more vertical vortices were seen in the Fe 193 Å channel. The differential-emission-measure profiles in the flank and wake regions have two components that evolve differently: the cool component decreased over time, evidently indicating a drop-out of cool materials due to ejection, while the hot component increased dramatically, probably because of the heating process, which is suspected to be a result of magnetic reconnection and turbulence dissipation. These results suggest a new turbulence-heating scenario of the solar corona and solar wind.

  15. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating S. R. Verma & Diksha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energy released when oppositely directed magnetic fields meet in the corona is one likely cause for coronal heating. There is enough energy coming up from the loops of the “magnetic carpet” to heat the corona to its known temperature. Key words. Sun—corona—magnetic field—magnetic carpet—recon- nection. 1.

  16. Modeling Coronal Response in Decaying Active Regions with Magnetic Flux Transport and Steady Heating (United States)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Upton, Lisa A.; Young, Peter R.


    We present new measurements of the dependence of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiance on the total magnetic flux in active regions as obtained from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using observations of nine active regions tracked along different stages of evolution, we extend the known radiance—magnetic flux power-law relationship (I\\propto {{{Φ }}}α ) to the AIA 335 Å passband, and the Fe xviii 93.93 Å spectral line in the 94 Å passband. We find that the total unsigned magnetic flux divided by the polarity separation ({{Φ }}/D) is a better indicator of radiance for the Fe xviii line with a slope of α =3.22+/- 0.03. We then use these results to test our current understanding of magnetic flux evolution and coronal heating. We use magnetograms from the simulated decay of these active regions produced by the Advective Flux Transport model as boundary conditions for potential extrapolations of the magnetic field in the corona. We then model the hydrodynamics of each individual field line with the Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops model with steady heating scaled as the ratio of the average field strength and the length (\\bar{B}/L) and render the Fe xviii and 335 Å emission. We find that steady heating is able to partially reproduce the magnitudes and slopes of the EUV radiance—magnetic flux relationships and discuss how impulsive heating can help reconcile the discrepancies. This study demonstrates that combined models of magnetic flux transport, magnetic topology, and heating can yield realistic estimates for the decay of active region radiances with time.

  17. Alfven wave trapping, network microflaring, and heating in solar coronal holes (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.; Musielak, Z. E.; An, C.-H.


    Fresh evidence that much of the heating in coronal holes is provided by Alfven waves is presented. This evidence comes from examining the reflection of Alfven waves in an isothermal hydrostatic model coronal hole with an open magnetic field. Reflection occurs if the wavelength is as long as the order of the scale height of the Alfven velocity. For Alfven waves with periods of about 5 min, and for realistic density, magnetic field strength, and magnetic field spreading in the model, the waves are reflected back down within the model hole if the coronal temperature is only slightly less than 1.0 x 10 to the 6th K, but are not reflected and escape out the top of the model if the coronal temperature is only slightly greater than 1.0 x 10 to the 6th K. Because the spectrum of Alfven waves in real coronal holes is expected to peak around 5 min and the temperature is observed to be close to 1.0 x 10 to the 6th K, the sensitive temperature dependence of the trapping suggests that the temperature in coronal holes is regulated by heating by the trapped Alfven waves.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Igor V.; Van der Holst, Bart; Oran, Rona; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Downs, Cooper [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roussev, Ilia I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Rebekah M., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We present a new global model of the solar corona, including the low corona, the transition region, and the top of the chromosphere. The realistic three-dimensional magnetic field is simulated using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements. The distinctive feature of the new model is incorporating MHD Alfven wave turbulence. We assume this turbulence and its nonlinear dissipation to be the only momentum and energy source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. The difference between the turbulence dissipation efficiency in coronal holes and that in closed field regions is because the nonlinear cascade rate degrades in strongly anisotropic (imbalanced) turbulence in coronal holes (no inward propagating wave), thus resulting in colder coronal holes, from which the fast solar wind originates. The detailed presentation of the theoretical model is illustrated with the synthetic images for multi-wavelength EUV emission compared with the observations from SDO AIA and STEREO EUVI instruments for the Carrington rotation 2107.

  19. Heating and Cooling of Coronal Loops with Turbulent Suppression of Parallel Heat Conduction (United States)

    Bian, Nicolas; Emslie, A. Gordon; Horne, Duncan; Kontar, Eduard P.


    Using the “enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops” (EBTEL) model, we investigate the hydrodynamics of the plasma in a flaring coronal loop in which heat conduction is limited by turbulent scattering of the electrons that transport the thermal heat flux. The EBTEL equations are solved analytically in each of the two (conduction-dominated and radiation-dominated) cooling phases. Comparison of the results with typical observed cooling times in solar flares shows that the turbulent mean free path {λ }T lies in a range corresponding to a regime in which classical (collision-dominated) conduction plays at most a limited role. We also consider the magnitude and duration of the heat input that is necessary to account for the enhanced values of temperature and density at the beginning of the cooling phase and for the observed cooling times. We find through numerical modeling that in order to produce a peak temperature ≃ 1.5× {10}7 K and a 200 s cooling time consistent with observations, the flare-heating profile must extend over a significant period of time; in particular, its lingering role must be taken into consideration in any description of the cooling phase. Comparison with observationally inferred values of post-flare loop temperatures, densities, and cooling times thus leads to useful constraints on both the magnitude and duration of the magnetic energy release in the loop, as well as on the value of the turbulent mean free path {λ }T.

  20. Microflaring in Low-Lying Core Fields and Extended Coronal Heating in the Quiet Sun (United States)

    Porter, Jason G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, Ronald L.


    We have previously reported analyses of Yohkoh SXT data examining the relationship between the heating of extended coronal loops (both within and stemming from active regions) and microflaring in core fields lying along neutral lines near their footpoints (J. G. Porter, D. A. Falconer, and R. L. Moore 1998, in Solar Jets and Coronal Plumes, ed. T. Guyenne, ESA SP-421, and references therein). We found a surprisingly poor correlation of intensity variations in the extended loops with individual microflares in the compact heated areas at their feet, despite considerable circumstancial evidence linking the heating processes in these regions. Now, a study of Fe XII image sequences from SOHO EIT show that similar associations of core field structures with the footpoints of very extended coronal features can be found in the quiet Sun. The morphology is consistent with the finding of Wang et al. (1997, ApJ 484, L75) that polar plumes are rooted at sites of mixed polarity in the magnetic network. We find that the upstairs/downstairs intensity variations often follow the trend, identified in the active region observations, of a weak correspondence. Apparently much of the coronal heating in the extended loops is driven by a type of core field magnetic activity that is "cooler" than the events having the coronal signature of microflares, i.e., activity that results in little heating within the core fields themselves. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's Office of Space Science through the SR&T Program and the SEC Guest Investigator Program.

  1. Suppression of heating of coronal loops rooted in opposite polarity sunspot umbrae (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Panesar, Navdeep; Winebarger, Amy R.


    EUV observations of active region (AR) coronae reveal the presence of loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 A images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect plage or a sunspot of one polarity to an opposite-polarity plage region. The AIA 94 A images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the HMI onboard SDO. After validation of the NLFFF model by comparison of calculated model field lines and observed loops in AIA 193 and 94, we specify the photospheric roots of the model field lines. The model field then shows the coronal magnetic loops that arch from the dim umbral areas of the opposite polarity sunspots. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.We hypothesize that the convective freedom at the feet of a coronal loop, together with the strength of the field in the body of the loop, determines the strength of the heating. In particular, we expect the hottest coronal loops to have one foot in an umbra and the other foot in opposite-polarity penumbra or plage (coronal moss), the areas of strong field in which convection is not as strongly suppressed as in umbra. Many transient, outstandingly bright, loops in the AIA 94 movie of the AR do have this expected rooting pattern. We will also present another example of AR in

  2. The Tectonics Model of Coronal Heating: Unsteady Dynamics and Scaling in Statistical Steady State (United States)

    Ng, C. S.; Lin, L.; Bhattacharjee, A.


    The tectonics model of coronal heating, proposed by Priest et al. [Astrophys. J., 576, 533 (2002)] envisions coronal heating caused by a hierarchy of current sheets produced by the movement of a myriad of flux elements in the magnetic carpet covering the Sun. We have recently obtained new scaling results in two dimensions (2D) suggesting that the heating rate becomes independent of resistivity in a statistical steady state [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Astrophys. J., 675, 899 (2008)]. Our numerical work has now been extended to 3D. Random photospheric footpoint motion is applied to obtain converged average coronal heating rates. In the large Lundquist number limit, we find that the heating rate is independent of the Lundquist number, with average magnetic energy saturating at a constant level due to the formation of strong current layers and subsequent disruptions. In this talk, we will present our latest numerical results from large-scale 3D simulations, and discuss differences with previous scaling laws.

  3. Evidence of suppressed heating of coronal loops rooted in opposite polarity sunspot umbrae (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald


    Observations of active region (AR) coronae in different EUV wavelengths reveal the presence of various loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 A images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect opposite-polarity plage or a sunspot to a opposite-polarity plage region. The AIA 94 A images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the Heliosesmic Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. After validation of the NLFFF model by comparison of calculated model field lines and observed loops in AIA 193 and 94 A, we specify the photospheric roots of the model field lines. The model field then shows the coronal magnetic loops that arch from the dim umbral area of the positive-polarity sunspot to the dim umbral area of a negative-polarity sunspot. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.From this result, we further hypothesize that the convective freedom at the feet of a coronal loop, together with the strength of the field in the body of the loop, determines the strength of the heating. In particular, we expect the hottest coronal loops to have one foot in an umbra and the other foot in opposite-polarity penumbra or plage (coronal moss), the areas of strong field in which convection is not as strongly suppressed as in umbrae. Many


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Innes, D. E.; Inhester, B., E-mail: [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)


    We report high resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) of intensity oscillations in a hot, T ∼ 8-10 MK, loop. The AIA images show a large coronal loop that was rapidly heated following plasma ejection from one of the loop's footpoints. A wave-like intensity enhancement, seen very clearly in the 131 and 94 Å channel images, propagated ahead of the ejecta along the loop, and was reflected at the opposite footpoint. The wave reflected four times before fading. It was only seen in the hot, 131 and 94 Å channels. The characteristic period and the decay time of the oscillation were ∼630 and ∼440 s, respectively. The phase speed was about 460-510 km s{sup –1} which roughly matches the sound speed of the loop (430-480 km s{sup –1}). The observed properties of the oscillation are consistent with the observations of Dopper-shift oscillations discovered by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation and with their interpretation as slow magnetoacoustic waves. We suggest that the impulsive injection of plasma, following reconnection at one of the loop footpoints, led to rapid heating and the propagation of a longitudinal compressive wave along the loop. The wave bounces back and forth a couple of times before fading.

  5. Solar Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.


    We investigate the heating of the quiet corona by measuring the increase of coronal luminosity with the amount of magnetic flux in the underlying network at solar minimum when there were no active regions on the face of the Sun. The coronal luminosity is measured from Fe IX/X-Fe XII pairs of coronal images from SOHO/EIT. The network magnetic flux content is measured from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. We find that the luminosity of the corona in our quiet regions increases roughly in proportion to the square root of the magnetic flux content of the network and roughly in proportion to the length of the perimeter of the network magnetic flux clumps. From (1) this result, (2) other observations of many fine-scale explosive events at the edges of network flux clumps, and (3) a demonstration that it is energetically feasible for the heating of the corona in quiet regions to be driven by explosions of granule-sized sheared-core magnetic bipoles embedded in the edges of network flux clumps, we infer that in quiet regions that are not influenced by active regions the corona is mainly heated by such magnetic activity in the edges of the network flux clumps. Our observational results together with our feasibility analysis allow us to predict that (1) at the edges of the network flux clumps there are many transient sheared-core bipoles of the size and lifetime of granules and having transverse field strengths greater than approximately - 100 G, (2) approximately 30 of these bipoles are present per supergranule, and (3) most spicules are produced by explosions of these bipoles.

  6. Nonresonant absorption of shear Alfven waves. [in solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.


    Resonant absorption of shear Alfven waves is thought to be a likely candidate to explain heating of the solar corona and acceleration of the solar wind. A difficulty with the theory is that the absorption process is slow. Moreover, heating occurs in a very thin layer. A faster absorption mechanism is nonresonant absorption by compressional viscosity, in a curved magnetic field. Heating is nonresonant and is not localized to a narrow layer. The effect could be quite important where the solar coronal magnetic field is strongly curved, in the chromosphere. It could also be important on open field lines in the upper corona, where the compressional viscosity is large. It might imply that a significant part of outgoing Alfven waves are absorbed in the corona.

  7. High-Lundquist Number Numerical Simulations of Coronal Heating: Reduced MHD via GPGPUs (United States)

    Lin, Liwei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ng, Chung-Sang


    In the last few years, we have performed a number of numerical simulations of a coronal heating model based on three-dimensional (3D) reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), which is generalized from our 2D model [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Astrophys. J., 675, 899 (2008)]. In this model, random photospheric footpoint motion is applied to obtain converged average coronal heating rates. In the high-Lundquist number limit, we find that the heating rate is independent of the Lundquist number, with average magnetic energy saturating at a constant level due to the formation of strong current layers and subsequent disruptions. The computational loads required for adequately resolving such current layers renders any extension of our analysis towards even higher Lundquist numbers exceedingly difficult on conventional parallel architectures. We present here initial results from a port of our RMHD code to Nvidia CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) for hardware acceleration using general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs). We report code performance on a dedicated research workstation and well as larger scale distributed memory GPU equipped machines. This work is supported by NASA NNX08BA71G, NNX06AC19G, NSF AGS-0962477, and DOE DE-FG02-07ER54832.

  8. Titan Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating (United States)

    Brandis, Aaron; Cruden, Brett


    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube for conditions relevant to Titan entry, varying atmospheric composition, free-stream density (equivalent to altitude) and shock velocity. Permutations in atmospheric composition include 1.1, 2, 5 and 8.6 CH4 by mole with a balance of N2 and 1.5 CH4 0.5 Ar 98 N2 by mole, which is consistent with the current understanding of Titan's atmosphere. The effect of gas impurities identified in previous shock tube studies were also examined by testing in pure N2 and deliberate addition of air to the CH4N2 mixtures. The test campaign measured radiation at velocities from 4.7 kms to 8 kms and free-stream pressures from 0.1 to 0.47 Torr. These conditions cover a range of potential trajectories for flight missions, including a direct ballistic trajectory, a fly by or an extremely high speed entry. Radiances measured in this work are substantially larger compared to that reported both in past EAST test campaigns and other shock tube facilities. Depending on the metric used for comparison, the discrepancy can be as high as an order of magnitude. Potential causes for the discrepancy, such as the effect of oxygen due to Air leakage, gas composition and purity are discussed. The present work provides a new benchmark set of data to replace those published in previous studies.

  9. Large-scale Reduced MHD Simulations of Coronal Heating via GPGPUs (United States)

    Lin, L.; Ng, C.; Bhattacharjee, A.


    In the last few years, we have performed a number of numerical simulations of a coronal heating model based on three-dimensional (3D) reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), which is generalized from our 2D model [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Astrophys. J., 675, 899 (2008)]. In this model, random photospheric footpoint motion is applied to obtain converged average coronal heating rates and thus we require very long numerical integrations. Moreover, the formation of very fine current layers in the physical process demands runs with very high resolutions. These requirements become exceedingly difficult on conventional parallel architectures when we attempt to simulate using even higher resolutions. We present here results from a port of our RMHD code to Nvidia CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) for hardware acceleration using general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs). The code has been benchmarked on a dedicated research workstation equipped with four Nvidia C2050 GPUs, as well as on two large-scale distributed memory machines: Lincoln/NCSA/TeraGrid and Dirac/NERSC. We will report code performance compared with the original parallel code on each of these systems, which span a variety of hardware generations/capabilities.

  10. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.


    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  11. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah


    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  12. The Foggy EUV Corona and Coronal Heating by MHD Waves from Explosive Reconnection Events (United States)

    Moore, Ron L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Falconer, David A.


    In 0.5 arcsec/pixel TRACE coronal EUV images, the corona rooted in active regions that are at the limb and are not flaring is seen to consist of (1) a complex array of discrete loops and plumes embedded in (2) a diffuse ambient component that shows no fine structure and gradually fades with height. For each of two not-flaring active regions, found that the diffuse component is (1) approximately isothermal and hydrostatic and (2) emits well over half of the total EUV luminosity of the active-region corona. Here, from a TRACE Fe XII coronal image of another not-flaring active region, the large sunspot active region AR 10652 when it was at the west limb on 30 July 2004, we separate the diffuse component from the discrete loop component by spatial filtering, and find that the diffuse component has about 60% of the total luminosity. If under much higher spatial resolution than that of TRACE (e. g., the 0.1 arcsec/pixel resolution of the Hi-C sounding-rocket experiment proposed by J. W. Cirtain et al), most of the diffuse component remains diffuse rather being resolved into very narrow loops and plumes, this will raise the possibility that the EUV corona in active regions consists of two basically different but comparably luminous components: one being the set of discrete bright loops and plumes and the other being a truly diffuse component filling the space between the discrete loops and plumes. This dichotomy would imply that there are two different but comparably powerful coronal heating mechanisms operating in active regions, one for the distinct loops and plumes and another for the diffuse component. We present a scenario in which (1) each discrete bright loop or plume is a flux tube that was recently reconnected in a burst of reconnection, and (2) the diffuse component is heated by MHD waves that are generated by these reconnection events and by other fine-scale explosive reconnection events, most of which occur in and below the base of the corona where they are

  13. Coronal temperatures, heating, and energy flow in a polar region of the sun at solar maximum (United States)

    Withbroe, G. L.; Kohl, J. L.; Weiser, H.; Munro, R. H.


    The profiles of resonantly scattered Lyman-alpha coronal radiation have been used to determine the hydrogen kinetic temperature from 1.5 to 4 solar radius from the center of the polar region of the corona observed in 1980 at solar maximum. Hydrogen temperatures derived from the line profiles were found to decrease with height from 1.2 million K at r = 1.5 solar radii to 600,000 K at r = 4 solar radius. Comparison of the measured kinetic temperatures with predictions from a semiempirical two-fluid model showed evidence of a small amount of heating or a nonthermal contribution to the motions of coronal protons between 1.5 and 4 solar radius. The widths of the profiles confirmed an upper limit of 110 + or - 15 km/s on the rms magnitude of the line-of-sight component of velocities between 1.5 and 4 solar radius. Density measurements obtained in situ in the solar wind in the ecliptic were used to locate the sources of low speed and high-speed winds in the polar region. An eclipse photograph of the corona at solar maximum is provided.

  14. A Self-consistent Model of the Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Including Compressible and Incompressible Heating Processes (United States)

    Shoda, Munehito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takeru K.


    We propose a novel one-dimensional model that includes both shock and turbulence heating and qualify how these processes contribute to heating the corona and driving the solar wind. Compressible MHD simulations allow us to automatically consider shock formation and dissipation, while turbulent dissipation is modeled via a one-point closure based on Alfvén wave turbulence. Numerical simulations were conducted with different photospheric perpendicular correlation lengths {λ }0, which is a critical parameter of Alfvén wave turbulence, and different root-mean-square photospheric transverse-wave amplitudes δ {v}0. For the various {λ }0, we obtain a low-temperature chromosphere, high-temperature corona, and supersonic solar wind. Our analysis shows that turbulence heating is always dominant when {λ }0≲ 1 {Mm}. This result does not mean that we can ignore the compressibility because the analysis indicates that the compressible waves and their associated density fluctuations enhance the Alfvén wave reflection and therefore the turbulence heating. The density fluctuation and the cross-helicity are strongly affected by {λ }0, while the coronal temperature and mass-loss rate depend weakly on {λ }0.

  15. Lundquist Number Scaling of Solar Coronal Heating Due to Random Photospheric Footpoint Motion in a Three-Dimensional Tectonics Model (United States)

    Lin, L.; Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.


    We have recently obtained new scaling results in 2D for a ``tectonics model'' of coronal heating which suggest that the heating rate becomes independent of resistivity in a statistical steady state [Ng & Bhattacharjee, Astrophys. J., 675, 899 (2008)]. Here we extend our 2D results to 3D by means of numerical simulations. Random photospheric footpoint motion is applied for a time much longer than the correlation time to obtain converged average coronal heating rates. Simulations are done for different values of the Lundquist number to determine scaling. In the large Lundquist number limit, we recover the case in which the heating rate is independent of the Lundquist number, predicted by previous analysis as well as 2D simulations. In the same limit the average magnetic energy built up by the random footpoint motion saturates at a constant level, apparently limited by nonlinear processes, such as instabilities and/or magnetic reconnection.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Infrared light curves of transiting hot Jupiters present a trend in which the atmospheres of the hottest planets are less efficient at redistributing the stellar energy absorbed on their daysides—and thus have a larger day-night temperature contrast—than colder planets. To this day, no predictive atmospheric model has been published that identifies which dynamical mechanisms determine the atmospheric heat redistribution efficiency on tidally locked exoplanets. Here we present a shallow-water model of the atmospheric dynamics on synchronously rotating planets that explains why heat redistribution efficiency drops as stellar insolation rises. Our model shows that planets with weak friction and weak irradiation exhibit a banded zonal flow with minimal day-night temperature differences, while models with strong irradiation and/or strong friction exhibit a day-night flow pattern with order-unity fractional day-night temperature differences. To interpret the model, we develop a scaling theory which shows that the timescale for gravity waves to propagate horizontally over planetary scales, τ{sub wave}, plays a dominant role in controlling the transition from small to large temperature contrasts. This implies that heat redistribution is governed by a wave-like process, similar to the one responsible for the weak temperature gradients in the Earth's tropics. When atmospheric drag can be neglected, the transition from small to large day-night temperature contrasts occurs when τ{sub wave}∼√(τ{sub rad}/Ω), where τ{sub rad} is the radiative relaxation time and Ω is the planetary rotation frequency. Alternatively, this transition criterion can be expressed as τ{sub rad} ∼ τ{sub vert}, where τ{sub vert} is the timescale for a fluid parcel to move vertically over the difference in day-night thickness. These results subsume the more widely used timescale comparison for estimating heat redistribution efficiency between τ{sub rad} and the horizontal day

  17. Isothermal and Multithermal Analysis of Coronal Loops Observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. II. 211 Å Selected Loops (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Worley, B. T.; Anderson, D. J.; Pathak, S.; Kimble, J. A.; Jenkins, B. S.; Saar, S. H.


    An important component of coronal loop analysis involves conflicting results on the cross-field temperature distribution. Are loops isothermal or multithermal? The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory was designed in part to answer this question. AIA has a series of coronal filters that peak at different temperatures and cover the entire active region temperature range. These properties should make AIA ideal for multithermal analysis, but recent results have shown that the response functions of two of the filters, AIA 94 and 131 Å, are missing a significant number of low-temperature emission lines. Here we analyze coronal loops from several active regions that were chosen in the 211 Å channel of AIA, which has a peak response temperature of log T = 6.3. The differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the 12 loops in our sample reveals that using data from the 131 Å AIA filter distorts the results, and we have no choice but to do the analysis without these data. The 94 Å data do not appear to be as important, simply because the chosen loops are not visible in this channel. If we eliminate the 131 Å data, however, we find that our DEM analysis is not well constrained on the cool temperature end of six of our loops. The information revealed by our 211 selected loops indicates that additional atomic data are required in order to pin down the cross-field temperature distribution.

  18. Contribution of mode coupling and phase-mixing of Alfvén waves to coronal heating (United States)

    Pagano, Paolo; De Moortel, Ineke


    The solar corona is a million degree plasma that has been investigated for long time to understand the cause of this high heating rate. In particular, phase-mixing of Alfvén waves in the solar corona has been identified as one possible candidate to explain coronal heating by observations of ubiquitous oscillations in the corona carrying sufficient wave energy and by theoretical models that have described the concentration of energy in small scale structures. The aim of this work is to assess how much energy can be converted into thermal energy by a phase-mixing process triggered by the propagation of Alfvénic waves in a cylindric coronal structure, such as a coronal loop, and to estimate the impact of this conversion on the coronal heating and thermal structure of the solar corona plasma. We run 3D MHD simulations of a magnetised cylinder where the Alfvén speed varies through a boundary shell and a footpoint driver is set to trigger kink modes which mode couple to torsional Alfvén modes in the boundary shell. These Alfvén waves are expected to phase-mix and the system allows us to study the following thermal energy deposition on the plasma. We run a reference simulation to explain the main process and then we vary simulation parameters, such as the size of the boundary shell, its structure and the persistence of the driver. Taking into consideration high values of magnetic resistivity and strong footpoint drivers, we find i) that phase-mixing leads to a temperature increase, ii) that this energy is able to balance the radiative losses only in the localised region involved in the heating.

  19. The Coronal Monsoon: Thermal Nonequilibrium Revealed by Periodic Coronal Rain (United States)

    Auchère, Frédéric; Froment, Clara; Soubrié, Elie; Antolin, Patrick; Oliver, Ramon; Pelouze, Gabriel


    We report on the discovery of periodic coronal rain in an off-limb sequence of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images. The showers are co-spatial and in phase with periodic (6.6 hr) intensity pulsations of coronal loops of the sort described by Auchère et al. and Froment et al. These new observations make possible a unified description of both phenomena. Coronal rain and periodic intensity pulsations of loops are two manifestations of the same physical process: evaporation/condensation cycles resulting from a state of thermal nonequilibrium. The fluctuations around coronal temperatures produce the intensity pulsations of loops, and rain falls along their legs if thermal runaway cools the periodic condensations down and below transition-region temperatures. This scenario is in line with the predictions of numerical models of quasi-steadily and footpoint heated loops. The presence of coronal rain—albeit non-periodic—in several other structures within the studied field of view implies that this type of heating is at play on a large scale.

  20. The possible role of high-frequency waves in heating solar coronal loops (United States)

    Porter, Lisa J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Sturrock, Peter A.


    We investigate the role of high-frequency waves in the heating of solar active region coronal loops. We assume a uniform background magnetic field, and we introduce a density stratification in a direction perpendicular to this field. We focus on ion compressive viscosity as the damping mechanism of the waves. We incorporate viscosity self-consistently into the equations, and we derive a dispersion relation by adopting a slab model, where the density inside the slab is greater than that outside. Such a configuration supports two types of modes: surface waves and trapped body waves. In order to determine under what conditions these waves may contribute to the heating of active regions, we solve our dispersion relation for a range of densities, temperatures, magnetic field strengths, density ratios, wavevector magnitudes, wavevector ratios, and slab widths. We find that surface waves exhibit very small damping, but body waves can potentially damp at rates needed to balance radiative losses. However, the required frequencies of these body waves are very high. For example, the wave frequency must be at least 5.0/s for a slab density of 10(exp 9,5)/cc, a slab temperature of 10(exp 6,5) K, a field strength of 100 G, and a density ratio of 5. For a slab density of 10(exp 10)/cc, this frequency increases to 8.8/s. Although these frequencies are very high, there in no observational evidence to rule out their existence, and they may be generated both below the corona and at magnetic reconnection sites in the corona. However, we do find that, for slab densities of 10(exp 10)/cc or less, the dissipation of high-frequency waves will be insufficient to balance the radiative losses if the magnetic field strength exceeds roughly 200 G. Because the magnetic field is known to exceed 200 G in many active region loops, particularly low-lying loops and loops emanating from sunspots, it is unlikely that high-frequency waves can provide sufficient heating in these regions.

  1. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation


    M.-A. Knietzsch; V. Lucarini; F. Lunkeit


    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized earthlike aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is put on the Lorenz energy cycle and the atmospheric mean meridional circulation. The latter is analysed by means of the Kuo–Eliassen equation. The atmospheric heat transport compensates the imposed oceanic heat transport changes to a large extent in co...

  2. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation


    M.-A. Knietzsch; A. Schröder; V. Lucarini; F. Lunkeit


    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general ci...

  3. Knowledge of coronal heating and solar-wind acceleration obtained from observations of the solar wind near 1 AU (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.


    Clues to the nature of the mechanisms responsible for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind can be obtained by contrasting the properties of the quasi-stationary and transient states of the solar wind. Substantial differences exist in the proton temperatures and anisotropies, the entropy, the field strength, the Alfvenicity of fluctuations in the field, the distribution of MHD discontinuities, and the helium abundance of the two types of flow. Those differences are displayed as a function of the solar wind speed. Several signals of wave acceleration can be found in the data for quasi-stationary flows. The relatively smooth velocity dependences of proton temperature, helium abundance, and frequency of occurrence of rotational discontinuities suggest that the acceleration mechanisms for flow from coronal holes, coronal streamers, and the quasi-stationary low-speed flows between them may be basically the same, differing only in degree.

  4. High-frequency torsional Alfvén waves as an energy source for coronal heating (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Shetye, Juie; Murawski, Krzysztof; Doyle, John Gerard; Stangalini, Marco; Scullion, Eamon; Ray, Tom; Wójcik, Dariusz Patryk; Dwivedi, Bhola N.


    The existence of the Sun’s hot atmosphere and the solar wind acceleration continues to be an outstanding problem in solar-astrophysics. Although magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and dissipation of magnetic energy contribute to heating and the mass cycle of the solar atmosphere, yet direct evidence of such processes often generates debate. Ground-based 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope (SST)/CRISP, Hα 6562.8 Å observations reveal, for the first time, the ubiquitous presence of high frequency (~12-42 mHz) torsional motions in thin spicular-type structures in the chromosphere. We detect numerous oscillating flux tubes on 10 June 2014 between 07:17 UT to 08:08 UT in a quiet-Sun field-of-view of 60” × 60” (1” = 725 km). Stringent numerical model shows that these observations resemble torsional Alfvén waves associated with high frequency drivers which contain a huge amount of energy (~105 W m-2) in the chromosphere. Even after partial reflection from the transition region, a significant amount of energy (~103 W m-2) is transferred onto the overlying corona. We find that oscillating tubes serve as substantial sources of Alfvén wave generation that provide sufficient Poynting flux not only to heat the corona but also to originate the supersonic solar wind.

  5. Coronal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Cranmer


    Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  6. Contribution of mode-coupling and phase-mixing of Alfvén waves to coronal heating (United States)

    Pagano, P.; De Moortel, I.


    Context. Phase-mixing of Alfvén waves in the solar corona has been identified as one possible candidate to explain coronal heating. While this scenario is supported by observations of ubiquitous oscillations in the corona carrying sufficient wave energy and by theoretical models that have described the concentration of energy in small-scale structures, it is still unclear whether this wave energy can be converted into thermal energy in order to maintain the million-degree hot solar corona. Aims: The aim of this work is to assess how much energy can be converted into thermal energy by a phase-mixing process triggered by the propagation of Alfvénic waves in a cylindric coronal structure, such as a coronal loop, and to estimate the impact of this conversion on the coronal heating and thermal structure of the solar corona. Methods: To this end, we ran 3D MHD simulations of a magnetised cylinder where the Alfvén speed varies through a boundary shell, and a footpoint driver is set to trigger kink modes that mode couple to torsional Alfvén modes in the boundary shell. These Alfvén waves are expected to phase-mix, and the system allows us to study the subsequent thermal energy deposition. We ran a reference simulation to explain the main process and then we varied the simulation parameters, such as the size of the boundary shell, its structure, and the persistence of the driver. Results: When we take high values of magnetic resistivity and strong footpoint drivers into consideration, we find that i) phase-mixing leads to a temperature increase of the order of 105 K or less, depending on the structure of the boundary shell; ii) this energy is able to balance the radiative losses only in the localised region involved in the heating; and iii) we can determine the influence of the boundary layer and the persistence of the driver on the thermal structure of the system. Conclusions: Our conclusion is that as a result of the extreme physical parameters we adopted and the

  7. Small-scale dynamo magnetism as the driver for heating the solar atmosphere. (United States)

    Amari, Tahar; Luciani, Jean-François; Aly, Jean-Jacques


    The long-standing problem of how the solar atmosphere is heated has been addressed by many theoretical studies, which have stressed the relevance of two specific mechanisms, involving magnetic reconnection and waves, as well as the necessity of treating the chromosphere and corona together. But a fully consistent model has not yet been constructed and debate continues, in particular about the possibility of coronal plasma being heated by energetic phenomena observed in the chromosphere. Here we report modelling of the heating of the quiet Sun, in which magnetic fields are generated by a subphotospheric fluid dynamo intrinsically connected to granulation. We find that the fields expand into the chromosphere, where plasma is heated at the rate required to match observations (4,500 watts per square metre) by small-scale eruptions that release magnetic energy and drive sonic motions. Some energetic eruptions can even reach heights of 10 million metres above the surface of the Sun, thereby affecting the very low corona. Extending the model by also taking into account the vertical weak network magnetic field allows for the existence of a mechanism able to heat the corona above, while leaving unchanged the physics of chromospheric eruptions. Such a mechanism rests on the eventual dissipation of Alfvén waves generated inside the chromosphere and that carry upwards the required energy flux of 300 watts per square metre. The model shows a topologically complex magnetic field of 160 gauss on the Sun's surface, agreeing with inferences obtained from spectropolarimetric observations, chromospheric features (contributing only weakly to the coronal heating) that can be identified with observed spicules and blinkers, and vortices that may be possibly associated with observed solar tornadoes.

  8. An Assessment of Magnetic Conditions for Strong Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions by Comparing Observed Loops with Computed Potential Field Lines (United States)

    Gary, G. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Falconer, D. A.


    We report further results on the magnetic origins of coronal heating found from registering coronal images with photospheric vector magnetograms. For two complementary active regions, we use computed potential field lines to examine the global non-potentiality of bright extended coronal loops and the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field at their feet, and assess the role of these magnetic conditions in the strong coronal heating in these loops. The two active regions are complementary, in that one is globally potential and the other is globally nonpotential, while each is predominantly bipolar, and each has an island of included polarity in its trailing polarity domain. We find the following: (1) The brightest main-arch loops of the globally potential active region are brighter than the brightest main- arch loops of the globally strongly nonpotential active region. (2) In each active region, only a few of the mainarch magnetic loops are strongly heated, and these are all rooted near the island. (3) The end of each main-arch bright loop apparently bifurcates above the island, so that it embraces the island and the magnetic null above the island. (4) At any one time, there are other main-arch magnetic loops that embrace the island in the same manner as do the bright loops but that are not selected for strong coronal heating. (5) There is continual microflaring in sheared core fields around the island, but the main-arch bright loops show little response to these microflares. From these observational and modeling results we draw the following conclusions: (1) The heating of the main-arch bright loops arises mainly from conditions at the island end of these loops and not from their global non-potentiality. (2) There is, at most, only a loose coupling between the coronal heating in the bright loops of the main arch and the coronal heating in the sheared core fields at their feet, although in both the heating is driven by conditions/events in and around the

  9. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.


    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at

  10. The Heating of the Solar Atmosphere: from the Bottom Up? (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy


    The heating of the solar atmosphere remains a mystery. Over the past several decades, scientists have examined the observational properties of structures in the solar atmosphere, notably their temperature, density, lifetime, and geometry, to determine the location, frequency, and duration of heating. In this talk, I will review these observational results, focusing on the wealth of information stored in the light curve of structures in different spectral lines or channels available in the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, Hinode's X-ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. I will discuss some recent results from combined data sets that support the heating of the solar atmosphere may be dominated by low, near-constant heating events.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, D. J. [Bartol Research Institute, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); MacDonald, J., E-mail: [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)


    Empirically, the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} from M dwarfs has been found to have an upper limit of about 0.2% of the bolometric flux L{sub bol}. In the limit where magnetic fields in M dwarfs are generated in equipartition with convective motions, we use stellar models to calculate the energy flux of Alfvén waves F{sub A} as a function of depth in the sub-surface convection zone. Since Alfvén waves have the optimal opportunity for wave modes to reach the corona, we suggest that F{sub A} sets an upper limit on the mechanical flux F{sub mech} which causes coronal heating. This suggestion accounts quantitatively for the “saturated” values of L{sub X}/L{sub bol} which have been reported empirically for M dwarfs.

  12. Are chromospheric nanoflares a primary source of coronal plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimchuk, J. A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bradshaw, S. J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)


    It has been suggested that the hot plasma of the solar corona comes primarily from impulsive heating events, or nanoflares, that occur in the lower atmosphere, either in the upper part of the ordinary chromosphere or at the tips of type II spicules. We test this idea with a series of hydrodynamic simulations. We find that synthetic Fe XII (195) and Fe XIV (274) line profiles generated from the simulations disagree dramatically with actual observations. The integrated line intensities are much too faint; the blueshifts are much too fast; the blue-red asymmetries are much too large; and the emission is confined to low altitudes. We conclude that chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of hot coronal plasma. Such events may play an important role in producing the chromosphere and powering its intense radiation, but they do not, in general, raise the temperature of the plasma to coronal values. Those cases where coronal temperatures are reached must be relatively uncommon. The observed profiles of Fe XII and Fe XIV come primarily from plasma that is heated in the corona itself, either by coronal nanoflares or a quasi-steady coronal heating process. Chromospheric nanoflares might play a role in generating waves that provide this coronal heating.

  13. Comments on the dissipation of hydromagnetic surface waves. [applicable to solar coronal plasma heating (United States)

    Lee, M. A.


    A recent paper by Wentzel, which claims to calculate a plasma heating rate due to dissipation of surface waves in an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid, is found to be in error in interpretation. A well-established general theorem pertaining to the conservative ideal MHD fluid requires that the normal mode calculated by Wentzel be oscillatory in time. Within ideal MHD, dissipation and plasma heating are therefore impossible.

  14. Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Observation of Direct Coronal Heating During a C-Class Solar Flare (United States)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.


    With the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer operating in rapid cadence (9.8 s) stare mode during a C6.6 flare on the solar disk, we observed a sudden brightening of Fe xix line emission (formed at temperature T ˜ 8 MK) above the pre-flare noise without a corresponding brightening of emission from ions formed at lower temperatures, including He i (0.01 MK), Ov (0.25 MK), and Si xii (2 MK). The sudden brightening persisted as a plateau of Fe xix intensity that endured more than 11 minutes. The Fe xix emission at the rise and during the life of the plateau showed no evidence of significant bulk velocity flows, and hence cannot be attributed to chromospheric evaporation. However, the line width showed a significant broadening at the rise of the plateau, corresponding to nonthermal velocities of at least 89 km s-1 due to reconnection outflows or turbulence. During the plateau He i, Ov, and Si xii brightened at successively later times starting about 3.5 minutes after Fe xix, which suggests that these brightenings were produced by thermal conduction from the plasma that produced the Fe xix line emission; however, we cannot rule out the possibility that they were produced by a weak beam of nonthermal particles. We interpret an observed shortening of the Ov wavelength for about 1.5 minutes toward the middle of the plateau to indicate new upward motions driven by the flare, as occurs during gentle chromospheric evaporation; relative to a quiescent interval shortly before the flare, the Ov upward velocity was around -10 km s-1.

  15. Atmospheric composition affects heat- and mass-transfer processes (United States)

    Blakely, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.


    For environmental control system functions sensitive to atmospheric composition, components are test-operated in helium-oxygen and nitrogen-oxygen mixtures, pure oxygen, and air. Transient heat- and mass-transfer tests are conducted for carbon dioxide adsorption on molecular sieve and for water vapor adsorption on silica gel.

  16. The role of turbulence in coronal heating and solar wind expansion. (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R; Asgari-Targhi, Mahboubeh; Miralles, Mari Paz; Raymond, John C; Strachan, Leonard; Tian, Hui; Woolsey, Lauren N


    Plasma in the Sun's hot corona expands into the heliosphere as a supersonic and highly magnetized solar wind. This paper provides an overview of our current understanding of how the corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Recent models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence have progressed to the point of successfully predicting many observed properties of this complex, multi-scale system. However, it is not clear whether the heating in open-field regions comes mainly from the dissipation of turbulent fluctuations that are launched from the solar surface, or whether the chaotic 'magnetic carpet' in the low corona energizes the system via magnetic reconnection. To help pin down the physics, we also review some key observational results from ultraviolet spectroscopy of the collisionless outer corona. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank


    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general circulation are found. Increasing the strength of the oceanic heat transport up to 2.5 PW leads to an increase in the global mean near-surface temperature and to a decrease in its equator-to-pole gradient. For stronger transports, the gradient is reduced further, but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. Additionally, a stronger oceanic heat transport leads to a decline in the intensity and a poleward shift of the maxima of both the Hadley and Ferrel cells. Changes in zonal mean diabatic heating and friction impact the properties of the Hadley cell, while the behavior of the Ferrel cell is mostly controlled by friction. The efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport. This suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fluids with different temperatures, thus reducing the available energy in the climate system and bringing it closer to a state of thermal equilibrium.

  18. A Hydrodynamic Model of Alfvénic Wave Heating in a Coronal Loop and Its Chromospheric Footpoints (United States)

    Reep, Jeffrey W.; Russell, Alexander J. B.; Tarr, Lucas A.; Leake, James E.


    Alfvénic waves have been proposed as an important energy transport mechanism in coronal loops, capable of delivering energy to both the corona and chromosphere and giving rise to many observed features of flaring and quiescent regions. In previous work, we established that resistive dissipation of waves (ambipolar diffusion) can drive strong chromospheric heating and evaporation, capable of producing flaring signatures. However, that model was based on a simplified assumption that the waves propagate instantly to the chromosphere, an assumption that the current work removes. Via a ray-tracing method, we have implemented traveling waves in a field-aligned hydrodynamic simulation that dissipate locally as they propagate along the field line. We compare this method to and validate against the magnetohydrodynamics code Lare3D. We then examine the importance of travel times to the dynamics of the loop evolution, finding that (1) the ionization level of the plasma plays a critical role in determining the location and rate at which waves dissipate; (2) long duration waves effectively bore a hole into the chromosphere, allowing subsequent waves to penetrate deeper than previously expected, unlike an electron beam whose energy deposition rises in height as evaporation reduces the mean-free paths of the electrons; and (3) the dissipation of these waves drives a pressure front that propagates to deeper depths, unlike energy deposition by an electron beam.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Opher, M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I. V.; Frazin, R.; Gombosi, T. I. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, A., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67, Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    The heating and acceleration of the solar wind is an active area of research. Alfven waves, because of their ability to accelerate and heat the plasma, are a likely candidate in both processes. Many models have explored wave dissipation mechanisms which act either in closed or open magnetic field regions. In this work, we emphasize the boundary between these regions, drawing on observations which indicate unique heating is present there. We utilize a new solar corona component of the Space Weather Modeling Framework, in which Alfven wave energy transport is self-consistently coupled to the magnetohydrodynamic equations. In this solar wind model, the wave pressure gradient accelerates and wave dissipation heats the plasma. Kolmogorov-like wave dissipation as expressed by Hollweg along open magnetic field lines was presented in van der Holst et al. Here, we introduce an additional dissipation mechanism: surface Alfven wave (SAW) damping, which occurs in regions with transverse (with respect to the magnetic field) gradients in the local Alfven speed. For solar minimum conditions, we find that SAW dissipation is weak in the polar regions (where Hollweg dissipation is strong), and strong in subpolar latitudes and the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields (where Hollweg dissipation is weak). We show that SAW damping reproduces regions of enhanced temperature at the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields seen in tomographic reconstructions in the low corona. Also, we argue that Ulysses data in the heliosphere show enhanced temperatures at the boundaries of fast and slow solar wind, which is reproduced by SAW dissipation. Therefore, the model's temperature distribution shows best agreement with these observations when both dissipation mechanisms are considered. Lastly, we use observational constraints of shock formation in the low corona to assess the Alfven speed profile in the model. We find that, compared to a polytropic solar wind model, the wave

  20. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.


    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  1. Differential Radiative Heating Drives Tropical Atmospheric Circulation Weakening (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Huang, Yi


    The tropical atmospheric circulation is projected to weaken during global warming, although the mechanisms that cause the weakening remain to be elucidated. We hypothesize that the weakening is related to the inhomogeneous distribution of the radiative forcing and feedback, which heats the tropical atmosphere in the ascending and subsiding regions differentially and thus requires the circulation to weaken due to energetic constraints. We test this hypothesis in a series of numerical experiments using a fully coupled general circulation model (GCM), in which the radiative forcing distribution is controlled using a novel method. The results affirm the effect of inhomogeneous forcing on the tropical circulation weakening, and this effect is greatly amplified by radiative feedback, especially that of clouds. In addition, we find that differential heating explains the intermodel differences in tropical circulation response to CO2 forcing in the GCM ensemble of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project.

  2. Models of the Solar Atmospheric Response to Flare Heating (United States)

    Allred, Joel


    I will present models of the solar atmospheric response to flare heating. The models solve the equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics with an electron beam added as a flare energy source term. Radiative transfer is solved in detail for many important optically thick hydrogen and helium transitions and numerous optically thin EUV lines making the models ideally suited to study the emission that is produced during flares. I will pay special attention to understanding key EUV lines as well the mechanism for white light production. I will also present preliminary results of how the model solar atmosphere responds to Fletcher & Hudson type flare heating. I will compare this with the results from flare simulations using the standard thick target model.

  3. Haze Heating and Cooling in Pluto’s Atmosphere (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Strobel, Darrell F.; Imanaka, Hiroshi


    During the Pluto flyby, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer ALICE onboard New Horizon spacecraft revealed an unexpected cold atmosphere on Pluto (Gladstone et al., 2016). The missing cooling agent is still a mystery. Here we show that hazes in the atmosphere could explain Pluto’s temperature profile. Haze particles are likely formed via hydrocarbon and nitrile chemistry in Pluto’s atmosphere. Numerous global haze layers have been discovered in the New Horizons images obtained from the LOng Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) (Gladstone et al. 2016). Based on the vertical profile of haze opacity derived from ALICE observations (Gao et al. 2017; Young et al. 2017), we calculate the UV and visible heating and infrared cooling rates on Pluto. We found that the haze heating and cooling effects are large compared with the heating from methane and cooling from CO, HCN and C2 hydrocarbons. We predict that Pluto is much brighter than a conventionally assumed blackbody in the mid-infrared, which can be tested by future observations.

  4. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah


    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  5. Atmospheric dynamics. Constrained work output of the moist atmospheric heat engine in a warming climate. (United States)

    Laliberté, F; Zika, J; Mudryk, L; Kushner, P J; Kjellsson, J; Döös, K


    Incoming and outgoing solar radiation couple with heat exchange at Earth's surface to drive weather patterns that redistribute heat and moisture around the globe, creating an atmospheric heat engine. Here, we investigate the engine's work output using thermodynamic diagrams computed from reanalyzed observations and from a climate model simulation with anthropogenic forcing. We show that the work output is always less than that of an equivalent Carnot cycle and that it is constrained by the power necessary to maintain the hydrological cycle. In the climate simulation, the hydrological cycle increases more rapidly than the equivalent Carnot cycle. We conclude that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in warmer climates might limit the heat engine's ability to generate work. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  7. Is magnetic topology important for heating the solar atmosphere? (United States)

    Parnell, Clare E; Stevenson, Julie E H; Threlfall, James; Edwards, Sarah J


    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide enough area, to explain the energy losses throughout the solar atmosphere? Here, we consider this question for the three different solar regions: active regions, open-field regions and the quiet Sun. We find that the heating of active regions and open-field regions is highly unlikely to be due to reconnection or wave dissipation at topological features, but it is possible that these may play a role in the heating of the quiet Sun. In active regions, the absence of a complex topology may play an important role in allowing large energies to build up and then, subsequently, be explosively released in the form of a solar flare. Additionally, knowledge of the intricate boundaries of open-field regions (which the magnetic skeleton provides) could be very important in determining the main acceleration mechanism(s) of the solar wind. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. On the efficiency of solar heating in the middle atmosphere (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan


    The efficiency at which solar ultraviolet radiation absorbed in the Hartley band of ozone is directly converted to heat in the terrestrial mesosphere and lower thermosphere (50-110 km) is calculated. The ozone molecule undergoes photolysis to yield the excited species O(1D) and O2(1Delta) with a quantum yield of about 0.9. Spontaneous emission from O2(1Delta) and from O2(1Sigma) (excited by energy transfer from O/1D/) significantly decreases the amount of energy available for heat. Similarly, the efficiency at which solar ultraviolet radiation absorbed by O2 in the Schumann-Runge continuum is directly converted to heat in the lower thermosphere (95-110 km) is calculated. The O2 undergoes photolysis and the excited product O(1D) is generated. Spontaneous emission from O2(1Sigma) (excited by energy transfer from O/1D/) reduces the amount of energy available for heat in the lower thermosphere. The consideration of these energy transfer and loss processes results in significantly reduced heating rates as compared to those conventionally calculated in models of the middle atmosphere.

  9. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: [Also at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (China)


    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of radiative heating and cooling rates in planetary atmospheres: general linearization and adjoint approaches (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.


    Radiative heating and cooling provide primary source and ultimate sink of energy driving lower planetary atmospheres. Evaluating the sensitivities of atmospheric dynamics models on these primary atmospheric parameters requires knowing how heating and cooling rates depend on these same parameters. We discuss two approaches that make it possible to directly compute the sensitivities of heating and cooling rates in parallel with evaluation of heating and cooling rates themselves.

  11. Atmospheric electric field anomalies associated with solar flare/coronal mass ejection events and solar energetic charged particle "Ground Level Events" (United States)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Rycroft, M. J.; Marcz, F.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.


    We discuss the fair weather atmospheric electric field signatures of three major solar energetic charged particle events which occurred in on 15 April 2001, 18 April and 4 November, and their causative solar flares/coronal mass ejections (SF/CMEs). Only the 15 April 2001 shows clear evidence for Ez variation associated to SF/CME events and the other two events may support this hypothesis as well although for them the meteorological data were not available. All three events seem to be associated with relativistic solar protons (i.e. protons with energies >450 MeV) of the Ground Level Event (GLE) type. The study presents data on variations of the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field (Ez) measured at the auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8°, the polar cap station Vostok (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3°) and the middle latitude stations Voyeikovo (geomagnetic latitude: 56.1°) and Nagycenk (geomagnetic latitude: 47.2°). A significant disturbance in the atmospheric electric field is sometimes observed close to the time of the causative solar flare; the beginning of the electric field perturbation at Apatity is detected one or two hours before the flare onset and the GLE onset. Atmospheric electric field records at Vostok and Voyeikovo show a similar disturbance at the same time for the 15 April 2001 event. Some mechanisms responsible for the electric field perturbations are considered.

  12. Solar Coronal Jets: Observations, Theory, and Modeling (United States)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Patsourakos, S.; Pariat, E.; Young, P. R.; Sterling, A.; Savcheva, A.; Shimojo, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Devore, C. R.; Archontis, V.; hide


    Chromospheric and coronal jets represent important manifestations of ubiquitous solar transients, which may be the source of signicant mass and energy input to the upper solar atmosphere and the solar wind. While the energy involved in a jet-like event is smaller than that of nominal solar ares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), jets share many common properties with these major phenomena, in particular, the explosive magnetically driven dynamics. Studies of jets could, therefore, provide critical insight for understanding the larger, more complex drivers of the solar activity. On the other side of the size-spectrum, the study of jets could also supply important clues on the physics of transients closeor at the limit of the current spatial resolution such as spicules. Furthermore, jet phenomena may hint to basic process for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind; consequently their study gives us the opportunity to attack a broadrange of solar-heliospheric problems.

  13. Solar Energetic Particle Acceleration by a Shock Wave Accompanying a Coronal Mass Ejection in the Solar Atmosphere (United States)

    Petukhova, A. S.; Petukhov, I. S.; Petukhov, S. I.; Ksenofontov, L. T.


    Solar energetic particle acceleration by a shock wave accompanying a coronal mass ejection (CME) is studied. The description of the accelerated particle spectrum evolution is based on the numerical calculation of the diffusive transport equation with a set of realistic parameters. The relation between the CME and shock speeds, which depend on the initial CME radius, is determined. Depending on the initial CME radius, its speed, and the magnetic energy of the scattering Alfvén waves, the accelerated particle spectrum is established 10-60 minutes from the beginning of CME motion. The maximum energies of particles reach 0.1-10 GeV. The CME radii of 3-5 {R}⊙ and the shock radii of 5-10 {R}⊙ agree with observations. The calculated particle spectra agree with the observed ones in events registered by ground-based detectors if the turbulence spectrum in the solar corona significantly differs from the Kolmogorov one.

  14. Coronal magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Bastian, Timothy


    This volume is a collection of research articles on the subject of the solar corona, and particularly, coronal magnetism. The book was motivated by the Workshop on Coronal Magnetism: Connecting Models to Data and the Corona to the Earth, which was held 21 - 23 May 2012 in Boulder, Colorado, USA. This workshop was attended by approximately 60 researchers. Articles from this meeting are contained in this topical issue, but the topical issue also contains contributions from researchers not present at the workshop. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics. Originally published in Solar Physics, Vol. 288, Issue 2, 2013 and Vol. 289, Issue 8, 2014.

  15. On the structure of solar and stellar coronae - Loops and loop heat transport (United States)

    Litwin, Christof; Rosner, Robert


    We discuss the principal constraints on mechanisms for structuring and heating the outer atmospheres - the coronae - of stars. We argue that the essential cause of highly localized heating in the coronae of stars like the sun is the spatially intermittent nature of stellar surface magnetic fields, and that the spatial scale of the resulting coronal structures is related to the spatial structure of the photospheric fields. We show that significant constraints on coronal heating mechanisms derive from the observed variations in coronal emission, and, in addition, show that the observed structuring perpendicular to coronal magnetic fields imposes severe constraints on mechanisms for heat dispersal in the low-beta atmosphere. In particular, we find that most of commonly considered mechanisms for heat dispersal, such as anomalous diffusion due to plasma turbulence or magnetic field line stochasticity, are much too slow to account for the observed rapid heating of coronal loops. The most plausible mechanism appears to be reconnection at the interface between two adjacent coronal flux bundles. Based on a model invoking hyperresistivity, we show that such a mechanism naturally leads to dominance of isolated single bright coronal loops and to bright coronal plasma structures whose spatial scale transverse to the local magnetic field is comparable to observed dimensions of coronal X-ray loops.

  16. Experimental Modeling of Sterilization Effects for Atmospheric Entry Heating on Microorganisms (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Spry, James A.; Ronney, Paul D.; Pandian, Nathan R.; Welder, Eric


    The objective of this research was to design, build, and test an experimental apparatus for studying the parameters of atmospheric entry heating, and the inactivation of temperature-resistant bacterial spores. The apparatus is capable of controlled, rapid heating of sample coupons to temperatures of 200 to 350 C and above. The vacuum chamber permits operation under vacuum or special atmospheric gas mixtures.

  17. Extreme ion heating in the dayside ionosphere in response to the arrival of a coronal mass ejection on 12 March 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara


    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of the polar ionosphere with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT ultra high frequency (UHF radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR at Longyearbyen were made during 07:00–12:00 UT on 12 March 2012. During the period, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft observed changes in the solar wind which were due to the arrival of coronal mass ejection (CME effects associated with the 10 March M8.4 X-ray event. The solar wind showed two-step variations which caused strong ionospheric heating. First, the arrival of shock structures in the solar wind with enhancements of density and velocity, and a negative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz component caused strong ionospheric heating around Longyearbyen; the ion temperature at about 300 km increased from about 1100 to 3400 K over Longyearbyen while that over Tromsø increased from about 1050 to 1200 K. After the passage of the shock structures, the IMF-Bz component showed positive values and the solar wind speed and density also decreased. The second strong ionospheric heating occurred after the IMF-Bz component showed negative values again; the negative values lasted for more than 1.5 h. This solar wind variation caused stronger heating of the ionosphere in the lower latitudes than higher latitudes, suggesting expansion of the auroral oval/heating region to the lower latitude region. This study shows an example of the CME-induced dayside ionospheric heating: a short-duration and very large rise in the ion temperature which was closely related to the polar cap size and polar cap potential variations as a result of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  18. On the averaging of ratios of specific heats in a multicomponent planetary atmosphere (United States)

    Dubisch, R.


    The use of adiabatic relations in the calculation of planetary atmospheres requires knowledge of the ratio of specific heats of a mixture of gases under various pressure and temperature conditions. It is shown that errors introduced by simple averaging of the ratio of specific heats in a multicomponent atmosphere can be roughly 0.4%. Therefore, the gamma-averaging error can become important when integrating through the atmosphere to a large depth.

  19. Closed coronal structures. II - Generalized hydrostatic model (United States)

    Serio, S.; Peres, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.


    Numerical computations of stationary solar coronal loop atmospheres are used to extend earlier analytical work. Two classes of loops are examined, namely symmetric loops with a temperature maximum at the top but now having a length greater than the pressure scale height and loops which have a local temperature minimum at the top. For the first class, new scaling laws are found which relate the base pressure and loop length to the base heating, the heating deposition scale height, and the pressure scale height. It is found that loops for which the length is greater than about two to three times the pressure scale height do not have stable solutions unless they have a temperature minimum at the top. Computed models with a temperature inversion at the top are permitted in a wider range of heating deposition scale height values than are loops with a temperature maximum at the top. These results are discussed in relation to observations showing a dependence of prominence formation and stability on the state of evolution of magnetic structures, and a general scenario is suggested for the understanding of loop evolution from emergence in active regions through the large-scale structure phase to opening in coronal holes.

  20. Experimental investigation of turbulent transport of momentum and heat in the atmospheric surface layer (United States)

    Han, Guowen; Zheng, X. J.; Bo, Tianli


    In our study, turbulent transport of momentum and heat is investigated in the neutral and unstable atmospheric surface layer (ASL) over the edge of a desert. Our results reveal that with the increase of wind speed the transport efficiencies for momentum and heat increased, furthermore, transport efficiency of momentum increases faster than that of heat. In addition, the method of quadrant analysis and turbulent events were used to analyze the moment flux and heat flux. Experimental results show that the influence of wind speed on moment flux and heat flux can be quite different, which maybe has a great impact on the turbulent transport of momentum and heat in ASL.

  1. Toward Quantitative Understanding of the Atmospheric Heating over the Tibetan Plateau (Invited) (United States)

    Koike, T.; Tamura, T.; Rasmy, M.; Seto, R.


    There are different ideas on the atmospheric heating over the Tibetan Plateau. Yanai et al. (1992) and Yanai and Li (1994) concluded this sensible heat flux from the surface is the major source of heating on the plateau before the summer rain commences. On the other hand, Ueda et al. (2003) also showed the importance of condensation heating in the heat balance during the pre-onset-phase of the summer monsoon over the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. The first intensive in situ observation in early spring was implemented on the plateau in April 2004 under the framework of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) (Koike, 2004). Taniguchi and Koike (2007) revealed the importance of cumulus activity in atmospheric temperature increases in the upper troposphere even in April by in situ and satellite observations and numerical simulations. They concluded that sensible heat transfer by dry convection is insufficient to warm the upper layer over the plateau and that the development of cloud convection is indispensable for atmospheric heating in the upper troposphere over the plateau during early spring. Then, Taniguchi and Koike (2008) investigated the seasonal variation in the cloud activity over the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, and the vertical profile of the atmosphere and moist condition causing the cloud. They showed cumulus convections easily occur under the adiabatically neutral condition of the first phase of the active convections in April. During a resting phase before the second active phase, the atmosphere is conditionally unstable but an unsaturated condition restrains cloud activity, while during second phase, the atmosphere is inclined to be saturated and cloud activity begins again. From early May to mid June, there is a resting period of cumulus convective activity. However, the tropospheric temperature at 200 hPa increases rapidly from late April. Such rapid tropospheric warming without significant cumulus convective activity is

  2. Approximate Method of Calculating Heating Rates at General Three-Dimensional Stagnation Points During Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Hamilton, H. H., II


    An approximate method for calculating heating rates at general three dimensional stagnation points is presented. The application of the method for making stagnation point heating calculations during atmospheric entry is described. Comparisons with results from boundary layer calculations indicate that the method should provide an accurate method for engineering type design and analysis applications.

  3. Energy conversion in the coronal plasma (United States)

    Martens, P. C. H.


    Solar and stellar X-ray emission are the observed waste products of the interplay between magnetic fields and the motion of stellar plasma. Theoretical understanding of the process of coronal heating is of utmost importance, since the high temperature is what defines the corona in the first place. Most of the research described deals with the aspects of the several rivalling theories for coronal heating. The rest of the papers deal with processes of energy conversion related to flares.

  4. Decadal Arctic surface atmosphere/ocean heat budgets and mass transport estimates from several atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses (United States)

    Chepurin, gennaday; Carton, James


    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic changes associated with the loss of seasonal and permanent ice pack. By exposing the surface ocean to the atmosphere these changes dramatically increase surface exchange processes. In contrast, increases in freshwater and heat input decreases turbulent exchanges within the ocean. In this study we present results from an examination of changing ocean heat flux, storage, and transport during the 36 year period 1980-2015. To identify changes in the surface atmosphere we examine three atmospheric reanalyses: MERRA2, ERA-I, and JRA55. Significant differences in fluxes from these reanalyses arise due to the representation of clouds and water vapor. These differences provide an indication of the uncertainties in the historical record. Next we turn to the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 3 (SODA3) global ocean/sea ice reanalysis system to allow us to infer the full ocean circulation from the limited set of historical record of ocean observations. SODA3 has 10 km horizontal resolution in the Arctic and assimilates the full suite of historical marine temperature and salinity observations. To account for the uncertainties in atmospheric forcing, we repeat our analysis with each of the three atmospheric reanalyses. In the first part of the talk we review the climatological seasonal surface fluxes resulting from our reanalysis system, modified for consistency with the ocean observations, and the limits of what we can learn from the historical record. Next we compare the seasonal hydrography, heat, and mass transports with direct estimates from moorings. Finally we examine the impact on the Arctic climate of the changes in sea ice cover and variability and trends of ocean/sea ice heat storage and transport and their contributions to changes in the seasonal stratification of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan


    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  6. The monsoonal heat budget of the hydrosphere-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean sector (United States)

    Hastenrath, Stefan; Greischar, Lawrence


    The heat budget of the combined hydrosphere-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean sector (30°N to 30°S, 30°-120°E) is studied on the basis of surface ship observations and subsurface temperature casts to 400 dbar, analyses of the atmospheric heat and moisture transport in the layer surface to 100 mbar, published estimates of precipitation, and satellite measurements of net all-wave radiation at the top of the atmosphere. During boreal winter (November-April) the hydrosphere of the southern tropical Indian Ocean stores (+2 × 1014 W) and exports (7 × 1014 W) heat, of which about half (3 × 1014 W) is carried northward across the equator; of similar magnitude (9 × 1014 W) is the heat export in the atmosphere accomplished primarily in the upper tropospheric westerlies. In the northern portion of the basin the hydrosphere stores heat (+8 × 1014 W), in part supplied by the hydrospheric heat import from the southern hemisphere; the atmospheric column exports heat (4 × 1014 W), primarily owing to a southward moisture transport. In boreal summer (May-October) the water body of the northern Indian Ocean cools drastically (-8 × 1014 W), with the net heat gain through the ocean surface being overcompensated by the larger (12 × 1014 W) southward heat transport across the equator, which in turn results in a large heat import (8 × 1014 W) to the hydrosphere of the southern Indian Ocean. This and the depletion of the oceanic heat content (-2 × 1014 W) supply about a third of the energy required for the vigorous evaporation from the southern tropical Indian Ocean (34 × 1014 W), which is further favored by the strong southeast trade winds peaking at this season of the year. The evaporation sustains the large latent heat export from the overlying atmospheric column (+14 × 1014 W). The latent heat surplus from the southern portion of the basin is primarily carried northward across the equator by the lower atmospheric boreal summer monsoon airflow, and in the June

  7. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4: Atmospheric Response to Arctic SHFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Catrin M. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, John J. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, Elizabeth N. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA


    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  8. Heat transport of nitrogen in helium atmospheric pressure microplasma

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Shaofeng


    Stable DC atmospheric pressure normal glow discharges in ambient air were produced between the water surface and the metallic capillary coupled with influx of helium gas. Multiple independent repeated trials indicated that vibrational temperature of nitrogen rises from 3200 to 4622 K, and rotational temperature of nitrogen decreases from 1270 to 570 K as gas flux increasing from 20 to 80 sccm and discharge current decreasing from 11 to 3 mA. Furthermore, it was found that the vibrational degree of the nitrogen molecule has priority to gain energy than the rotational degree of nitrogen molecule in nonequilibrium helium microplasma.

  9. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather


    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  10. Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study (United States)

    Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René


    Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1

  11. Atmospheric Circulations of Hot Jupiters as Planetary Heat Engines (United States)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Komacek, Thaddeus D.


    Because of their intense incident stellar irradiation and likely tidally locked spin states, hot Jupiters are expected to have wind speeds that approach or exceed the speed of sound. In this work, we develop a theory to explain the magnitude of these winds. We model hot Jupiters as planetary heat engines and show that hot Jupiters are always less efficient than an ideal Carnot engine. Next, we demonstrate that our predicted wind speeds match those from three-dimensional numerical simulations over a broad range of parameters. Finally, we use our theory to evaluate how well different drag mechanisms can match the wind speeds observed with Doppler spectroscopy for HD 189733b and HD 209458b. We find that magnetic drag is potentially too weak to match the observations for HD 189733b, but is compatible with the observations for HD 209458b. In contrast, shear instabilities and/or shocks are compatible with both observations. Furthermore, the two mechanisms predict different wind speed trends for hotter and colder planets than currently observed. As a result, we propose that a wider range of Doppler observations could reveal multiple drag mechanisms at play across different hot Jupiters.

  12. Phase transformations of a talc ore under heated chlorine atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, P., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, M. del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); González, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)


    Highlights: ► We studied the effect of Cl{sub 2} on minerals present in a talc of ultramafic origin. ► Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in N{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} atmospheres. ► The reagents and the products were analyzed by DTA, XRD, SEM, and EPMA. ► The chlorination produced protoenstatite at 800 °C. ► Calcination of a talc ore in Cl{sub 2} produces more enstatite than thermal treatment in N{sub 2}. - Abstract: The effect of Cl{sub 2} on the phase transformations of the minerals present in a talc (Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}) unpurified with clinochlore (Mg{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 8}), magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}), dolomite (MgCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) was studied with the purpose of deferricating the mineral and obtaining protoenstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}), which is the basic component of steatite ceramics. Isothermal and non-isothermal assays in N{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} atmospheres were performed using a thermogravimetric device at temperatures between 600 and 980 °C. The reagents and the products were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Results obtained showed that the following phenomena were produced in Cl{sub 2}: (a) The transformation of vitreous silica (SiO{sub 2}), from the chlorination reaction of talc, into enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) started at about 700 °C, being dolomite the mineral that favored this reaction. At 800 °C, more enstatite was formed as a result of the reaction between vitreous silica not transformed, MgCl{sub 2} and O{sub 2} derived from the chlorination of dolomite and magnesite; then, polymorphic transformation of enstatite into protoenstatite was produced. (b) At about 950 °C, CaCl{sub 2} produced as a result of dolomite chlorination led to the destruction of the protoenstatite

  13. Haze heats Pluto’s atmosphere yet explains its cold temperature (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Strobel, Darrell F.; Imanaka, Hiroshi


    Pluto’s atmosphere is cold and hazy. Recent observations have shown it to be much colder than predicted theoretically, suggesting an unknown cooling mechanism. Atmospheric gas molecules, particularly water vapour, have been proposed as a coolant; however, because Pluto’s thermal structure is expected to be in radiative-conductive equilibrium, the required water vapour would need to be supersaturated by many orders of magnitude under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Here we report that atmospheric hazes, rather than gases, can explain Pluto’s temperature profile. We find that haze particles have substantially larger solar heating and thermal cooling rates than gas molecules, dominating the atmospheric radiative balance from the ground to an altitude of 700 kilometres, above which heat conduction maintains an isothermal atmosphere. We conclude that Pluto’s atmosphere is unique among Solar System planetary atmospheres, as its radiative energy equilibrium is controlled primarily by haze particles instead of gas molecules. We predict that Pluto is therefore several orders of magnitude brighter at mid-infrared wavelengths than previously thought—a brightness that could be detected by future telescopes.

  14. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry (United States)

    Chung, S.


    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  15. Impact of aerosol heat radiation absorption on the dynamics of an atmospheric boundary layer in equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbaro, E.W.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Krol, M.C.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the shortwave radiation (SW) absorption by aerosols on the dynamics and heat budget of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This study is relevant for areas characterized by large concentrations of light-absorbing aerosol, which are

  16. Heat and water transfer in bare topsoil and the lower atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.


    This book describes an analysis of processes and factors that affect the energy balance of bare soil, and the associated exchange of heat and moisture at the surface. After a brief treatment of basic transport theory, the processes of soil-atmosphere interaction are expressed in a simulation

  17. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin (United States)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Liu, Shuang


    Irrigation, which constitutes ˜ 70 % of the total amount of freshwater consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) with an active crop model, two high-resolution (˜ 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat (LH), sensible heat (SH), and carbon fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed that the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer, with a LH increase of ˜ 100 W m-2 and a SH decrease of ˜ 60 W m-2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate is below 5 mm day-1, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm day-1, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC m-2 day-1, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by ˜ 0.8 gC m-2 day-1. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH, and NEE.

  18. Poleward upgliding Siberian atmospheric rivers over sea ice heat up Arctic upper air. (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke K; Alexeev, Vladimir A; Repina, Irina A; Tachibana, Yoshihiro


    We carried out upper air measurements with radiosondes during the summer over the Arctic Ocean from an icebreaker moving poleward from an ice-free region, through the ice edge, and into a region of thick ice. Rapid warming of the Arctic is a significant environmental issue that occurs not only at the surface but also throughout the troposphere. In addition to the widely accepted mechanisms responsible for the increase of tropospheric warming during the summer over the Arctic, we showed a new potential contributing process to the increase, based on our direct observations and supporting numerical simulations and statistical analyses using a long-term reanalysis dataset. We refer to this new process as "Siberian Atmospheric Rivers (SARs)". Poleward upglides of SARs over cold air domes overlying sea ice provide the upper atmosphere with extra heat via condensation of water vapour. This heating drives increased buoyancy and further strengthens the ascent and heating of the mid-troposphere. This process requires the combination of SARs and sea ice as a land-ocean-atmosphere system, the implication being that large-scale heat and moisture transport from the lower latitudes can remotely amplify the warming of the Arctic troposphere in the summer.

  19. The role of individual cyclones for atmospheric latent and sensible heat transport into the European Arctic (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Stohl, A.


    The bulk of the atmospheric latent heat transport induced by extratropical cyclones is organized in the warm conveyor belt, also known as atmospheric rivers. In order to enhance the process understanding of atmospheric sensible and latent heat transport with these structures into the European Arctic, the magnitude and variability of the energy flux from individual cyclones in this region was studied. We applied a moisture source tracking algorithm embedded in the limited-area numerical weather prediction model (NWP) Climate High-Resolution Model (CHRM) to trace the evaporation sources and transport of water vapour from different latitude bands of the North Atlantic Ocean. September 2002 and December 2006 were chosen as initial analysis periods, since a particularly large number of cyclones (including former hurricanes) traveled within the North Atlantic storm track during these months. The main findings are that latent heat (LH) from more southerly source regions is transported at higher altitudes. Stronger storms draw latent heat from a larger area (further south), and the ensuing precipitation will hence on average originate from further south as well. Most long-range transport of LH occurs in the cold frontal bands. Individual cyclones are the main source of sub-monthly LH flux variability, and can cause up to 4-sigma variation of the mean flux. LH flux is almost permanently net positive (northward), unlike for sensible heat (SH) and other energy fluxes. Most LH that is "permanently" transferred to north of 60°N in the Atlantic storm track originates from directly south of that latitude, implying on average short atmospheric moisture lifetimes, and hence a fast energy turnover. We compare these findings to results from a Lagrangian moisture tracking method based on the FLEXPART model. Remarks with regard to differences in the transport conditions of latent head in such structures along the North American West Coast and the Norwegian West Coast will be made.

  20. Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.


    The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.

  1. Radiation and Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere: A Comprehensive Approach on a Molecular Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Harde


    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction of infrared active molecules in the atmosphere with their own thermal background radiation as well as with radiation from an external blackbody radiator. We show that the background radiation can be well understood only in terms of the spontaneous emission of the molecules. The radiation and heat transfer processes in the atmosphere are described by rate equations which are solved numerically for typical conditions as found in the troposphere and stratosphere, showing the conversion of heat to radiation and vice versa. Consideration of the interaction processes on a molecular scale allows to develop a comprehensive theoretical concept for the description of the radiation transfer in the atmosphere. A generalized form of the radiation transfer equation is presented, which covers both limiting cases of thin and dense atmospheres and allows a continuous transition from low to high densities, controlled by a density dependent parameter. Simulations of the up- and down-welling radiation and its interaction with the most prominent greenhouse gases water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone in the atmosphere are presented. The radiative forcing at doubled CO2 concentration is found to be 30% smaller than the IPCC-value.

  2. Impacts of Atmospheric Modes of Variability on Air-Sea Heat Exchange in the Red Sea (United States)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Josey, Simon A.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Raitsos, Dionissios E.


    The potential impacts on Red Sea surface heat exchange of various major modes of atmospheric variability are investigated using the NASA Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric reanalysis and the Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Flux dataset (OAFlux) merged satellite+reanalysis dataset. The mode impacts on surface net heat flux are quantified by calculating the heat flux anomaly that corresponds to a unit positive value of each index for each grid point. The seasonal effects of the atmospheric forcing are investigated considering two and four typical seasons of a calendar year. Considering two seasons, the impacts are strongest during the winter-centered part of the year (October to March) mainly over the northern sub-basin. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic - West Russia Pattern (EAWR), and the Indian Monsoon Index (IMI) have the greatest effects. They generate negative anomalies (by definition additional ocean heat loss) of 7-12 W/m2 in the northern Red Sea basin mean net heat flux for a unit positive value of the mode index. During the summer (April to September), the signal is smaller and the East Atlantic (EA) and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) modes have the strongest impact which is now located in the southern Red Sea (sub-basin anomalies of 4 W/m2 for unit positive mode index, negative for EA and positive for MEI). Results obtained by analysis carried out on the traditional four-season basis reveal that indices impact peaks during the typical boreal winter (DJF) with average anomalies of 12-18 W/m2 to be found in the northern part. It is noteworthy that during the winter, the EAWR generates negative anomalies around 30 W/m2 over the most of the central Red Sea. During the spring (MAM), summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) the anomalies are considerably lower, especially during the spring when the mode impacts are negligible. Atmospheric modes have a stronger effect on air-sea heat flux over the northern

  3. FUV Irradiation and the Heat Signature of Accretion in Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres (United States)

    Najita, Joan R.; Ádámkovics, Máté


    Although stars accrete mass throughout the first few million years of their lives, the physical mechanism that drives disk accretion in the T Tauri phase is uncertain, and diagnostics that probe the nature of disk accretion have been elusive, particularly in the planet formation region of the disk. Here we explore whether an accretion process such as the magnetorotational instability (MRI) could be detected through its “heat signature,” the energy it deposits in the disk atmosphere. To examine this possibility, we investigate the impact of accretion-related mechanical heating and energetic stellar irradiation (FUV and X-rays) on the thermal-chemical properties of disk atmospheres at planet formation distances. We find that stellar FUV irradiation ({Ly}α and continuum), through its role in heating and photodissociation, affects much of the upper warm (400-2000 K) molecular layer of the atmosphere, and the properties of the layer are generally in good agreement with the observed molecular emission features of disks at UV, near-infrared, and mid-infrared wavelengths. At the same time, the effect of FUV irradiation is restricted to the upper molecular layer of the disk, even when irradiation by {Ly}α is included. The region immediately below the FUV-heated layer is potentially dominated by accretion-related mechanical heating. As cooler (90-400 K) CO, water, and other molecules are potential diagnostics of the mechanically heated layer, emission line studies of these diagnostics might be used to search for evidence of the MRI in action.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  5. MHD thermal instabilities in cool inhomogeneous atmospheres (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.


    The formation of a coronal state in a stellar atmosphere is investigated. A numerical code is used to study the effects of atmospheric gradients and finite loop dimension on the scale of unstable perturbations, solving for oscillatory perturbations as eigenfunctions of a boundary value problem. The atmosphere is considered as initially isothermal, with density and pressure having scale heights fixed by the hydrostatic equations. Joule mode instability is found to be an efficient mechanism for current filamentation and subsequent heating in initially cool atmospheres. This instability is mainly effective at the top of magnetic loops and is not suppressed by thermal conduction.

  6. Sensible Heat Flux Related to Variations in Atmospheric Turbulence Kinetic Energy on a Sandy Beach (United States)



  7. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan


    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...... conditions, emphasising wind-driven rain and vapour exchange, the main moisture supply and removal mechanism, respectively. In the second part the numerical implementation is tackled, with specific attention to the monotony of the spatial discretisation, and to the mass and energy conservation...

  8. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat and carbon fluxes in semi-arid basin (United States)

    Xie, Zhenghui; Zeng, Yujin


    Irrigation, which constitutes 70% of the total amount of fresh water consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting the land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5) with an active crop model, two high resolution ( 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on Latent Heat (LH), Sensible Heat (SH) and Carbon Fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere on the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity and viability of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer with a LH increase of 100 W/m2 and a SH decrease of 60 W/m2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate below 5 mm/day, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm/day, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC/m2/day, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by 0.8 gC/m2/day. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH and NEE. The study indicates that how a land surface model with high spatial resolution can represent crop growing and its effects over basin scale.

  9. Spatial structures in the heat budget of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van de Berg


    Full Text Available Output from the regional climate model RACMO2/ANT is used to calculate the heat budget of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer (ABL. The main feature of the wintertime Antarctic ABL is a persistent temperature deficit compared to the free atmosphere. The magnitude of this deficit is controlled by the heat budget. During winter, transport of heat towards the surface by turbulence and net longwave emission are the primary ABL cooling terms. These processes show horizontal spatial variability only on continental scales. Vertical and horizontal, i.e. along-slope, advection of heat are the main warming terms. Over regions with convex ice sheet topography, i.e. domes and ridges, warming by downward vertical advection is enhanced due to divergence of the ABL wind field. Horizontal advection balances excess warming caused by vertical advection, hence the temperature deficit in the ABL weakens over domes and ridges along the prevailing katabatic wind. Conversely, vertical advection is reduced in regions with concave topography, i.e. valleys, where the ABL temperature deficit enlarges along the katabatic wind. Along the coast, horizontal and vertical advection is governed by the inability of the large-scale circulation to adapt to small scale topographic features. Meso-scale topographic structures have thus a strong impact on the ABL winter temperature, besides latitude and surface elevation. During summer, this mechanism is much weaker, and the horizontal variability of ABL temperatures is smaller.

  10. Electron heating and mode transition in dual frequency atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Lim, J. W. M.; Nie, Q. Y.; Zhang, X. N.; Jiang, B. H.


    Plasma ionization, excitation, mode transitions and associated electron heating mechanisms in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) driven by dual radio frequency sources are investigated in this paper. The electrons are found to be heated mainly by the high frequency component in the plasma bulk when discharged in α mode. On the contrary, the low frequency component is primarily responsible for heating in the sheath which is caused by intense motion in the sheath. It was also found that variation of the lower frequency component ratio could effectively modulate the electron energy distribution as determined from time averaged EEDF. The results above have demonstrated that the independent control of plasma parameters via non-linear synergistic effect between the dual frequency sources can be achieved through reasonable selection of processing parameters.

  11. A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds (United States)

    Allen, H Julian; Eggers, A J , Jr


    A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer.

  12. Heating Mechanisms in the Low Solar Atmosphere through Magnetic Reconnection in Current Sheets (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun; Roussev, Ilia I.; Schmieder, Brigitte


    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere; the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature (≳8 × 104 K) and low temperature (˜104 K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere (100-600 km above the solar surface). The plasma β controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high β magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low β magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over 8 × 104 K. Gravity in the low chromosphere can strongly hinder the plasmoid instability and the formation of slow-mode shocks in a vertical current sheet. Only small secondary islands are formed; these islands, however, are not as well developed as those in the horizontal current sheets. This work can be applied to understand the heating mechanism in the low solar atmosphere and could possibly be extended to explain the formation of common low temperature Ellerman bombs (˜104 K) and the high temperature Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) bombs (≳8 × 104) in the future.

  13. Depletions of sulfur and/or zinc in IDPs: Are they reliable indicators of atmospheric entry heating? (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.; Kloeck, W.; Thomas, K. L.; Keller, L. P.


    The degree of heating of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) on Earth atmospheric entry is important in distinguishing cometary particles from main-belt asteroidal particles. Depletions in the volatile elements S and Zn were proposed as chemical indicators of significant entry heating. The S and Zn contents of cosmic dust particles were correlated with physical indicators of atmospheric entry heating, such as the production of magnetite and the loss of solar wind implanted He. The results indicate that the Zn content of IDP's is a useful indicator of entry heating, but the S content seems to be less useful.

  14. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Jhih eLin


    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51-54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  15. Gas and heat dynamics of a micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma reference jet (United States)

    Kelly, Seán; Golda, Judith; Turner, Miles M.; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker


    Gas and heat dynamics of the ‘Cooperation on Science and Technology (COST) Reference Microplasma Jet’ (COST-jet), a European lead reference device for low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma application, are investigated. Of particular interest to many biomedical application scenarios, the temperature characteristics of a surface impacted by the jet are revealed. Schlieren imaging, thermocouple measurements, infrared thermal imaging and numerical modelling are employed. Temperature spatial profiles in the gas domain reveal heating primarily of the helium fraction of the gas mixture. Thermocouple and model temporal data show a bounded exponential temperature growth described by a single characteristic time parameter to reach  ∼63% or (1-1/e) fraction of the temperature increase. Peak temperatures occurred in the gas domain where the carrier jet exits the COST-jet, with values ranging from ambient temperatures to in excess of 100 °C in ‘α-mode’ operation. In a horizontal orientation of the COST-jet a curved trajectory of the helium effluent at low gas flows results from buoyant forces. Gas mixture profiles reveal significant containment of the helium concentrations for a surface placed in close proximity to the COST-jet. Surface heating of a quartz plate follows a similar bounded exponential temporal temperature growth as device heating. Spatial profiles of surface heating are found to correlate strongly to the impacting effluent where peak temperatures occur in regions of maximum surface helium concentration.

  16. Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Reale


    Full Text Available Coronal loops are the building blocks of the X-ray bright solar corona. They owe their brightness to the dense confined plasma, and this review focuses on loops mostly as structures confining plasma. After a brief historical overview, the review is divided into two separate but not independent parts: the first illustrates the observational framework, the second reviews the theoretical knowledge. Quiescent loops and their confined plasma are considered and, therefore, topics such as loop oscillations and flaring loops (except for non-solar ones, which provide information on stellar loops are not specifically addressed here. The observational section discusses the classification, populations, and the morphology of coronal loops, its relationship with the magnetic field, and the loop stranded structure. The section continues with the thermal properties and diagnostics of the loop plasma, according to the classification into hot, warm, and cool loops. Then, temporal analyses of loops and the observations of plasma dynamics, hot and cool flows, and waves are illustrated. In the modeling section, some basics of loop physics are provided, supplying fundamental scaling laws and timescales, a useful tool for consultation. The concept of loop modeling is introduced and models are divided into those treating loops as monolithic and static, and those resolving loops into thin and dynamic strands. More specific discussions address modeling the loop fine structure and the plasma flowing along the loops. Special attention is devoted to the question of loop heating, with separate discussion of wave (AC and impulsive (DC heating. Large-scale models including atmosphere boxes and the magnetic field are also discussed. Finally, a brief discussion about stellar coronal loops is followed by highlights and open questions.

  17. Small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere. II. Lifetime, total energy, and magnetic properties (United States)

    Guerreiro, N.; Haberreiter, M.; Hansteen, V.; Schmutz, W.


    Context. Small-scale heating events (SSHEs) are believed to play a fundamental role in understanding the process responsible for heating of the solar corona, the pervading redshifts in the transition region, and the acceleration of spicules. Aims: We determine the properties of the SSHEs and the atmospheric response to them in 3D magnetohydrodynamics (3D-MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Methods: We developed a method for identifying and following SSHEs over their lifetime, and applied it to two simulation models. We identified the locations where the energy dissipation is greatest inside the SSHEs volume, and we traced the SSHEs by following the spatial and temporal evolution of the maximum energy dissipation inside the SSHEs volume. Results: The method is effective in following the SSHEs. We can determine their lifetime, total energy, and properties of the plasma, as well as the magnetic field orientation in the vicinity of the SSHEs. Conclusions: We determine that the SSHEs that have the potential to heat the corona live less than 4 min, and typically the energy they release ranges from 1020 to 1024 erg. In addition, the directional change of the field lines on the two sides of the current sheet constituting the SSHEs ranges from 5° to 15° at the moment of the absolute maximum energy dissipation.

  18. Initiation and Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections P. F. Chen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , which is generated at the tachocline layer, emerges throughout the convection zone and the lower atmosphere into the tenuous corona. The coronal field keeps adjusting to a more and more complex magnetic structure in a quasi-steady way.

  19. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures? (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.


    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at

  20. How do rain drops affect atmospheric radiative fluxes and heating rates? (United States)

    Hill, Peter; Chiu, Christine; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Allan, Richard; Hill, Adrian


    General circulation model (GCM) radiation schemes are becoming increasingly sophisticated; the treatment of clouds has become more refined while the number of gases and aerosol species that are represented continues to rise. However, all GCMs continue to ignore the radiative effect of precipitating liquid water (rain). The resulting biases are expected to be small, but they have yet to be quantified. This study aims to provide a first estimate of how rain affects the atmospheric radiation budget at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This is a necessary first step towards determining whether GCM radiation schemes should include rain. We define the rain radiative effect here as the difference between radiative fluxes calculated with and without rain. We perform calculations using the SOCRATES (Suite Of Community Radiative Transfer codes based on Edwards-Slingo) radiative tranfser scheme. Input atmospheric profiles are taken from two weeks (one week during boreal winter and the other during boreal summer) of a Goddard multiscale modelling framework (MMF) simulation. Based on these calculations, we shall quantify and explain how rain affects the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere and thus radiative heating rates and fluxes at both the surface and top of atmosphere.

  1. Accretion shock stability on a dynamically heated YSO atmosphere with radiative transfer (United States)

    de Sá, Lionel; Chièze, Jean-Pierre; Stehlé, Chantal; Matsakos, Titos; Ibgui, Laurent; Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan


    Theory and simulations predict Quasi-Periodic Oscillations of shocks which develop in magnetically driven accretion funnels connecting the stellar disc to the photosphere of Young Stellar Objects (YSO). X-ray observations however do not show evidence of the expected periodicity. We examine here, in a first attempt, the influence of radiative transfer on the evolution of material impinging on a dynamically heated stellar atmosphere, using the 1D ALE-RHD code ASTROLABE. The mechanical shock heating mechanism of the chromosphere only slightly perturbs the flow. We also show that, since the impacting flow, and especially the part which penetrates into the chromosphere, is not treated as a purely radiating transparent medium, a sufficiently efficient coupling between gas and radiation may affect or even suppress the oscillations of the shocked column. This study shows the importance of the description of the radiation effects in the hydrodynamics and of the accuracy of the opacities for an adequate modeling.

  2. MHD Modelling of Coronal Loops: Injection of High-Speed Chromospheric Flows (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.


    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods. We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (approximately 0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km per second, its initial density is 10(exp 11) per cubic centimeter, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (approximately 1.5 MK) background loop. Results. While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 10(exp 6) K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Angstrom channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions. For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess.

  3. Upper atmosphere tidal oscillations due to latent heat release in the tropical troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes


    Full Text Available Latent heat release associated with tropical deep convective activity is investigated as a source for migrating (sun-synchronous diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in the 80–150-km height region. Satellite-based cloud brightness temperature measurements made between 1988 and 1994 and averaged into 3-h bins are used to determine the annual- and longitude-average local-time distribution of rainfall rate, and hence latent heating, between ±40° latitude. Regional average rainfall rates are shown to be in good agreement with climatological values derived from surface rain gauge data. A global linearized wave model is used to estimate the corresponding atmospheric perturbations in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (80–150 km resulting from upward-propagating tidal components excited by the latent heating. The annual-average migrating diurnal and semidiurnal components achieve velocity and temperature amplitudes of order 10–20 m s–1 and 5–10 K, respectively, which represent substantial contributions to the dynamics of the region. The latent heat forcing also shifts the phase (local solar time of maximum of the semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation from 0912 to 0936 h, much closer to the observed value of 0944 h.

  4. Closed coronal structures. V - Gasdynamic models of flaring loops and comparison with SMM observations (United States)

    Peres, G.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G.; Acton, L.; Leibacher, J.; Rosner, R.; Pallavicini, R.


    A time-dependent one-dimensional code incorporating energy, momentum and mass conservation equations, and taking the entire solar atmospheric structure into account, is used to investigate the hydrodynamic response of confined magnetic structures to strong heating perturbations. Model calculation results are compared with flare observations which include the light curves of spectral lines formed over a wide range of coronal flare temperatures, as well as determinations of Doppler shifts for the high temperature plasma. It is shown that the numerical simulation predictions are in good overall agreement with the observed flare coronal plasma evolution, correctly reproducing the temporal profile of X-ray spectral lines and their relative intensities. The predicted upflow velocities support the interpretation of the blueshifts as due to evaporation of chromospheric material.

  5. Modeling of the behavior of U, Eu, Pu, Am when heating of radioactive graphite in the carbon dioxide atmosphere (United States)

    Barbin, N. M.; Sidash, I. A.; Terentev, D. I.; Alekseev, S. G.


    Reactors with gas heat transfer agent have the greatest energy conversion efficiency. They are considered to be the safest. Graphite as part of them is used as moderator and neutron reflector and carbon dioxide can be used as heat transfer. There is a possibility of graphite burning in a carbon dioxide atmosphere at high temperature while the out-project accident. In this project we study the behavior of U, Eu, Pu, Am while heating the radioactive graphite in a carbon dioxide atmosphere by thermodynamic modeling. By thermodynamic modeling the partition of uranium, europium, plutonium and americium at equilibrium phases were obtained.

  6. A self-consistent derivation of ion drag and Joule heating for atmospheric dynamics in the thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhu


    Full Text Available The thermosphere is subject to additional electric and magnetic forces, not important in the middle and lower atmosphere, due to its partially ionized atmosphere. The effects of charged particles on the neutral atmospheric dynamics are often parameterized by ion drag in the momentum equations and Joule heating in the energy equation. Presented in this paper are a set of more accurate parameterizations for the ion drag and Joule heating for the neutral atmosphere that are functions of the difference between bulk ion velocity and neutral wind. The parameterized expressions also depend on the magnetic field, the Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and the ratio of the ion cyclotron frequency to the ion-neutral collision frequency. The formal relationship between the electromagnetic energy, atmospheric kinetic energy, and Joule heating is illustrated through the conversion terms between these three types of energy. It is shown that there will always be an accompanying conversion of kinetic energy into Joule heating when electromagnetic energy is generated through the dynamo mechanism of the atmospheric neutral wind. Likewise, electromagnetic energy cannot be fully converted into kinetic energy without producing Joule heating in the thermosphere.

  7. Experimental Research on Water Boiling Heat Transfer on Horizontal Copper Rod Surface at Sub-Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Yu


    Full Text Available In recent years, water (R718 as a kind of natural refrigerant—which is environmentally-friendly, safe and cheap—has been reconsidered by scholars. The systems of using water as the refrigerant, such as water vapor compression refrigeration and heat pump systems run at sub-atmospheric pressure. So, the research on water boiling heat transfer at sub-atmospheric pressure has been an important issue. There are many research papers on the evaporation of water, but there is a lack of data on the characteristics at sub-atmospheric pressures, especially lower than 3 kPa (the saturation temperature is 24 °C. In this paper, the experimental research on water boiling heat transfer on a horizontal copper rod surface at 1.8–3.3 kPa is presented. Regression equations of the boiling heat transfer coefficient are obtained based on the experimental data, which are convenient for practical application.

  8. Formation and variation of the atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau and its climate effects (United States)

    Wu, Guoxiong; He, Bian; Duan, Anmin; Liu, Yimin; Yu, Wei


    To cherish the memory of the late Professor Duzheng YE on what would have been his 100th birthday, and to celebrate his great accomplishment in opening a new era of Tibetan Plateau (TP) meteorology, this review paper provides an assessment of the atmospheric heat source (AHS) over the TP from different data resources, including observations from local meteorological stations, satellite remote sensing data, and various reanalysis datasets. The uncertainty and applicability of these heat source data are evaluated. Analysis regarding the formation of the AHS over the TP demonstrates that it is not only the cause of the atmospheric circulation, but is also a result of that circulation. Based on numerical experiments, the review further demonstrates that land-sea thermal contrast is only one part of the monsoon story. The thermal forcing of the Tibetan-Iranian Plateau plays a significant role in generating the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), i.e., in addition to pumping water vapor from sea to land and from the lower to the upper troposphere, it also generates a subtropical monsoon-type meridional circulation subject to the angular momentum conservation, providing an ascending-air large-scale background for the development of the ASM.

  9. Variability of Atlantic Ocean heat transport and its effects on the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Sutton


    Full Text Available The variability of the Atlantic meridional Ocean Heat Transport (OHT has been diagnosed from a simulation of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model, and the mechanisms responsible for this variability have been elucidated. It has been demonstrated that the interannual variability in Atlantic OHT is dominated by windstress-driven Ekman fluctuations. In contrast, the decadal and multidecadal variability is associated with the fluctuations of the Thermohaline Circulation (THC, driven by the fluctuations in deep convection over the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN Sea. The fluctuations of OHT induce Ocean Heat Content (OHC, and Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. The SST anomalies, in turn, have an impact on the atmosphere. The lead-lag relationships between the fluctuations of THC-related OHT and those of OHC and SST raise the possibility that a knowledge of OHT fluctuations could be used to predict variations in Atlantic Sea surface temperatures, and perhaps aspects of climate, several years in advance. A comparison of results from a second, independent, coupled model simulation is also presented, and similar conclusions reached.

  10. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock (United States)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.


    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  11. Examining the West African Monsoon circulation response to atmospheric heating in a GCM dynamical core (United States)

    Chadwick, R.; Martin, G. M.; Copsey, D.; Bellon, G.; Caian, M.; Codron, F.; Rio, C.; Roehrig, R.


    Diabatic heating plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of the West African Monsoon. A dynamical core configuration of a General Circulation Model (GCM) is used to test the influence of diabatic heating from different sources and regions on the strength and northward penetration of the monsoon circulation. The dynamical core is able to capture the main features of the monsoon flow, and when forced with heating tendencies from various different GCMs it recreates many of the differences seen between the full GCM monsoon circulations. Differences in atmospheric short-wave absorption over the Sahara and Sahel regions are a key driver of variation in the models' monsoon circulations, and this is likely to be linked to how aerosols, clouds and surface albedo are represented across the models. The magnitude of short-wave absorption also appears to affect the strength and position of the African easterly jet (AEJ), but not that of the tropical easterly jet (TEJ). The dynamical core is also used here to understand circulation changes that occur during the ongoing model development process that occurs at each modeling centre, providing the potential to trace these changes to specific alterations in model physics.

  12. Formation and evolution of coronal rain observed by SDO/AIA on February 22, 2012 (United States)

    Vashalomidze, Z.; Kukhianidze, V.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Oliver, R.; Shergelashvili, B.; Ramishvili, G.; Poedts, S.; De Causmaecker, P.


    Context. The formation and dynamics of coronal rain are currently not fully understood. Coronal rain is the fall of cool and dense blobs formed by thermal instability in the solar corona towards the solar surface with acceleration smaller than gravitational free fall. Aims: We aim to study the observational evidence of the formation of coronal rain and to trace the detailed dynamics of individual blobs. Methods: We used time series of the 171 Å and 304 Å spectral lines obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) above active region AR 11420 on February 22, 2012. Results: Observations show that a coronal loop disappeared in the 171 Å channel and appeared in the 304 Å line more than one hour later, which indicates a rapid cooling of the coronal loop from 1 MK to 0.05 MK. An energy estimation shows that the radiation is higher than the heat input, which indicates so-called catastrophic cooling. The cooling was accompanied by the formation of coronal rain in the form of falling cold plasma. We studied two different sequences of falling blobs. The first sequence includes three different blobs. The mean velocities of the blobs were estimated to be 50 km s-1, 60 km s-1 and 40 km s-1. A polynomial fit shows the different values of the acceleration for different blobs, which are lower than free-fall in the solar corona. The first and second blob move along the same path, but with and without acceleration, respectively. We performed simple numerical simulations for two consecutive blobs, which show that the second blob moves in a medium that is modified by the passage of the first blob. Therefore, the second blob has a relatively high speed and no acceleration, as is shown by observations. The second sequence includes two different blobs with mean velocities of 100 km s-1 and 90 km s-1, respectively. Conclusions: The formation of coronal rain blobs is connected with the process of catastrophic cooling. The different

  13. Seismology of Transversely Oscillating Coronal Loops with Siphon Flows (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Arregui, I.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.


    There are ubiquitous flows observed in the solar atmosphere of sub-Alfvénic speeds; however, after flaring and coronal mass ejection events flows can become Alfvénic. In this Letter, we derive an expression for the standing kink mode frequency due to siphon flow in coronal loops, valid for both low and high speed regimes. It is found that siphon flow introduces a linear, spatially dependent phase shift along coronal loops and asymmetric eigenfunctions. We demonstrate how this theory can be used to determine the kink and flow speed of oscillating coronal loops with reference to an observational case study. It is shown that the presence of siphon flow can cause the underestimation of magnetic field strength in coronal loops using the traditional seismological methods.

  14. Changes in domestic heating fuel use in Greece: effects on atmospheric chemistry and radiation (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Brunner, Dominik; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos


    For the past 8 years, Greece has been experiencing a major financial crisis which, among other side effects, has led to a shift in the fuel used for residential heating from fossil fuel towards biofuels, primarily wood. This study simulates the fate of the residential wood burning aerosol plume (RWB smog) and the implications on atmospheric chemistry and radiation, with the support of detailed aerosol characterization from measurements during the winter of 2013-2014 in Athens. The applied model system (TNO-MACC_II emissions and COSMO-ART model) and configuration used reproduces the measured frequent nighttime aerosol spikes (hourly PM10 > 75 µg m-3) and their chemical profile (carbonaceous components and ratios). Updated temporal and chemical RWB emission profiles, derived from measurements, were used, while the level of the model performance was tested for different heating demand (HD) conditions, resulting in better agreement with measurements for Tmin air pollution conditions is attributed to the timing of the smog plume appearance, both directly (longwave radiation increases during nighttime) and indirectly (the mild effect of the residual plume on solar radiation during the next day, due to removal and dispersion processes).

  15. On the exchange of sensible and latent heat between the atmosphere and melting snow (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Wood, David; Rottinghaus, Daniel; Wohlfahrtd, Georg; Goulden, Michael; Ward, Helen


    The snow energy balance is difficult to measure during the snowmelt period, yet critical for predictions of water yield in regions characterized by snow cover. Robust simplifications of the snowmelt energy balance can aid our understanding of water resources in a changing climate. Research to date has demonstrated that the net turbulent flux (FT) between a melting snowpack and the atmosphere is negligible if the sum of atmospheric vapor pressure (ea) and temperature (Ta) equals a constant, but it is unclear how frequently this situation holds across different sites. Here, we quantified the contribution of FT to the snowpack energy balance during 59 snowmelt periods across 11 sites in the FLUXNET2015 database with a detailed analysis of snowmelt in subarctic tundra near Abisko, Sweden. At the Abisko site we investigated the frequency of occurrences during which sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (λE) are of (approximately) equal but opposite sign, and if the sum of these terms, FT, is therefore negligible during the snowmelt period. H approximately equaled -λE for less than 50% of the melt period and FT was infrequently a trivial term in the snowmelt energy balance at Abisko. The reason is that the relationship between observed ea and Ta is roughly orthogonal to the “line of equality” at which H equals -λE as warmer Ta during the melt period usually resulted in greater ea. This relationship holds both within melt periods at individual sites and across different sites in the FLUXNET2015 database, where FTcomprised less than 20% of the energy available to melt snow, Qm, in 44% of the snowmelt periods studied here. FT/Qm was significantly related to the mean ea during the melt period, but not mean Ta, and FT tended to be near 0 W m−2 when ea averaged ca. 0.5 kPa. FT may become an increasingly important term in the snowmelt energy balance across many global regions as warmer temperatures are projected to cause snow

  16. Magnetism Matters: Coronal Magnetometry Using Multi-Wavelength Polarimetry (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah E.


    The solar coronal magnetic field is key both to solving fundamental problems in solar physics such as coronal heating and solar wind acceleration, and to predicting the internal magnetic structure and thus space-weather impact of coronal mass ejections. I will describe the current state of the art in coronal magnetometry, and present results from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) at Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), which since 2011 has taken polarimetric observations of the solar corona in the near-infrared on a near-daily basis. I will discuss work in progress that utilizes forward modeling to synthesize polarimetric data at multiple heights and vantage points, and at wavelengths from radio to infrared to visible to ultraviolet. The goal is to use such synthetic testbeds to determine the ideal set of observations for constraining the coronal magnetic field, and to establish a Data-Optimized Coronal Field Model (DOC-FM) that efficiently incorporates these data into global magnetic models. This work will provide essential tools and motivation for the planning and implementation of future coronal polarimetric projects and missions spanning a broad range of wavelengths.

  17. Evolution of Alfvénic Fluctuations inside an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection and Their Contribution to Local Plasma Heating: Joint Observations from 1.0 to 5.4 au (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Chi; Richardson, John D.; Tu, Cui


    Tracking an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) by widely separated spacecraft could provide us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of embedded Alfvénic fluctuations (AFs) and their possible contribution to local plasma heating directly. In this study, an ICME observed by Wind at 1.0 au on 1998 March 4-6 is tracked to the location of Ulysses at 5.4 au. AFs are commonly found inside the ICME at 1.0 au, with an occurrence rate of 21.7% and at broadband frequencies from 4 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-2 Hz. When the ICME propagates to 5.4 au, the Aflvénicity decreases significantly, and AFs are rare and only found at a few localized frequencies with the occurrence rate decreasing to 3.0%. At the same time, the magnetic strength at the AF-rich region has an extra decrease in addition to the ICME expansion effect. The energetics of the ICME are also investigated here. Under similar magnetic strength situations at 1.0 au, the turbulence cascade rate at the AF-rich region is much larger than the one at the AF-lack region. Moreover, it can be maintained during the decrease of magnetic strength if there is a lack of AFs. However, when many AFs exist, it reduces significantly as the AFs disappear. The turbulence cascade dissipation rate within the ICME is inferred to be 2688.6 J kg-1 s-1, which satisfies the requirement of local ICME plasma heating rate, 1653.2 J kg-1 s-1. It is therefore concluded that AF dissipation is responsible for extra magnetic dissipation and local plasma heating inside the ICME.

  18. Seismology of transversely oscillating coronal loops with siphon flows


    Terradas, J.; Arregui, I.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.


    There are ubiquitous flows observed in the solar atmosphere of sub-Alfv\\'{e}nic speeds, however after flaring and coronal mass ejection events flows can become Alfv\\'{e}nic. In this Letter, we derive an expression for the standing kink mode frequency due to siphon flow in coronal loops, valid for both low and high speed regimes. It is found that siphon flow introduces a linear spatially dependent phase shift along coronal loops and asymmetric eigenfunctions. We demonstrate how this theory can...

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic waves and coronal seismology: an overview of recent results. (United States)

    De Moortel, Ineke; Nakariakov, Valery M


    Recent observations have revealed that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, with a wide range of periods. We give a brief review of some aspects of MHD waves and coronal seismology that have recently been the focus of intense debate or are newly emerging. In particular, we focus on four topics: (i) the current controversy surrounding propagating intensity perturbations along coronal loops, (ii) the interpretation of propagating transverse loop oscillations, (iii) the ongoing search for coronal (torsional) Alfvén waves, and (iv) the rapidly developing topic of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares.

  20. Changes in domestic heating fuel use in Greece: effects on atmospheric chemistry and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Athanasopoulou


    Full Text Available For the past 8 years, Greece has been experiencing a major financial crisis which, among other side effects, has led to a shift in the fuel used for residential heating from fossil fuel towards biofuels, primarily wood. This study simulates the fate of the residential wood burning aerosol plume (RWB smog and the implications on atmospheric chemistry and radiation, with the support of detailed aerosol characterization from measurements during the winter of 2013–2014 in Athens. The applied model system (TNO-MACC_II emissions and COSMO-ART model and configuration used reproduces the measured frequent nighttime aerosol spikes (hourly PM10  >  75 µg m−3 and their chemical profile (carbonaceous components and ratios. Updated temporal and chemical RWB emission profiles, derived from measurements, were used, while the level of the model performance was tested for different heating demand (HD conditions, resulting in better agreement with measurements for Tmin < 9 °C. Half of the aerosol mass over the Athens basin is organic in the submicron range, of which 80 % corresponds to RWB (average values during the smog period. Although organic particles are important light scatterers, the direct radiative cooling of the aerosol plume during wintertime is found low (monthly average forcing of –0.4 W m−2 at the surface, followed by a minor feedback to the concentration levels of aerosol species. The low radiative cooling of a period with such intense air pollution conditions is attributed to the timing of the smog plume appearance, both directly (longwave radiation increases during nighttime and indirectly (the mild effect of the residual plume on solar radiation during the next day, due to removal and dispersion processes.

  1. Modification of land-atmosphere interactions by CO2 effects: Implications for summer dryness and heat wave amplitude (United States)

    Lemordant, Léo.; Gentine, Pierre; Stéfanon, Marc; Drobinski, Philippe; Fatichi, Simone


    Plant stomata couple the energy, water, and carbon cycles. We use the framework of Regional Climate Modeling to simulate the 2003 European heat wave and assess how higher levels of surface CO2 may affect such an extreme event through land-atmosphere interactions. Increased CO2 modifies the seasonality of the water cycle through stomatal regulation and increased leaf area. As a result, the water saved during the growing season through higher water use efficiency mitigates summer dryness and the heat wave impact. Land-atmosphere interactions and CO2 fertilization together synergistically contribute to increased summer transpiration. This, in turn, alters the surface energy budget and decreases sensible heat flux, mitigating air temperature rise. Accurate representation of the response to higher CO2 levels and of the coupling between the carbon and water cycles is therefore critical to forecasting seasonal climate, water cycle dynamics, and to enhance the accuracy of extreme event prediction under future climate.

  2. The Large-scale Coronal Structure of the 2017 August 21 Great American Eclipse: An Assessment of Solar Surface Flux Transport Model Enabled Predictions and Observations (United States)

    Nandy, Dibyendu; Bhowmik, Prantika; Yeates, Anthony R.; Panda, Suman; Tarafder, Rajashik; Dash, Soumyaranjan


    On 2017 August 21, a total solar eclipse swept across the contiguous United States, providing excellent opportunities for diagnostics of the Sun’s corona. The Sun’s coronal structure is notoriously difficult to observe except during solar eclipses; thus, theoretical models must be relied upon for inferring the underlying magnetic structure of the Sun’s outer atmosphere. These models are necessary for understanding the role of magnetic fields in the heating of the corona to a million degrees and the generation of severe space weather. Here we present a methodology for predicting the structure of the coronal field based on model forward runs of a solar surface flux transport model, whose predicted surface field is utilized to extrapolate future coronal magnetic field structures. This prescription was applied to the 2017 August 21 solar eclipse. A post-eclipse analysis shows good agreement between model simulated and observed coronal structures and their locations on the limb. We demonstrate that slow changes in the Sun’s surface magnetic field distribution driven by long-term flux emergence and its evolution governs large-scale coronal structures with a (plausibly cycle-phase dependent) dynamical memory timescale on the order of a few solar rotations, opening up the possibility for large-scale, global corona predictions at least a month in advance.

  3. A long-term study of aerosol modulation of atmospheric and surface solar heating over Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar


    Full Text Available Implications of aerosol characteristics, observed during a five-year (2004–2009 period over Pune (a tropical urban location, to short-wave radiation budget are reported. A discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT model with a code, namely, Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART, has been used to carry out the radiative transfer computations. The validity of the method is demonstrated using independent ground-based remote sensing observations. Uncertainties in the estimates are also quantified. Clear-sky forcing reveals the points that include (1 Large negative bottom-of-the-atmosphere (BOA forcing (more than−30 Wm−2 in all the months with peaks during October, December and March when the surface forcing exceeds~−40 Wm−2, and (2 Surface forcing values are higher for pre-monsoon months, while they are comparable for winter and post-monsoon months. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA forcing is found to be negative during all the seasons. Large differences between TOA and BOA forcing during pre-monsoon, winter and post-monsoon indicate large absorption of radiant energy (~30 Wm−2 within the atmosphere during these seasons, thus increasing atmospheric heating by~1 K/d. These values imply that aerosols have considerable impact on the atmosphere–surface system by causing substantial warming/cooling at the atmosphere/surface. This persistent trend in strong atmospheric absorption is likely to alter atmospheric thermodynamic conditions and thus affects circulation considerably.

  4. Performance testing of cross flow heat exchanger operating in the atmosphere of flue gas particulate with vapor condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntaphan, A.


    Full Text Available Performance testing of a cross flow heat exchanger operating under the atmosphere of flue gas particulate from combustion was carried out in this work. This heat exchanger exchanges heat between flue gas from the fuel oil combustion and cold water. The heat exchanger is composed of a spiral finned tube bank having 3 rows and 8 tubes per row with a staggered arrangement. The fin spacings considered are 2.85 and 6.10 mm. The theories of thermodynamics and heat transfer are used for analyzing the performance of this system.In this experiment, the flue gas temperature of 200ºC from combustion having 0.35 kg/s mass flow rate flows along outside surface of the heat exchanger and transfers heat to the 25ºC cooling water having 0.15 kg/s mass flow rate flowing in the tube side. Each experiment uses 750 hr for testing. During the testing, part of flue gas condenses on the heat transfer surface.From the experiment, it was found that the heat transfer rate of both heat exchangers tended to decrease with time while the airside pressure drop increased. These results come from the fouling on the heat transfer surface. Moreover, it is found that the heat exchanger having 2.85 mm fin spacing has an approximately 4 times higher fouling resistance than that of the 6.10 mm fin spacing.In this work a model for calculating the fouling resistance is also developed as a the function of time. The model is developed from that of Kern and Seaton and the mean deviation of the model is 0.789.

  5. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R


    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  6. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres. (United States)

    Ameye, Maarten; Wertin, Timothy M; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy


    Here, we investigated the effect of different heat-wave intensities applied at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on seedlings of two tree species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seedlings were assigned to treatment combinations of two levels of [CO2] (380 or 700 μmol mol(-1)) and four levels of air temperature (ambient, ambient +3°C, or 7-d heat waves consisting of a biweekly +6°C heat wave, or a monthly +12°C heat wave). Treatments were maintained throughout the growing season, thus receiving equal heat sums. We measured gas exchange and fluorescence parameters before, during and after a mid-summer heat wave. The +12°C heat wave, significantly reduced net photosynthesis (Anet) in both species and [CO2] treatments but this effect was diminished in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in Anet was accompanied by a decrease in Fv'/Fm' in P. taeda and ΦPSII in Q. rubra. Our findings suggest that, if soil moisture is adequate, trees will experience negative effects in photosynthetic performance only with the occurrence of extreme heat waves. As elevated [CO2] diminished these negative effects, the future climate may not be as detrimental to plant communities as previously assumed. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts (United States)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  8. Atmospheric Air –the Effective Source of Low-Grade Thermal Energy for Heat Pump Snow Melting Systems under Climatic Conditions of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of field experimental studies to evaluate effectiveness of heat pump snow melting systems use under climatic conditions of Moscow. The studies were conducted on a mock-up near-house heat pump snow melting site using low-grade atmospheric air heat. Experimental studies carried out in field conditions confirmed feasibility and efficiency of using atmospheric air as a source of low-grade heat for evaporators of heat pump snow melting systems under climatic conditions of Moscow.

  9. Gas heating dynamics during leader inception in long air gaps at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Liu, Lipeng; Becerra, Marley


    The inception of leader discharges in long air gaps at atmospheric pressure is simulated with a thermo-hydrodynamic model and a detailed kinetic scheme for N2/O2/H2O mixtures. In order to investigate the effect of humidity, the kinetic scheme includes the most important reactions with the H2O molecule and its derivatives, resulting in a scheme with 45 species and 192 chemical reactions. The heating of a thin plasma channel in front of an anode electrode during the streamer to leader transition is evaluated with a detailed 1D radial model. The analysis includes the simulation of the corresponding streamer bursts, dark periods and aborted leaders that may occur prior to the inception of a propagating leader discharge. The simulations are performed using the time-varying discharge current in two laboratory discharge events of positive polarity reported in the literature as input. Excellent agreement between the simulated and the experimental time variation of the thermal radius for a 1 m rod-plate air gap discharge event reported in the literature has been found. The role of different energy transfer and loss mechanisms prior to the inception of a stable leader is also discussed. It is found that although a small percentage of water molecules can accelerate the vibrational-translational relaxation to some extent, this effect leads to a negligible temperature increase during the streamer-to-leader transition. It is also found that the gas temperature should significantly exceed 2000 K for the transition to lead to the inception of a propagating leader. Otherwise, the strong convection loss produced by the gas expansion during the transition causes a drop in the translational temperature below 2000 K, aborting the incepted leader. Furthermore, it is shown that the assumptions used by the widely-used model of Gallimberti do not hold when evaluating the streamer-to-leader transition.

  10. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats


    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  11. Thermal instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas - Solar coronal loops (United States)

    Habbal, S. R.; Rosner, R.


    The thermal stability of confined solar coronal structures ('loops') is investigated, following both normal mode and a new, global instability analysis. It is demonstrated that: (1) normal mode analysis shows modes with size scales comparable to that of loops to be unstable, but to be strongly affected by the loop boundary conditions; (2) a global analysis, based upon variation of the total loop energy losses and gains, yields loop stability conditions for global modes dependent upon the coronal loop heating process, with magnetically coupled heating processes giving marginal stability. The connection between the present analysis and the minimum flux corona of Hearn is also discussed.

  12. A heating mechanism for the chromospheres of M dwarf stars (United States)

    Giampapa, M. S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G.; Linsky, J. L.; Worden, S. P.


    The atmospheric structure of the dwarf M-stars which is especially important to the general field of stellar chromospheres and coronae was investigated. The M-dwarf stars constitute a class of objects for which the discrepancy between the predictions of the acoustic wave chromospheric/coronal heating hypothesis and the observations is most vivid. It is assumed that they represent a class of stars where alternative atmospheric heating mechanisms, presumably magnetically related, are most clearly manifested. Ascertainment of the validity of a hypothesis to account for the origin of the chromospheric and transition region line emission in M-dwarf stars is proposed.

  13. Chromospheric and coronal variation across stellar activity cycles (United States)

    Hagen, Cedric; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Isaacson, Howard T.; Henry, Gregory W.


    We investigate cyclic chromospheric and coronal activity in main-sequence stars, using Ca II H and K core emission and X-ray luminosities, respectively. From a sample of 244 nearby stars with high-cadence Keck optical spectroscopy spanning up to 17 years (obtained for the California Planet Search program), we use automated sinusoid modeling and goodness-of-fit criteria to identify 33 stars with highly significant cyclic R'HK variability. The cycle periods are refined using mmag APT optical photometry. We also construct a comparison sample of 23 stars that show virtually no R'HK variability. The cyclic and flat stars have similar B-V and absolute magnitude distributions but the cyclic stars tend to be more active, with greater median R'HK values. We present new Swift/XRT observations of 10 cyclic stars and 1 flat star, totaling 32.6 ks; 5/11 are detected in this snapshot pilot survey. A comparison of their current-epoch X-ray luminosities to archival ROSAT values shows variation by a factor of 2-3 is common on decade-long timescales. Several stars also show suggestive evidence for X-ray variability on much shorter timescales, perhaps related to stellar rotation and coronal inhomogeneity or to small flares. We use the chromospheric activity cycles to calculate the phase of each X-ray observation. Additional Swift observations are ongoing and with this larger dataset we will measure the typical amplitude of cyclic X-ray variation. We discuss our initial results in the context of magnetic dynamo activity and consider the implications for exoplanet atmosphere heating and evaporation.

  14. Transition-region/Coronal Signatures and Magnetic Setting of Sunspot Penumbral Jets: Hinode (SOT/FG), Hi-C, and SDO/AIA Observations (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Alpert, Shane E.


    Penumbral microjets (PJs) are transient narrow bright features in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae, first characterized by Katsukawa et al. using the Ca ii H-line filter on Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). It was proposed that the PJs form as a result of reconnection between two magnetic components of penumbrae (spines and interspines), and that they could contribute to the transition region (TR) and coronal heating above sunspot penumbrae. We propose a modified picture of formation of PJs based on recent results on the internal structure of sunspot penumbral filaments. Using data of a sunspot from Hinode/SOT, High Resolution Coronal Imager, and different passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we examine whether PJs have signatures in the TR and corona. We find hardly any discernible signature of normal PJs in any AIA passbands, except for a few of them showing up in the 1600 Å images. However, we discovered exceptionally stronger jets with similar lifetimes but bigger sizes (up to 600 km wide) occurring repeatedly in a few locations in the penumbra, where evidence of patches of opposite-polarity fields in the tails of some penumbral filaments is seen in Stokes-V images. These tail PJs do display signatures in the TR. Whether they have any coronal-temperature plasma is unclear. We infer that none of the PJs, including the tail PJs, directly heat the corona in active regions significantly, but any penumbral jet might drive some coronal heating indirectly via the generation of Alfvén waves and/or braiding of the coronal field.

  15. Coronal Magnetic Field Models (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete


    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  16. Chemical compositions and sources of atmospheric PM10 in heating, non-heating and sand periods at a coal-based city in northeastern China. (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Han, Bin; Li, Zhiyong


    Mass concentrations and chemical components (18 elements, 9 ions, organic carbon [OC] and elemental carbon [EC]) in atmospheric PM(10) were measured at five sites in Fushun during heating, non-heating and sand periods in 2006-2007. PM(10) mass concentrations varied from 62.0 to 226.3 μg m(-3), with 21% of the total samples' mass concentrations exceeding the Chinese national secondary standard value of 150 μg m(-3), mainly concentrated in heating and sand periods. Crustal elements, trace elements, water-soluble ions, OC and EC represented 20-47%, 2-9%, 13-34%, 15-34% and 13-25% of the particulate matter mass concentrations, respectively. OC and crustal elements exhibited the highest mass percentages, at 27-34% and 30-47% during heating and sand period. Local agricultural residuals burning may contribute to EC and ion concentrations, as shown by ion temporal variation and OC and EC correlation analysis. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Mn) from coal combustion and industrial processes should be paid attention to in heating and sand periods. The anion/cation ratios exhibited their highest values for the background site with the influence of stationary sources on its upper wind direction during the sand period. Secondary organic carbon were 1.6-21.7, 1.5-23.0, 0.4-17.0, 0.2-33.0 and 0.2-21.1 μg m(-3), accounting for 20-77%, 44-88%, 4-77%, 8-69% and 4-73% of OC for the five sampling sites ZQ, DZ, XH, WH and SK, respectively. From the temporal and spatial variation analysis of major species, coal combustion, agricultural residual burning and industrial emission including dust re-suspended from raw material storage piles were important sources for atmospheric PM(10) in Fushun at heating, non-heating and sand periods, respectively. It was confirmed by principal component analysis that coal combustion, vehicle emission, industrial activities, soil dust, cement and construction dust and biomass burning were the main sources for PM(10) in this coal-based city. This journal

  17. Atmospheric aerosol variability above the Paris Area during the 2015 heat wave - Comparison with the 2003 and 2006 heat waves (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Shang, Xiaoxia


    The aerosol layers during the heat wave of July 2015 over Paris Area have been studied using a N2-Raman lidar with co- and cross-polarized channels. The lidar observations are examined to allow the identification of main aerosol types and their origins, in synergy with measurements of the AERONET sunphotometer network and back trajectory studies from the HYSPLIT model. The results are compatible with spaceborne observations of MODIS and CALIOP. As for previous heat waves of August 2003 and July 2006 occurring in France, the aerosol optical thickness is very large, up to 0.8 at the lidar wavelength of 355 nm (between 0.5 and 0.7 at 550 nm). However, air mass trajectories highlight that the observed aerosol layers may have multiple and diverse origins during the 2015 heat wave (North America, Northwest Africa, Southern and Northern Europe). Biomass burning, pollution and desert dust aerosols have been identified, using linear particle depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and analysis of back trajectories initiated at the altitudes and arrival times of the plumes. These layers are elevated and are shown to have little impact on surface aerosol concentrations (PM10 albedo distributions at 550 nm: 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.95 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.04 for 2003, 2006 and 2015, respectively.

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry of Six Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers Used as Heat Transfer Fluid Replacement Compounds: Measured OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Atmospheric Lifetimes, and Global Warming Potentials (United States)

    Jubb, A. M.; Gierczak, T.; Baasandorj, M.; Waterland, R. L.; Burkholder, J. B.


    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (C7F13OCH3, MPHEs) are currently in use as a replacement for perfluorinated alkane (PFC) and polyether mixtures (both persistent greenhouse gases with atmospheric lifetimes >1000 years) used as heat transfer fluids. Currently, the atmospheric fate of the MPHE isomers are not well characterized, however, reaction with the OH radical is expected to be a dominant tropospheric loss process for these compounds. In order to assess the atmospheric lifetimes and environmental implications of MPHE use, rate coefficients for MPHE isomers' reaction with OH radicals are desired. In the work presented here, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six MPHEs commonly used in commercial mixtures (isomers and stereoisomers) and their deuterated analogs (d3-MPHE) were determined at 296 K using a relative rate method with combined gas-chromatography/IR spectroscopy detection. A range of OH rate coefficient values was observed, up to a factor of 20× different, between the MPHE isomers with the (E)-stereoisomers exhibiting the greatest reactivity. The measured OH reaction rate coefficients for the d3-MPHE isomers were lower than the observed MPHE values although a large range of k values between isomers was still observed. The reduction in reactivity with deuteration signifies that the MPHE + OH reaction proceeds via both addition to the olefinic C=C bond and H-abstraction from the methyl ester group. OH addition to the C=C bond was determined to be the primary reaction channel. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to the OH reaction for the six MPHE isomers were found to be in the range of days to months. The short lifetimes indicate that MPHE use will primarily impact tropospheric local and regional air quality. A MPHE atmospheric degradation mechanism will be presented. As part of this work, radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the MPHE isomers were estimated based on measured

  19. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles (United States)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Shie, Chung-Lin; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo


    In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1-QR) in regions of precipitation. The TMI heating algorithm (TRAIN) is calibrated, or "trained" using relatively accurate estimates of heating based upon spaceborne Precipitation Radar (PR) observations collocated with the TMI observations over a one-month period. The heating estimation technique is based upon a previously described Bayesian methodology, but with improvements in supporting cloud-resolving model simulations, an adjustment of precipitation echo tops to compensate for model biases, and a separate scaling of convective and stratiform heating components that leads to an approximate balance between estimated vertically-integrated condensation and surface precipitation. Estimates of Q1-QR from TMI compare favorably with the PR training estimates and show only modest sensitivity to the cloud-resolving model simulations of heating used to construct the training data. Moreover, the net condensation in the corresponding annual mean satellite latent heating profile is within a few percent of the annual mean surface precipitation rate over the tropical and subtropical oceans where the algorithm is applied. Comparisons of Q1 produced by combining TMI Q1-QR with independently derived estimates of QR show reasonable agreement with rawinsonde-based analyses of Q1 from two field campaigns, although the satellite estimates exhibit heating profile structure with sharper and more intense heating peaks than the rawinsonde estimates. 2

  20. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb


    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  1. Numerical study of heating the upper atmosphere by acoustic-gravity waves from a local source on the Earth's surface and influence of this heating on the wave propagation conditions (United States)

    Karpov, I. V.; Kshevetskii, S. P.


    The propagation of acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) from a source on the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere is investigated with methods of mathematical modeling. The applied non-linear model of wave propagation in the atmosphere is based on numerical integration of a complete set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations. The source on the Earth's surface generates waves with frequencies near to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. The results of simulation have revealed that some region of heating the atmosphere by propagated upward and dissipated AGWs arises above the source at altitudes nearby of 200 km. The horizontal scale of this heated region is about 1000 km in the case of the source that radiates AGWs during approximately 1 h. The appearing of the heated region has changed the conditions of AGW propagation in the atmosphere. When the heated region in the upper atmosphere has been formed, further a waveguide regime of propagation of waves with the periods shorter the Brunt-Vaisala period is realized. The upper boundary of the wave-guide coincides with the arisen heated region in the upper atmosphere. The considered mechanism of formation of large-scale disturbances in the upper atmosphere may be useful for explanation of connections of processes in the upper and lower atmospheric layers.

  2. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  3. An overview of coronal seismology. (United States)

    De Moortel, I


    The idea of exploiting observed oscillations as a diagnostic tool for determining the physical conditions of the coronal plasma was first suggested several decades ago (Roberts et al. 1984 Astrophys. J. 279, 857). Until recently, the application of this idea has been very limited by a lack of high-quality observations of coronal oscillations. However, during the last few years, this situation has changed dramatically, especially due to space-based observations by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and waves and oscillations have now been observed in a wide variety of solar structures, such as coronal loops, polar plumes and prominences. This paper will briefly summarize MHD wave theory, which forms the basis for coronal seismology, as well as present an overview of the variety of recently observed waves and oscillations in the solar corona. The present state of coronal seismology will also be discussed. Currently, the uncertainty associated with the obtained parameters is still considerable and, hence, the results require a cautious interpretation. However, these examples do show that coronal seismology is rapidly being transformed from a theoretical possibility to a viable technique.

  4. Theoretical studies of the physics of the solar atmosphere (United States)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.


    Significant advances in our theoretical basis for understanding several physical processes related to dynamical phenomena on the sun were achieved. We have advanced a new model for spicules and fibrils. We have provided a simple physical view of resonance absorption of MHD surface waves; this allowed an approximate mathematical procedure for obtaining a wealth of new analytical results which we applied to coronal heating and p-mode absorption at magnetic regions. We provided the first comprehensive models for the heating and acceleration of the transition region, corona, and solar wind. We provided a new view of viscosity under coronal conditions. We provided new insights into Alfven wave propagation in the solar atmosphere. And recently we have begun work in a new direction: parametric instabilities of Alfven waves.

  5. Influence of heating rate on the condensational instability. [in outer layers of solar atmosphere (United States)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Mariska, J. T.


    Analysis and numerical simulation are used to determine the effect that various heating rates have on the linear and nonlinear evolution of a typical plasma within a solar magnetic flux tube subject to the condensational instability. It is found that linear stability depends strongly on the heating rate. The results of numerical simulations of the nonlinear evolution of the condensational instability in a solar magnetic flux tube are presented. Different heating rates lead to quite different nonlinear evolutions, as evidenced by the behavior of the global internal energy.

  6. Development of a model system for rapid assessment of insect mortality in heated controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments. (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G


    The development of postharvest quarantine treatments can be both expensive and time-consuming. It is necessary to determine the species and stage of the pest most tolerant to the treatment, if more than one species is the target of the treatment. Initial laboratory studies often include infesting the commodity with various egg and larval stages of the pest and performing treatments and evaluations of the fruit. In collaboration with others, I have previously developed combination high temperature under controlled atmosphere treatments against two quarantine pests in apples (Malus spp.) and peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). I decided to develop an artificial system that can be used for these initial tests without the need for infesting large quantities of the fruit. I tested the system on the immature stages of the pests under regular air and controlled atmospheres by using the controlled atmosphere water bath system. This system can be used for rapid assessment of the most tolerant stage and species of a pest to a combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatment without the expense of infesting, treating, and evaluating the commodity.

  7. Hydrostatic and dynamic models of solar coronal holes (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.


    A description is presented of a sequence of one-dimensional fluid flow models of the transition zone and the inner corona. A hydrostatic model atmosphere in reasonable agreement with observations of closed, large-scale coronal structures found in the quiet sun is considered and various physical effects are introduced, one at a time, observing the response of the model. As a result of the investigations, a model is developed of the plasma flow in a coronal hole. It is shown that the data severely circumscribe the allowable range of possible models.

  8. Heat flux to the helium cryogenic system elements in the case of incidental vacuum vessel ventilation with atmospheric air

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The selection process for size in safety equipment for cold vessels or process pipes in cryogenic systems should take into consideration the incidental ventilation of the vacuum vessel with atmospheric air. In this case, a significant heat input toward the cold elements of the system can be expected. A number of experimental investigations have been done for the elements at liquid helium temperature which have been covered with 10 layers of MLI. The typical values of the heat flux were measured in a range of 3.7 to 5.0 kW/m2 of the element surface. The helium temperature parts are typically surrounded by thermal shields that are kept in a temperature range of 50-80K. On the external side, the thermal shields are covered with 30-40 layers of MLI while on the internal side, the shields are bare. The theoretical calculations of heat flux to the thermal shield, with respect to the possibility of air condensation and freezing on the bare side of the thermal shield, show that the heat flux to the thermal shield can...

  9. The shock-heated atmosphere of an asymptotic giant branch star resolved by ALMA (United States)

    Vlemmings, Wouter; Khouri, Theo; O'Gorman, Eamon; De Beck, Elvire; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Lankhaar, Boy; Maercker, Matthias; Olofsson, Hans; Ramstedt, Sofia; Tafoya, Daniel; Takigawa, Aki


    Our current understanding of the chemistry and mass-loss processes in Sun-like stars at the end of their evolution depends critically on the description of convection, pulsations and shocks in the extended stellar atmosphere1. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere models provide observational predictions2, but so far the resolution to constrain the complex temperature and velocity structures seen in the models has been lacking. Here we present submillimetre continuum and line observations that resolve the atmosphere of the asymptotic giant branch star W Hydrae. We show that hot gas with chromospheric characteristics exists around the star. Its filling factor is shown to be small. The existence of such gas requires shocks with a cooling time longer than commonly assumed. A shocked hot layer will be an important ingredient in current models of stellar convection, pulsation and chemistry at the late stages of stellar evolution.

  10. Coronal seismology waves and oscillations in stellar coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, Alexander; Nakariakov, Valery M


    This concise and systematic account of the current state of this new branch of astrophysics presents the theoretical foundations of plasma astrophysics, magneto-hydrodynamics and coronal magnetic structures, taking into account the full range of available observation techniques -- from radio to gamma. The book discusses stellar loops during flare energy releases, MHD waves and oscillations, plasma instabilities and heating and charged particle acceleration. Current trends and developments in MHD seismology of solar and stellar coronal plasma systems are also covered, while recent p

  11. Bayesian coronal seismology (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo


    In contrast to the situation in a laboratory, the study of the solar atmosphere has to be pursued without direct access to the physical conditions of interest. Information is therefore incomplete and uncertain and inference methods need to be employed to diagnose the physical conditions and processes. One of such methods, solar atmospheric seismology, makes use of observed and theoretically predicted properties of waves to infer plasma and magnetic field properties. A recent development in solar atmospheric seismology consists in the use of inversion and model comparison methods based on Bayesian analysis. In this paper, the philosophy and methodology of Bayesian analysis are first explained. Then, we provide an account of what has been achieved so far from the application of these techniques to solar atmospheric seismology and a prospect of possible future extensions.

  12. The Impact of Trends in the Large Scale Atmospheric Circulation on Mediterranean Surface Turbulent Heat Fluxes (United States)

    Romanski, Joy; Hameed, Sultan


    Interannual variations of latent heat fluxes (LHF) and sensible heat fluxes (SHF) over the Mediterranean for the boreal winter season (DJF) show positive trends during 1958-2011. Comparison of correlations between the heat fluxes and the intensity and location of the Azores High (AH), and the NAO and East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) teleconnections, along with analysis of composites of surface temperature, humidity and wind fields for different teleconnection states, demonstrates that variations of the AH are found to explain the heat flux changes more successfully than the NAO and the EAWR. Trends in sea level pressure and longitude of the Azores High during DJF show a strengthening, and an eastward shift. DJF Azores High pressure and longitude are shown to co-vary such that variability of the Azores High occurs along an axis defined by lower pressure and westward location at one extreme, and higher pressure and eastward location at the other extreme. The shift of the Azores High from predominance of the low/west state to the high/east state induces trends in Mediterranean Sea surface winds, temperature and moisture. These, combined with sea surface warming trends, produce trends in wintertime Mediterranean Sea sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  13. MHD Modeling of Coronal Loops: the Transition Region Throat (United States)

    Guarrasi, M.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Mignone, A.; Klimchuk, J. A.


    Context. The expansion of coronal loops in the transition region may considerably influence the diagnostics of the plasma emission measure. The cross-sectional area of the loops is expected to depend on the temperature and pressure, and might be sensitive to the heating rate. Aims. The approach here is to study the area response to slow changes in the coronal heating rate, and check the current interpretation in terms of steady heating models. Methods. We study the area response with a time-dependent 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) loop model, including the description of the expanding magnetic field, coronal heating and losses by thermal conduction, and radiation from optically thin plasma. We run a simulation for a loop 50 Mm long and quasi-statically heated to about 4 millikelvin. Results. We find that the area can change substantially with the quasi-steady heating rate, e.g., by approx. 40% at 0.5 millikelvin as the loop temperature varies between 1 millikelvin and 4 millikelvin, and, therefore, affects the interpretation of the differential emission measure vs. temperature (DEM(T)) curves.

  14. MHD modeling of coronal loops: the transition region throat (United States)

    Guarrasi, M.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Mignone, A.; Klimchuk, J. A.


    Context. The expansion of coronal loops in the transition region may considerably influence the diagnostics of the plasma emission measure. The cross-sectional area of the loops is expected to depend on the temperature and pressure, and might be sensitive to the heating rate. Aims: The approach here is to study the area response to slow changes in the coronal heating rate, and check the current interpretation in terms of steady heating models. Methods: We study the area response with a time-dependent 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) loop model, including the description of the expanding magnetic field, coronal heating and losses by thermal conduction, and radiation from optically thin plasma. We run a simulation for a loop 50 Mm long and quasi-statically heated to about 4 MK. Results: We find that the area can change substantially with the quasi-steady heating rate, e.g., by ~40% at 0.5 MK as the loop temperature varies between 1 MK and 4 MK, and, therefore, affects the interpretation of the differential emission measure vs. temperature (DEM(T)) curves. The movie associated to Fig. 4 is available in electronic form at

  15. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Poletto


    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  16. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone (United States)

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Andersen, Peter C.; Williford, Craig J.; Ennis, Christine A.; Birks, John W.


    A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3) photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100-130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM) ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm), the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH), volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S.) Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  17. The heat and moisture budgets of the atmosphere over central equatorial Indian Ocean during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    on board four Russian ships during summer monsoon days (25 to 31 July 1977). The time mean net flux divergences of latent heat and dry static energy are found to be about - 0.366 and -0,471 x 1013 cal/sec respectively in the study area. Contributions from...

  18. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100 (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A. David; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.


    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  19. Mysteries of the North Star: HST/COS confirmation of real-time evolution and upper atmospheric heating in Polaris (United States)

    Guinan, Edward


    The major aims of this proposal are twofold: to confirm and understand the recently observed apparent evolutionary changes of the bright {3.97-day} Cepheid Polaris ? and ? to further study the recent discovery of hot plasmas {up to 1MK} well above the photospheric temperature of the Cepheid itself. This study will have a major impact on understanding the evolution, structure, heating and dynamics of Cepheid {and related Hybrid Star} atmospheres. In our study ? the Secret Lives of Cepheids ? Polaris is noteworthy for its well-documented increase in pulsation period {+3.51 sec/year} and decrease in light amplitude over the last 100-150 years, almost ceasing pulsations in the early 1990s. Moreover, our studies of photoelectric photometry and historic visual observations have shown evidence that Polaris may have increased in brightness by almost 0.2-mag over the past century {and possibly by more than 1-mag since Ptolemy}. In addition, a study of the IUE database indicates a possible increase in photospheric temperature {which the FUV region is very sensitive to} between 1978/79 and 1991/93, pointing to a change of 35+/-12 K. More recently, FUSE and Chandra observations of Polaris indicate the presence of C III 977/1176A and O VI 1032/1038A emissions, as well as possible soft X-ray emission, respectively. The source of these hot plasmas could be related to pulsations {shock heating} and/or magnetic activity. To further investigate the evolutionary changes and upper atmospheric emissions of Polaris, we propose for HST/COS medium resolution spectrometry covering the wavelength range 1150?2100A. This wavelength range covers both the high energy emission lines {1600A}. HST/COS is the only instrument capable of carrying out the necessary FUV observations to achieve our scientific goals for Polaris ? providing a better understanding of the evolution and heating mechanisms of Cepheids.

  20. Gas Nonideality at One Atmosphere Revealed through Speed of Sound Measurements and Heat Capacity Determinations (United States)

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Liu, Allen


    Using an easy-to-make cylindrical resonator, students can measure the speed of sound in a gas, u, with sufficiently high precision (by locating standing-wave Lissajous patterns on an oscilloscope) to observe real gas properties at one atmosphere and 300 K. For CO[subscript 2] and SF[subscript 6], u is found to be 268.83 and 135.25 m s[superscript…

  1. Qualification of Sub-atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmonod, N; Casas-Cubillos, J


    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers [1] located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 10**15 neutrons·cm**-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the L...

  2. A static model of chromospheric heating in solar flares (United States)

    Ricchiazzi, P. J.; Canfield, R. C.


    The response of the solar chromosphere to flare processes, namely nonthermal electrons, thermal conduction, and coronal pressure, is modeled. Finite difference methods employing linearization and iteration are used in obtaining simultaneous solutions to the equations of steady-state energy balance, hydrostatic equilibrium, radiative transfer, and atomic statistical equilibrium. The atmospheric response is assumed to be confined to one dimension by a strong vertical magnetic field. A solution is obtained to the radiative transfer equation for the most important optically thick transitions of hydrogen, magnesium, and calcium. The theoretical atmospheres discussed here are seen as elucidating the role of various physical processes in establishing the structure of flare chromospheres. At low coronal pressures, conduction is found to be more important than nonthermal electrons in establishing the position of the transition region. Only thermal conduction can adequately account for the chromospheric evaporation in compact flares. Of the mechanisms considered, only nonthermal electrons bring about significant heating below the flare transition region.

  3. Potential impacts of human water management on the European heat wave 2003 using fully integrated bedrock-to-atmosphere simulations (United States)

    Keune, Jessica; Sulis, Mauro; Kollet, Stefan; Wada, Yoshihide


    Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle lead to a redistribution of water resources in space and time, can trigger land-atmosphere feedbacks, such as the soil moisture-precipitation feedback, and potentially enhance convection and precipitation. Yet, these studies do not consider the full hydrologic cycle from the bedrock to the atmosphere or apply simplified hydrologic models, neglecting the connection of irrigation to water withdrawal and groundwater depletion. Thus, there is a need to incorporate water resource management in 3D hydrologic models coupled to earth system models. This study addresses the impact of water resource management, i.e. irrigation and groundwater abstraction, on land-atmosphere feedbacks through the terrestrial hydrologic cycle in a physics-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere system simulating 3D groundwater dynamics at the continental scale. The integrated Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform, TerrSysMP, consisting of the three-dimensional subsurface and overland flow model ParFlow, the Community Land Model CLM3.5 and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO of the German Weather Service, is set up over the European CORDEX domain in 0.11° resolution. The model closes the terrestrial water and energy cycles from aquifers into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic impacts are considered by applying actual daily estimates of irrigation and groundwater abstraction from Wada et al. (2012, 2016), as a source at the land surface and explicit removal of groundwater from aquifer storage, respectively. Simulations of the fully coupled system are performed over the 2003 European heat wave and compared to a reference simulation, which does not consider human interactions in the terrestrial water cycle. We study the space and time characteristics and evolution of temperature extremes, and soil moisture and precipitation anomalies influenced by human water management during the heat wave. A first set of simulations

  4. Risk from drought and extreme heat in Russian wheat production and its relation to atmospheric blocking and teleconnection patterns (United States)

    Giannakaki, Paraskevi; Calanca, Pierluigi


    Russia has become one of the leading wheat exporters worldwide. Major breakdowns in Russian wheat production induced by extreme weather events are therefore of high significance not only for the domestic but also for the global market. Wheat production in south-western Russia, the main growing area, suffers in particular from the adverse effects of drought and heat waves. For this reason knowledge of the occurrence of this type of extreme events and of the processes that lead to adverse conditions is of paramount importance for risk management. The negative impacts of heat waves and drought are particularly severe when anomalous conditions persist in time. As an example, a blocking event in summer 2010 resulted in one of the warmest and worst drought conditions in Russia's recent history. The latter caused a decline in Russian wheat production by more than 30%, which in turn prompted the Russian government to issue an export ban that lasted until summer 2011. In view of this, the question of course arises of how much of the negative variations in Russian wheat production levels can be explained by blocking events and other features of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Specific questions are: how often are blocking events over Russia associated with extreme high temperatures and dry conditions? Which of the teleconnection patterns are correlated with drought and heat stress conditions in the area? Answering these questions can contribute to a develop strategies for agricultural risk management. In this contribution we present results of a study that aims at characterizing the occurrence of adverse weather conditions in south-western Russia in relation to atmospheric blocking and teleconnection patterns such as East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern, the Polar/Eurasia pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavia pattern. The analysis relies on weather data for 1980-2014 from 130 stations distributed across the wheat production area. The account

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Period Searching in Solar Coronal Loops (United States)

    Scherrer, Bryan; McKenzie, David


    We have applied a Bayesian generalized Lomb-Scargle period searching algorithm to movies of coronal loop images obtained with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) to search for evidence of periodicities that would indicate resonant heating of the loops. The algorithm makes as its only assumption that there is a single sinusoidal signal within each light curve of the data. Both the amplitudes and noise are taken as free parameters. It is argued that this procedure should be used alongside Fourier and wavelet analyses to more accurately extract periodic intensity modulations in coronal loops. The data analyzed are from XRT Observation Program #129C: “MHD Wave Heating (Thin Filters),” which occurred during 2006 November 13 and focused on active region 10293, which included coronal loops. The first data set spans approximately 10 min with an average cadence of 2 s, 2″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-mesh analysis filter. The second data set spans approximately 4 min with a 3 s average cadence, 1″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. The final data set spans approximately 22 min at a 6 s average cadence, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. In total, 55 periods of sinusoidal coronal loop oscillations between 5.5 and 59.6 s are discussed, supporting proposals in the literature that resonant absorption of magnetic waves is a viable mechanism for depositing energy in the corona.

  6. Featured Image: Waves in a Coronal Fan (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The inset in this Solar Dynamics Observatory image shows a close-up view of a stunning coronal fan extending above the Suns atmosphere. These sweeping loops were observed on 7 March 2012 by a number of observatories, revealing the first known evidence of standing slow magnetoacoustic waves in cool coronal fan loops. The oscillations of the loops, studied in a recent article led by Vaibhav Pant (Indian Institute of Astrophysics), were triggered by blast waves that were generated by X-class flares from the distant active region AR 11429 (marked withthe yellow box at left). The overplotted X-ray curve in the top right corner of the image (click for the full view) shows the evolution of the flares that perturbed the footpoints of the loops. You can check out the video of the action below, and follow the link to the original article to read more about what these oscillations tell us about the Suns activity. CitationV. Pant et al 2017 ApJL 847 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa880f

  7. Physics of the Sun's Hot Atmosphere B. N. Dwivedi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the post-World War II years provided further proof of the corona's high temperature. 2. Solar X-rays and .... 3. Coronal heating. The corona is a magnetically dominated environment consisting of a variety of plasma structures including X-ray bright points, coronal holes and coronal loops or arches. (cf., Fig. 2). There is ...

  8. The Dynamical Linkage of Atmospheric Blocking to Drought, Heatwave and Urban Heat Island in Southeastern US: A Multi-Scale Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong


    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking is a long standing structure stalled in the mid-troposphere which is often associated with extreme weather events such as droughts, heatwaves, flood and cold air outbreak. A striking atmospheric blocking is identified to persist over the US during 13–17 August 2007, exacerbating the existing drought over the Southeastern US. This pronounced blocking event not only intensified the concurrent drought conditions, but also led to a record-breaking heatwave over the Southeast of the US. The excessive heat observed during this heatwave is attributable to the subsidence-associated adiabatic warming as well as the dry-and-warm air advection over Alabama and the neighboring states. At the local scale, we choose Birmingham, AL, as the study area for exploring the blocking influence on urban heat island. Based on the remote sensing data, the surface (skin urban heat island is found to be 8 ∘ C in this area on the block-onset day. This provides partial evidences that the surface urban heat island intensity is likely amplified by the blocking-induced heat waves. The present work provides a unique case study in which blocking, drought, heatwave and urban heat island all occur concurrently, and interplay across a spectrum of spatial scales. We conclude that atmospheric blocking is capable of reinforcing droughts, initiating heatwaves, and probably amplifying the urban heat island intensity during the concurrent period.

  9. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena


    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  10. Coronal Mass Ejections An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Timothy


    In times of growing technological sophistication and of our dependence on electronic technology, we are all affected by space weather. In its most extreme form, space weather can disrupt communications, damage and destroy spacecraft and power stations, and increase radiation exposure to astronauts and airline passengers. Major space weather events, called geomagnetic storms, are large disruptions in the Earth’s magnetic field brought about by the arrival of enormous magnetized plasma clouds from the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) contain billions of tons of plasma and hurtle through space at speeds of several million miles per hour. Understanding coronal mass ejections and their impact on the Earth is of great interest to both the scientific and technological communities. This book provides an introduction to coronal mass ejections, including a history of their observation and scientific revelations, instruments and theory behind their detection and measurement, and the status quo of theories describing...

  11. Satellite-Observed Urbanization Characters in Shanghai, China: Aerosols, Urban Heat Island Effect, and Land–Atmosphere Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Pereira


    Full Text Available Urbanization reflects how human-activities affect natural climate system. Accurately assessing the urban system by comparing it with the nearby rural regions helps to identify the impacts of urbanization. This work uses the recent satellite observed aerosol, skin temperature, land cover, albedo, cloud fraction and water vapor measurements to reveal how the city of Shanghai, one of the biggest, dense urban areas in East Asia, affects land surface and atmosphere conditions. In addition, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ground observations from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET is also used to reveal diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations of the heavy aerosol load over Shanghai region. Furthermore, Shanghai reduces surface albedo, total column water vapor, cloud fraction and increases land skin temperature than rural region. These observations prove that Shanghai significantly modifies local and regional land surface physical properties as well as physical processes, which lead to the urban heat island effect (UHI.

  12. Working group 3: Coronal streamers (United States)

    Kopp, Roger A.


    The working group on coronal streamers convened on the first day of the 2nd SOHO Workshop, which took place in Marciana Marina, Isola d'Elba, 27 September 1 October 1993. Recent progress in streamer observational techniques and theoretical modeling was reported. The contribution of streamers to the mass and energy supply for the solar wind was discussed. Moreover, the importance of thin electric current sheets for determining both the gross dynamical properties of streamers and the fine-scale filamentary structure within streamers, was strongly emphasized. Potential advances to our understanding of these areas of coronal physics that could be made by the contingent of instruments aboard SOHO were pointed out.

  13. Working group 1: Coronal streamers (United States)

    Kopp, R. A.


    The working group on coronal streamers convened on the first day of the 2nd SOHO Workshop, which took place in Marciana Marina, Isola d'Elba, 27 September--1 October 1993. Recent progress in streamer observational techniques and theoretical modeling was reported. The contribution of streamers to the mass and energy supply for the solar wind was discussed. Moreover, the importance of thin electric current sheets for determining both the gross dynamical properties of streamers and the fine-scale filamentary structure within streamers, was strongly emphasized. Potential advances to our understanding of these areas of coronal physics that could be made by the contingent of instruments aboard SOHO were shown.

  14. Fast plasma heating by anomalous and inertial resistivity effects in the solar atmosphere (United States)

    Duijveman, A.; Hoyng, P.; Ionson, J. A.


    A simple model is presented to describe fast plasma heating by anomalous and inertial resistivity effects. It is noted that a small fraction of the plasma contains strong currents that run parallel to the magnetic field and are driven by an exponentiating electric field. The anomalous character of the current dissipation derives from the excitation of electrostatic ion-cyclotron and/or ion-acoustic waves. The possible role of resistivity deriving from geometrical effects ('inertial resistivity') is also considered. Using a marginal stability analysis, equations for the average electron and ion temperatures are derived and numerically solved. No loss mechanisms are taken into account. The evolution of the plasma is described as a path in the drift velocity diagram, where the drift velocity is plotted as a function of the electron to ion temperature ratio.

  15. Effects of orbital forcing on atmosphere and ocean heat transports in Holocene and Eemian climate simulations with a comprehensive Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fischer


    Full Text Available Orbital forcing does not only exert direct insolation effects, but also alters climate indirectly through feedback mechanisms that modify atmosphere and ocean dynamics and meridional heat and moisture transfers. We investigate the regional effects of these changes by detailed analysis of atmosphere and ocean circulation and heat transports in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-biosphere general circulation model (ECHAM5/JSBACH/MPI-OM. We perform long term quasi equilibrium simulations under pre-industrial, mid-Holocene (6000 years before present – yBP, and Eemian (125 000 yBP orbital boundary conditions. Compared to pre-industrial climate, Eemian and Holocene temperatures show generally warmer conditions at higher and cooler conditions at lower latitudes. Changes in sea-ice cover, ocean heat transports, and atmospheric circulation patterns lead to pronounced regional heterogeneity. Over Europe, the warming is most pronounced over the north-eastern part in accordance with recent reconstructions for the Holocene. We attribute this warming to enhanced ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas and enhanced ocean-atmosphere heat flux over the Barents Shelf in conduction with retreat of sea ice and intensified winter storm tracks over northern Europe.

  16. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Turnipseed


    Full Text Available A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3 photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100–130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm, the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH, volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S. Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  17. High-Resolution Views of the Solar Atmosphere (United States)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C.


    The study of many of the outstanding phenomena of the solar atmosphere (coronal heating, flares and coronal mass ejection) has persistently shown that observations of physical processes at ever smaller scales are needed for their understanding. Here I report on the results from the latest NRL sounding rocket payload, the Very Advanced ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT). In two successful flights, the instrument achieved 0.33 arcsecond resolution, the highest ever from a space platform. VAULT obtained spectrally pure images of the upper chromosphere/lower transition region in the Lya line (1216A). A number of space-borne and ground-based obsrvatories supported the VAULT flights. The first results from the analysis of these datasets will be presented.

  18. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. [Space heating energy demand modeling; Program HEATLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Johnson, G.R.; Somervell, W.L. Jr.; Sparling, E.W.; Dreiseitly, E.; Macdonald, B.C.; McGuirk, J.P.; Starr, A.M.


    Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 31 October 1976 is reported. A ''physical-adaptive'' model of the space-conditioning demand for energy and its response to changes in weather regimes was developed. This model includes parameters pertaining to engineering factors of building construction, to weather-related factors, and to socio-economic factors. Preliminary testing of several components of the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, yielded most encouraging results. Other components, especially those pertaining to socio-economic factors, are still under development. Expansion of model applications to different types of structures and larger regions is presently underway. A CRT-display model for energy demand within the conterminous United States also has passed preliminary tests. A major effort was expended to obtain disaggregated data on energy use from utility companies throughout the United States. The study of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is related to the behavior of the planetary long-waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal available potential energy is reflected in the development of blocking highs. Attempts to classify weather patterns over the eastern and central United States have proceeded satisfactorily to the point where testing of our method for longer time periods appears desirable.

  19. Exploring Coronal Structures with SOHO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We applied advanced image enhancement techniques to explore in detail the characteristics of the small-scale structures and/or the low contrast structures in several Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by SOHO. We highlight here the results from our studies of the morphology and dynamical evolution of CME ...

  20. Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Atmospheric Blocking and Associated Heat Waves During Northern Summer Over Eurasia in the CMIP5 Model Simulations (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chunho


    The Russia heat wave and wild fires of the summer of 2010 was the most extreme weather event in the history of the country. Studies show that the root cause of the 2010 Russia heat wave/wild fires was an atmospheric blocking event which started to develop at the end of June and peaked around late July and early August. Atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010 was anomalous in terms of the size, duration, and the location, which shifted to the east from the normal location. This and other similar continental scale severe summertime heat waves and blocking events in recent years have raised the question of whether such events are occurring more frequently and with higher intensity in a warmer climate induced by greenhouse gases. We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric blocking and associated heat waves for northern summer over Eurasia based on CMIPS model simulations. To examine the global warming induced change of atmospheric blocking and heat waves, experiments for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.S) and a medium mitigation scenario (RCP4.S) are compared to the 20th century simulations (historical). Most models simulate the mean distributions of blockings reasonably well, including major blocking centers over Eurasia, northern Pacific, and northern Atlantic. However, the models tend to underestimate the number of blockings compared to MERRA and NCEPIDOE reanalysis, especially in western Siberia. Models also reproduced associated heat waves in terms of the shifting in the probability distribution function of near surface temperature. Seven out of eight models used in this study show that the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the Europe will likely decrease in a warmer climate, but slightly increase over the western Siberia. This spatial pattern resembles the blocking in the summer of 2010, indicating the possibility of more frequent occurrences of heat waves in western Siberia. In this talk, we will also

  1. New techniques for the characterisation of dynamical phenomena in solar coronal images (United States)

    Robbrecht, E.


    During a total solar eclipse, a narrow strip of the Earth's surface is shielded completely by the Moon from the disk of the Sun. In this strip, the corona appears crown-like around the shade of the Moon. It was uncertain until the middle of the 20th century whether the corona was a solar phenomenon or if it was related to the Moon or whether it represented an artifact produced by the Earth's atmosphere. The answer to this question was provided by Grotrian (1939) and Edlèn (1942). Based on studies of iron emission lines, they suggested that the surface of the Sun is surrounded by a hot tenuous gas having a temperature of million degrees Kelvin and thus in a state of high ionization. This discovery was a result from spectroscopy, a field of research which started in 1666 with Sir Isaac Newton's observations of sunlight, dispersed by a prism. It is now clear that the hot solar corona is made of a low density plasma, highly structured by the magnetic field on length scales ranging from the Sun's diameter to the limit of angular resolution (e.g. Démoulin and Klein 2000). The need to resolve and study the corona down to such scales has determined a vigorous scientific and technological impulse toward the development of solar Ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray telescopes with high spatial and temporal resolution. With the advent of the satellite SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, see chapter 1), the picture of a quiet corona was definitely sent to the past. EUV (Extreme UV) image sequences of the lower solar corona revealed a finely structured medium constantly agitated by a wide variety of transients (e.g. Harrison 1998). Active regions consisting of large magnetic loops with enhanced temperature and density are observed, as well as "quiet" areas, coronal holes and numerous structures of different scales such as plumes, jets, spicules, X-ray bright points, blinkers, all structured by magnetic fields. Launched in 1998, the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE

  2. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen


    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  3. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments. (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda


    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.

  4. Decay of Activity Complexes, Formation of Unipolar Magnetic Regions, and Coronal Holes in Their Causal Relation (United States)

    Golubeva, E. M.; Mordvinov, A. V.


    The peculiar development of solar activity in the current cycle resulted in an asynchronous reversal of the Sun's polar fields. The asymmetry is also observed in the formation of polar coronal holes. A stable coronal hole was first formed at the South Pole, despite the later polar-field reversal there. The aim of this study is to understand the processes making this situation possible. Synoptic magnetic maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group and corresponding coronal-hole maps from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory are analyzed here to study the causal relationship between the decay of activity complexes, evolution of large-scale magnetic fields, and formation of coronal holes. Ensembles of coronal holes associated with decaying active regions and activity complexes are presented. These ensembles take part in global rearrangements of the Sun's open magnetic flux. In particular, the south polar coronal hole was formed from an ensemble of coronal holes that came into existence after the decay of multiple activity complexes observed during 2014.

  5. Guided flows in coronal magnetic flux tubes (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Testa, P.


    Context. There is evidence that coronal plasma flows break down into fragments and become laminar. Aims: We investigate this effect by modelling flows confined along magnetic channels. Methods: We consider a full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a solar atmosphere box with a dipole magnetic field. We compare the propagation of a cylindrical flow perfectly aligned with the field to that of another flow with a slight misalignment. We assume a flow speed of 200 km s-1 and an ambient magnetic field of 30 G. Results: We find that although the aligned flow maintains its cylindrical symmetry while it travels along the magnetic tube, the misaligned one is rapidly squashed on one side, becoming laminar and eventually fragmented because of the interaction and back-reaction of the magnetic field. This model could explain an observation made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory of erupted fragments that fall back onto the solar surface as thin and elongated strands and end up in a hedge-like configuration. Conclusions: The initial alignment of plasma flow plays an important role in determining the possible laminar structure and fragmentation of flows while they travel along magnetic channels. Movies are available in electronic form at

  6. Guided flows in coronal magnetic flux tubes (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Testa, P.


    Context. There is evidence that coronal plasma flows break down into fragments and become laminar. Aims: We investigate this effect by modelling flows confined along magnetic channels. Methods: We consider a full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a solar atmosphere box with a dipole magnetic field. We compare the propagation of a cylindrical flow perfectly aligned with the field to that of another flow with a slight misalignment. We assume a flow speed of 200 km s-1 and an ambient magnetic field of 30 G. Results: We find that although the aligned flow maintains its cylindrical symmetry while it travels along the magnetic tube, the misaligned one is rapidly squashed on one side, becoming laminar and eventually fragmented because of the interaction and back-reaction of the magnetic field. This model could explain an observation made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory of erupted fragments that fall back onto the solar surface as thin and elongated strands and end up in a hedge-like configuration. Conclusions: The initial alignment of plasma flow plays an important role in determining the possible laminar structure and fragmentation of flows while they travel along magnetic channels. Movies are available in electronic form at

  7. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)


    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  8. Motion of a ballistic missile angularly misaligned with the flight path upon entering the atmosphere and its effect upon aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic loads, and miss distance (United States)

    Allen, Julian H


    An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry.

  9. Plasma motions and non-thermal line broadening in flaring twisted coronal loops (United States)

    Gordovskyy, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Browning, P. K.


    Context. Observation of coronal extreme ultra-violet (EUV) spectral lines sensitive to different temperatures offers an opportunity to evaluate the thermal structure and flows in flaring atmospheres. This, in turn, can be used to estimate the partitioning between the thermal and kinetic energies released in flares. Aims: Our aim is to forward-model large-scale (50-10 000 km) velocity distributions to interpret non-thermal broadening of different spectral EUV lines observed in flares. The developed models allow us to understand the origin of the observed spectral line shifts and broadening, and link these features to particular physical phenomena in flaring atmospheres. Methods: We use ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to derive unstable twisted magnetic fluxtube configurations in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The evolution of these twisted fluxtubes is followed using resistive MHD with anomalous resistivity depending on the local density and temperature. The model also takes thermal conduction and radiative losses in the continuum into account. The model allows us to evaluate average velocities and velocity dispersions, which would be interpreted as non-thermal velocities in observations, at different temperatures for different parts of the models. Results: Our models show qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations. Thus, the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersions demonstrate substantial correlation with the temperature, increasing from about 20-30 km s-1 around 1 MK to about 200-400 km s-1 near 10-20 MK. The average LOS velocities also correlate with velocity dispersions, although they demonstrate a very strong scattering compared to the observations. We also note that near footpoints the velocity dispersions across the magnetic field are systematically lower than those along the field. We conclude that the correlation between the flow velocities, velocity dispersions, and temperatures are likely to indicate that the same heating

  10. ICARUS mission, next step of coronal exploration after Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus (United States)

    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Velli, Marco; Maksimovic, Milan; Balikhin, Mikhael; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Matthieu


    The primary scientific goal of ICARUS (Investigation of Coronal AcceleRation and heating Up to the Sun), a mother-daughter satellite mission, will be to determine how the magnetic _field and plasma dynamics in the outer solar atmosphere give rise to the corona, the solar wind and the entire heliosphere. Reaching this goal will be a Rosetta-stone step, with results broadly applicable within the fields of space plasma physics and astrophysics. Within ESA's Cosmic Vision roadmap, these science goals address Theme 2: How does the solar system work ?" by investigating basic processes occurring From the Sun to the edge of the Solar System". ICARUS will not only advance our understanding of the plasma environment around our the Sun, but also of the numerous magnetically active stars with hot plasma coronae. ICARUS I will perform the first-ever direct in situ measurements of electromagnetic fields, particle acceleration, wave activity, energy distribution and flows directly in the regions where the solar wind emerges from the coronal plasma. ICARUS I will have a perihelion at 1 Solar radius from its surface, it will cross the region where the major energy deposition occurs. The polar orbit of ICARUS I will enable crossing the regions where both the fast and slow wind are generated. It will probe local characteristics of the plasma and provide unique information about the physical processes involved in the creation of the solar wind. ICARUS II will observe this region using remote-sensing instruments, providing simultaneous information about regions crossed by ICARUS I and the solar atmosphere below as observed by solar telescopes. It will thus provide bridges for understanding the magnetic links between the heliosphere and the solar atmosphere. Such information is crucial to our understanding of the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the solar atmosphere. ICARUS II will also play a very important relay role, enabling the radio-link with ICARUS I. It will receive

  11. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li


    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experimental results indicated that coal weight reduction ratio to gases followed the Arrhenius equation with increasing coal temperature; further which were increased around 5% with adding H2O in CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, coal-water mixtures with different water/coal mass ratio were used in order to investigate roles of water vapor in the process of coal gasification and combustion. Furthermore, char-water mixtures with different water/char mass ratio were also measured in order to discuss the generation ratio of CO/CO2, and specified that the source of Hydrocarbons is volatile matter from coal. Moreover, it was confirmed that generations of CO and Hydrocarbons gases are mainly dependent on coal temperature and O2 concentration, and they are stimulated at temperature over 1000°C in the CO2-rich atmosphere.

  12. Energetics of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by transverse waves in twisted coronal loops (United States)

    Howson, T. A.; De Moortel, I.; Antolin, P.


    Aims: We quantify the effects of twisted magnetic fields on the development of the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in transversely oscillating coronal loops. Methods: We modelled a fundamental standing kink mode in a straight, density-enhanced magnetic flux tube using the magnetohydrodynamics code, Lare3d. In order to evaluate the impact of an azimuthal component of the magnetic field, various degrees of twist were included within the flux tube's magnetic field. Results: The process of resonant absorption is only weakly affected by the presence of a twisted magnetic field. However, the subsequent evolution of the KHI is sensitive to the strength of the azimuthal component of the field. Increased twist values inhibit the deformation of the loop's density profile, which is associated with the growth of the instability. Despite this, much smaller scales in the magnetic field are generated when there is a non-zero azimuthal component present. Hence, the instability is more energetic in cases with (even weakly) twisted fields. Field aligned flows at the loop apex are established in a twisted regime once the instability has formed. Further, in the straight field case, there is no net vertical component of vorticity when integrated across the loop. However, the inclusion of azimuthal magnetic field generates a preferred direction for the vorticity which oscillates during the kink mode. Conclusions: The KHI may have implications for wave heating in the solar atmosphere due to the creation of small length scales and the generation of a turbulent regime. Whilst magnetic twist does suppress the development of the vortices associated with the instability, the formation of the KHI in a twisted regime will be accompanied by greater Ohmic dissipation due to the larger currents that are produced, even if only weak twist is present. The presence of magnetic twist will likely make the instability more difficult to detect in the corona, but will enhance its contribution

  13. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui


    Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.

  14. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The newborn coronal hole emerges on the Sun, owing to the changes in magnetic field configuration leading to the opening of closed magnetic structure into the corona. The fundamental activity for the onset of an erupting stream seems to be a transient opening of pre-existing closed magnetic structures into a new coronal ...

  15. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties. Ν. Gopalswamy Κ. Shibasaki Μ. Salem. Session X – Cycle Variation in the Quiet Corona & Coronal Holes Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 413-417 ...

  16. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2: Surface heat flux (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.


    Satellite infrared imagery and coastal meteorological data for March 1984 through February 1985 are used to estimate the net annual surface heat flux for the northern Gulf of California. The average annual surface heat flux for the area north of Guaymas and Santa Rosalia is estimated to be +74 W/sq m for the 1984-1985 time period. This is comparable to the +20-50 W/sq m previously obtained from heat and freshwater transport estimates made with hydrographic surveys from different years and months. The spatial distribution of the net surface heat flux shows a net gain of heat over the whole northern gulf. Except for a local maximum near San Esteban Island, the largest heat gain (+110-120 W/sq m) occurs in the Ballenas and Salsipuedes channels, where strong tidal mixing produces anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over much of the year. The lowest heat gain occurs in the Guayamas Basin (+40-50 W/sq m), where SSTs are consistently warmer. In the relatively shallow northern basin the net surface heat flux is farily uniform, with a net annual gain of approxmately +70 W/sq m. A local minimum in heat gain (approximately +60 W/sq m) is observed over the shelf in the northwest, where spring and summer surface temperatures are particularly high. A similar minimum in heat gain over the shelf was observed in a separate study in which historical SSTs and 7 years (1979-1986) of meteorological data from Puerto Penasco were used to estimate the net surface heat flux for the northern basin. In that study, however, the heat fluxes were higher, with a gain of +100 W/sq m over the shelf and +114 W/sq m in the northern basin. These larger values are directly attributable to the higher humidities in the 1979-1986 study compared to the 1984-1985 satellite study. High humidities reduce evaporation and the associated latent heat loss, promoting a net annual heat gain. In the norther Gulf of California, however, tidal mixing appears to play a key role in the observed gain of

  17. An eddy covariance system to characterize the atmospheric surface layer and turbulent latent heat fluxes over a debris-covered Himalayan glacier. (United States)

    Litt, Maxime; Steiner, Jakob F.; Stigter, Emmy E.; Immerzeel, Walter; Shea, Joseph Michael


    Over debris-covered glaciers, water content variations in the debris layer can drive significant changes in its thermal conductivity and significantly impact melt rates. Since sublimation and evaporation are favoured in high-altitude conditions, e.g., low atmospheric pressure and high wind speeds, they are expected to strongly influence the water balance of the debris-layer. Dedicated latent heat fluxes measurements at the debris surface are essential to characterize the debris heat conductivity in order to assess underlying ice melt. Furthermore, the contribution of the turbulent fluxes in the surface energy balance over debris covered glacier remains uncertain since they are generally evaluated through similarity methods which might not be valid in complex terrain. We present the first results of a 15-day eddy-covariance experiment installed at the end of the monsoon (September-October) on a 3-m tower above the debris-covered Lirung glacier in Nepal. The tower also included measurements of the 4 radiation components. The eddy covariance measurements allowed for the characterization of the turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer, as well as the direct measurements of evaporation, sublimation and turbulent sensible heat fluxes. The experiment helps us to evaluate the contribution of turbulent fluxes to the surface energy balance over this debris-covered glacier, through a precise characterization of the overlying turbulent atmospheric surface layer. It also helps to study the role of the debris-layer water content changes through evaporation and sublimation and its feedback on heat conduction in this layer. The large observed turbulent fluxes play a significant role in the energy balance at the debris surface and significantly influence debris moisture, conductivity and subsequently underlying ice melt.

  18. Coronal Mass Ejections travel time (United States)

    Braga, Carlos Roberto; Souza de Mendonça, Rafael Rodrigues; Dal Lago, Alisson; Echer, Ezequiel


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main source of intense geomagnetic storms when they are earthward directed. Studying their travel time is a key-point to understand when the disturbance will be observed at Earth. In this work, we study the CME that originated the interplanetary disturbance observed on 2013/10/02. According to the observations, the CME that caused the interplanetary disturbance was ejected on 2013/09/29. We obtained the CME speed and estimate of the time of arrival at the Lagrangian Point L1 using the concept of expansion speed. We found that observed and estimated times of arrival of the shock differ between 2 and 23 hours depending on method used to estimate the radial speed.

  19. Relative contributions of external SST forcing and internal atmospheric variability to July-August heat waves over the Yangtze River valley (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhou, Tianjun


    The Yangtze River valley (YRV), located in central-eastern China, has witnessed increased numbers of heat waves in the summer since 1951. Knowing what factors control and affect the interannual variability of heat waves, especially distinguishing the contributions of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) forcings and those of internal modes of variability, is important to improving heat wave prediction. After evaluating 70 members of the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP) experiments from the 25 models that participated in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), 13 high-skill members (HSMs) are selected to estimate the SST-forced variability. The results show that approximately 2/3 of the total variability of the July-August heat waves in the YRV during 1979-2008 can be attributed to anomalous SST forcings, whereas the other 1/3 are due to internal variability. Within the SST-forced component, one-half of the influence is from the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the other half is from non-ENSO related SST forcings, specifically, the SST anomalies in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Both the decaying El Niño and developing La Niña accompanied by a warm Indian Ocean and cold central Pacific, respectively, are favorable to hotter summers in the YRV because these patterns strengthen and extend the western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) westwards, for which the decaying ENSO plays a dominant role. The internal variability shows a circumglobal teleconnection in which Rossby waves propagate southeastwards over the Eurasian Continent and strengthen the WNPSH. Atmospheric model sensitivity experiments confirm that non-ENSO SST forcings can modulate the WNPSH and heat wave variability by projecting their influences onto the internal mode.

  20. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nisticò


    Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.

  1. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zimbardo


    Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.

  2. FORWARD: A toolset for multiwavelength coronal magnetometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eGibson


    Full Text Available Determining the 3D coronal magnetic field is a critical, but extremely difficult problem to solve. Since different types of multiwavelength coronal data probe different aspects of the coronal magnetic field, ideally these data should be used together to validate and constrain specifications of that field. Such a task requires the ability to create observable quantities at a range of wavelengths from a distribution of magnetic field and associated plasma -- i.e., to perform forward calculations. In this paper we describe the capabilities of the FORWARD SolarSoft IDL package, a uniquely comprehensive toolset for coronal magnetometry. FORWARD is a community resource that may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare synthetic observables to existing data. It enables forward fitting of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties. FORWARD can also be used to generate synthetic test beds from MHD simulations in order to facilitate the development of coronal magnetometric inversion methods, and to prepare for the analysis of future large solar telescope data.

  3. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim


    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  4. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in peaches and nectarines using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments. (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda M; Obenland, David


    Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, called CATTS for controlled atmosphere/temperature treatment system, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), infesting peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). These treatments were used in efficacy and confirmation tests to kill > 5,000 fourth instar oriental fruit moths and > 30,000 fourth instar codling moths with zero survivors. The treatments consist of linear heating rates of either 12 or 24 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature under a 1% O2, 15% CO2, and > 90% RH atmosphere with air speed between 1.2 and 2.0 m/s. At a 12 degrees C linear chamber heating rate, treatment takes approximately 3 h to reach a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C. The average lowest core temperatures of the fruit reached 43.8 degrees C within the last 30 min of the treatment. At a 24 degrees C linear chamber heating rate, it takes approximately 2.5 h to reach a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C. The average lowest core temperatures of the fruit reached 44.6 degrees C for the last 15 min of the treatment. It also was determined that both treatments did not significantly alter the quality parameters that were evaluated to a degree that would have negatively influenced the marketability of the fruit. Positive benefits of treatment included a slower ripening of treated fruit and an inhibition of the loss of juiciness during storage in some cultivars. These treatments may be used to replacement to methyl bromide fumigation for conventional fruit or as a new treatment for organic fruit contingent upon importing country approval.

  5. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)


    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Correlation analysis of the urban heat island effect and the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric particulates using TM images in Beijing. (United States)

    Xu, L Y; Xie, X D; Li, S


    This study combines the methods of observation statistics and remote sensing retrieval, using remote sensing information including the urban heat island (UHI) intensity index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference water index (NDWI), and the difference vegetation index (DVI) to analyze the correlation between the urban heat island effect and the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of atmospheric particulates in Beijing. The analysis establishes (1) a direct correlation between UHI and DVI; (2) an indirect correlation among UHI, NDWI and DVI; and (3) an indirect correlation among UHI, NDVI, and DVI. The results proved the existence of three correlation types with regional and seasonal effects and revealed an interesting correlation between UHI and DVI, that is, if UHI is below 0.1, then DVI increases with the increase in UHI, and vice versa. Also, DVI changes more with UHI in the two middle zones of Beijing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Reale


    Full Text Available Coronal loops are the building blocks of the X-ray bright solar corona. They owe their brightness to the dense confined plasma, and this review focuses on loops mostly as structures confining plasma. After a brief historical overview, the review is divided into two separate but not independent parts: the first illustrates the observational framework, the second reviews the theoretical knowledge. Quiescent loops and their confined plasma are considered, and therefore topics such as loop oscillations and flaring loops (except for non-solar ones which provide information on stellar loops are not specifically addressed here. The observational section discusses loop classification and populations, and then describes the morphology of coronal loops, its relationship with the magnetic field, and the concept of loops as multi-stranded structures. The following part of this section is devoted to the characteristics of the loop plasma and of its thermal structure in particular, according to the classification into hot, warm, and cool loops. Then, temporal analyses of loops and the observations of plasma dynamics and flows are illustrated. In the modeling section some basics of loop physics are provided, supplying some fundamental scaling laws and timescales, a useful tool for consultation. The concept of loop modeling is introduced and models are distinguished between those treating loops as monolithic and static, and those resolving loops into thin and dynamic strands. Then, more specific discussions address modeling the loop fine structure and the plasma flowing along the loops. Special attention is devoted to the question of loop heating, with separate discussion of wave (AC and impulsive (DC heating. Finally, a brief discussion about stellar X-ray emitting structures related to coronal loops is included and followed by conclusions and open questions.

  8. X-Ray, UV and Optical Observations of Classical Cepheids: New Insights into Cepheid Evolution, and the Heating and Dynamics of Their Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G. Engle


    Full Text Available To broaden the understanding of classical Cepheid structure, evolution and atmospheres, we have extended our continuing secret lives of Cepheids program by obtaining XMM/Chandra X-ray observations, and Hubble space telescope (HST / cosmic origins spectrograph (COS FUV-UV spectra of the bright, nearby Cepheids Polaris, δ Cep and β Dor. Previous studies made with the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE showed a limited number of UV emission lines in Cepheids. The wellknown problem presented by scattered light contamination in IUE spectra for bright stars, along with the excellent sensitivity & resolution combination offered by HST/COS, motivated this study, and the spectra obtained were much more rich and complex than we had ever anticipated. Numerous emission lines, indicating 104 K up to ~3 × 105 K plasmas, have been observed, showing Cepheids to have complex, dynamic outer atmospheres that also vary with the photospheric pulsation period. The FUV line emissions peak in the phase range φ ≈ 0.8-1.0 and vary by factors as large as 10×. A more complete picture of Cepheid outer atmospheres is accomplished when the HST/COS results are combined with X-ray observations that we have obtained of the same stars with XMM-Newton & Chandra. The Cepheids detected to date have X-ray luminosities of log LX ≈ 28.5-29.1 ergs/sec, and plasma temperatures in the 2–8 × 106 K range. Given the phase-timing of the enhanced emissions, the most plausible explanation is the formation of a pulsation-induced shocks that excite (and heat the atmospheric plasmas surrounding the photosphere. A pulsation-driven α2 equivalent dynamo mechanism is also a viable and interesting alternative. However, the tight phase-space of enhanced emission (peaking near 0.8-1.0 φ favor the shock heating mechanism hypothesis.

  9. X-Ray, UV and Optical Observations of Classical Cepheids: New Insights into Cepheid Evolution, and the Heating and Dynamics of Their Atmospheres (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.


    To broaden the understanding of classical Cepheid structure, evolution and atmospheres, we have extended our continuing secret lives of Cepheids program by obtaining XMM/Chandra X-ray observations, and Hubble space telescope (HST) / cosmic origins spectrograph (COS) FUV-UV spectra of the bright, nearby Cepheids Polaris, δ Cep and β Dor. Previous studies made with the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE) showed a limited number of UV emission lines in Cepheids. The well-known problem presented by scattered light contamination in IUE spectra for bright stars, along with the excellent sensitivity & resolution combination offered by HST/COS, motivated this study, and the spectra obtained were much more rich and complex than we had ever anticipated. Numerous emission lines, indicating 10^4 K up to ~3 x 10^5 K plasmas, have been observed, showing Cepheids to have complex, dynamic outer atmospheres that also vary with the photospheric pulsation period. The FUV line emissions peak in the phase range φ ∼ 0.8-1.0 and vary by factors as large as 10x. A more complete picture of Cepheid outer atmospheres is accomplished when the HST/COS results are combined with X-ray observations that we have obtained of the same stars with XMM-Newton & Chandra. The Cepheids detected to date have X-ray luminosities of log Lx ~ 28.5-29.1 ergs/sec, and plasma temperatures in the 2-8 x 10^6 K range. Given the phase-timing of the enhanced emissions, the most plausible explanation is the formation of a pulsation-induced shocks that excite (and heat) the atmospheric plasmas surrounding the photosphere. A pulsation-driven α^2 equivalent dynamo mechanism is also a viable and interesting alternative. However, the tight phase-space of enhanced emission (peaking near 0.8-1.0 φ) favor the shock heating mechanism hypothesis.

  10. IR-thermography-based investigation of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling of water at atmospheric and high pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, Matteo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Seong, Jee H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jdacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Richenderfer, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kossolapov, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Here we report on MIT’s THM work in Q4 2016 and Q1 2017. The goal of this project is to design, construct and execute tests of flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) at high-pressure using high-resolution and high-speed video and infrared (IR) thermometry, to generate unique data to inform the development of and validate mechanistic boiling heat transfer and CHF models. In FY2016, a new test section was designed and fabricated. Data was collected at atmospheric conditions at 10, 25 and 50 K subcoolings, and three mass fluxes, i.e. 500, 750 and 1000 kg/m2/s. Starting in Q4 2016 and continuing forward, new post-processing techniques have been developed to analyze the data collected. These new algorithms analyze the time-dependent temperature and heat flux distributions to calculate nucleation site density, nucleation frequency, growth and wait time, dry area fraction, and the complete heat flux partitioning. In Q1 2017 a new flow boiling loop was designed and constructed to support flow boiling tests up 10 bar pressure and 180 °C. Initial shakedown and testing has been completed. The flow loop and test section are now ready to begin high-pressure flow boiling testing.

  11. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.


    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) less than 10 electronvolts, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q (sub Fe) is greater than 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70 percent over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  12. Influence of sea ice lead-width distribution on turbulent heat transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq


    Full Text Available Leads are linear-like structures of open water within the sea ice cover that develop as the result of fracturing due to divergence or shear. Through leads, air and water come into contact and directly exchange latent and sensible heat through convective processes driven by the large temperature and moisture differences between them. In the central Arctic, leads only cover 1 to 2% of the ocean during winter, but account for more than 70% of the upward heat fluxes. Furthermore, narrow leads (several meters are more than twice as efficient at transmitting turbulent heat than larger ones (several hundreds of meters. We show that lead widths are power law distributed, P(X~X−a with a>1, down to very small spatial scales (20 m or below. This implies that the open water fraction is by far dominated by very small leads. Using two classical formulations, which provide first order turbulence closure for the fetch-dependence of heat fluxes, we find that the mean heat fluxes (sensible and latent over open water are up to 55% larger when considering the lead-width distribution obtained from a SPOT satellite image of the ice cover, compared to the situation where the open water fraction constitutes one unique large lead and the rest of the area is covered by ice, as it is usually considered in climate models at the grid scale. This difference may be even larger if we assume that the power law scaling of lead widths extends down to smaller (~1 m scales. Such estimations may be a first step towards a subgrid scale parameterization of the spatial distribution of open water for heat fluxes calculations in ocean/sea ice coupled models.

  13. On the Relation between the In Situ Properties and the Coronal Sources of the Solar Wind (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Raines, J. M.


    We categorize the types of solar wind using a new classification scheme based on the location of the wind’s coronal source regions in the solar atmosphere and near-solar heliosphere. We first trace the solar wind measured by ACE/SWEPAM and SWICS from 1998 to 2011 at 1 au back to a 2.5{R}{{s}} solar surface using ballistic mapping at constant proton speed; then we map them back to their magnetic footpoints on the 1{R}{{s}} solar surface via the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Coronal structures are identified using a classification scheme based on the pixel brightness in the SOHO or STEREO EUV Carrington images. The angular distances between each mapped solar wind footpoint to the different coronal structure pixels are calculated and used as a criterion to identify the type of solar wind source region. Depending on the proximity of the solar wind footpoints to a given coronal or heliospheric structure, we classify the solar wind into six types: active region (AR), AR-boundary, quiet Sun (QS), coronal hole (CH), CH-boundary, and helmet-streamer associated wind. The in situ properties of these six types of solar winds are then examined and compared, and their solar cycle dependences are also discussed.

  14. Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, C.; Somot, S.; Deque, M.; Sevault, F. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Calmanti, S.; Carillo, A.; Dell' Aquilla, A.; Sannino, G. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Elizalde, A.; Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Gualdi, S.; Oddo, P.; Scoccimarro, E. [INGV, Bologna (Italy); L' Heveder, B.; Li, L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)


    Within the CIRCE project ''Climate change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment'', an ensemble of high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCMs) are used to simulate the Mediterranean climate for the period 1950-2050. For the first time, realistic net surface air-sea fluxes are obtained. The sea surface temperature (SST) variability is consistent with the atmospheric forcing above it and oceanic constraints. The surface fluxes respond to external forcing under a warming climate and show an equivalent trend in all models. This study focuses on the present day and on the evolution of the heat and water budget over the Mediterranean Sea under the SRES-A1B scenario. On the contrary to previous studies, the net total heat budget is negative over the present period in all AORCMs and satisfies the heat closure budget controlled by a net positive heat gain at the strait of Gibraltar in the present climate. Under climate change scenario, some models predict a warming of the Mediterranean Sea from the ocean surface (positive net heat flux) in addition to the positive flux at the strait of Gibraltar for the 2021-2050 period. The shortwave and latent flux are increasing and the longwave and sensible fluxes are decreasing compared to the 1961-1990 period due to a reduction of the cloud cover and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and SSTs over the 2021-2050 period. The AORCMs provide a good estimates of the water budget with a drying of the region during the twenty-first century. For the ensemble mean, he decrease in precipitation and runoff is about 10 and 15% respectively and the increase in evaporation is much weaker, about 2% compared to the 1961-1990 period which confirm results obtained in recent studies. Despite a clear consistency in the trends and results between the models, this study also underlines important differences in the model set-ups, methodology and choices of some physical parameters inducing

  15. Combined Application of Antibrowning, Heat Treatment and Modified-Atmosphere Packaging to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Lotus Root. (United States)

    Son, Jihye; Hyun, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jo-Won; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, BoKyung


    This work aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of antibrowning treatments (that is, distilled water [DW], 1% ascorbic acid [AA], 0.5% chamomile [CM], and 1% AA + 0.5% CM) and heat-treatment (55 °C for 45 s) combined with packaging under 4 different modified-atmosphere gas compositions (that is, air, vacuum, 100% CO2 , 50% CO2 /50% N2 ) on the quality and microbiological characteristics of fresh-cut lotus root. The quality characteristics (that is, color, weight loss, texture, pH, polyphenoloxidase activity, and total phenolic content) of the AA + CM-dipped sample in 100% CO2 packaging were maintained significantly better than those of the other samples (P < 0.05). The microbiological counts observed in the DW-dipped sample during storage were higher than those of the AA, CM, and AA + CM samples, and heat-treatment retarded the microbiological deterioration of fresh-cut lotus root. Therefore, the results revealed that dipping in an antibrowning treatment (AA + CM), and 100% CO2 MAP with heat treatment effectively extend the shelf life of fresh-cut lotus root to 21 d at 5 °C. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Atmospheric humidity (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  17. Coroners and death certification law reform: the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and its aftermath. (United States)

    Luce, Tom


    After considering various different options for half a decade, the last Government legislated in 2009 to reform the England and Wales coroner and death certification systems. The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides for the creation of a new Chief Coroner post to lead the jurisdiction and for local medical examiners to oversee a new death certification scheme applicable equally to burial and cremation cases. In October 2010 the new Government announced that it judges the main coroner reform to be unaffordable, will not proceed with it and plans to repeal the provisions. It intends to implement the new death certification arrangements, which is welcome. The decision to abort the main coroner reform in spite of longstanding and widespread recognition of the need for major change is deplorable though in line with other failures over the last century to properly modernise this neglected service.

  18. Structure and dynamics of the coronal magnetic field (United States)

    VanHoven, Gerard; Schnack, Dalton D.


    The last few years have seen a marked increase in the sophistication of models of the solar corona. This has been brought about by a confluence of three key elements. First, the collection of high-resolution observations of the Sun, both in space and time, has grown tremendously. The SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) mission is providing additional correlated high-resolution magnetic, white-light and spectroscopic observations. Second, the power and availability of supercomputers has made two- and three-dimensional modeling routine. Third, the sophistication of the models themselves, both in their geometrical realism and in the detailed physics that has been included, has improved significantly. The support from our current Space Physics Theory grant has allowed us to exploit this confluence of capabilities. We have carried out direct comparisons between observations and models of the solar corona. The agreement between simulated coronal structure and observations has verified that the models are mature enough for detailed analysis, as we will describe. The development of this capability is especially timely, since observations obtained from three space missions that are underway (Ulysses, WIND and SOHO) offer an opportunity for significant advances in our understanding of the corona and heliosphere. Through this interplay of observations and theory we can improve our understanding of the Sun. Our achievements thus far include progress modeling the large-scale structure of the solar corona, three-dimensional models of active region fields, development of emerging flux and current, formation and evolution of coronal loops, and coronal heating by current filaments.

  19. Coronal tissue loss in endodontically treated teeth. (United States)

    Sulaiman, A O; Shaba, O P; Dosumu, O O; Ajayi, D M


    To categorize the endodontically treated teeth according to the extent of coronal tissue loss in order to determine the appropriate restoration required. A two year descriptive study was done at the Conservative Clinic of the Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Successful endodontically treated teeth were assessed and categorized according to the extent of tissue loss based on standard criteria proposed by Smith and Schuman. Two hundred and ninety endodontically treated teeth were assessed for success both clinically and radiographically. Eighty (27.6%) were anterior teeth, 78 (26.9%) were premolars while 132 (45.5%) were molars. Dental caries was found to be the most common (61.4%) indication for endodontic treatment and caused more coronal tissue damage (moderate and significant) when compared with other indications for endodontic treatment. Two hundred and twenty seven (78.3%) endodontically treated teeth had moderate coronal tissue loss, 41 (14.1%) had minimal damage while 22 (7.6%) had significant tissue damage. Dental caries was the most common indication for endodontic treatment of the posterior teeth while trauma was the most common indication for the anterior teeth. Majority of the endodontically treated teeth that were evaluated for tissue loss had moderate coronal tissue damage. It is therefore recommended that proper and prompt evaluation of the remaining coronal tooth tissue following successful endodontic treatment be carried out in order to determine the appropriate definitive restoration required that will be easy for the clinician and less expensive to the patients.

  20. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana


    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  1. Comparing Coronal Structure Predictions to CATE Eclipse Observations (United States)

    Kovac, Sarah A.; Citizen CATE Experiment 2017 Team


    The total solar eclipse of the sun on 21 August 2017 crossed the entire continental United States, giving the opportunity for millions of people to see this spectacular celestial event. The Citizen Continental America Telescopic Eclipse Experiment, or Citizen CATE, captured roughly 90 minutes of totality data from 62 identical setups along the path. Prior to the eclipse, the appearance of the corona was predicted using images from ground and satellite telescopes. The size of the coronal holes on the surface of the sun and the polar plumes extending out into the corona have been examined to predict the features in the corona during totality. By looking at trends in large-scale features, such as streamers, and long-lasting features, such as coronal holes, the atmosphere of the sun can be predicted with reasonable accuracy. This prediction is then compared to other forecast models and what was captured on eclipse day. This experiment imaged the total solar eclipse in 2016 and developed a prediction method extrapolating from the data gathered in Indonesia. The same prediction method was used to forecast the structures expected in the corona on 21 August 2017.

  2. Numerical simulation of an atmospheric pressure RF-driven plasma needle and heat transfer to adjacent human skin using COMSOL. (United States)

    Schröder, Maximilian; Ochoa, Angel; Breitkopf, Cornelia


    Plasma medicine is an emerging field where plasma physics is used for therapeutical applications. Temperature is an important factor to take into account with respect to the applications of plasma to biological systems. During the treatment, the tissue temperature could increase to critical values. In this work, a model is presented, which is capable of predicting the skin temperature during a treatment with a radio frequency driven plasma needle. The main gas was helium. To achieve this, a discharge model was coupled to a heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results provide maximum application times for different power depositions in order to avoid reaching critical skin temperatures.

  3. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets: Interaction with plasmid DNA and tailored electron heating using dual-frequency excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, K.; O' Neill, C.; Cox, L. J.; Waskoenig, J.; Hyland, W. B.; McMahon, S. J.; Reuter, S.; Currell, F. J.; Graham, W. G.; O' Connell, D.; Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)


    Recent progress in plasma science and technology has enabled the development of a new generation of stable cold non-equilibrium plasmas operating at ambient atmospheric pressure. This opens horizons for new plasma technologies, in particular in the emerging field of plasma medicine. These non-equilibrium plasmas are very efficient sources for energy transport through reactive neutral particles (radicals and metastables), charged particles (ions and electrons), UV radiation, and electro-magnetic fields. The effect of a cold radio frequency-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on plasmid DNA has been investigated. The formation of double strand breaks correlates well with the atomic oxygen density. Taken with other measurements, this indicates that neutral components in the jet are effective in inducing double strand breaks. Plasma manipulation techniques for controlled energy delivery are highly desirable. Numerical simulations are employed for detailed investigations of the electron dynamics, which determines the generation of reactive species. New concepts based on nonlinear power dissipation promise superior strategies to control energy transport for tailored technological exploitations.

  4. Density and Morphology of Coronal Prominence Cavities (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Fuller, J.


    Coronal prominence cavities are fundamental parts of prominences. They hold clues to the magnetic structure of pre-CME equilibria, and better represent the coronal source of the expanding volume in CMEs and magnetic clouds than a prominence does alone. However, prominence cavities have not been nearly as comprehensively observed and studied as prominences. This is in part due to projection effects which can complicate interpretation of observations, and in part because spectroscopic diagnostic studies require targeted observations, which have only recently been attempted. I will present recent work using white-light observations of cavities to model the morphological and density properties of polar crown filament cavities, with projection effects taken into account. I will also comment on recent attempts to obtain spectral diagnostics of coronal prominence cavities, and will discuss the implications of all of these observations for cavity stability and thermal and magnetic properties.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, M. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, Maui, HI 96768 (United States); Tomczyk, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [High Altitude Observatory, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)


    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.

  6. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline Rose


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. This thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs. Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), detecting coherent radio bursts in 13 out of 23 epochs, over a total of 58 hours. This survey's ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light. To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the VLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission. These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal polar plumes. (United States)

    Nakariakov, Valery M


    Polar plumes are cool, dense, linear, magnetically open structures that arise from predominantly unipolar magnetic footpoints in the solar polar coronal holes. As the Alfvén speed is decreased in plumes in comparison with the surrounding medium, these structures are natural waveguides for fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves. The simplicity of the geometry of polar plumes makes them an ideal test ground for the study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interaction with solar coronal structures. The review covers recent observational findings of compressible and incompressible waves in polar plumes with imaging and spectral instruments, and interpretation of the waves in terms of MHD theory.

  8. Coronal Fractures of the Scaphoid: A Review. (United States)

    Slutsky, David J; Herzberg, Guillaume; Shin, Alexander Y; Buijze, Geert A; Ring, David C; Mudgal, Chaitanya S; Leung, Yuen-Fai; Dumontier, Christian


    Coronal (or frontal plane) fractures of the scaphoid are distinctly uncommon. There are few published reports of coronal fractures of the scaphoid. This fracture is often missed on the initial X-ray films. A high index of suspicion should exist when there is a double contour of the proximal scaphoid pole on the anteroposterior X-ray view. A computed tomography scan is integral in making the diagnosis. Early recognition is key in salvaging the scaphoid fracture and in preventing articular damage. Level of Evidence IV. Retrospective case series.

  9. A standalone decay heat removal device for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for intermediate to atmospheric pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, A., E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Alpy, N., E-mail: [CEA, DEN, Service d' Etudes des Systemes Innovants, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Mikityuk, K., E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R., E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytical model predicting Brayton cycle off-design steady states, is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is used to design an autonomous decay heat removal system for the GFR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictions of the analytical model are verified using CATHARE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CATHARE code is used to simulate a set of GFR safety depressurization transients using this device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convenient turbo-machine designs exist for the targeted autonomous decay heat removal for a wide pressure range. - Abstract: This paper reports a design study for a Brayton cycle machine, which would constitute a dedicated, standalone decay heat removal (DHR) device for the Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). In comparison to the DHR reference strategy developed by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique during the GFR pre-conceptual design phase (which was completed at the end of 2007), the salient feature of this alternative device would be to combine the energetic autonomy of the natural convection process - which is foreseen for operation at high and medium pressures - with the efficiency of the forced convection process which is foreseen for operation down to very low pressures. An analytical model, the so-called 'Brayton scoping model', is described first. This is based on simplified thermodynamic and aerodynamic equations, and was developed to highlight design choices. Two different machine designs are analyzed: a Brayton loop turbo-machine working with helium, and a second one working with nitrogen, since nitrogen is the heavy gas foreseen to be injected into the primary system to enhance the natural convection under loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions. Simulations of the steady-state and transient behavior of the proposed device have then been carried out using the CATHARE code. These serve to confirm the insights obtained from usage of the

  10. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus


    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe...... flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches...... evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation...

  11. Heat and Water Transport in Soils and Across the Soil-Atmosphere Interface: Comparison of Model Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Smits, Kathleen; Mosthaf, Klaus

    Evaporation from the soil surface represents a water flow and transport process in a porous medium that is coupled with free air flow and with heat fluxes in the system. We give an overview of different model concepts that are used to describe this process. These range from non-isothermal two......-phase flow two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow two-component transport in the free air to isothermal water flow in the porous with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free air flow...... are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We formulated the different equations and identified assumptions behind simplified forms. Conditions for which...

  12. Momentum, Heat, and Neutral Mass Transport in Convective Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Liquid Systems and Implications for Aqueous Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Alexander; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David


    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 $\\mu$m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results fro...

  13. Estimating sensible heat exchange between screen-covered canopies and the atmosphere using the surface renewal technique (United States)

    Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Achiman, Ori; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef


    Screenhouses and screen-covers are widely used in arid and semi-arid agriculture to protect crops from direct solar radiation and high wind speed, and to increase water use efficiency. However, accurate estimation of crop water use under screens is still a challenge. The most reliable method that directly measures evapotranspiration, the Eddy Covariance (EC), is both expensive and complex in data collection and processing. This renders it unfeasible for day to day use by farmers. A simpler alternative is the Surface Renewal (SR) technique which utilizes high frequency temperature readings of low-cost fine-wire thermocouples, to estimate the sensible heat flux. Assuming energy conservation and employing relatively cheap complementary measurements, the evapotranspiration can be estimated. The SR technique uses a structure function mathematical analysis that filters out noise and involves a time lag parameter to provide amplitude and time period of a ramp-like temperature signal. This behavior arises from the detachment of air parcels that have been heated or cooled near the surface and sequentially renewed by air parcels from above. While the SR technique is relatively simple to employ, it requires calibration against direct measurements. The aim of this research is to investigate the applicability of the SR technique in two different types of commonly used screenhouses in Israel. Two field campaigns were carried out: In the first campaign we studied a banana plantation grown in a shading screenhouse located in the coastal plain of northern Israel. The second campaign was located in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel, where a pepper plantation cultivated in an insect-proof screenhouse, with a much denser screen, was examined. In the two campaigns, SR sensible heat flux estimates were calibrated against simultaneous eddy covariance measurements. To optimize the SR operation, in each campaign fine-wire (50-76 μm) exposed T-type thermocouples were placed at

  14. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus


    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe...... evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation...... flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches...

  15. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW) framework (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Davey, Alisdair; Kendrick, Alexander; Hammer, Michael; Keith, Celeste


    Coronal bright fronts (CBF) are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light) as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW). It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs). The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Pariat, E. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)


    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfvén wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.

  17. Reconnection-Driven Coronal-Hole Jets with Gravity and Solar Wind (United States)

    Karpen, J. T.; Devore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Pariat, E.


    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry,gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfven wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfven waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.

  18. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarev Kamen A.


    Full Text Available Coronal bright fronts (CBF are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV light as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW. It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs. The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.

  19. Potential effect of atmospheric warming on grapevine phenology and post-harvest heat accumulation across a range of climates (United States)

    Hall, Andrew; Mathews, Adam J.; Holzapfel, Bruno P.


    Carbohydrates are accumulated within the perennial structure of grapevines when their production exceeds the requirements of reproduction and growth. The period between harvest and leaf-fall (the post-harvest period) is a key period for carbohydrate accumulation in relatively warmer grape-growing regions. The level of carbohydrate reserves available for utilisation in the following season has an important effect on canopy growth and yield potential and is therefore an important consideration in vineyard management. In a warming climate, the post-harvest period is lengthening and becoming warmer, evidenced through studies in wine regions worldwide that have correlated recent air temperature increases with changing grapevine phenology. Budbreak, flowering, veraison, and harvest have all been observed to be occurring earlier than in previous decades. Additionally, the final stage of the grapevine phenological cycle, leaf-fall, occurs later. This study explored the potential for increased post-harvest carbohydrate accumulation by modelling heat accumulation following harvest dates for the recent climate (1975-2004) and two warmer climate projections with mean temperature anomalies of +1.26 and +2.61 °C. Summaries of post-harvest heat accumulation between harvest and leaf-fall were produced for each of Australia's Geographical Indications (wine regions) to provide comparisons from the base temperatures to projected warmer conditions across a range of climates. The results indicate that for warmer conditions, all regions observe earlier occurring budbreak and harvest as well as increasing post-harvest growing degree days accumulation before leaf-fall. The level of increase varies depending upon starting climatic condition, with cooler regions experiencing the greatest change.

  20. The synthesis of tungsten trioxide gel by dissolution of tungsten in hydrogen peroxide and its transformations during the heat treatment in oxidation and reduction atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgijević Radovan


    Full Text Available The structure and the thermal behavior of WO3 samples in air and in reduction atmosphere were studied. The sample I was prepared by the dissolution of fine metallic tungsten powder in hydrogen peroxide followed by solvent evaporation in the air at 60°C. Sample II was obtained by draining a part of the sample I at 60°C and then heating it up to 430°C. By the means of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis it was evidenced that the sample I was the amorphous hydrated gel, with the WO3•1.5H2O composition, while the second one was the anhidrous monoclinic WO3 with the mean particle size of 100 nm. Additionally, using the thermogravimetric and the differential thermal analysis simultaneously in the reduction atmosphere, both samples types were examined. After reduction the distribution of the metal particles number in respect to the diameters of the anhidrous sample was examined using the electron microscopy.

  1. Magnetic Evolution of Mini-Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, L.; Alipour, N.; Safari, H.


    The present study investigates the relationship between mini-coronal mass ejections (mini-CMEs) and the evolution of their magnetic fluxes. An automatic detection algorithm was used to detect mini-dimmings in 171 Å images taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Using the difference images for the dimmings, 131 events that satisfied mini-CME signatures were selected. Changes in their magnetic structure using photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms taken with the Heliospheric and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO were investigated. It was found that 27 % of the events had slight changes and 73 % showed considerable changes in magnetic flux. About 18 % of the magnetic structures evolved by cancellation and 38 % by complex flux changes.

  2. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the intensity of urban heat island and urban cold island in Poznań, Poland (United States)

    Półrolniczak, Marek; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Czernecki, Bartosz


    The study has analyzed influence of an atmospheric circulation on urban heat island (UHI) and urban cold island (UCI) in Poznań. Analysis was conducted on the basis of temperature data from two measurement points situated in the city center and in the Ławica airport (reference station) and the data concerning the air circulation (Niedźwiedź's calendar of circulation types and reanalysis of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)). The cases with UHI constitute about 85 % of all data, and UCI phenomena appear with a frequency of 14 % a year. The intensity of UHI phenomenon is higher in the anticyclonic circulation types. During the year in anticyclonic circulation, intensity of UHI is 1.2 °C on average while in cyclonic is only 0.8 °C. The occurring of UHI phenomena is possible throughout all seasons of the year in all hours of the day usually in anticyclonic circulation types. The cases with highest UHI intensity are related mostly to nighttime. The cases of UCI phenomena occurred almost ever on the daytime and the most frequently in colder part of the year together with cyclonic circulation. Study based on reanalysis data indicates that days with large intensity of UHI (above 4, 5, and 6 °C) are related to anticyclonic circulation. Anticyclonic circulation is also promoting the formation of the strongest UCI. Results based on both reanalysis and the atmospheric circulation data (Niedźwiedź's circulation type) confirm that cases with the strongest UHI and UCI during the same day occur in strong high-pressure system with the center situated above Poland or central Europe.

  3. Toward the Direct Measurement of Coronal Magnetic Fields: An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Eclipse Observations (United States)

    Samra, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.


    The solar magnetic field enables the heating of the corona and provides its underlying structure. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. Therefore, direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, a proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are four forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 2 and 4 μm. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer, and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. The project incorporates several optical engineering challenges, centered around maintaining adequate spectral and spatial resolution in a compact and inexpensive package and on a moving platform. Design studies are currently underway to examine the tradeoffs between various optical geometries and control strategies for the pointing/stabilization system. The results will be presented and interpreted in terms of the consequences for the scientific questions. In addition, results from a laboratory prototype and simulations of the final system will be presented.

  4. Very large array faraday rotation studies of the coronal plasma (United States)

    Kooi, Jason Earl

    Knowledge of the coronal magnetic field is crucial for understanding (1) the heating mechanism(s) of the solar corona, (2) the acceleration of the fast solar wind, and (3) the structure and dynamics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Observation of Faraday rotation (FR) is one of the best remote-sensing techniques for determining plasma properties in the corona and can provide information on the plasma structure of a CME shortly after launch, shedding light on the initiation process. I used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to make sensitive Faraday rotation measurements to investigate the general plasma structure of the corona, properties of coronal plasma inhomogeneities and waves, and transients associated with coronal mass ejections. To enhance my measurements of FR transients, I also developed an algorithm in the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package to mitigate ionospheric Faraday rotation. In August, 2011, I made FR observations at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz of the radio galaxy 3C 228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6-5.0 solar radii using the VLA. Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These FR observations provided unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. My data on 3C 228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46 arcseconds, 33,000 km in the corona). I detected three periods during which there appeared to be a difference in the Faraday rotation measure between these two closely spaced lines of sight, which I used to estimate coronal currents; these values (ranging from 2.6 to 4.1 GA) are several orders of magnitude below that which is necessary for significant coronal heating (assuming the Spitzer resistivity). I also used the data to determine upper limits (3.3 and 6.4 rad/m2 along the two lines of sight) on FR fluctuations caused by coronal waves. These upper limits are comparable to and, thus, not inconsistent

  5. Fast-mode Coronal EUV Wave Trains Associated with Solar Flares and CMEs (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Downs, Cooper; Karlicky, Marian; Chen, Bin


    As a new observational phenomenon, Quasi-periodic, Fast Propagating EUV wave trains (QFPs) are fast-mode magnetosonic waves closely related to quasi-periodic pulsations commonly detected in solar flares (traditionally with non-imaging observations). They can provide critical clues to flare energy release and serve as new tools for coronal seismology. We report recent advances in observing and modeling QFPs, including evidence of heating and cooling cycles revealed with differential emission measure (DEM) analysis that are consistent with alternating compression and rarefaction expected for magnetosonic waves. Through a statistical survey, we found a preferential association of QFPs with eruptive flares (with CMEs) rather than confined flares (without CMEs). We also identified some correlation with quasi-periodic radio bursts observed at JVLA and Ondrejov observatories. We will discuss the implications of these results and the potential roles of QFPs in coronal heating and energy transport.

  6. Unravelling the Components of a Multi-Thermal Coronal Loop Using Magnetohydrodynamic Seismology (United States)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B.; Klimchuk, James Andrew; Banerjee, D.


    Coronal loops, constituting the basic building blocks of the active Sun, serve as primary targets to help understand the mechanisms responsible for maintaining multi-million Kelvin temperatures in the solar and stellar coronae. Despite significant advances in observations and theory, our knowledge on the fundamental properties of these structures is limited. Here, we present unprecedented observations of accelerating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal loop that show differential propagation speeds in two distinct temperature channels, revealing the multi-stranded and multithermal nature of the loop. Utilizing the observed speeds and employing nonlinear force free magnetic field extrapolations, we derive the actual temperature variation along the loop in both channels, and thus are able to resolve two individual components of the multithermal loop for the first time. The obtained positive temperature gradients indicate uniform heating along the loop, rather than isolated foot point heating.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, J. A. [Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Banerjee, D., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)


    Coronal loops, constituting the basic building blocks of the active Sun, serve as primary targets to help understand the mechanisms responsible for maintaining multi-million Kelvin temperatures in the solar and stellar coronae. Despite significant advances in observations and theory, our knowledge on the fundamental properties of these structures is limited. Here, we present unprecedented observations of accelerating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal loop that show differential propagation speeds in two distinct temperature channels, revealing the multi-stranded and multithermal nature of the loop. Utilizing the observed speeds and employing nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolations, we derive the actual temperature variation along the loop in both channels, and thus are able to resolve two individual components of the multithermal loop for the first time. The obtained positive temperature gradients indicate uniform heating along the loop, rather than isolated footpoint heating.

  8. Three-Dimensional Structure and Energy Balance of a Coronal Mass Ejection (United States)

    Lee, J.-Y.; Raymond, J. C.; Ko, Y.-K.; Kim, K.-S.


    UVCS observed Doppler-shifted material of a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2001 December 13. The observed ratio of [O VJ/O V] is a reliable density diagnostic important for assessing the state of the plasma. Earlier UVCS observations of CMEs found evidence that the ejected plasma is heated long after the eruption. This paper investigated the heating rates, which represent a significant fraction of the CME energy budget. The parameterized heating and radiative and adiabatic cooling have been used to evaluate the temperature evolution of the CME material with a time-dependent ionization state model. Continuous heating is required to match the UVCS observations. To match the O VI bright knots, a higher heating rate is required such that the heating energy is greater than the kinetic energy.

  9. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole M ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 25, 2015 ... coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also com- pute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength. 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of energy emitted by coronal hole and ...

  10. Exercising 'Race' Through the Coronation Physical Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through their concern with race. The Coronation Physical Training Competition fitted into this agenda. Despite betrayal by the English during the post South African War negotiations, Black political movements and individuals continued seeking means to prove themselves loyal subjects of the King. Black schools therefore ...

  11. Frontoorbital advancement in coronal suture craniosynostosis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Surgical therapy of coronal craniosynostosis in the modern era has evolved with the adoption of frontoorbital advancement and forehead reshaping to correct the supraorbital rim recession and the abnormal form of the cranium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of quantitative preoperative ...

  12. Frontoorbital advancement in coronal suture craniosynostosis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frontal bone was then removed as indicated. The most lateral aspect of the coronal suture was radically removed with rongeurs, including a part of the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. The frontal and temporal lobes of the brain were gently repositioned to allow for safe upper orbital osteotomies through ...

  13. Magnetic Topology of Coronal Hole Linkages (United States)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Antiochos, S. K.


    In recent work, Antiochos and coworkers argued that the boundary between the open and closed field regions on the Sun can be extremely complex with narrow corridors of open ux connecting seemingly disconnected coronal holes from the main polar holes, and that these corridors may be the sources of the slow solar wind. We examine, in detail, the topology of such magnetic configurations using an analytical source surface model that allows for analysis of the eld with arbitrary resolution. Our analysis reveals three important new results: First, a coronal hole boundary can join stably to the separatrix boundary of a parasitic polarity region. Second, a single parasitic polarity region can produce multiple null points in the corona and, more important, separator lines connecting these points. Such topologies are extremely favorable for magnetic reconnection, because it can now occur over the entire length of the separators rather than being con ned to a small region around the nulls. Finally, the coronal holes are not connected by an open- eld corridor of finite width, but instead are linked by a singular line that coincides with the separatrix footprint of the parasitic polarity. We investigate how the topological features described above evolve in response to motion of the parasitic polarity region. The implications of our results for the sources of the slow solar wind and for coronal and heliospheric observations are discussed.

  14. Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Warmuth


    Full Text Available Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating bright fronts. Coronal waves, as these perturbations are usually referred to, have now been observed in a wide range of spectral channels, yielding a wealth of information. Many findings have supported the “classical” interpretation of the disturbances: fast-mode MHD waves or shocks that are propagating in the solar corona. However, observations that seemed inconsistent with this picture have stimulated the development of alternative models in which “pseudo waves” are generated by magnetic reconfiguration in the framework of an expanding coronal mass ejection. This has resulted in a vigorous debate on the physical nature of these disturbances. This review focuses on demonstrating how the numerous observational findings of the last one and a half decades can be used to constrain our models of large-scale coronal waves, and how a coherent physical understanding of these disturbances is finally emerging.

  15. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts (United States)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus; Smits, Kathleen M.; Helmig, Rainer


    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches on a theoretical level by identifying the underlying simplifications that are made for the different compartments of the system: porous medium, free flow and their interface, and by discussing how processes not explicitly considered are parameterized. Simplifications can be grouped into three sets depending on whether lateral variations in vertical fluxes are considered, whether flow and transport in the air phase in the porous medium are considered, and depending on how the interaction at the interface between the free flow and the porous medium is represented. The consequences of the simplifications are illustrated by numerical simulations in an accompanying paper.

  16. Management of distal humeral coronal shear fractures (United States)

    Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M


    Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515

  17. Feel the Burn, Part II: Quantifying and mapping spectral, spatial, and temporal structures of the transition region under hot and cold coronal regions (United States)

    Atwood, Shane; Kankelborg, Charles C.


    The coronal volume is filled with magnetic field, yet only part of that volume has sufficient volume to exhibit hot X-ray loops. Using XRT and AIA images, we identify footpoints of hot coronal loops. We then use IRIS rasters to compare the spatial, temporal, and spectral structure of these relatively "heated" and "unheated" regions. We seek a signature of upward-propagating energy that could be associated with hot active region loops.

  18. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.


    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  19. Differences in atmospheric heat source between the Tibetan Plateau-South Asia region and the southern Indian Ocean and their impacts on the Indian summer monsoon outbreak (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Fan, Guangzhou; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Bingyun; Lai, Xin


    In this paper, the NCEP-NCAR daily reanalysis data are used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric heat source/sink (AHSS) over South Asia (SA) and southern Indian Ocean (SIO). The thermal differences between these two regions and their influence on the outbreak of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) are explored. Composite analysis and correlation analysis are applied. The results indicate that the intraseasonal variability of AHSS is significant in SA but insignificant in the SIO. Large inland areas in the Northern Hemisphere still behave as a heat sink in March, similar to the situation in winter. Significant differences are found in the distribution of AHSS between the ocean and land, with distinct land-ocean thermal contrast in April, and the pattern presents in the transitional period right before the ISM onset. In May, strong heat centers appear over the areas from the Indochina Peninsula to the Bay of Bengal and south of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which is a typical pattern of AHSS distribution during the monsoon season. The timing of SA-SIO thermal difference turning positive is about 15 pentads in advance of the onset of the ISM. Then, after the thermal differences have turned positive, a pre-monsoon meridional circulation cell develops due to the near-surface heat center and the negative thermal contrast center, after which the meridional circulation of the ISM gradually establishes. In years of early (late) conversion of the SA-SIO thermal difference turning from negative to positive, the AHSS at all levels over the TP and SIO converts later (earlier) than normal and the establishment of the ascending and descending branches of the ISM's meridional circulation is later (earlier) too. Meanwhile, the establishment of the South Asian high over the TP is later (earlier) than normal and the conversion of the Mascarene high from winter to summer mode occurs anomalously late (early). As a result, the onset of the ISM is later (earlier) than normal


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  1. Modeling the Global Coronal Field with Simulated Synoptic Magnetograms from L1 and L5 (United States)

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Bertello, L.; Pevtsov, A. A.


    In solar physics and space weather research, full-disk photospheric magnetograms are routinely used to map the full solar surface in near-real-time, and coronal field models are extrapolated from these data. One major shortcoming of this approach is that, at present, the magnetograms can only be taken from the Earth's direction. Thus data immediately eastward of the sub-Earth point in synoptic maps are around three weeks old, missing much active-region evolution and leading to inaccuracies in the models. A new magnetograph at L5 would update the synoptic maps at this critical location east of central meridian and would provide a more accurate, up-to-date picture of the global photospheric and coronal field. We demonstrate the value of L5 observations by simulating the construction of synoptic magnetograms from both L1 and L5 directions using past near-real-time data from two observatories: the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG). We extrapolate potential-field source-surface (PFSS) coronal field models and compare their open-field and streamer distributions to coronal observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA).

  2. Development and Study of Hard-Facing Materials on the Base of Heat-Resisting High-Hardness Steels for Plasma-Jet Hard- Facing in Shielding-Doping Nitrogen Atmosphere (United States)

    Malushin, N. N.; Kovalev, A. P.; Valuev, D. V.; Shats, E. A.; Borovikov, I. F.


    The authors develop hard-facing materials on the base of heat-resisting highhardness steels for plasma-jet hard-facing in nitrogen atmosphere for manufacturing parts of mining and metallurgic equipment which significantly simplify the production process and effect a saving when producing bimetallic parts and tools.

  3. Statistical evidence for the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in solar coronal loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia [Earth and Space Science School, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, JinZhai Road, Hefei (China); McIntosh, Scott W.; Bethge, Christian [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)


    Recent observations have demonstrated that waves capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which timescales and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfvénic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study by analyzing 37 clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter instrument. We observe Alfvénic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250 to 750 km s{sup –1} and periods from 140 to 270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high-frequency wave power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfvénic turbulence), we show that this excess depends on loop length and the wavelength of the observed oscillations. In deriving a proportional relationship between the loop length/wavelength ratio and the enhanced wave power at the loop apex, and from the analysis of the line widths associated with these loops, our findings are supportive of the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in coronal loops.

  4. First Use of Synoptic Vector Magnetograms for Global Nonlinear, Force-Free Coronal Magnetic Field Models (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.; MacNeice, P.; Pevtsov, A. A.


    Context. The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently, there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimensional field lines into the solar atmosphere. Aims. For the first time, synoptic maps of a photospheric-vector magnetic field synthesized from the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. Methods. We solve the nonlinear force-free field equations using an optimization principle in spherical geometry. The resulting threedimensional magnetic fields are used to estimate the magnetic free energy content E(sub free) = E(sub nlfff) - E(sub pot), which is the difference of the magnetic energies between the nonpotential field and the potential field in the global solar corona. For comparison, we overlay the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Results. For a single Carrington rotation 2121, we find that the global nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic energy density is 10.3% higher than the potential one. Most of this free energy is located in active regions.

  5. A Survey of Coronal Cavity Density Profiles (United States)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.


    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height—indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions—except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  6. Observing the Unobservable? Modeling Coronal Cavity Densities (United States)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.; de Toma, G.; Fan, Y.


    Prominence cavities in coronal helmet streamers are readily detectable in white-light coronagraph images, yet their interpretation may be complicated by projection effects. In order to determine a cavity's density structure, it is essential to quantify the contribution of noncavity features along the line of sight. We model the coronal cavity as an axisymmetric torus that encircles the Sun at constant latitude and fit it to observations of a white-light cavity observed by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) MK4 coronagraph from 2006 January 25 to 30. We demonstrate that spurious noncavity contributions (including departures from axisymmetry) are minimal enough to be incorporated in a density analysis as conservatively estimated uncertainties in the data. We calculate a radial density profile for cavity material and for the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the "cavity rim") and find that the cavity density is depleted by a maximum of 40% compared to the surrounding helmet streamer at low altitudes (1.18 R⊙) but is consistently higher (double or more) than in coronal holes. We also find that the relative density depletion between cavity and surrounding helmet decreases as a function of height. We show that both increased temperature in the cavity relative to the surrounding helmet streamer and a magnetic flux rope configuration might lead to such a flattened density profile. Finally, our model provides general observational guidelines that can be used to determine when a cavity is sufficiently unobstructed to be a good candidate for plasma diagnostics.

  7. Particle Acceleration Due to Coronal Non-null Magnetic Reconnection (United States)

    Threlfall, James; Neukirch, Thomas; Parnell, Clare Elizabeth


    Various topological features, for example magnetic null points and separators, have been inferred as likely sites of magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration in the solar atmosphere. In fact, magnetic reconnection is not constrained to solely take place at or near such topological features and may also take place in the absence of such features. Studies of particle acceleration using non-topological reconnection experiments embedded in the solar atmosphere are uncommon. We aim to investigate and characterise particle behaviour in a model of magnetic reconnection which causes an arcade of solar coronal magnetic field to twist and form an erupting flux rope, crucially in the absence of any common topological features where reconnection is often thought to occur. We use a numerical scheme that evolves the gyro-averaged orbit equations of single electrons and protons in time and space, and simulate the gyromotion of particles in a fully analytical global field model. We observe and discuss how the magnetic and electric fields of the model and the initial conditions of each orbit may lead to acceleration of protons and electrons up to 2 MeV in energy (depending on model parameters). We describe the morphology of time-dependent acceleration and impact sites for each particle species and compare our findings to those recovered by topologically based studies of three-dimensional (3D) reconnection and particle acceleration. We also broadly compare aspects of our findings to general observational features typically seen during two-ribbon flare events.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Park, Soyoung [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lim, Eun-Kyung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)


    We present the transient brightening of a coronal loop and an associated fine-scale magnetic discontinuity detected in the photosphere. Utilizing the high-resolution data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we detect a narrow lane of intense horizontal magnetic field representing a magnetic discontinuity. It was visible as a dark lane partially encircling a pore in the continuum image, and was located near one of the footpoints of a small coronal loop that experienced transient brightenings. The horizontal field strength gradually increased before the loop brightening, and then rapidly decreased in the impulsive phase of the brightening, suggesting the increase of the magnetic non-potentiality at the loop footpoint and the sudden release of magnetic energy via magnetic reconnection. Our results support the nanoflare theory that coronal heating events are caused by magnetic reconnection events at fine-scale magnetic discontinuities.

  9. Heat pump having improved defrost system (United States)

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.


    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  10. Modelling coronal electron density and temperature profiles of the Active Region NOAA 11855 (United States)

    Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Dal Lago, A.; Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Stekel, T.


    The magnetic flux emergence can help understand the physical mechanism responsible for solar atmospheric phenomena. Emerging magnetic flux is frequently related to eruptive events, because when emerging they can reconnected with the ambient field and release magnetic energy. We will use a physic-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the solar emission based on the configuration of the photospheric magnetic field. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated by employing force-free extrapolation NLFFF based on vector magnetic field products (SHARPS) observed by HMI instrument aboard SDO spacecraft from Sept. 29 (2013) to Oct. 07 (2013). The coronal plasma temperature and density are described and the emission is estimated using the CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The performance of the our model is compared to the integrated emission from the AIA instrument aboard SDO spacecraft in the specific wavelengths 171Å and 304Å.

  11. “Dandelion” Filament Eruption and Coronal Waves Associated with a Solar Flare on 2011 February 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Denis P.; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Ishitsuka, José K. [Geophysical Institute of Peru, Calle Badajoz 169, Mayorazgo IV Etapa, Ate Vitarte, Lima (Peru); Martínez, Lurdes M.; Buleje, Yovanny J. [Centro de Investigación del Estudio de la Actividad Solar y sus Efectos Sobre la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica, Av. Los Maestros S/N, Ica (Peru); Morita, Satoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); UeNo, Satoru; Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Takasao, Shinsuke; Yoshinaga, Yusuke; Otsuji, Kenichi; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)


    Coronal disturbances associated with solar flares, such as H α Moreton waves, X-ray waves, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal waves, are discussed herein in relation to magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves or shocks in the corona. To understand the mechanism of coronal disturbances, full-disk solar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution over multiple wavelengths are of crucial importance. We observed a filament eruption, whose shape is like a “dandelion,” associated with the M1.6 flare that occurred on 2011 February 16 in H α images taken by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at Ica University, Peru. We derive the three-dimensional velocity field of the erupting filament. We also identify winking filaments that are located far from the flare site in the H α images, whereas no Moreton wave is observed. By comparing the temporal evolution of the winking filaments with those of the coronal wave seen in the EUV images data taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead , we confirm that the winking filaments were activated by the EUV coronal wave.

  12. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. II. CME-induced ion pick up of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones. (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Kulikov, Yuri N; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Terada, N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Biernat, Helfried K; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Penz, Thomas; Selsis, Franck


    Atmospheric erosion of CO2-rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for simulating the thermospheric heating by photodissociation and ionization processes due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by the CO2 infrared radiation in the 15 microm band. Our study shows that intense XUV radiation of active M stars results in atmospheric expansion and extended exospheres. Using thermospheric neutral and ion densities calculated for various XUV fluxes, we applied a numerical test particle model for simulation of atmospheric ion pick up loss from an extended exosphere arising from its interaction with expected minimum and maximum CME plasma flows. Our results indicate that the Earth-like exoplanets that have no, or weak, magnetic moments may lose tens to hundreds of bars of atmospheric pressure, or even their whole atmospheres due to the CME-induced O ion pick up at orbital distances exoplanet is protected by a "magnetic shield" with its boundary located at 1 Earth radius above the surface. Furthermore, our study indicates that magnetic moments of tidally locked Earth-like exoplanets are essential for protecting their expanded upper atmospheres because of intense XUV radiation against CME plasma erosion. Therefore, we suggest that larger and more massive terrestrial-type exoplanets may better protect their atmospheres against CMEs, because the larger cores of such exoplanets would generate stronger magnetic moments and their higher gravitational acceleration would constrain the expansion of their thermosphere-exosphere regions and reduce atmospheric escape.

  13. Evidence for shock generation in the solar corona in the absence of coronal mass ejections (United States)

    Eselevich, V. G.; Eselevich, M. V.; Zimovets, I. V.; Sharykin, I. N.


    The solar event SOL2012-10-23T03:13, which was associated with a X1.8 flare without an accompanying coronal mass ejection (CME) and with a Type II radio burst, is analyzed. A method for constructing the spatial and temporal profiles of the difference brightness detected in the AIA/SDOUVand EUV channels is used together with the analysis of the Type II radio burst. The formation and propagation of a region of compression preceded by a collisional shock detected at distances R shock could be due to a transient (impulsive) action exerted on the surrounding plasma by an eruptive, high-temperature magnetic rope. The initial instability and eruption of this rope could be initiated by emerging magnetic flux, and its heating from magnetic reconnection. The cessation of the eruption of the rope could result from its interaction with surrounding magnetic structures (coronal loops).

  14. On Modeling the Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability in Solar Atmosphere I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in various solar magnetic structures. The main description is on the modeling of KH instability developing in the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and contributes to the triggering of wave turbulence subsequently, leading to the coronal heat- ing. KH instability of MHD waves in ...

  15. Transequatorial Coronal Cloud Prominences Versus Transequatorial Channel Prominence (United States)

    Martin, S. F.; Daga, K.


    Seven transequatorial channel prominences were identified in the McCauley et al. catalog of erupting prominences from June 2010 - Sep 2014 (2015 Solar Phys. 290, 1703). A comparable number of transequatorial coronal cloud prominences were identified in the Martin et al. study of coronal cloud prominences from May 2010 - April 2012 (IAU Symposium 320, 2016, p. 276). The similar locations of these two subsets of two primary prominence classifications make them nearly ideal candidates for comparison of their properties. Coronal rain is an integral dynamic in coronal cloud prominences whereas counterstreaming motion is characteristic of channel prominences. The two subsets are representative of the the differing magnetic structure, mass origin, evolution, and environmental properties of coronal cloud prominences and channel prominences in general. These samples illustrate how coronal cloud prominences require different models than channel prominences. However, both types of prominences appear to be dependent upon pre-existing environments that largely control their structure and dynamics.

  16. Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Effect on the Venusian Nightglow (United States)

    Gray, C. L.; Chanover, N.; Slanger, T. G.


    Earth, Venus, and Mars all formed close to the Sun under similar conditions and with similar materials. While having common origins of formation, they have very different atmospheres. These difference are due to various evolutionary paths taken by each planet, resulting in two CO2 dominated atmospheres and a one N2/O2 dominated atmosphere. In order to understand the processes that led to the evolution of these atmospheres we need to understand the present chemistry. Knowing the chemical reactions occurring in the mesosphere and ionosphere of these two types of atmospheres leads to a greater understanding of physical processes, such as winds and transport mechanisms. These chemical reactions can be determined by observing nightglow. Nightglow is caused by recombination of atoms into molecules, or electrons with ions, producing excited molecules and atoms, respectively. Venus has several strong nightglow features, one of which is the O(1S-1D) transition at 5577.3 Å (oxygen green line). This feature is known to be highly temporally variable. When it was first seen in 1999, it had an intensity greater than the terrestrial nightglow, but it was too weak to be detected after 2004. The reason for this variability, and the chemistry producing the emission, have both been poorly understood. Literature review of past observations show that a week prior to every detection, at least one high energy solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) occurred directed at Venus. Solar flares produce large amounts of extreme ultra violet light and charged particles. CMEs are large plasma ejections usually connected with solar flares. We propose that the oxygen green line emission is due to CME impacts from the Sun. The charged particles of the plasma can interact with the atmosphere of Venus to produce nightglow/aurora, where dissociative recombination of O2+ is the mostly likely source of O(1S). To test our hypothesis, we observed Venus as a Target of Opportunity with the ARCES high

  17. Multi-fluid Global Coronal Model with Alfven Wave Turbulence: Validation with SOHO/SUMER data (United States)

    van der Holst, B.


    We present a generalization of the AWSoM model, a global solar corona model with low-frequency Alfven wave turbulence (van der Holst et al., 2014). The new extended model includes electron and multi-ion temperatures (proton, alpha particles and heavy ions). The coronal heating is addressed via outward propagating Alfven waves that are partially reflected by the Alfven speed gradients. The resulting counter-propagating waves are responsible for the nonlinear turbulent cascade. To apportion the wave dissipation to the electron and ion temperatures, we employ the results of the theories of linear wave damping and nonlinear stochastic heating as described by Chandran et al. (2011, 2013). This heat partitioning results in a more than mass proportional heating among ions. We validate the model result with SOHO/SUMER data.

  18. Magnetic topological analysis of coronal bright points (United States)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Huang, Z.; Wiegelmann, T.


    Context. We report on the first of a series of studies on coronal bright points which investigate the physical mechanism that generates these phenomena. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the magnetic-field structure that hosts the bright points. Methods: We use longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope with the Narrowband Filter Imager. For a single case, magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were added to the analysis. The longitudinal magnetic field component is used to derive the potential magnetic fields of the large regions around the bright points. A magneto-static field extrapolation method is tested to verify the accuracy of the potential field modelling. The three dimensional magnetic fields are investigated for the presence of magnetic null points and their influence on the local magnetic domain. Results: In nine out of ten cases the bright point resides in areas where the coronal magnetic field contains an opposite polarity intrusion defining a magnetic null point above it. We find that X-ray bright points reside, in these nine cases, in a limited part of the projected fan-dome area, either fully inside the dome or expanding over a limited area below which typically a dominant flux concentration resides. The tenth bright point is located in a bipolar loop system without an overlying null point. Conclusions: All bright points in coronal holes and two out of three bright points in quiet Sun regions are seen to reside in regions containing a magnetic null point. An as yet unidentified process(es) generates the brigh points in specific regions of the fan-dome structure. The movies are available at

  19. Coronal Loops: Evolving Beyond the Isothermal Approximation (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Cirtain, J. W.; Allen, J. D.


    Are coronal loops isothermal? A controversy over this question has arisen recently because different investigators using different techniques have obtained very different answers. Analysis of SOHO-EIT and TRACE data using narrowband filter ratios to obtain temperature maps has produced several key publications that suggest that coronal loops may be isothermal. We have constructed a multi-thermal distribution for several pixels along a relatively isolated coronal loop on the southwest limb of the solar disk using spectral line data from SOHO-CDS taken on 1998 Apr 20. These distributions are clearly inconsistent with isothermal plasma along either the line of sight or the length of the loop, and suggested rather that the temperature increases from the footpoints to the loop top. We speculated originally that these differences could be attributed to pixel size -- CDS pixels are larger, and more `contaminating' material would be expected along the line of sight. To test this idea, we used CDS iron line ratios from our data set to mimic the isothermal results from the narrowband filter instruments. These ratios indicated that the temperature gradient along the loop was flat, despite the fact that a more complete analysis of the same data showed this result to be false! The CDS pixel size was not the cause of the discrepancy; rather, the problem lies with the isothermal approximation used in EIT and TRACE analysis. These results should serve as a strong warning to anyone using this simplistic method to obtain temperature. This warning is echoed on the EIT web page: ``Danger! Enter at your own risk!'' In other words, values for temperature may be found, but they may have nothing to do with physical reality. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University.

  20. A multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.; Zane, R.


    We describe a new multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer system, presently being installed at Mees Solar Observatory, Mount Haleakala, Maui. The apparatus is designed to record and interpret intensities from many sections of the visible and near-visible spectral regions simultaneously, with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The detector, a thermoelectrically cooled silicon vidicon camera tube, has its central target area divided into a rectangular array of about 100,000 pixels and is read out in a slow-scan (about 2 sec/frame) mode. Instrument functioning is entirely under PDP 11/45 computer control, and interfacing is via the CAMAC system.

  1. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass (United States)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, Thomas N.; Webb, David F.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Vourlidas, Angelos


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar are, as is often the case, the are component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011, plus an event on 2010 August 7 analyzed in a previous paper, to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to the dimming light curves, and compare the dimming parameters with corresponding CME parameters of mass and speed. The best linear relationships found are nu(sub CME) [km/s] approx. equals 2.36 x 10 6 [km/%] x s(sub dim) [%/s] m(sub CME) [g] approx. equals 2.59 x 10(exp.15 [g/%] x the square root of d(sub dim) [%].These relationships could be used for space weather operations of estimating CME mass and speed using near-real-time irradiance dimming measurements.

  2. Analytical investigations on the Coronation Gospels manuscript (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Crivello, Fabrizio; Griesser, Martina; Kirchweger, Franz; Uhlir, Katharina; Puyo, Patricia Roger


    The Coronation Gospels or Krönungsevangeliar is a manuscript kept in Vienna at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, datable to the end of VIII century A.D. and produced at Charlemagne court. It is an example of a purple codex, i.e. its parchment is coloured in purple. It has to be considered as one of the most important medieval codices, according to its use to take oath in the coronation ceremony of kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire up to 1792. In order to gather information of the manufacture of the manuscript and its present conservation state, a diagnostic investigation campaign has been carried out in situ with totally non-invasive techniques. X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optical fibres (FORS), spectrofluorimetry, optical microscopy and multispectral analysis have been applied in order to identify the colourants used in the decoration of the manuscript, with the main concern to the dye used to impart the purple hue to the parchment. The information collected was useful in order to address some of the questions raised by art historians concerning its history.

  3. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn F.; Alexander, Caroline E.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Woolley, Robert


    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120'' across), beginning at approximately 19:00 UT on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 Å, 304 Å, and 94 Å, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  4. Acceleration of electrons outside flares - Coronal manifestation and possible origin (United States)

    Raulin, J. P.; Kerdraon, A.; Klein, K.-L.; Trottet, G.; Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.


    Imaging observations at decimetric and metric wavelengths of the solar corona are used to investigate a short-lasting noise storm and the associated changes of the underlying active-region plasma. It is shown that a new source appears in the active region in close temporal and spatial coincidence with the onset of the noise storm in the middle corona. The onset of the noise storm is delayed at longer wavelengths. At a given wavelength, the noise-storm source undergoes a systematic slow movement with a significant component perpendicular to the magnetic-field lines above the active region. The observations are tentatively attributed to the emission of nonthermal electrons in a system of expanding coronal loops, the expansion being initiated by the appearance of the new 21-cm source in the low atmosphere. The derived velocity of expansion is about 80 to 150 km/s. The electrons emitting the noise storm cannot be provided by the high-energy tail of the Maxwellian in the new active region source, but originate either from a nonthermal population in this source or from acceleration at higher altitudes, in the structures which give rise to the noise storm.

  5. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua


    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  6. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.


    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  7. Magnetic Field in the Gravitationally Stratified Coronal Loops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We study the effect of gravitational stratification on the estimation of magnetic fields in the coronal loops. By using the method of MHD seismology of kink waves for the estimation of magnetic field of coronal loops, we derive a new formula for the magnetic field considering the effect of gravitational ...

  8. Solar Cycle Variation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 25, 2010 ... Spörer's sunspot law at low latitudes (thus, no 'butterfly diagram'); how- ever, at high latitudes, there may be a poleward motion and an equator- ward motion from the rise to the maximum to the declining phases. Key words. Sun: activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs). 1. Introduction. Interplanetary coronal ...

  9. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find a strong association between different parameters of coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also compute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of ...

  10. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation of the coronal magnetic field using the data obtained by the Hinode satellite (United States)

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Yan, Yihua


    The Hinode satellite can obtain high-quality photospheric vector magnetograms of solar active regions and the simultaneous coronal loop images in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) bands. In this paper, we continue the work of He and Wang (2008) and apply the newly developed upward boundary integration computational scheme for the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of the coronal magnetic field to the photospheric vector magnetograms acquired by the Spectro-Polarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. Three time series vector magnetograms of the same solar active region, NOAA 10930, are selected for the NLFFF extrapolations, which were observed within the time interval of 26 h during 10-11 December 2006 when the active region crossed the central area of the Sun's disk. Parallel computation of the NLFFF extrapolation code was realized through OpenMP multithreaded, shared memory parallelism and Fortran 95 programming language for the extrapolation calculations. The comparison between the extrapolated field lines and the coronal loop images obtained by the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer of Hinode shows that, in the central area of the active region, the field line configurations generally agree with the coronal images, and the orientations of the field lines basically coincide with the coronal loop observations for all three successive magnetograms. This result supports the NLFFF model being used for tracing the time series evolution of the 3-D coronal magnetic structures as the responses of the quasi-equilibrium solar atmosphere to the vector magnetic field changes in the photosphere.

  11. Prebiotic Chemistry and Atmospheric Warming of Early Earth by an Active Young Sun (United States)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Glocer, A.; Gronoff, G.; Hebrard, E.; Danchi, W.


    Nitrogen is a critical ingredient of complex biological molecules. Molecular nitrogen, however, which was outgassed Into the Earth's early atmosphere, is relatively chemically inert and nitrogen fixation into more chemically reactive compounds requires high temperatures. Possible mechanisms of nitrogen fixation include lightning, atmospheric shock heating by meteorites, and solar ultraviolet radiation. Here we show that nitrogen fixation in the early terrestrial atmosphere can be explained by frequent and powerful coronal mass ejection events from the young Sun -- so-called superflares. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations constrained by Kepler Space Telescope observations, we find that successive superflare ejections produce shocks that accelerate energetic particles, which would have compressed the early Earth's magnetosphere. The resulting extended polar cap openings provide pathways for energetic particles to penetrate into the atmosphere and, according to our atmospheric chemistry simulations, initiate reactions converting molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane to the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide as well as hydrogen cyanide, an essential compound for life. Furthermore, the destruction of N2, C02 and CH, suggests that these greenhouse gases cannot explain the stability of liquid water on the early Earth. Instead, we propose that the efficient formation of nitrous oxide could explain a warm early Earth.

  12. Coronal Mass Ejections: Models and Their Observational Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Chen


    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are the largest-scale eruptive phenomenon in the solar system, expanding from active region-sized nonpotential magnetic structure to a much larger size. The bulk of plasma with a mass of ∼10^11 – 10^13 kg is hauled up all the way out to the interplanetary space with a typical velocity of several hundred or even more than 1000 km s^-1, with a chance to impact our Earth, resulting in hazardous space weather conditions. They involve many other much smaller-sized solar eruptive phenomena, such as X-ray sigmoids, filament/prominence eruptions, solar flares, plasma heating and radiation, particle acceleration, EIT waves, EUV dimmings, Moreton waves, solar radio bursts, and so on. It is believed that, by shedding the accumulating magnetic energy and helicity, they complete the last link in the chain of the cycling of the solar magnetic field. In this review, I try to explicate our understanding on each stage of the fantastic phenomenon, including their pre-eruption structure, their triggering mechanisms and the precursors indicating the initiation process, their acceleration and propagation. Particular attention is paid to clarify some hot debates, e.g., whether magnetic reconnection is necessary for the eruption, whether there are two types of CMEs, how the CME frontal loop is formed, and whether halo CMEs are special.

  13. Assessment of Coronal Radiographic Parameters of the Spine in the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Karami


    Preoperative coronal balance is very important to make a balanced spine after surgery. Other parameters like Lenke classification or main thoracic overcorrection did not affect postoperative coronal decompensation.

  14. Damping time of transverse kink oscillations in active region coronal loops observed by AIA/SDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abedini


    Full Text Available A coronal loop can be oscillated in various directions. A basic type of coronal loop oscillation is called transverse oscillation that can be caused by different factors, such as nearby active regions and flares. The damping of transverse oscillation may be produced by the dissipation mechanism or the wake of the traveling disturbance. The aim of this paper is to estimate the damping time of transverse (kink coronal loop oscillations and the quantitative dependence of these oscillations on their frequencies in the solar corona loops that are situated near an active region with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA onboard Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO. The observed data on 2014-Oct-17, consisting of 130 images with an interval of 24 seconds in the 171 A0 pass band is analyzed for evidence of transvers kink oscillations along the coronal loops and for estimate of physical parameters by fast Fourier transform (FFT of data times series. In this analyzed signatures of transvers oscillations that are damped rapidly were found, with oscillation periods in the range of P=2-9.5 minutes. Also, damping times and damping qualities of filtered intensities centered on the dominant frequencies are measured in the range of minutes and , respectively. The observational results of this study indicate that the damping times increase with increasing the oscillation periods, and are highly sensitive function of oscillation period, but damping qualities are not very sensitive to the oscillations period. The order of magnitude of the damping times and damping qualities that obtained from this analysis are in good agreement with previous findings by authors and the theoretical prediction for damping of fast kink mode oscillations.

  15. Temporal and Spatial Relationship of Flare Signatures and the Force-free Coronal Magnetic Field (United States)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Veronig, A.; Su, Y.


    We investigate the plasma and magnetic environment of active region NOAA 11261 on 2011 August 2 around a GOES M1.4 flare/CME (SOL2011-08-02T06:19). We compare coronal emission at the (extreme) ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths, using SDO AIA and RHESSI images, in order to identify the relative timing and locations of reconnection-related sources. We trace flare ribbon signatures at ultraviolet wavelengths in order to pin down the intersection of previously reconnected flaring loops in the lower solar atmosphere. These locations are used to calculate field lines from three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear force-free magnetic field models, established on the basis of SDO HMI photospheric vector magnetic field maps. Using this procedure, we analyze the quasi-static time evolution of the coronal model magnetic field previously involved in magnetic reconnection. This allows us, for the first time, to estimate the elevation speed of the current sheet’s lower tip during an on-disk observed flare as a few kilometers per second. A comparison to post-flare loops observed later above the limb in STEREO EUVI images supports this velocity estimate. Furthermore, we provide evidence for an implosion of parts of the flaring coronal model magnetic field, and identify the corresponding coronal sub-volumes associated with the loss of magnetic energy. Finally, we spatially relate the build up of magnetic energy in the 3D models to highly sheared fields, established due to the dynamic relative motions of polarity patches within the active region.

  16. Magnetic Untwisting in Solar Jets that Go into the Outer Corona in Polar Coronal Holes (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.


    We present results from 14 exceptionally high-reaching large solar jets observed in the polar coronal holes. EUV movies from SDO/AIA show that each jet is similar to many other similar-size and smaller jets that erupt in coronal holes, but each is exceptional in that it goes higher than most other jets, so high that it is observed in the outer corona beyond 2.2 R(sub Sun) in images from the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. For these high-reaching jets, we find: (1) the front of the jet transits the corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun) at a speed typically several times the sound speed; (2) each jet displays an exceptionally large amount of spin as it erupts; (3) in the outer corona, most jets display oscillatory swaying having an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. We conclude that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is grossly a large-amplitude (i.e., nonlinear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the reconnected open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate from the measured spinning and swaying that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy in the inner corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun). From these results for these big jets, we reason that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules should dissipate in the corona in the same way and could thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes.

  17. Flux Accretion and Coronal Mass Ejection Dynamics (United States)

    Welsch, Brian


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the primary drivers of severe space weather disturbances in the heliosphere. The equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) have been used to model the onset and, in some cases, the subsequent acceleration of ejections. Both observations and numerical modeling, however, suggest that magnetic reconnection likely plays a major role in most, if not all, fast CMEs. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamical effects of accretion of magnetic flux onto a rising ejection by reconnection involving the ejection's background field. This reconnection alters the magnetic structure of the ejection and its environment, thereby modifying forces acting during the eruption, generically leading to faster acceleration of the CME. Our ultimate aim is to characterize changes in CME acceleration in terms of observable properties of magnetic reconnection, such as the amount of reconnected flux, deduced from observations of flare ribbons and photospheric magnetic fields.

  18. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  19. Case report: pre-eruptive intra-coronal radiolucencies revisited.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Counihan, K P


    Pre-eruptive intra-coronal radiolucency (PEIR) describes a radiolucent lesion located in the coronal dentine, just beneath the enamel-dentine junction of unerupted teeth. The prevalence of this lesion varies depending on the type and quality of radiographic exposure and age of patients used for assessment. The aetiology of pre-eruptive intra-coronal radiolucent lesions is not fully understood, but published clinical and histological evidence suggest that these lesions are resorptive in nature. Issues around the diagnosis, treatment planning and clinical management of this lesion are explored using previously unreported cases.

  20. Impact of the growing use of narrative verdicts by coroners on geographic variations in suicide: analysis of coroners' inquest data. (United States)

    Carroll, R; Hawton, K; Kapur, N; Bennewith, O; Gunnell, D


    Coroners' death certificates form the basis of suicide statistics in England and Wales. Recent increases in coroners' use of narrative verdicts may affect the reliability of local and national suicide rates. We used Ministry of Justice data on inquests held between 2008 and 2009 and Local Authority suicide data (2001-02 and 2008-09) to investigate variations between coroners in their use of narrative verdicts and the impact of these on suicide rates, using 'other' verdicts (79% of which are narratives) as a proxy for narrative verdicts. There was wide geographic variation in Coroners' use of 'other' (mainly narrative) verdicts--they comprised between 0 and 50% (median = 9%) of verdicts given by individual coroners in 2008-09. Coroners who gave more 'other' verdicts gave fewer suicide verdicts (r = - 0.41; P narratives the least. Variation in Coroners' use of narrative verdicts influences the validity of reported regional suicide rates. Small-area suicide rates, and changes in these rates over time in the last decade, should be interpreted with caution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Provornikova, Elena [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)


    Analysis of a longitudinal wave event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory is presented. A time sequence of 131 Å images reveals that a C-class flare occurred at one footpoint of a large loop and triggered an intensity disturbance (enhancement) propagating along it. The spatial features and temporal evolution suggest that a fundamental standing slow-mode wave could be set up quickly after meeting of two initial disturbances from the opposite footpoints. The oscillations have a period of ∼12 minutes and a decay time of ∼9 minutes. The measured phase speed of 500 ± 50 km s{sup −1} matches the sound speed in the heated loop of ∼10 MK, confirming that the observed waves are of slow mode. We derive the time-dependent temperature and electron density wave signals from six AIA extreme-ultraviolet channels, and find that they are nearly in phase. The measured polytropic index from the temperature and density perturbations is 1.64 ± 0.08 close to the adiabatic index of 5/3 for an ideal monatomic gas. The interpretation based on a 1D linear MHD model suggests that the thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least a factor of 3 in the hot flare loop at 9 MK and above. The viscosity coefficient is determined by coronal seismology from the observed wave when only considering the compressive viscosity dissipation. We find that to interpret the rapid wave damping, the classical compressive viscosity coefficient needs to be enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit.

  2. Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Lucas, R.; Babcock, B. A.; Dantowitz, R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seeger, C. H.; Malamut, C.; Steele, A.


    Our composite images of the solar corona based on extensive imaging at the total solar eclipses of 2010 (Easter Island), 2012 (Australia), and 2013 (Gabon) reveal several coronal mass ejections and other changes in coronal streamers and in polar plumes. Our resultant spatial resolution is finer than that available in imaging from spacecraft, including that from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO. We trace the eruptions back to their footpoints on the sun using imaging from SDO and SWAP, and follow them upwards through the corona, measuring velocities. The high-resolution computer compositing by Miloslav Druckmüller and Hana Druckmüllerová (2010 and 2013) and Pavlos Gaintatzis (2012) allows comparison of our images with those taken at intervals of minutes or hours along the totality path. Williams College's 2013 eclipse expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from National Geographic Society/Committee for Research and Exploration. Our work on the 2012 eclipse is supported in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS. V.R. and M.S. were partially supported by the VEGA grant agency project 2/0098/10 and 2/0003/13 (Slovak Academy of Sciences) and Grant 0139-12 from NG/CRE, and Hana Druckmüllerová by grant 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation. M.L. was supported by Sigma Xi. C.M. was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow, supported at Williams College by REU/NSF grant AST-1005024. Partial support was provided by U.S. Department of Defense's ASSURE program. J.M.P. thanks Caltech's Planetary Sciences Department for hospitality. Support for D.B.S. and SWAP came from PRODEX grant C90345 managed by ESA in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in support of the PROBA2/SWAP mission, and from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 218816 (SOTERIA project, SWAP is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by

  3. Photospheric magnetic field of an eroded-by-solar-wind coronal mass ejection (United States)

    Palacios, J.; Cid, C.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A.


    We have investigated the case of a coronal mass ejection that was eroded by the fast wind of a coronal hole in the interplanetary medium. When a solar ejection takes place close to a coronal hole, the flux rope magnetic topology of the coronal mass ejection (CME) may become misshapen at 1 AU as a result of the interaction. Detailed analysis of this event reveals erosion of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) magnetic field. In this communication, we study the photospheric magnetic roots of the coronal hole and the coronal mass ejection area with HMI/SDO magnetograms to define their magnetic characteristics.

  4. Cyclical Variation of the Quiet Corona and Coronal Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent advances in the understanding of the quiet corona and coronal holes are reviewed. The review is based on long-term accumulation of data from eclipse observations, coronagraph observations, helium 10830 Å spectroheliograms, and X-ray observations.

  5. [A study on the experiences of nurse coroners]. (United States)

    Han, Jin Sook; Park, In Sook


    The purpose of this study was to describe the essential structure of the postmortem- examination experiences of nurse career coroners (forensic investigators), to have a profound understanding of their experiences, and ultimately to lay the foundation for nurses' entry into the field of forensic nursing. The subjects in this study were six coroners. After an in-depth interview from January to June 2007, the collected data were analyzed by Colaizzi as qualitative research. Four categories emerged from seven theme clusters. The four categories were: attracted by being dubbed a stabilized public official, a sense of achievement due to having clarified false death, self-confidence after distinguishing the victim and the wrongdoer, eternal developmental potential is seen. It is expected that this study will provide useful information for nurses who are interested in becoming coroners. It will be helpful for career nurses to extend their nursing science into emerging fields like coroners and select a follow-up career.

  6. Production planning and coronal stop deletion in spontaneous speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Tanner; Morgan Sonderegger; Michael Wagner


    .... We examine coronal stop deletion (CSD), a variable process conditioned by preceding and upcoming phonological context, in a corpus of spontaneous British English speech, as a means of investigating a number of variables associated with planning...

  7. High-cadence Hinode/XRT observations for studying coronal events with very short timescales (United States)

    McKenzie, David Eugene; Kobelski, Adam; Savage, Sabrina


    The Hinode X-Ray Telescope’s capability for high time cadence observations makes it an excellent tool for probing highly variable conditions in the corona, including wave-like activity, dynamic plasma motions, and short-duration transient events. XRT is capable of producing images at cadences faster than one image per 10 seconds, which is comparable to the energy release timescales, and/or ionization evolution timescales, predicted by a range of models of coronal activity. In the present work, we demonstrate XRT’s high-cadence capability through observations of active region AR 10923 (2006 November), with cadences of 6-20 seconds. The image sequences, made sequentially with multiple analysis filters, reveal many transient brightenings (i.e., microflares), for which we derive heating and cooling timescales. We also forward model the observed light curves to estimate the temperature, density, filling factors, and lengths of the observed loops. These estimates allow us to prioritize different heating mechanisms, and to better understand the unresolved structures within the observations. This study provides a test of capabilities, which have still not yet been fully utilized by the ten-year-old Hinode X-Ray Telescope, and thus provides a starting point for future investigations of short-timescale/high-frequency variations in coronal X-ray intensity.

  8. MHD simulations of the eruption of prominence hosting coronal flux ropes (United States)

    Fan, Yuhong


    We present MHD simulations of the eruption of a prominence hosting coronal flux rope under a coronal streamer, with the thermodynamic treatment including a simple empirical coronal heating, optically thin radiative cooling and the field aligned thermal conduction. We first initialize a quasi-steady solar wind solution with a coronal helmet streamer, using an initial normal flux distribution of a simple bipolar arcade field on the lower boundary. Then into this coronal streamer with an ambient solar wind we impose at the lower boundary the slow emergence of a twisted magnetic torus. As a result a quasi-equilibrium flux rope is built up under the streamer magnetic field. With varying sizes of the streamer and the different length and total twist of the emerged flux rope, we found different scenarios for the evolution from quasi-equilibrium to loss of confinement and eruption. In the case with a broad streamer with slow decline of the overlying field, the flux rope remains well confined until there is sufficient twist such that it first develops the kink instability and evolves through a sequence of kinked, confined states with its apex rises slowly. It eventually develops a “hernia-like” eruption when the kinked apex reaches a certain height and can no-longer be confined. We find that for the long, significantly twisted flux ropes, prominence condensations form in the dips of the twisted field lines due to run-away radiative cooling. Once formed, the prominence carrying field becomes significantly non force-free due to the prominence weight despite being low plasma β. As the flux rope erupts, we also obtain the eruption of the prominence, which shows substantial draining along the legs of the erupting flux rope during the eruption. The prominence may not show a kinked morphology even the flux rope becomes kinked. On the other hand in the case with a narrower streamer, the flux rope with less than 1 wind of twist can erupt via the onset of the torus instability.

  9. The effects of resistivity and viscosity on the Kelvin- Helmholtz instability in oscillating coronal loops (United States)

    Howson, T. A.; De Moortel, I.; Antolin, P.


    Aims: We investigate the effects of resistivity and viscosity on the onset and growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in an oscillating coronal loop. Methods: We modelled a standing kink wave in a density-enhanced loop with the three dimensional (3D), resistive magnetohydrodynamics code, Lare3d. We conducted a parameter study on the viscosity and resistivity coefficients to examine the effects of dissipation on the KHI. Results: Enhancing the viscosity (ν) and resistivity (η) acts to suppress the KHI. Larger values of η and ν delay the formation of the instability and, in some cases, prevent the onset completely. This leads to the earlier onset of heating for smaller values of the transport coefficients. We note that viscosity has a greater effect on the development of the KHI than resistivity. Furthermore, when using anomalous resistivity, the Ohmic heating rate associated with the KHI may be greater than that associated with the phase mixing that occurs in an instability-suppressed regime (using uniform resistivity). Conclusions: From our study, it is clear that the heating rate crucially depends on the formation of small length scales (influenced by the numerical resolution) as well as the values of resistivity and viscosity. As larger values of the transport coefficients suppress the KHI, the onset of heating is delayed but the heating rate is larger. As increased numerical resolution allows smaller length scales to develop, the heating rate will be higher even for the same values of η and ν.

  10. Coroner consistency - The 10-jurisdiction, 10-year, postcode lottery? (United States)

    Mclean, Maxwell


    The investigation and classification of deaths in England and Wales relies upon the application by medical practitioners of diverse reporting standards set locally by coroners and thereafter upon the effectively unconstrained decision process of those same coroners. The author has conducted extensive comparative analysis of Ministry of Justice data on reports to the coroner and their inquest and verdict returns alongside Office of National Statistics data pertaining to the numbers of registered deaths in equivalent local jurisdictions. Here, he analyses 10 jurisdictions characterised by almost identical inquest return numbers in 2011. Substantial variation was found in reporting rates to the coroner and in the profile of inquest verdicts. The range of deaths reported varied from 34% to 62% of all registered deaths. Likewise only 2 of the 10 jurisdictions shared the same ranking of proportions in which the six common verdicts were reached. Individual jurisdictions tended to be consistent over time in their use of verdicts. In all cases, proportionately more male deaths were reported to the coroner. Coroners generally seemed prima facie to be 'gendered' in their approach to verdicts; that is, they were consistently more likely to favour a particular verdict when dealing with a death, according to the sex of the deceased. The extent to which coroners seemed gendered varied widely. While similar services such as the criminal courts or the Crown Prosecution Service are subject to extensive national guidance in an attempt to constrain idiosyncratic decision making, there seems no reason why this should apply less to the process of death investigation and classification. Further analysis of coroners' local practices and their determinants seems necessary. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  11. Hunting for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Vida, Krisztián; Leitzinger, Martin; Odert, Petra; Kovács, Orsolya Eszter


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.

  12. Coronal microleakage assessed by polymicrobial markers. (United States)

    Britto, Leandro Rodrigues; Grimaudo, Nicholas J; Vertucci, Frank J


    Studies have shown significant bacterial leakage following exposure of sealed root canals to artificial and natural saliva. The objective of this study was to determine contamination via bacterial migration in artificial saliva in endodontically treated teeth using different obturation techniques and sealers. A total of 144 extracted, human mandibular anterior teeth were cleaned and shaped to a #40 master apical file using hand and rotary instrumentation. One hundred and twenty teeth were divided into two experimental groups. The teeth in Group 1 were obturated with gutta-percha using lateral compaction and five different sealers, and the teeth in Group 2 were obturated with gutta-percha using thermomechanical compaction and five different sealers. The remaining 24 teeth were prepared as positive and negative controls. All specimens, except the negative controls, were inoculated every five days with Anaerobic streptococci (NCTC 9891) related to Peptostreptococcus micros and Prevotella intermedia (ATCC 25611). The contamination onset time was continuously recorded and turbid broths cultured for bacteria identification. The controls behaved as expected. Regardless of the combination between obturation techniques and different sealers, all broths became turbid during this experiment. The correlation between the obturation techniques and the sealers revealed statistical significance using ANOVA (psealer allowed a slower rate of coronal-apical bacterial migration.

  13. Nanoflares and Heating of the Solar Corona

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal heating by nanoflares is presented by using observational, analytical, numerical simulation and statistical results. Numerical simulations show the formation of numerous current sheets if the magnetic field is sheared and bipoles have unequal pole strengths. This fact supports the generation of ...

  14. Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.

    The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions

  15. Heating and Large Scale Dynamics of the Solar Corona (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.


    The effort was concentrated in the areas: coronal heating mechanism, unstructured adaptive grid algorithms, numerical modeling of magnetic reconnection in the MRX experiment: effect of toroidal magnetic field and finite pressure, effect of OHMIC heating and vertical magnetic field, effect of dynamic MESH adaption.

  16. Inactivation of chemical and heat-resistant spores of Bacillus and Geobacillus by nitrogen cold atmospheric plasma and comparison to thermal and chemical based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Xie, H.; Esveld, D.C.; Abee, T.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Nierop Groot, M.N.


    Bacterial spores are resistant to severe conditions and form a challenge to eradicate from food or food packaging material. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is receiving more attention as potential sterilization method at relatively mild conditions but the exact mechanism of inactivation is

  17. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection effects on thermospheric density as inferred from International Space Station orbital data (United States)

    Mendaza, T.; Blanco-Ávalos, J. J.; Martín-Torres, J.


    The solar activity induces long term and short term periodical variations in the dynamics and composition of Earth's atmosphere. The Sun also shows non periodical (i.e., impulsive) activity that reaches the planets orbiting around it. In particular, Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) reach Earth and interact with its magnetosphere and upper neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, the interaction with the upper atmosphere is not well characterized because of the absence of regular and dedicated in situ measurements at high altitudes; thus, current descriptions of the thermosphere are based on semi empirical models. In this paper, we present the total neutral mass densities of the thermosphere retrieved from the orbital data of the International Space Station (ISS) using the General Perturbation Method, and we applied these densities to routinely compiled trajectories of the ISS in low Earth orbit (LEO). These data are explicitly independent of any atmospheric model. Our density values are consistent with atmospheric models, which demonstrates that our method is reliable for the inference of thermospheric density. We have inferred the thermospheric total neutral density response to impulsive solar activity forcing from 2001 to the end of 2006 and determined how solar events affect this response. Our results reveal that the ISS orbital parameters can be used to infer the thermospheric density and analyze solar effects on the thermosphere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yan; Liu Chang; Jing Ju; Wang Haimin, E-mail: [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)


    Numerical simulations suggest that kink and torus instabilities are two potential contributors to the initiation and prorogation of eruptive events. A magnetic parameter called the decay index (i.e., the coronal magnetic gradient of the overlying fields above the eruptive flux ropes) could play an important role in controlling the kinematics of eruptions. Previous studies have identified a threshold range of the decay index that distinguishes between eruptive and confined configurations. Here we advance the study by investigating if there is a clear correlation between the decay index and coronal mass ejection (CME) speed. Thirty-eight CMEs associated with filament eruptions and/or two-ribbon flares are selected using the H{alpha} data from the Global H{alpha} Network. The filaments and flare ribbons observed in H{alpha} associated with the CMEs help to locate the magnetic polarity inversion line, along which the decay index is calculated based on the potential field extrapolation using Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms as boundary conditions. The speeds of CMEs are obtained from the LASCO C2 CME catalog available online. We find that the mean decay index increases with CME speed for those CMEs with a speed below 1000 km s{sup -1} and stays flat around 2.2 for the CMEs with higher speeds. In addition, we present a case study of a partial filament eruption, in which the decay indices show different values above the erupted/non-erupted part.

  19. Nanodust dynamics during a coronal mass ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czechowski


    Full Text Available The dynamics of nanometer-sized grains (nanodust is strongly affected by electromagnetic forces. High-velocity nanodust was proposed as an explanation for the voltage bursts observed by STEREO. A study of nanodust dynamics based on a simple time-stationary model has shown that in the vicinity of the Sun the nanodust is trapped or, outside the trapped region, accelerated to high velocities. We investigate the nanodust dynamics for a time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field configuration in order to find out what happens to nanodust during a coronal mass ejection (CME. The plasma flow and the magnetic field during a CME are obtained by numerical simulations using a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD code. The equations of motion for the nanodust particles are solved numerically, assuming that the particles are produced from larger bodies moving in near-circular Keplerian orbits within the circumsolar dust cloud. The charge-to-mass ratios for the nanodust particles are taken to be constant in time. The simulation is restricted to the region within 0.14 AU from the Sun. We find that about 35 % of nanodust particles escape from the computational domain during the CME, reaching very high speeds (up to 1000 km s−1. After the end of the CME the escape continues, but the particle velocities do not exceed 300 km s−1. About 30 % of all particles are trapped in bound non-Keplerian orbits with time-dependent perihelium and aphelium distances. Trapped particles are affected by plasma ion drag, which causes contraction of their orbits.

  20. Nanodust dynamics during a coronal mass ejection (United States)

    Czechowski, Andrzej; Kleimann, Jens


    The dynamics of nanometer-sized grains (nanodust) is strongly affected by electromagnetic forces. High-velocity nanodust was proposed as an explanation for the voltage bursts observed by STEREO. A study of nanodust dynamics based on a simple time-stationary model has shown that in the vicinity of the Sun the nanodust is trapped or, outside the trapped region, accelerated to high velocities. We investigate the nanodust dynamics for a time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field configuration in order to find out what happens to nanodust during a coronal mass ejection (CME). The plasma flow and the magnetic field during a CME are obtained by numerical simulations using a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. The equations of motion for the nanodust particles are solved numerically, assuming that the particles are produced from larger bodies moving in near-circular Keplerian orbits within the circumsolar dust cloud. The charge-to-mass ratios for the nanodust particles are taken to be constant in time. The simulation is restricted to the region within 0.14 AU from the Sun. We find that about 35 % of nanodust particles escape from the computational domain during the CME, reaching very high speeds (up to 1000 km s-1). After the end of the CME the escape continues, but the particle velocities do not exceed 300 km s-1. About 30 % of all particles are trapped in bound non-Keplerian orbits with time-dependent perihelium and aphelium distances. Trapped particles are affected by plasma ion drag, which causes contraction of their orbits.

  1. Forecasting Coronal Mass Ejections from Vector Magnetograms (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    In a 17 vector magnetogram study of 12 bipolar active regions (Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2002, ApJ in press), we correlated four quantitative global magnetic measures with the Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) productivity of the active region. The global measures included a measure of active region size, the total magnetic flux phi and three measures of an active region global nonpotentiality 1) the net current (I (sub N)), 2) the length of the strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line (L(sub SS)) and 3) and the normalized twist (alpha = muIN/PHI). The CME productivity was determined from YOHKOH/SXT observations, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and when possible Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (SOHO/LASCO) observations within 12 days of the day of the magnetogram. We found that the three measures of global nonpotentiality (I(sub N), L(sub SS), alpha) were all well correlated (greater than 99% confidence level) with an active region's CME productivity. The sample size was to small to confirm if there was a statistical significant correlation of the globally nonscientist measures with future CME activity (i.e. from the date of the magnetogram forward). We are doubling our sample, and will report on the statistical significance of global nonpotentiality as a predictor of future CME productivity. The new active regions are all from the first year of the upgraded MSFC vector magnetograms. This work, is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program, by NASA through the Living with the Star, Targeted Research and Technology, and by NASA Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program. The upgrade to the MSFC vector magnetograph was supported by the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission.

  2. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dupuis

    Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  3. Coronal and apical sealing ability of a new endodontic cement (United States)

    Zafar, Morvarid; Iravani, Maryam; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed


    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study aims to evaluate the coronal and apical sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) root filling used with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) or AH26 as filler/sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty eight single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, decoronated and then instrumented. Samples were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and two control groups (n=6). In group 1, root canals were filled using lateral condensation technique (L); while single cone technique (S) was used for groups 2 and 3. AH26, MTA and NEC were the root canal sealer/fillers in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Samples were immersed in 1% methylene-blue dye and then independently centrifuged apically and coronally. The roots were split longitudinally and linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope from apical and coronal directions. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and T-test. RESULTS: No statistical differences in mean apical dye penetration between groups LGP/AH26, SGP/MTA and SGP/NEC were found; SGP/NEC group showed significantly less coronal dye penetration (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the simple single cone technique with NEC can provide favorable coronal and apical seal. PMID:23864871

  4. Atmospheric pressure variation and the climate of Mars (United States)

    Gierasch, P. J.; Toon, O. B.


    If Mars has permanent CO2 polar caps, atmospheric heat transport may cause the atmospheric pressure to be extremely sensitive to variations of solar heating at the poles. This could happen because atmospheric heating depends on density, which depends strongly on the polar temperature through the vapor pressure relation. A simple climatological model is used to study the question.

  5. Understanding the connection between the energy released during solar flares and their emission in the lower atmosphere (United States)

    da Costa, F. Rubio


    While progress has been made on understanding how energy is released and deposited along the solar atmosphere during explosive events such as solar flares, the chromospheric and coronal heating through the sudden release of magnetic energy remain an open problem in solar physics. Recent hydrodynamic models allow to investigate the energy deposition along a flare loop and to study the response of the chromosphere. These results have been improved with the consideration of transport and acceleration of particles along the loop. RHESSI and Fermi/GBM X-ray and gamma-ray observations help to constrain the spectral properties of the injected electrons. The excellent spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of IRIS will also help us to constrain properties of explosive events, such as the continuum emission during flares or their emission in the chromosphere.

  6. Extreme-ultraviolet observations of global coronal wave rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attrill, G. D. R. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom); Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.; Harra, L. K.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., E-mail: [University College London, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)


    We present evidence of global coronal wave rotation in EUV data from SOHO/EIT, STEREO/EUVI, and SDO/AIA. The sense of rotation is found to be consistent with the helicity of the source region (clockwise for positive helicity, anticlockwise for negative helicity), with the source regions hosting sigmoidal structures. We also study two coronal wave events observed by SDO/AIA where no clear rotation (or sigmoid) is observed. The selected events show supporting evidence that they all originate with flux rope eruptions. We make comparisons across this set of observations (both with and without clear sigmoidal structures). On examining the magnetic configuration of the source regions, we find that the nonrotation events possess a quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The coronal waves that do show a rotation originate from bipolar source regions.

  7. Coronal Loop Evolution Observed with AIA and Hi-C (United States)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Korreck, K.; Golub, L.; Kuzin. S.; Walsh, R.; DeForest, C.; DePontieu, B.; hide


    Despite much progress toward understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, the physical properties of coronal loops are not yet fully understood. Recent investigations and observations from different instruments have yielded contradictory results about the true physical properties of coronal loops. In the past, the evolution of loops has been used to infer the loop substructure. With the recent launch of High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), this inference can be validated. In this poster we discuss the first results of loop analysis comparing AIA and Hi-C data. We find signatures of cooling in a pixel selected along a loop structure in the AIA multi-filter observations. However, unlike previous studies, we find that the cooling time is much longer than the draining time. This is inconsistent with previous cooling models.

  8. On the Correlation between Coronal and Lower Transition Region Structures at Arcsecond Scales (United States)

    Vourlidas, A.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Korendyke, C. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Handy, B. N.


    We compare the morphology of active region structures observed in the 171 Å (T~9×105 K) and Lyα (T~2×104 K) lines. The coronal data were obtained by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in support of the Very High Angular Resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT) sounding rocket launch, which acquired subarcsecond resolution images of an active region in the Lyα line, on 1999 May 7. Using a pair of calibrated, nearly simultaneous images, we find that: (i) a very good correlation exists between the Lyα and 171 Å intensities in the TRACE moss regions, (ii) we can identify several identical structures in some (but not all) moss areas, and (iii) the correlations are greatly reduced at the footpoints of the 171 Å large-scale loops. We derive a lower limit for the Lyα emission measure, under the assumption of effectively optically thin emission, and compare it to the 171 Å emission measure. As in previous studies, we find an excess of Lyα material compared to the amount expected for a thermal conduction-dominated corona-chromosphere transition region, even for structures that appear to be identical in the two wavelengths. This result implies that some other mechanism besides classical heat conduction from the corona must contribute to the observed Lyα intensities. The observations do not support the idea of a physically distinct cool loop component within active regions.

  9. Study of the Photospheric Magnetic Field and Coronal Emission from Solar Active Regions (United States)

    Aguilera, Jordan Armando Guerra


    Solar explosive phenomena (flares and Coronal Mass Ejections, CMEs) are examples of how the most dynamical processes within the heliosphere are interconnected and powered by the Sun. Solar flares originate in active regions (AR) -- areas of strong magnetic field on the solar surface. The electromagnetic (EM) energy released during flares, along with the often-seen CMEs, propagate through the heliosphere. In the Earth's vicinity, EM radiation and charged particles have the potential to produce unfavorable conditions for humans and technology in space. From many points of view (scientific, operational, economical) it is thus important to understand and try to predict when solar flares and associated eruptive phenomena will occur. This dissertation explores how to best leverage the available observational data to provide predictive information about the future flaring activity. This dissertation consists of two main components: 1) investigation of the photosphere-corona coupling by analyzing photospheric magnetic field and coronal data in search for signals or behaviors that precede eruptions; and 2) the combination of existing flare prediction methods in order to develop a novel ensemble prediction. For the first part, the data employed correspond to line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and EUV intensity maps from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both instruments onboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Photospheric magnetic field and coronal EUV emissions were characterized by measuring the power-law decay of their spatio-temporal spectra and the data statistical associations (auto- and cross-correlations). These measures, calculated with high spatio-temporal resolution, appeared to characterize the AR evolution, provide information about the state of the photospheric plasma, reveal insights into the photospheric conditions for flares, and expose the potential of combining coronal and photospheric

  10. Exploring the role of Alfvén waves in heating the solar corona (United States)

    Bose, Sayak; Gekelman, W.; Hahn, M.; Vincena, S.; Savin, D. W.


    The solar corona, the outer atmosphere of the Sun, is 200 times hotter than the underlying visible surface of the Sun. Recent coronal observations find Alfvén wave damping at unexpectedly low heights in the corona, suggesting that Alfvén waves may contribute to the heating of the corona to temperatures of 106 K. Dissipation of wave energy may occur due to gradients in the Alfvén speed along the coronal magnetic field lines. These gradients may cause wave reflection, which subsequently generates turbulence. Furthermore, the presence of gradients in the Alfvén speed across the magnetic field line may lead to phase mixing, which can promote additional nonlinear damping mechanisms. We are studying various wave dissipation processes under conditions similar to the solar corona, using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, at Los Angeles. Here we will present the results of our initial experiments exploring the effectiveness of gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field in reflecting Alfvén waves and reducing the amplitude of Alfvén waves transmitted across a gradient. This work is supported, in part, by the DoE, NSF, and NASA. The Basic Plasma Science facility is supported by the DoE OFES and the NSF.

  11. Fluctuations in the solar wind that show scaling- MHD turbulence and coronal origin. (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.; Hnat, B.; Nicol, R. M.; Wicks, R.


    the solar wind also provide direct observations of the correlation lengthscale of these fluctuations; these show (i) distinct correlation lengthscales for magnetic field magnitude and components and (ii) the correlation lengthscale for magnetic field magnitude tracks the solar cycle whereas that of the components is insensitive to it. An important question which we will also address is then whether the observation of multifractal scaling per -se uniquely maps onto in- situ turbulence, or whether multifractal scaling, seen in the magnitude of magnetic field rather than components, is of direct coronal origin, with implications for our understanding of the heating of the solar wind.

  12. Kinetic Distributions of Coronal Hole Protons in the Solar Wind Generation Region (United States)

    Isenberg, P. A.; Vasquez, B. J.


    We solve the inhomogeneous kinetic guiding-center equation for the collisionless proton distribution function in a model polar coronal hole. The protons react to the local forces due to gravity, charge separation electric field, focusing in the decreasing magnetic field, and ponderomotive wave pressure. They are also heated through resonant cyclotron diffusion by a broad spectrum of obliquely-propagating ion cyclotron waves. We model the resonant wave intensities by a power-law extrapolation from the Alfvén wave results of Cranmer and van Ballegooijen (2005), multiplied by an additional scaling factor to represent the inefficient turbulent transport to resonant frequencies. We find that a scaling factor as low as 0.01 gives sufficient proton heating to yield a fast solar wind. The resulting proton distributions have a distinctive shape, compressed in the sunward half of velocity space, and more spread out (that is, hotter) in the anti-sunward half. Observation of similarly-shaped distributions in the fast wind by instruments on Solar Probe would provide evidence for resonant cyclotron heating as the generation mechanism for the solar wind. We will present results for the radial evolution of the model proton distribution, as well as moment quantities such as flow speed, temperatures and heating rates.

  13. Formation of bioactive N-doped TiO2 on Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity using NaOH, hot water, and subsequent ammonia atmospheric heat treatment. (United States)

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Endo, Naoko; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Furuya, Maiko; Yokota, Kotoe; Abiko, Yuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Nobuhiro


    Titanium (Ti) treated with NaOH and hot water, and heated in an ammmonia (NH3) gas atmosphere for 1 or 3h exhibited in vitro apatite formation within 7days when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the treated Ti decomposed methylene blue and showed excellent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli under visible light irradiation. The surface treatment resulted in the formation of a fine network of N-doped anatase-type titania (TiO2-xNx) on the Ti surface, which was responsible for both the apatite formation in SBF and the visible light-induced antibacterial activity. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of our simple method for producing novel bioactive Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity, which could be applied to orthopaedic and dental implants without the risk of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recurrent coronal jets induced by repetitively accumulated electric currents (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Ding, M. D.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Liu, Y.


    Context. Jets of plasma are frequently observed in the solar corona. A self-similar recurrent behavior is observed in a fraction of them. Aims: Jets are thought to be a consequence of magnetic reconnection; however, the physics involved is not fully understood. Therefore, we study some jet observations with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Methods: The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets were observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO measured the vector magnetic field, from which we derive the magnetic flux evolution, the photospheric velocity field, and the vertical electric current evolution. The magnetic configuration before the jets is derived by the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation. Results: Three EUV jets recurred in about one hour on 17 September 2010 in the following magnetic polarity of active region 11106. We derive that the jets are above a pair of parasitic magnetic bipoles that are continuously driven by photospheric diverging flows. The interaction drove the buildup of electric currents, which we observed as elongated patterns at the photospheric level. For the first time, the high temporal cadence of the HMI allows the evolution of such small currents to be followed. In the jet region, we found that the integrated absolute current peaks repetitively in phase with the 171 Å flux evolution. The current buildup and its decay are both fast, about ten minutes each, and the current maximum precedes the 171 Å also by about ten minutes. Then, the HMI temporal cadence is marginally fast enough to detect such changes. Conclusions: The photospheric current pattern of the jets is found to be associated with the quasi-separatrix layers deduced from the magnetic extrapolation. From previous theoretical results, the observed diverging flows are expected to continuously build such currents. We conclude that the magnetic reconnection occurs

  15. Automatic measurement of orbital volume in unilateral coronal synostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Einarsson, Gudmundur; Darvann, Tron Andre


    Premature fusion of the coronal suture on one side of the calvaria (unilateral coronal synostosis, UCS) results in asymmetric craniofacial development and the deformation of the orbits. Often this necessitates surgery, where CT scanning is employed to obtain measures of the bony orbit. These meas...... segmentations. We obtain similar measures, as well as high Dice scores, compared to the experts. The run time for the proposed approach with a prototype implementation is around 3 minutes on a standard laptop, making the method suitable for rapid evaluation of orbital volume in UCS....

  16. Spontaneous Formation of Titanium Nitride on the Surface of a Ti Rod Induced by Electro-Discharge-Heat-Treatment in an N2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee W.H.


    Full Text Available A single pulse of 2.0 to 3.5 kJ of input energy from a 450 mF capacitor was applied to a commercially pure Ti rod in a N2 atmosphere. The surface of the Ti rod transformed from TiO2 into titanium nitride in times as short as 159 msec, providing a bimodal morphology of the cross-section. A much higher value of hardness that was observed at the edge of the cross-section was attributed to nitrogen-induced solid-solution hardening that occurred during the electrical discharge process. The activation energy (Ea for the diffusion process was estimated to be approximately 86.9 kJ/mol. Results show that the electrical discharge process is a possible potential method for the nitriding of Ti; advantages include a short processing time and control of the nitrided layer without dimensional changes.

  17. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature (United States)

    Gauthier, Paul P. G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Ellsworth, David S.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Evans, John R.; Tissue, David T.; Atkin, Owen K.


    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R dark), and the short-term T response of R dark were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T–response curves of R dark measured over the 15–65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R dark measured at T drought on T response of R dark. However, drought increased R dark at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35–45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R dark occurred (T max) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R dark (i.e. proportional rise in R dark per 10 °C) over the 15–35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. PMID:25205579

  18. A coronal wave and an asymmetric eruptive filament in SUMER, CDS, EIT, and TRACE co-observations (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.; Shetye, J.


    erupting filament material is found to emit only in spectral lines at transition region temperatures. Earlier identification of a coronal response detected in the Mg x 609.79 Å line is found to be caused by a blend from the O iv 609.83 Å line. Conclusions: We present a unique analysis of the complex phenomenon called "EIT/coronal wave", confirming its bimodal nature. We suggest that the disintegration of the dimming/CME and the CME-driven compression are either caused by a CME-CME interaction taking place in the low solar atmosphere or by an impulsive CME cavity overexpansion in the low solar atmosphere. A movie associated to Fig. A.1 is available in electronic form at

  19. Deformation and rupture behavior of Argentine Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in the temperature range from 700 to 1200deg C at different heating rates in inert atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, M.E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Erbacher, F.J.


    In the tube burst apparatus TUBA burst tests were performed at CNEA/CAC-Buenos Aires in short Zircaloy-4 tube specimens. The main objective was to investigate the deformation and burst behavior of Argentine cladding tubes and to compare it with data obtained by others. It was found that the burst data e.g. burst temperature and circumferential burst strain and the influence of different heating rates are in good agreement with those from other origin. (orig.). [Deutsch] In der Rohrberstversuchsanlage TUBA (Tube Burst Apparatus) wurden bei CNEA/CAC-Buenos Aires Berstversuche an kurzen Zircaloy-4-Rohrabschnitten durchgefuehrt. Die wesentliche Zielsetzung war die Untersuchung des Verformungs- und Berstverhaltens von Huellrohren aus argentinischer Herstellung und sein Vergleich mit dem aus anderen Laendern. Ein Vergleich der ermittelten Berstdaten wie z.B. Bersttemperatur und Berstdehnung sowie deren Beeinflussung durch unterschiedliche Aufheizraten ergab eine gute Uebereinstimmung mit den Berstdaten von Zircaloy-4 Huellrohren aus anderer Herstellung. (orig.).

  20. A Long Look at MCG-5-23-16 with NuSTAR . I. Relativistic Reflection and Coronal Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lohfink, A. M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Walton, D. J.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); García, J. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koss, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space. National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    MCG-5-23-16 was targeted in early 2015 with a half mega-second observing campaign using NuSTAR . Here we present the spectral analysis of these data sets along with an earlier observation and study the relativistic reflection and the primary coronal source. The data show strong reflection features in the form of both narrow and broad iron lines plus a Compton reflection hump. A cutoff energy is significantly detected in all exposures. The shape of the reflection spectrum does not change in the two years spanned by the observations, suggesting a stable geometry. A strong positive correlation is found between the cutoff energy and both the hard X-ray flux and spectral index. The measurements imply that the coronal plasma is not at the runaway electron–positron pair limit, and instead contains mostly electrons. The observed variability in the coronal properties is driven by a variable optical depth. A constant heating-to-cooling ratio is measured, implying that there is a feedback mechanism in which a significant fraction of the photons cooling the corona are due to reprocessed hard X-rays.

  1. Evolution of an equatorial coronal hole structure and the released coronal hole wind stream: Carrington rotations 2039 to 2050 (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Verena; Peleikis, Thies; Kruse, Martin; Berger, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.


    Context. The Sun is a highly dynamic environment that exhibits dynamic behavior on many different timescales. Variability is observed both in closed and in open field line regions in the solar corona. In particular, coronal holes exhibit temporal and spatial variability. Signatures of these coronal dynamics are inherited by the coronal hole wind streams that originate in these regions and can effect the Earth's magnetosphere. Both the cause of the observed variabilities and how these translate to fluctuations in the in situ observed solar wind is not yet fully understood. Aims: During solar activity minimum the structure of the magnetic field typically remains stable over several Carrington rotations (CRs). But how stable is the solar magnetic field? Here, we address this question by analyzing the evolution of a coronal hole structure and the corresponding coronal hole wind stream emitted from this source region over 12 consecutive CRs in 2006. Methods: To this end, we link in situ observations of Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) with synoptic maps of Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) at the photospheric level through a combination of ballistic back-mapping and a potential field source surface (PFSS) approach. Together, these track the evolution of the open field line region that is identified as the source region of a recurring coronal hole wind stream. Under the assumptions of the freeze-in scenario for charge states in the solar wind, we derive freeze-in temperatures and determine the order in which the different charge state ratios of ion pairs appear to freeze-in. We call the combination of freeze-in temperatures derived from in situ observed ion density ratios and freeze-in order a minimal electron temperature profile and investigate its variability. Results: The in situ properties and the PFSS model together probe the lateral magnetic field

  2. Observations and Modeling of Plasma Waves in the Solar Atmosphere (United States)

    Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Downs, C.


    The solar atmosphere, especially the extended corona, provides rich observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and plasma waves in general. Such waves can be used as seismological tools to probe the physical conditions of the medium in which they travel, such as the coronal magnetic field and plasma parameters. Recent high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and in UV by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have opened a new chapter in understanding these waves and in utilizing them for coronal seismology. We will review such new observations of two intimately related phenomena - global EUV waves (so-called "EIT waves") associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and quasi-periodic, fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains associated with flares. We will focus on the generation and propagation of global EUV waves and their interaction with coronal structures, as well as the correlation of AIA-detected fast-mode wave trains with flare pulsations seen from radio to hard X-ray wavelengths. We will also present recent MHD modeling efforts in reproducing these waves using realistic, observationally-driven simulations. We will discuss the roles of such waves in energy transport within the solar atmosphere and in their associated CME/flare eruptions.

  3. The Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics Coronal Tectonics Code: Implementation on GPU Accelerated Machines (United States)

    Lin, L.; Ng, C.-S.; Bhattacharjee, A.


    We have recently carried out a computational campaign to investigate a model of coronal heating in three-dimensions using reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Our code is built on a conventional scheme using the pseudo-spectral method, and is parallelized using MPI. The current investigation requires very long time integrations using high Lundquist numbers, where the formation of very fine current layers challenge the resolutions achievable even on massively parallel machines. We present here results of a port to Nvidia CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) for hardware acceleration using graphics processing units (GPUs). In addition to a brief discussion of our general strategy, we will report code performance on several machines which span a variety of hardware configurations and capabilities. These include a dedicated research workstation equipped with four Nvidia C2050 GPUs, as well as several large-scale GPU accelerated distributed memory machines: Lincoln/NCSA, Dirac/NERSC, and Keeneland/NICS.

  4. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min [Dentium Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.a [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  5. Core and Wing Densities of Asymmetric Coronal Spectral Profiles: Implications for the Mass Supply of the Solar Corona (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R.


    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding approximately equal to 50 km per sec. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe(sub XIV) lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Angstroms is used to determine wing and core densities.We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe(sub XIV) lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  6. Cyclical Variation of the Quiet Corona and Coronal Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    spectroheliograms obtained at Kitt Peak since the 1970s provides a proxy to the X- ray corona, with continuity and time span superior to X-ray observations. The rotation rate of coronal holes has been studied based on the helium 10830 Å spectroheliograms by Navarro-Peralta & Sanchez-Ibarra (1994), and by Insley et al.

  7. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties Ν ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Astr. (2000) 21, 413 417. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties. Ν. Gopalswamy1,2*, Κ. Shibasaki3, & Μ. Salem4. 1. Bldg 26, Room Gl, Code 682.3, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt MD, USA. 2 Center for Solar Physics and Space Weather, The Catholic University of America,. Washington DC 20064.

  8. African Culture and Communication Systems in the Coronation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African culture cannot be detached from the mode of communication of Africans. In this study, the writer examined the aspects of African culture communicated during the coronation of the 27th Ata Igala of Kogi State, North-central Nigeria. The study was motivated by the fact that the Ata, Idakwo Michael Ameh Oboni, rather ...

  9. Non-Equilibrium Ionization Effects Induced During Coronal Flares (United States)

    Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Reale, F.; Rosner, R.; Siegel, A.

    We present preliminary results of hydrodynamic modeling of flares occurring in plasma confined in coronal loops. Our analysis focuses on the deviations from ionization equilibrium on the population fractions of the most abundant elements in astrophysical plasmas, and on the possible implications for plasma diagnostics.

  10. Solar Coronal Plumes and the Fast Solar Wind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Before the spectroscopic peculiarities in IPRs and plumes in Polar Coronal Holes (PCHs) can be further investigated with the instrument Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), it is mandatory to summarize the results of the ...

  11. Solar wind heavy ions from energetic coronal events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bame, S.J.


    Ions heavier than those of He can be resolved in the solar wind with electrostatic E/q analyzers when the local thermal temperatures are low. Ordinarily this condition prevails in the low speed solar wind found between high speed streams, i.e. the interstream, IS, solar wind. Various ions of O, Si and Fe are resolved in IS heavy ion spectra. Relative ion peak intensities indicate that the O ionization state is established in the IS coronal source regions at approx. 2.1 x 10/sup 6/K while the state of Fe is frozen in at approx. 1.5 x 10/sup 6/K farther out. Occasionally, anomalous spectra are observed in which the usually third most prominent ion peak, O/sup 8 +/, is depressed as are the Fe peaks ranging from Fe/sup 12 +/ to Fe/sup 7 +/. A prominent peak in the usual Si/sup 8 +/ position of IS spectra is self-consistently shown to be Fe/sup 16 +/. These features demonstrate that the ionization states were frozen in at higher than usual coronal temperatures. The source regions of these hot heavy ion spectra are identified as energetic coronal events including flares and nonflare coronal mass ejections. 24 references.

  12. RADIOLOGICAL TIPS Coronal views of the paediatric mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss 4 cases seen over the last 18 months at Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital in an effort to highlight the importance of routinely reviewing coronal views of the mandibular condyle when interpreting trauma-related computerised tomography brain (CTB) studies in a paediatric setting. The mandible is the ...

  13. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the individual and combined effects of radiation and thermal conduction are studied by displaying the analytical solution numerically. Our discussions and conclusions are presented in Section 5. 2. The model and governing equations. We model a straight coronal loop, in which the magnetic field is uniform and in.

  14. Distribution of Latitudes and Speeds of Coronal Mass Ejections in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Distribution of latitudes and speeds of Coronal Mass Ejec- tions (CMEs) in the northern and southern hemispheres in cycle 23, from. September 1996 to December 2006, have been analyzed. By calculating the actual probability of the hemispheric distribution of the activity of the. CME, we find that a southern ...

  15. Do slow shocks precede some coronal mass ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Holzer, T.E.; Low, B.C.


    The observed speeds of coronal mass ejections are often below the estimated Alfven speed but above the sound speed for the background solar corona. This suggets that slow magnetohydrodynamic shocks may form as mass ejections sweep through the corona. We argue on the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the propagation of small-amplitude slow mode waves that the shape of a slow shock front would be flattened (with respect to a sun-centered sphere) or perhaps even concave outward (from the sun) and thus present a very different appearance from the fast coronal shock waves that have been commonly modeled as wrapping around a mass ejection. The region behind a slow shock front standing just off the top of a coronal mass ejection would extend well out beyond the visible flanks of the ejection. The deflections of coronal structures that are commonly observed well outside of these flanks (and which are inconsistent with a fast shock wrapped around the mass ejection) are consistent with the presence of the slow shock, whether they lie in the enlarged postshock region or in a region still further beyond. Although the flattering of the tops of some mass ejections suggests our proposed slow shock configuration, a true test of its existence awaits formulation of quantitative models and detailed comparison with observations. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  16. The Enhanced Coronal Green Line Intensity and the Magnetic Field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sun: Corona—emergence of magnetic flux. Extended abstract. Ramesh, Nagabhushana and Varghese (1999) have shown that the green line intensity enhancement does not depend entirely on the strength of the underlying spot magnetic field though the coronal intensity enhanced feature is almost sure to occur at the.

  17. Oblique Propagation and Dissipation of Alfven Waves in Coronal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 28; Issue 1 ... Sun: Alfvén waves; coronal holes; solar wind. ... For any propagation angle, the energy flux density and damping length scale also show a decrement in the source region of the solar wind (< 1.05 R⊙) where these may be one of the primary ...

  18. Case report: pre-eruptive intra-coronal radiolucencies revisited. (United States)

    Counihan, K P; O'Connell, A C


    Pre-eruptive intra-coronal radiolucency (PEIR) describes a radiolucent lesion located in the coronal dentine, just beneath the enamel-dentine junction of unerupted teeth. The prevalence of this lesion varies depending on the type and quality of radiographic exposure and age of patients used for assessment. The aetiology of pre-eruptive intra-coronal radiolucent lesions is not fully understood, but published clinical and histological evidence suggest that these lesions are resorptive in nature. Issues around the diagnosis, treatment planning and clinical management of this lesion are explored using previously unreported cases. Case 1: A ten-year-old girl attended for a routine check-up. An intra-coronal radiolucency in the unerupted lower right second premolar was an incidental finding on orthopantomograph (OPT). The tooth erupted and removal of enamel revealed a space filled with soft red tissue, unlike carious dentine in appearance. The tooth was restored with an indirect pulp cap, resin modified glass ionomer base and composite resin. Tissue from the lesion was removed for histopathological investigation. Root development continued to completion and the tooth remained asymptomatic and vital. Case 2: A six-year-old girl attended for her first dental visit. An intra-coronal radiolucency in a lower right first permanent molar was noted on baseline bitewing radiographs. The lesion was monitored and fissured sealed upon eruption. The lesion was monitored annually radiographically. The tooth remained symptom free for 5 years. The patient presented on an emergency basis having fractured the distolingual cusp overlying the lesion. There was no pain and the tooth was vital. The softened dentine was removed and the tooth was restored using a preformed metal crown. Case 3: A 12-year-old girl was referred for restoration of mandibular left second permanent molar. Clinically there was extensive occlusal destruction. Review of a previous OPT showed that an intra-coronal

  19. Direct Observations of Coronal Magnetic Reconnection (United States)

    Su, Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Dennis, Brian R.; Holman, Gordon D.; Wang, Tongjiang; Temmer, Manuela; Gan, Weiqun


    Magnetic field reconnection is believed to play a fundamental role in magnetized plasma systems throughout the universe, but never before has it been so clearly demonstrated as in the EUV and X-ray movies of a GOES-C-class solar flare presented here. The multiwavelength EUV observations from SDO/AIA show the predicted inflowing cool loops and newly formed outflowing hot loops while simultaneous RHESSI X-ray spectra and images show the appearance of plasma heated to >10 MK at the expected locations. These two data sets provide solid visual evidence of magnetic reconnection producing a solar flare. The non-uniform, nonsteady, and asymmetric nature of the observed process, together with the measured reconnection rates, supports the so called flux-pile-up reconnection. These new features of plasma inflows should be included in reconnection and flare studies.

  20. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai


    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  1. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  2. Coronal Electron Confinement by Double Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T C; Swisdak, M


    In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons (T.C. Li, J.F. Drake, and M. Swisdak, 2012, ApJ, 757, 20). The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations, and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and find also a linear scaling with the hot e...

  3. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.


    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  4. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Graz (Austria); Vennerstrom, Susanne [National Space Institute, DTU Space (Denmark); Vršnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Zagreb (Croatia); Heber, Bernd, E-mail: [Universität Kiel, Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany)


    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO /AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic field densities, the local distribution of the SDO /AIA-193 intensity and the magnetic field within the coronal holes, and the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in coronal holes. We find that the mean magnetic field density of all coronal holes under study is 3.0 ± 1.6 G, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux is 49 ± 16%. The mean magnetic field density, the mean unsigned magnetic field density, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes depend strongly pairwise on each other, with correlation coefficients cc > 0.92. Furthermore, we find that the unbalanced magnetic flux of the coronal holes is predominantly concentrated in magnetic flux tubes: 38% (81%) of the unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes arises from only 1% (10%) of the coronal hole area, clustered in magnetic flux tubes with field strengths >50 G (10 G). The average magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux derived from the magnetic flux tubes correlate with the mean magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux of the overall coronal hole (cc>0.93). These findings give evidence that the overall magnetic characteristics of coronal holes are governed by the characteristics of the magnetic flux tubes.

  5. Quantification of osseous facial dysmorphology in untreated unilateral coronal synostosis. (United States)

    Kane, A A; Kim, Y O; Eaton, A; Pilgram, T K; Marsh, J L; Zonneveld, F; Larsen, P; Kreiborg, S


    Unilateral coronal synostosis results in dysmorphology of the midface in addition to well-characterized cranial and orbital deformities. Because most American infants with this problem have undergone cranio-orbital surgery within their first year of life for the past 25 years, a paucity of data exist regarding the natural history of untreated unilateral coronal synostosis. In an attempt to remedy this void, an international search was conducted to identify computed tomography data sets of living individuals with untreated unilateral coronal synostosis; data were obtained from two European centers and one center in the United States. Results limited to the study of the midface are presented here. Digital data from high-resolution head computed tomography scans of 11 living, white individuals with untreated unilateral coronal synostosis were obtained from three craniofacial centers (in Denmark, The Netherlands, and the United States). Image volumes were constructed from each scan using ANALYZE biomedical imaging software. Fourteen pairs of three-dimensional distances were calculated on the ipsilateral (the side of the synostosis) and the contralateral (the side opposite to the synostosis) hemifaces using 11 osseous landmarks. The resulting measurements were expressed as a ratio of the ipsilateral: contralateral sides. Descriptive statistics were derived for the untreated unilateral coronal synostosis population and compared with analogous measurements performed on dried skulls. Age at computed tomography ranged from 1.1 to 21.1 years (mean, 6.6 years; median, 4.1 years). Twelve of the 14 measured distances differed by greater than 5 percent on the ipsilateral side, and all but one of these measurements were decreased on the ipsilateral side when compared with contralateral values. The results of this study support the following conclusions: (1) There are discrete and measurable differences in the facial morphology between patients with untreated unilateral coronal

  6. Is tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control? (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Bruntz, Robert; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel; Pastirčák, Vladimír


    More than four decades have passed since a link between solar wind magnetic sector boundary structure and mid-latitude upper tropospheric vorticity was discovered (Wilcox et al., Science, 180, 185-186, 1973). The link has been later confirmed and various physical mechanisms proposed but apart from controversy, little attention has been drawn to these results. To further emphasize their importance we investigate the occurrence of mid-latitude severe weather in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) system. It is observed that significant snowstorms, windstorms and heavy rain, particularly if caused by low pressure systems in winter, tend to follow arrivals of high-speed solar wind. Previously published statistical evidence that explosive extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere tend to occur after arrivals of high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes (Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 1-30, 2009; Prikryl et al., J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 149, 219-231, 2016) is corroborated for the southern hemisphere. A physical mechanism to explain these observations is proposed. The leading edge of high-speed solar wind streams is a locus of large-amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves that modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate upward and downward through the atmosphere. Simulations of gravity wave propagation in a model atmosphere using the Transfer Function Model (Mayr et al., Space Sci. Rev., 54, 297-375, 1990) show that propagating waves originating in the thermosphere can excite a spectrum of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. In spite of significantly reduced amplitudes but subject to amplification upon reflection in the upper troposphere, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release instabilities in the troposphere thus initiating convection to form cloud/precipitation bands

  7. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie


    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  8. Relation between incremental lines and tensile strength of coronal dentin. (United States)

    Inoue, Toshiko; Saito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masato; Nishimura, Fumio; Miyazaki, Takashi


    In one aspect, this study examined the tensile strength of coronal dentin, as a function of the location of incremental lines, in two types of teeth: human molar versus bovine incisor. In another aspect, tensile strength in coronal dentin was examined with tensile loading in two different orientations to the incremental lines: parallel versus perpendicular. There were four experimental groups in this study: HPa, human molar dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; HPe, human molar dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines; BPa, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; BPe, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines. Tensile strengths of the parallel group (HPa and BPa) were significantly higher (pdentin. However, there were no differences in anisotropy effect between the two tooth types.

  9. A Breakout Model for Solar Coronal Jets with Filaments (United States)

    Wyper, P. F.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.


    Recent observations have revealed that many solar coronal jets involve the eruption of miniature versions of large-scale filaments. Such “mini-filaments” are observed to form along the polarity inversion lines of strong, magnetically bipolar regions embedded in open (or distantly closing) unipolar field. During the generation of the jet, the filament becomes unstable and erupts. Recently we described a model for these mini-filament jets, in which the well-known magnetic-breakout mechanism for large-scale coronal mass ejections is extended to these smaller events. In this work we use 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study in detail three realizations of the model. We show that the breakout-jet generation mechanism is robust and that different realizations of the model can explain different observational features. The results are discussed in relation to recent observations and previous jet models.

  10. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan


    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  11. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita


    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  12. The surface heat budget of Hudson Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielson, E.W


    ... which information the heat budget calculations are based. These data include surface air and sea temperatures, ice concentration, cloudiness, wind, atmospheric moisture, ice and water movement, and heat storage amounts within Hudson Bay waters...

  13. Coronal and heliospheric imagers for solar wind phenomena (United States)

    Middleton, Kevin F.; Bourdelle, Anthony; Davies, Jackie A.; Eyles, Chris J.; Griffin, Doug K.; Harrison, Richard A.; Richards, Tony R.; Rogers, J. Kevin; Tappin, S. James; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Waltham, Nick R.


    RAL Space is enhancing its program to lead the development of European capabilities in space-based visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging instrumentation in the light of emerging opportunities such as the European Space Agency's Space Situational Awareness program and recent S2 small-mission call. Visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging of solar wind phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections and interaction regions, is of critical importance to space weather studies, both operationally and in terms of enabling the underpinning science. This work draws on heritage from scientific instruments such as LASCO (Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph) on the SOHO spacecraft, SMEI (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) on the Coriolis spacecraft and the HI (Heliospheric Imager) instruments on STEREO. Such visible-light observation of solar wind structures relies on the detection of sunlight that has been Thomson-scattered by electrons (the so-called K-corona). The Thomson-scattered signal must be extracted from other signals that can be many orders of magnitude greater (such as that from the F-corona and the solar disc itself) and this places stringent constraints on stray-light rejection, as well as pointing stability and accuracy. We discuss the determination of instrument requirements, key design trade-offs and the evolution of base-line designs for the coronal and heliospheric regimes. We explain how the next generation of instruments will build on this heritage while also, in some cases, meeting the challenges on resources imposed on operational space weather imagers. In particular, we discuss the optical engineering challenges involved in the design of these instruments.

  14. Extended HXR Sources - Albedo Patches or Coronal Sources (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.


    Extended HXR sources in the presence of compact footpoints have been reported based on visibility amplitudes from different detectors. Attempts have been made to determine the location and extent of these sources through direct imaging. Results of this work will be described for simulated sources and for specific flares at different solar longitudes, with a discussion of the possible nature of the extended sources as either albedo patches or coronal sources or a combination of the two.

  15. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)


    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  16. Measuring the magnetic field of a trans-equatorial loop system using coronal seismology (United States)

    Long, D. M.; Valori, G.; Pérez-Suárez, D.; Morton, R. J.; Vásquez, A. M.


    Context. EIT waves are freely-propagating global pulses in the low corona which are strongly associated with the initial evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). They are thought to be large-amplitude, fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic waves initially driven by the rapid expansion of a CME in the low corona. Aims: An EIT wave was observed on 6 July 2012 to impact an adjacent trans-equatorial loop system which then exhibited a decaying oscillation as it returned to rest. Observations of the loop oscillations were used to estimate the magnetic field strength of the loop system by studying the decaying oscillation of the loop, measuring the propagation of ubiquitous transverse waves in the loop and extrapolating the magnetic field from observed magnetograms. Methods: Observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA) and the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) were used to study the event. An Empirical Mode Decomposition analysis was used to characterise the oscillation of the loop system in CoMP Doppler velocity and line width and in AIA intensity. Results: The loop system was shown to oscillate in the 2nd harmonic mode rather than at the fundamental frequency, with the seismological analysis returning an estimated magnetic field strength of ≈ 5.5 ± 1.5 G. This compares to the magnetic field strength estimates of ≈1-9 G and ≈3-9 G found using the measurements of transverse wave propagation and magnetic field extrapolation respectively. A movie associated to Figs. 1 and 2 is available at

  17. Acquisition of thin coronal sectional dataset of cadaveric liver. (United States)

    Lou, Li; Liu, Shu Wei; Zhao, Zhen Mei; Tang, Yu Chun; Lin, Xiang Tao


    To obtain the thin coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver by using digital freezing milling technique. The upper abdomen of one Chinese adult cadaver was selected as the specimen. After CT and MRI examinations verification of absent liver lesions, the specimen was embedded with gelatin in stand erect position and frozen under profound hypothermia, and the specimen was then serially sectioned from anterior to posterior layer by layer with digital milling machine in the freezing chamber. The sequential images were captured by means of a digital camera and the dataset was imported to imaging workstation. The thin serial section of the liver added up to 699 layers with each layer being 0.2 mm in thickness. The shape, location, structure, intrahepatic vessels and adjacent structures of the liver was displayed clearly on each layer of the coronal sectional slice. CT and MR images through the body were obtained at 1.0 and 3.0 mm intervals, respectively. The methodology reported here is an adaptation of the milling methods previously described, which is a new data acquisition method for sectional anatomy. The thin coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver obtained by this technique is of high precision and good quality.

  18. Mission Prospects: Remote Sensing of Coronal Suprathermal Seed Particles (United States)

    Moses, J.; Laming, J. M.; Ko, Y.


    A new perspective on the feasibility of remote sensing detection and characterization of suprathermal particles serving the role of seeds in solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration has recently been achieved via a combination of theoretical (Laming et al. 2013 and experimental (Kohl et al. 2011, Moses et al. 2011 developments. The location, density and velocity distribution of these seed particles can now be established as science observing requirements for instrument specification. The most promising instrumentation for these observations is a UV coronal spectrometer. While the spectroscopic and spatial resolution of the one existing, spaceflight UV coronal spectrometer - SOHO UVCS - meets this specification; the effective area of this instrument is two orders of magnitude too low. Initial attempts at achieving increased effective area by directly scaling UVCS have not been successfully transitioned into flight programs (e.g. Gardner et al. 1999, 'Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer Mission (ASCE)', SPIE 3764, 134). With the recent development of instrument designs achieving the requisite increase in effective area within a volume envelope comparable to UVCS, the options for achieving a successful flight program have been increased. This work is supported in part by the Office of Naval Research/Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research (6.1) Program and NASA-DoD PR 12SHP12/2-0151.

  19. Ultraviolet Thomson Scattering from Direct-Drive Coronal Plasmas (United States)

    Henchen, R. J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Michel, D. T.; Follett, R. K.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.


    Ultraviolet (λ4 ω = 263 nm) Thomson scattering (TS) was used to probe ion-acoustic waves (IAW's) and electron plasma waves (EPW's) from direct-drive coronal plasmas. Fifty-nine drive beams (λ3 ω = 351 nm) illuminate a spherical target with a radius of ~860 μm. Advances in the ultraviolet (UV) TS diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility provide the ability to detect deep UV photons (~190 nm) and allow access to scattered light from EPW's propagating near the 3 ω quarter-critical surface (~2.5 × 1021 cm-3) . A series of experiments studied the effects of ablator materials on coronal plasma conditions. Electron temperatures and densities were measured from 150 μm to 400 μm from the initial target surface. Standard CH shells were compared to three-layered shells consisting of Si doped CH, Si, and Be. Early analysis indicates that these multilayered targets have less hot-electron energy as a result of higher electron temperature in the coronal plasma. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Nanoflares and Heating of the Solar Corona U. Narain & K. Pandey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is likely that the nanoflare heating can be reproduced by dissipating Alfvén waves. Only observations from future space missions such as Solar-B, to be launched in 2006, can shed further light on whether Alfvén waves or nanoflares, heat the solar corona. Key words. Sun: stars—magnetic reconnection: coronal heating—.

  1. A model for the estimation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture of the cloud topped marine atmospheric boundary layer from satellite measurable parameters. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Allison, D. E.


    A model is developed for the estimation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture of the cloud topped marine atmospheric boundary layer by use of satellite remotely sensed parameters. The parameters chosen for the problem are the integrated liquid water content, q sub li, the integrated water vapor content, q sub vi, the cloud top temperature, and either a measure of the 10 meter neutral wind speed or the friction velocity at the surface. Under the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous, well-mixed boundary layer, the model calculates the equivalent potential temperature and total water profiles of the boundary layer along with the boundary layer height from inputs of q sub li, q sub vi, and cloud top temperature. These values, along with the 10m neutral wind speed or friction velocity and the sea surface temperature are then used to estimate the surface fluxes. The development of a scheme to parameterize the integrated water vapor outside of the boundary layer for the cases of cold air outbreak and California coastal stratus is presented.

  2. Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence. IV. Solar Coronal Turbulence (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.


    A new model describing the transport and evolution of turbulence in the quiet solar corona is presented. In the low plasma beta environment, transverse photospheric convective fluid motions drive predominantly quasi-2D (nonpropagating) turbulence in the mixed-polarity “magnetic carpet,” together with a minority slab (Alfvénic) component. We use a simplified sub-Alfvénic flow velocity profile to solve transport equations describing the evolution and dissipation of turbulence from 1\\hspace{0.5em}{{t}}{{o}} 15 {R}ȯ (including the Alfvén surface). Typical coronal base parameters are used, although one model uses correlation lengths derived observationally by Abramenko et al., and the other assumes values 10 times larger. The model predicts that (1) the majority quasi-2D turbulence evolves from a balanced state at the coronal base to an imbalanced state, with outward fluctuations dominating, at and beyond the Alfvén surface, i.e., inward turbulent fluctuations are dissipated preferentially; (2) the initially imbalanced slab component remains imbalanced throughout the solar corona, being dominated by outwardly propagating Alfvén waves, and wave reflection is weak; (3) quasi-2D turbulence becomes increasingly magnetized, and beyond ∼ 6 {R}ȯ , the kinetic energy is mainly in slab fluctuations; (4) there is no accumulation of inward energy at the Alfvén surface; (5) inertial range quasi-2D rather than slab fluctuations are preferentially dissipated within ∼ 3 {R}ȯ ; and (6) turbulent dissipation of quasi-2D fluctuations is sufficient to heat the corona to temperatures ∼ 2× {10}6 K within 2 {R}ȯ , consistent with observations that suggest that the fast solar wind is accelerated most efficiently between ∼ 2\\hspace{0.5em}{{a}}{{n}}{{d}} 4 {R}ȯ .

  3. Chemical heat pump (United States)

    Greiner, Leonard


    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  4. Urban atmospheres. (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew


    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  5. Current systems of coronal loops in 3D MHD simulations (United States)

    Warnecke, J.; Chen, F.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.


    Aims: We study the magnetic field and current structure associated with a coronal loop. Through this we investigate to what extent the assumptions of a force-free magnetic field break down and where they might be justified. Methods: We analyze a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the solar corona in an emerging active region with the focus on the structure of the forming coronal loops. The lower boundary of this simulation is taken from a model of an emerging active region. As a consequence of the emerging magnetic flux and the horizontal motions at the surface a coronal loop forms self-consistently. We investigate the current density along magnetic field lines inside (and outside) this loop and study the magnetic and plasma properties in and around this loop. The loop is defined as the bundle of field lines that coincides with enhanced emission in extreme UV. Results: We find that the total current along the emerging loop changes its sign from being antiparallel to parallel to the magnetic field. This is caused by the inclination of the loop together with the footpoint motion. Around the loop, the currents form a complex non-force-free helical structure. This is directly related to a bipolar current structure at the loop footpoints at the base of the corona and a local reduction of the background magnetic field (I.e., outside the loop) caused by the plasma flow into and along the loop. Furthermore, the locally reduced magnetic pressure in the loop allows the loop to sustain a higher density, which is crucial for the emission in extreme UV. The action of the flow on the magnetic field hosting the loop turns out to also be responsible for the observed squashing of the loop. Conclusions: The complex magnetic field and current system surrounding it can only be modeled in 3D MHD models where the magnetic field has to balance the plasma pressure. A one-dimensional coronal loop model or a force-free extrapolation cannot capture the current system

  6. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  7. Heat Waves (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  8. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  9. Magnus: A New Resistive MHD Code with Heat Flow Terms (United States)

    Navarro, Anamaría; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.


    We present a new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code for the simulation of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, under the effects of electrical resistivity—but not dominant—and heat transference in a uniform 3D grid. The code is based on the finite-volume method combined with the HLLE and HLLC approximate Riemann solvers, which use different slope limiters like MINMOD, MC, and WENO5. In order to control the growth of the divergence of the magnetic field, due to numerical errors, we apply the Flux Constrained Transport method, which is described in detail to understand how the resistive terms are included in the algorithm. In our results, it is verified that this method preserves the divergence of the magnetic fields within the machine round-off error (˜ 1× {10}-12). For the validation of the accuracy and efficiency of the schemes implemented in the code, we present some numerical tests in 1D and 2D for the ideal MHD. Later, we show one test for the resistivity in a magnetic reconnection process and one for the thermal conduction, where the temperature is advected by the magnetic field lines. Moreover, we display two numerical problems associated with the MHD wave propagation. The first one corresponds to a 3D evolution of a vertical velocity pulse at the photosphere-transition-corona region, while the second one consists of a 2D simulation of a transverse velocity pulse in a coronal loop.

  10. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper


    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  11. Atmospheric pollution and heating plants in urban area. What technical solutions for the coal and the heavy oil? For which costs?; Pollution atmospherique et chaufferies en milieu urbain. Quelles solutions techniques pour le charbon et le fioul lourd?. A quel couts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In France, furnaces fed with coal and heavy fuel and established in urban area, are bound by many restraints: a reinforcement of the regulations on atmospheric emissions, a strong social demand bound to the urban air quality improvement and a necessary costs mastership. So buildings managers and persons responsible for district heating are confronted with technical and strategical choices. To answer their questions ADEME organized a day of information around four main themes: the urban heating in France, actions on fuels, possible technics for the smokes desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, costs and financing of the solutions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Small-scale filament eruptions as the driver of X-ray jets in solar coronal holes (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Adams, Mitzi


    Solar X-ray jets are thought to be made by a burst of reconnection of closed magnetic field at the base of a jet with ambient open field. In the accepted version of the `emerging-flux' model, such a reconnection occurs at a plasma current sheet between the open field and the emerging closed field, and also forms a localized X-ray brightening that is usually observed at the edge of the jet's base. Here we report high-resolution X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet observations of 20 randomly selected X-ray jets that form in coronal holes at the Sun's poles. In each jet, contrary to the emerging-flux model, a miniature version of the filament eruptions that initiate coronal mass ejections drives the jet-producing reconnection. The X-ray bright point occurs by reconnection of the `legs' of the minifilament-carrying erupting closed field, analogous to the formation of solar flares in larger-scale eruptions. Previous observations have found that some jets are driven by base-field eruptions, but only one such study, of only one jet, provisionally questioned the emerging-flux model. Our observations support the view that solar filament eruptions are formed by a fundamental explosive magnetic process that occurs on a vast range of scales, from the biggest mass ejections and flare eruptions down to X-ray jets, and perhaps even down to smaller jets that may power coronal heating. A similar scenario has previously been suggested, but was inferred from different observations and based on a different origin of the erupting minifilament.

  13. Three-dimensional multi-fluid model of a coronal streamer belt with a tilted magnetic dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ofman


    Full Text Available Observations of streamers in extreme ultraviolet (EUV emission with SOHO/UVCS show dramatic differences in line profiles and latitudinal variations in heavy ion emission compared to hydrogen Ly-α emission. In order to use ion emission observations of streamers as the diagnostics of the slow solar wind properties, an adequate model of a streamer including heavy ions is required. We extended a previous 2.5-D multi-species magnetohydrodynamics (MHD model of a coronal streamer to 3-D spherical geometry, and in the first approach we consider a tilted dipole configuration of the solar magnetic field. The aim of the present study is to test the 3-D results by comparing to previous 2.5-D model result for a 3-D case with moderate departure from azimuthal symmetry. The model includes O5+ ions with preferential empirical heating and allows for calculation of their density, velocity and temperature in coronal streamers. We present the first results of our 3-D multi-fluid model showing the parameters of protons, electrons and heavy ions (O5+ at the steady-state solar corona with a tilted steamer belt. We find that the 3-D results are in qualitative agreement with our previous 2.5-D model, and show longitudinal variation in the variables in accordance with the tilted streamer belt structure. Properties of heavy coronal ions obtained from the 3-D model together with EUV spectroscopic observations of streamers will help understanding the 3-D structures of streamers reducing line-of-sight integration ambiguities and identifying the sources of the slow solar wind in the lower corona. This leads to improved understanding of the physics of the slow solar wind.

  14. Coronal pulp biomarker: A lesser known age estimation modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrithi D Veera


    Full Text Available Introduction: The evolving state of art digital technology currently available is opening new avenues in forensic odontology for age estimation methods which are subject to debate in terms of accuracy and precision. A study was carried to analyze efficacy and practical application for age estimation using digital panoramic radiographs on South Indian population. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study reduction of coronal pulp chamber using Tooth Coronal Index (TCI on panoramic radiographs and correlate with chronologic age. 2. To establish accuracy of digital panoramic radiographs as a simple, non-invasive tool. Materials and Methods: The study illustrates the potential value of a little known aging method. The study groups comprised a total of 100 subjects of both sexes in age range of 20 and 60 years each who were subjected to panoramic radiography. A panoramic radiographic examination using digital panoramic machine was conducted on selected individuals. The TCI was calibrated using AGFA computer software for accuracy and precision. The values obtained were subjected to regression analysis, results calculated and correlated with chronologic age. In the present study a population of known age was studied and subjected to digital panoramic radiographic examination. The correlation between reduction of coronal pulp cavity and chronological age was examined. TCI was computed for each tooth and regressed on real age. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation co-efficient was used to find the significance of relationship between age and TCI. Regression analysis has been used for predicting age using TCI for premolar and molar. Inaccuracy and bias have been determined to assess the precision of prediction equations. Results and Conclusion: Prediction potential of TCI comes down for ages above 50 years and is comfortably good below 50 years without much difference between premolars and molars. This study demonstrates the potential value of TCI for age

  15. The coronation of Christian monarchs: historical and sacramentological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legeyev Mikhail Viktorovich


    Full Text Available The article presents a history of inaugural ceremonies of the Christian monarchs reveals the origins of the rite of coronation. Specifically it is noted that there was a reception of the Old Testament tradition, when the Emperor before the accession to the Throne used the Holy oil or Myrrh (depending on the ethnic or confessional tradition. In addition, there was a so-called “churching” of social rituals, which existed in the Roman Empire and other pagan monarchies almost since the dawn of civilization. In summary, it is proved that the anointing on a Kingdom is one of the Church sacraments.

  16. VLA Measurements of Faraday Rotation through Coronal Mass Ejections


    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R.


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of plasma from the Sun that play an important role in space weather. Faraday rotation (FR) is the rotation of the plane of polarization that results when a linearly polarized signal passes through a magnetized plasma such as a CME. FR observations of a source near the Sun can provide information on the plasma structure of a CME shortly after launch. We report on simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of three CMEs in August...

  17. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves (United States)

    Chen, Fang C [Knoxville, TN; Mei, Viung C [Oak Ridge, TN


    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  18. High-Resolution Vector Magnetograms of the Sun's Poles from Hinode: Flux Distributions and Global Coronal Modeling (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon


    The Sun's polar fields play a leading role in structuring the large-scale solar atmosphere and in determining the interplanetary magnetic field. They are also believed to supply the seed field for the subsequent solar activity cycle. However, present-day synoptic observations do not have sufficient spatial resolution or sensitivity to diagnose accurately the high-latitude magnetic vector field. The high spatial resolution and sensitivity of the full-Stokes observations from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope Spectro-Polarimeter, observing the poles long-term, allows us to build up a detailed picture of the Cycle 24 polar field reversal, including the changing latitude distribution of the high-latitude flux, and to study the effect on global coronal field models. The Hinode observations provide detailed information on the dominant facular-scale magnetic structure of the polar fields, and their field inclination and flux distribution. Hybrid synoptic magnetograms are constructed from Hinode polar measurements and full-disk magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) Vector Spectro-Magnetograph (VSM), and coronal potential field models are calculated. Loss of effective spatial resolution at the highest latitudes presents complications. Possible improvements to synoptic polar data are discussed.

  19. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)


    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  20. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere (United States)

    Banks, P. M.


    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  1. Segmentation of photospheric magnetic elements corresponding to coronal features to understand the EUV and UV irradiance variability (United States)

    Zender, J. J.; Kariyappa, R.; Giono, G.; Bergmann, M.; Delouille, V.; Damé, L.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Kumara, S. T.


    Context. The magnetic field plays a dominant role in the solar irradiance variability. Determining the contribution of various magnetic features to this variability is important in the context of heliospheric studies and Sun-Earth connection. Aims: We studied the solar irradiance variability and its association with the underlying magnetic field for a period of five years (January 2011-January 2016). We used observations from the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA), the Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) on board PROBA2, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Methods: The Spatial Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm (SPoCA) is applied to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations obtained from the AIA to segregate coronal features by creating segmentation maps of active regions (ARs), coronal holes (CHs) and the quiet sun (QS). Further, these maps are applied to the full-disk SWAP intensity images and the full-disk (FD) HMI line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms to isolate the SWAP coronal features and photospheric magnetic counterparts, respectively. We then computed full-disk and feature-wise averages of EUV intensity and line of sight (LOS) magnetic flux density over ARs/CHs/QS/FD. The variability in these quantities is compared with that of LYRA irradiance values. Results: Variations in the quantities resulting from the segmentation, namely the integrated intensity and the total magnetic flux density of ARs/CHs/QS/FD regions, are compared with the LYRA irradiance variations. We find that the EUV intensity over ARs/CHs/QS/FD is well correlated with the underlying magnetic field. In addition, variations in the full-disk integrated intensity and magnetic flux density values are correlated with the LYRA irradiance variations. Conclusions: Using the segmented coronal features observed in the EUV wavelengths as proxies to isolate the underlying

  2. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V


    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  3. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montu Jain


    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  4. Automated Coronal Loop Identification Using Digital Image Processing Techniques (United States)

    Lee, Jong K.; Gary, G. Allen; Newman, Timothy S.


    The results of a master thesis project on a study of computer algorithms for automatic identification of optical-thin, 3-dimensional solar coronal loop centers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray 2-dimensional images will be presented. These center splines are proxies of associated magnetic field lines. The project is pattern recognition problems in which there are no unique shapes or edges and in which photon and detector noise heavily influence the images. The study explores extraction techniques using: (1) linear feature recognition of local patterns (related to the inertia-tensor concept), (2) parametric space via the Hough transform, and (3) topological adaptive contours (snakes) that constrains curvature and continuity as possible candidates for digital loop detection schemes. We have developed synthesized images for the coronal loops to test the various loop identification algorithms. Since the topology of these solar features is dominated by the magnetic field structure, a first-order magnetic field approximation using multiple dipoles provides a priori information in the identification process. Results from both synthesized and solar images will be presented.

  5. Comparing Coronal Discoloration Between AH26 and ZOE Sealers. (United States)

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Navabi, Amir Arsalan; Ekhtiari, Mahsa


    Intrinsic tooth discolorations after endodontic treatment are principally attributed to the composition of necrotic pulp tissue, hemorrhage within the pulp cavity, endodontic medicaments and/or filling materials. Residual sealer left in pulp chamber after obturation can cause discoloration. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate coronal discoloration created by AH26 and ZOE sealers after four months. Fifty intact human extracted maxillary central incisors were employed. Access cavities were prepared in all samples and root canals were instrumented; coronal orifices were then sealed using self-cure glass ionomer. The teeth were divided into two experimental groups (n=20) according to utilized sealer in pulp chambers including AH26 and Dorifill (ZOE). The remaining 10 teeth served as negative and positive controls (n=5). The access cavities were sealed with self-cure glass ionomer. Teeth were kept in incubator for four month. Preliminary digital images of the teeth were taken and then compared with those related to 4-month follow-up. The images were assessed using Photoshop software. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and independent samples t-test. The teeth which were filled with AH26 sealer showed significantly greater discoloration than those filled with ZOE sealer (Dorifill) (Pdiscoloration of the crown compared to ZOE sealer. Despite the other disadvantage of AH26 sealer, it seems that Dorifill is more esthetically considerate.

  6. Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P


    BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajfirouze, E.; Safari, H. [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, P.O. Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Nanoflares, the basic units of impulsive energy release, may produce much of the solar background emission. Extrapolation of the energy frequency distribution of observed microflares, which follows a power law to lower energies, can give an estimation of the importance of nanoflares for heating the solar corona. If the power-law index is greater than 2, then the nanoflare contribution is dominant. We model a time series of extreme-ultraviolet emission radiance as random flares with a power-law exponent of the flare event distribution. The model is based on three key parameters: the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power-law exponent of the flare intensity frequency distribution. We use this model to simulate emission line radiance detected in 171 A, observed by Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imager and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed light curves are matched with simulated light curves using an Artificial Neural Network, and the parameter values are determined across the active region, quiet Sun, and coronal hole. The damping rate of nanoflares is compared with the radiative losses cooling time. The effect of background emission, data cadence, and network sensitivity on the key parameters of the model is studied. Most of the observed light curves have a power-law exponent, {alpha}, greater than the critical value 2. At these sites, nanoflare heating could be significant.

  8. Determining the nature of active region heating using high spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray observations (United States)

    Sterrett, M. W.; Cirtain, J. W.


    Rarely have active regions on the Sun been studied at wavelengths less than 10 nm while simultaneously maintaining both high spatial and high spectral measurements. Marshall's Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) will measure the soft X-ray solar spectrum within a wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm (0.5 - 2.0 keV) while maintaining a 5 arcsec spatial resolution. The wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm can provide insight into the heating roles of two of the likely coronal heating mechanisms: nanoflare and Alfven wave heating. The key difference in nanoflares and Alfven wave heating is the high temperature components of plasmas inside single magnetic strands. If the observed frequency of the heating event is low, it is determined to be a nanoflare. If the frequency of the heating event is high, it is Alfvenic in nature. To discriminate between these two distinct events requires that the components of the local high-temperature plasma be measured. MaGIXS is a proposed sounding rocket experiment. Currently in its prototype phase, MaGIXS is being aligned and characterized in hopes of a 2015 launch. To measure the attributes of high-temperature plasma, MaGIXS will employ the use of a matched pair of parabolic mirrors in conjunction with a planar varied-line-space silicon wafer grating. The two mirrors act as a collimator and re-focusing system, molding the beam to desired specifications and removing off-axis optical aberrations in the process. The grating has a HeNe alignment feature which allows the grating to be aligned at atmospheric pressure while focusing the HeNe laser beam near the center of MaGIXS wavelength range. This presentation will cover the alignment procedure of the mirrors, and the results of preliminary testing using both white light and X-ray sources.

  9. Heat Stress (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  10. Fast magnetic twister and plasma perturbations in a three-dimensional coronal arcade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K. [Group of Astrophysics, UMCS, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Srivastava, A. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221005 (India); Musielak, Z. E., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)


    We present results of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of a fast magnetic twister excited above a foot-point of the potential solar coronal arcade that is embedded in the solar atmosphere with the initial VAL-IIIC temperature profile, which is smoothly extended into the solar corona. With the use of the FLASH code, we solve 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations by specifying a twist in the azimuthal component of magnetic field in the solar chromosphere. The imposed perturbation generates torsional Alfvén waves as well as plasma swirls that reach the other foot-point of the arcade and partially reflect back from the transition region. The two vortex channels are evident in the generated twisted flux-tube with a fragmentation near its apex which results from the initial twist as well as from the morphology of the tube. The numerical results are compared to observational data of plasma motions in a solar prominence. The comparison shows that the numerical results and the data qualitatively agree even though the observed plasma motions occur over comparatively large spatio-temporal scales in the prominence.

  11. A center-median filtering method for detection of temporal variation in coronal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plowman Joseph


    Full Text Available Events in the solar corona are often widely separated in their timescales, which can allow them to be identified when they would otherwise be confused with emission from other sources in the corona. Methods for cleanly separating such events based on their timescales are thus desirable for research in the field. This paper develops a technique for identifying time-varying signals in solar coronal image sequences which is based on a per-pixel running median filter and an understanding of photon-counting statistics. Example applications to “EIT waves” (named after EIT, the EUV Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and small-scale dynamics are shown, both using 193 Å data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The technique is found to discriminate EIT waves more cleanly than the running and base difference techniques most commonly used. It is also demonstrated that there is more signal in the data than is commonly appreciated, finding that the waves can be traced to the edge of the AIA field of view when the data are rebinned to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. The behavior of transverse waves in nonuniform solar flux tubes. II. Implications for coronal loop seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Goossens, Marcel, E-mail: [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    The seismology of coronal loops using observations of damped transverse oscillations in combination with results from theoretical models is a tool to indirectly infer physical parameters in the solar atmospheric plasma. Existing seismology schemes based on approximations of the period and damping time of kink oscillations are often used beyond their theoretical range of applicability. These approximations assume that the variation of density across the loop is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the loop, but the results of the inversion problem often do not satisfy this preliminary hypothesis. Here, we determine the accuracy of the analytic approximations of the period and damping time, and the impact on seismology estimates when largely nonuniform loops are considered. We find that the accuracy of the approximations when used beyond their range of applicability is strongly affected by the form of the density profile across the loop, that is observationally unknown and so must be arbitrarily imposed as part of the theoretical model. The error associated with the analytic approximations can be larger than 50% even for relatively thin nonuniform layers. This error directly affects the accuracy of approximate seismology estimates compared to actual numerical inversions. In addition, assuming different density profiles can produce noncoincident intervals of the seismic variables in inversions of the same event. The ignorance about the true shape of density variation across the loop is an important source of error that may dispute the reliability of parameters seismically inferred assuming an ad hoc density profile.

  13. Crown-ether linked ruthenium-coronates a new type of photostable electron transfer-sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, S.; Duerr, H. (Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany))


    A new interesting class of Ru-coronates was prepared containing a cage tritopic ligand bound to Ru. They have a high photostability and the bimolecular electron transfer of cage complexes is demonstrated for the first time by employing the new Ru coronates in a sacrificial hydrogen producing system.

  14. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.


    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO/AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic fie...

  15. Local variations in reporting deaths to the coroner in England and Wales: a postcode lottery? (United States)

    Mclean, Maxwell; Roach, Jason; Armitage, Rachel


    In England and Wales, doctors are charged with a responsibility either to report a death to the coroner or issue a medical certificate specifying cause of death. A lack of formal prescriptive or presumptive oversight has resulted in the promulgation by individual coroners of local reporting regimes. The study reported here identified overall and gendered variations in local reporting rates to coroners across the jurisdictions of England and Wales, consistent over time. Analysis was performed on Ministry of Justice (MOJ) data pertaining to the numbers and proportions of deaths reported to the coroner by jurisdiction over a 10-year period (2001-2010). Office of National Statistics (ONS) data provided the numbers of deaths registered in England and Wales over the same period to serve as a denominator for the calculation of proportions. Where coroner jurisdictions (and local authorities) had been amalgamated during this period, the combined reported and registered death figures have been included in line with the current jurisdiction areas. While reporting rates for individual jurisdictions were found to be stable over the 10-year period, wide local variations in reporting deaths to coroners were found with no obvious demographic explanation. The gender of the deceased was identified as a major factor in local variation. The decision to report a death to the coroner varies across jurisdictions. Implications for coronial investigations are discussed and the need for wider research into coroners' decision-making is proposed.

  16. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  17. New Frontiers/Hale Prize Lecture: Coronal Mass Ejections, the Most Powerful Drivers of the Sun-Earth System (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.


    A large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) can consist of billions of tonnes of matter, along with entangled magnetic field, erupting from the Sun at speeds well over 1,000 km/s. These giant disruptions of the solar atmosphere drive the most destructive space weather at Earth and throughout the solar system. Furthermore, CMEs are the most dramatic example of how slowly-evolving processes on the Sun can conspire to produce explosive activity. Understanding their origin has long been a central objective for space physics research. This talk will present some of the latest observations and theories for CMEs and discuss the outstanding challenges to modeling and predicting their initiation. This work was supported in part by NASA and ONR.

  18. Diagnostic values of coronal section with MPR method in magnetic resonance imaging of canal stenotic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Mana; Haruhara, Shoutaro; Soh, Katsuhiro; Yokouchi, Junichi; Matsuda, Hiromichi; Inoue, Shingo; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))


    During a 2-year period, 300 patients were screened for canal stenotic change with surface-coil MR images, and T1-weighted coronal scan was performed on 65 patients with typical radiculopathy including 45 cases of lumbar disk herniation to evaluate the effectiveness of coronal section with MPR (multi-planar reconstruction) method in pre and post-operative assessment of canal stenotic change. Coronal section with MPR method in MRI of lumbar spine has advantages in patients with radiculopathy. Although it is as sensitive as myelography in detecting the pathological site, nerve root damage can be detected more obviously by MRI coronal section with MPR method than by myelography. As bilateral nerve roots and other contents of the foramen are figurized in the same image, the shift of the root and the decrease of the fat layer surrounding the roots can be more easily detected. Adding coronal imaging to MR examination is a viable alternative to pre-operative myelography. (author).

  19. Heating and acceleration of coronal and chromospheric ions during solar flares (United States)

    Mckean, M. E.; Winglee, Robert M.; Dulk, G. A.


    One-dimensional, electrostatic, particle-in-cell simulations are used to explore two mechanisms proposed to explain turbulent broadening of soft x ray emission lines of heavy ions observed during solar flares and the presence of blue-shifted components. Results from the simulations are in qualitative agreement with the observations.

  20. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION INSIDE INERT ATMOSPHERE SILOS. E. S. Ajayi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 3, July 2016. 643 also resist heat flow from solar radiation from outside. This is usually achieved by painting the silo wall with white paint. Some of the advantages of inert atmosphere storage ...

  1. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  2. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA


    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  3. Changes in the subgingival biofilm composition after coronally positioned flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadson Almeida Lima


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of coronally positioned flap (CPF on the subgingival biofilm composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with gingival recessions were treated with CPF. Clinical parameters were assessed before and at 6 months after surgery. Subgingival biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for 40 bacterial species. RESULTS: Recession height, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing improved significantly (p<0.05 at 6 months post-CPF. The proportions of 10 periodontal pathogens and the proportions of red and orange complexes decreased at 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CPF can induce beneficial effects on the composition of the subgingival microbiota after 6 months.

  4. Einstein Observatory coronal temperatures of late-type stars (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.


    The results are presented of a survey of the coronal temperatures of late-type stars using the Einstein Observatory IPC. The spectral analysis shows that the frequently found one- and two-temperature descriptions are mainly influenced by the SNR of the data and that models using continuous emission measure distributions can provide equally adequate and physically more meaningful and more plausible descriptions. Intrinsic differences in differential emission measure distributions are found for four groups of stars. M dwarfs generally show evidence for high-temperature gas in conjunction with lower-temperature material, while main-sequence stars of types F and G have the high-temperature component either absent or very weak. Very hot coronae without the lower-temperature component appearing in dwarf stars are evident in most of the giant stars studied. RS CVn systems show evidence for extremely hot coronae, sometimes with no accompanying lower-temperature material.

  5. Prominence condensation and magnetic levitation in a coronal loop (United States)

    Van Hoven, G.; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.


    The results of a model dynamic simulation of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of the confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of the normal-polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter-type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex. The simplicity of this 1.5-dimensional model, with its accompanying diagnostics, elucidates the various contributions to the nonlinear dynamics of prominence condensation and levitation.

  6. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express

    CERN Document Server

    Good, S W


    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER (MES) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the magnetic field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced magnetic field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MES data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed VEX data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MES, VEX, STEREO-A, STEREO-B ...

  7. Geoeffectiveness of Coronal Mass Ejections in the SOHO Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumbovic, M.; Devos, A.; Vrsnak, B.


    The main objective of the study is to determine the probability distributions of the geomagnetic Dst index as a function of the coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare parameters for the purpose of establishing a probabilistic forecast tool for the geomagnetic storm intensity. Several CME...... and flare parameters as well as the effect of successive-CME occurrence in changing the probability for a certain range of Dst index values, were examined. The results confirm some of already known relationships between remotely-observed properties of solar eruptive events and geomagnetic storms, namely...... the importance of initial CME speed, apparent width, source position, and the associated solar flare class. In this paper we quantify these relationships in a form to be used for space weather forecasting in future. The results of the statistical study are employed to construct an empirical statistical model...

  8. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.


    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  9. Anterior ethmoidal artery evaluation on coronal CT scans. (United States)

    Souza, Soraia Ale; Souza, Marcia Maria Ale de; Gregório, Luís Carlos; Ajzen, Sergio


    The anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) is an important point for frontal and ethmoid sinuses surgery. CT scans can identify landmarks to help the surgeon find the AEA. To identify the landmarks of the AEA on the orbital medial wall and on the lateral wall of the olfactory fossa. and to correlate the presence of supraorbital ethmoidal cells with spotting the anterior ethmoidal artery canal. Retrospective review of 198 direct coronal paranasal sinuses computed tomography (CT) scans from August to December, 2006. Supraorbital pneumatization was seen in 35% (70 scans). The AEA canal was seen in 41% (81 scans). The anterior ethmoidal sulcus was seen in 98% (194 scans) and the anterior ethmoidal foramen was seen in all the scans (100%). The anterior ethmoidal foramen and the anterior ethmoidal sulcus were anatomical landmarks present in almost 100% of the scans studied. There was a correlation between the presence of supraorbital pneumatization and AEA canal visualization.

  10. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.


    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  11. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; hide


    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  12. Dextrocardia and coronal alignment of thoracic curve: a population study. (United States)

    Tallroth, Kaj; Lohman, Martina; Heliövaara, Markku; Aromaa, Arpo; Knekt, Paul; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, Carl-Gustaf


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the coronal alignment of the thoracic spine in persons with dextrocardia. Generally, the thoracic spine is slightly curved to the right. It has been suggested that the curve could be triggered by pulsation forces from the descending aorta. Since no population study has focused on the alignment of the thoracic spine in persons with situs inversus, dextrocardia, and right-sided descending aorta, we compared the radiographs of the thoracic spine in persons with dextrocardia to those having normal levocardia. Among 57,440 persons in a health survey, 11 cases of dextrocardia were identified through standard radiological screening. The miniature chest radiographs of eight persons were eligible for the present study. The study was carried out as a nested case-control study. Four individually matched (age, gender, and municipality) controls with levocardia were chosen for each case. Coronal alignment of the thoracic spine was analyzed without knowledge of whether the person had levo- or dextrocardia. A mild convexity to the left was found in all persons with dextrocardia and right-sided descending aorta (mean Cobb angle 6.6 degrees to the left, SD 2.9). Of the 32 normal levocardia persons, 29 displayed a convexity to the right, and the remaining three had a straight spine (mean Cobb angle 5.2 degrees to the right, SD 2.3). The difference (mean 11.8 degrees , SD 3.5) differed significantly from unity (P = 0.00003). In conclusion, it seems that a slight left convexity of the thoracic spine is frequent in dextrocardia. We assume that the effect of the repetitive pulsatile pressure of the descending thoracic aorta, and the mass effect of the heart may cause the direction of the convexity to develop opposite to the side of the aortic arch.

  13. Heat transfer research on enhanced heating surfaces in pool boiling (United States)

    Kalawa, Wojciech; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.; Piasecka, Magdalena

    The paper focuses on the analysis of the enhanced surfaces in such applications as boiling heat transfer. The testing measurement module with enhanced heating surfaces was used for pool boiling research. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with distilled water at atmospheric pressure in the vessel using an enhanced sample as the bottom heating surface. The samples are soldered to a copper heating block of the round cross-section .They were placed: in the fluid (saturation temperature measurement), under the sample for temperature determination. A vessel made of four flat glass panes was used for visualization. The heated surfaces in contact with the fluid differed in roughness were smooth or enhanced. This paper analyzes the effects of the microstructured heated surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported for the enhanced surfaces.

  14. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  15. Suicide and the Therapeutic Coroner: Inquests, Governance and the Grieving Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Tait


    Full Text Available This study of English Coronial practice raises a number of questions about the role played by the Coroner within contemporary governance. Following observations at over 20 inquests into possible suicides and in-depth interviews with six Coroners, three preliminary issue emerged, all of which pointed to a broader and, in many ways, more significant issue. These preliminary issues are concerned with (1 the existence of considerable slippages between different Coroners over which deaths are likely to be classified as suicide; (2 the high standard of proof required and immense pressure faced by Coroners from family members at inquest to reach any verdict other than suicide, which significantly depresses likely suicide rates; and (3 Coroners feeling no professional obligation, either individually or collectively, to contribute to the production of consistent and useful social data regarding suicide, arguably rendering comparative suicide statistics relatively worthless. These concerns lead, ultimately, to the second more important question about the role expected of Coroners within social governance and within an effective, contemporary democracy. That is, are Coroners the principal officers in the public administration of death; or are they, first and foremost, a crucial part of the grieving process, one that provides important therapeutic interventions into the mental and emotional health of the community?

  16. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Kramar


    Full Text Available Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131 to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4 R_odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 AA band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $sim 2.5 R_odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  17. Non-adversarial justice and the coroner's court: a proposed therapeutic, restorative, problem-solving model. (United States)

    King, Michael S


    Increasingly courts are using new approaches that promote a more comprehensive resolution of legal problems, minimise any negative effects that legal processes have on participant wellbeing and/or that use legal processes to promote participant wellbeing. Therapeutic jurisprudence, restorative justice, mediation and problem-solving courts are examples. This article suggests a model for the use of these processes in the coroner's court to minimise negative effects of coroner's court processes on the bereaved and to promote a more comprehensive resolution of matters at issue, including the determination of the cause of death and the public health and safety promotion role of the coroner.

  18. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski


    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Shun; Nozawa, Satoshi [Department of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Iwai, Kazumasa; Shibasaki, Kiyoto [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou, E-mail: [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)


    We estimated the accuracy of coronal magnetic fields derived from radio observations by comparing them to potential field calculations and the differential emission measure measurements using EUV observations. We derived line-of-sight components of the coronal magnetic field from polarization observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung in the NOAA active region 11150, observed around 3:00 UT on 2011 February 3 using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. Because the thermal bremsstrahlung intensity at 17 GHz includes both chromospheric and coronal components, we extracted only the coronal component by measuring the coronal emission measure in EUV observations. In addition, we derived only the radio polarization component of the corona by selecting the region of coronal loops and weak magnetic field strength in the chromosphere along the line of sight. The upper limits of the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields were determined as 100–210 G. We also calculated the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields from the potential field extrapolation using the photospheric magnetic field obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. However, the calculated potential fields were certainly smaller than the observed coronal longitudinal magnetic field. This discrepancy between the potential and the observed magnetic field strengths can be explained consistently by two reasons: (1) the underestimation of the coronal emission measure resulting from the limitation of the temperature range of the EUV observations, and (2) the underestimation of the coronal magnetic field resulting from the potential field assumption.

  20. Intermittent heating of the solar corona by MHD turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Buchlin


    Full Text Available As the dissipation mechanisms considered for the heating of the solar corona would be sufficiently efficient only in the presence of small scales, turbulence is thought to be a key player in the coronal heating processes: it allows indeed to transfer energy from the large scales to these small scales. While Direct numerical simulations which have been performed to investigate the properties of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the corona have provided interesting results, they are limited to small Reynolds numbers. We present here a model of coronal loop turbulence involving shell-models and Alfvén waves propagation, allowing the much faster computation of spectra and turbulence statistics at higher Reynolds numbers. We also present first results of the forward-modelling of spectroscopic observables in the UV.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, M.; Manchester, W. B.; Van der Holst, B.; Oran, R.; Sokolov, I.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu, Y.; Sun, X. D., E-mail: [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States)


    During Carrington rotation (CR) 2107, a fast coronal mass ejection (CME; >2000 km s{sup -1}) occurred in active region NOAA 11164. This event is also associated with a solar energetic particle event. In this study, we present simulations of this CME with one-temperature (1T) and two-temperature (2T: coupled thermodynamics of the electron and proton populations) models. Both the 1T and 2T models start from the chromosphere with heat conduction and radiative cooling. The background solar wind is driven by Alfven-wave pressure and heated by Alfven-wave dissipation in which we have incorporated the balanced turbulence at the top of the closed field lines. The magnetic field of the inner boundary is set up using a synoptic map from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. The Titov-Demoulin flux-rope model is used to initiate the CME event. We compare the propagation of fast CMEs and the thermodynamics of CME-driven shocks in both the 1T and 2T CME simulations. Also, the synthesized white light images are compared with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph observations. Because there is no distinction between electron and proton temperatures, heat conduction in the 1T model creates an unphysical temperature precursor in front of the CME-driven shock and makes the shock parameters (e.g., shock Mach number, compression ratio) incorrect. Our results demonstrate the importance of the electron heat conduction in conjunction with proton shock heating in order to produce the physically correct CME structures and CME-driven shocks.

  2. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere! (United States)


    The fact that this electrified plasma speeds up to almost 3 million kilometres per hour as it leaves the Sun - twice as fast as originally predicted - has been known for years. The interpretation of how it happens is the real and surprising novelty: "The waves in the Sun's atmosphere are produced by vibrating solar magnetic field lines, which give solar wind particles a push just like an ocean wave gives a surfer a ride" said Dr John Kohl, principal investigator for the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) - the instrument among the 12 aboard SOHO which gathered the data - and for the Spartan 201 mission. The outermost solar atmosphere, or corona, is only seen from Earth during a total eclipse of the Sun, when it appears as a shimmering, white veil surrounding the black lunar disc. The corona is an extremely tenuous, electrically charged gas, known as plasma, that flows throughout the solar system as the solar wind. The waves are formed by rapidly vibrating magnetic fields in the coronal plasma. They are called magneto - hydro - dynamic (MHD) waves and are believed to accelerate the solar wind. The solar wind is made up of electrons and ions, electrically charged atoms that have lost electrons. The electric charge of the solar wind particles forces them to travel along invisible lines of magnetic force in the corona. The particles spiral around the magnetic field lines as they rush into space. "The magnetic field acts like a violin string: when it's touched, it vibrates. When the Sun's magnetic field vibrates with a frequency equal to that of the particle spiraling around the magnetic field, it heats it up, producing a force that accelerates the particle upward and away from the Sun," says Dr. Ester Antonucci, an astronomer at the observatory of Turin, Italy, and co-investigator for SOHO's UVCS an instrument developed with considerable financial support by the Italian Space Agency, ASI. In a way this is similar to what happens if two people hold a string at

  3. Loop heating by D.C. electric current and electromagnetic wave emissions simulated by 3-D EM particle zone (United States)

    Sakai, J. I.; Zhao, J.; Nishikawa, K.-I.


    We have shown that a current-carrying plasma loop can be heated by magnetic pinch driven by the pressure imbalance between inside and outside the loop, using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) particle code. Both electrons and ions in the loop can be heated in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, therefore the perpendicular temperature can be increased about 10 times compared with the parallel temperature. This temperature anisotropy produced by the magnetic pinch heating can induce a plasma instability, by which high-frequency electromagnetic waves can be excited. The plasma current which is enhanced by the magnetic pinch can also excite a kinetic kink instability, which can heat ions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The heating mechanism of ions as well as the electromagnetic emission could be important for an understanding of the coronal loop heating and the electromagnetic wave emissions from active coronal regions.

  4. The atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.


    The atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are discussed in the light of the Voyager 2 flybys of these planets. A basic overview of their atmospheres is presented, with emphasis on thermal structure, composition, energy and opacity sources, cloud structure, and the horizontal structure of the atmospheres. The nature and implications of the different internal heat flows on the two planets, and the implications of the deuterium and helium abundances for the origin and evolution of these ice giants, as distinct from Jupiter and Saturn, are discussed. Selected chemical and physical processes in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are illustrated.

  5. The atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    The atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are discussed in the light of the Voyager 2 flybys of these planets. A basic overview of their atmospheres is presented, with emphasis on thermal structure, composition, energy and opacity sources, cloud structure, and the horizontal structure of the atmospheres. The nature and implications of the different internal heat flows on the two planets, and the implications of the deuterium and helium abundances for the origin and evolution of these ice giants, as distinct from Jupiter and Saturn, are discussed. Selected chemical and physical processes in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are illustrated.

  6. A New Method for Coronal Magnetic Field Reconstruction (United States)

    Yi, Sibaek; Choe, Gwang-Son; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Kap-Sung


    A precise way of coronal magnetic field reconstruction (extrapolation) is an indispensable tool for understanding of various solar activities. A variety of reconstruction codes have been developed so far and are available to researchers nowadays, but they more or less bear this and that shortcoming. In this paper, a new efficient method for coronal magnetic field reconstruction is presented. The method imposes only the normal components of magnetic field and current density at the bottom boundary to avoid the overspecification of the reconstruction problem, and employs vector potentials to guarantee the divergence-freeness. In our method, the normal component of current density is imposed, not by adjusting the tangential components of A, but by adjusting its normal component. This allows us to avoid a possible numerical instability that on and off arises in codes using A. In real reconstruction problems, the information for the lateral and top boundaries is absent. The arbitrariness of the boundary conditions imposed there as well as various preprocessing brings about the diversity of resulting solutions. We impose the source surface condition at the top boundary to accommodate flux imbalance, which always shows up in magnetograms. To enhance the convergence rate, we equip our code with a gradient-method type accelerator. Our code is tested on two analytical force-free solutions. When the solution is given only at the bottom boundary, our result surpasses competitors in most figures of merits devised by Schrijver et al. (2006). We have also applied our code to a real active region NOAA 11974, in which two M-class flares and a halo CME took place. The EUV observation shows a sudden appearance of an erupting loop before the first flare. Our numerical solutions show that two entwining flux tubes exist before the flare and their shackling is released after the CME with one of them opened up. We suggest that the erupting loop is created by magnetic reconnection between

  7. Trans trochanteric approach with coronal osteotomy of the great trochanter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffann Francois


    Full Text Available Several surgical approaches could be used in hip arthroplasty or trauma surgery: anterior, anterolateral, lateral, posterior (with or without trochanterotomy, using or not an orthopedic reduction table. Subtrochanteric and extra-capsular trochanteric fractures (ECTF are usually treated by internal fixation with mandatory restrictions on weight bearing. Specific complications have been widely described. Mechanical failures are particularly high in unstable fractures. Hip fractures are a major public health issue with a mortality rate of 12%–23% at 1 year. An alternative option is to treat ECTF by total hip arthroplasty (THA to prevent decubitus complications, to help rapid recovery, and to permit immediate weight bearing as well as quick rehabilitation. However, specific risks of THA have to be considered such as dislocation or cardiovascular failure. The classical approach (anterior or posterior requires the opening of the joint and capsule, weakening hip stability and the repair of the great trochanter is sometimes hazardous. For 15 years, we have been treating unstable ECTF by THA with cementless stem, dual mobility cup (DMC, greater trochanter (GT reattachment, and a new surgical approach preserving capsule, going through the fracture and avoiding joint dislocation. Bombaci first described a similar approach in 2008; our trans fractural digastric approach (medial gluteus and lateral vastus is different. A coronal GT osteotomy is performed when there is no coronal fracture line. It allows easy access to the femoral neck and acetabulum. The THA is implanted without femoral internal rotation to avoid extra bone fragment displacement. With pre-operative planning, cup implantation is easy and stem positioning is adjusted referring to the top of the GT after trial reduction and preoperative planning. The longitudinal osteotomy and trochanteric fracture are repaired with wires and the digastric incision is closed. This variant of Bombaci

  8. The magnetic connectivity of coronal shocks from behind-the-limb flares to the visible solar surface during γ-ray events (United States)

    Plotnikov, I.; Rouillard, A. P.; Share, G. H.


    Context. The observation of >100 MeV γ-rays in the minutes to hours following solar flares suggests that high-energy particles interacting in the solar atmosphere can be stored and/or accelerated for long time periods. The occasions when γ-rays are detected even when the solar eruptions occurred beyond the solar limb as viewed from Earth provide favorable viewing conditions for studying the role of coronal shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the acceleration of these particles. Aims: In this paper, we investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the coronal shocks inferred from stereoscopic observations of behind-the-limb flares to determine if they could be the source of the particles producing the γ-rays. Methods: We analyzed the CMEs and early formation of coronal shocks associated with γ-ray events measured by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) from three eruptions behind the solar limb as viewed from Earth on 2013 Oct. 11, 2014 Jan. 06 and Sep. 01. We used a 3D triangulation technique, based on remote-sensing observations to model the expansion of the CME shocks from above the solar surface to the upper corona. Coupling the expansion model to various models of the coronal magnetic field allowed us to derive the time-dependent distribution of shock Mach numbers and the magnetic connection of particles produced by the shock to the solar surface visible from Earth. Results: The reconstructed shock fronts for the three events became magnetically connected to the visible solar surface after the start of the flare and just before the onset of the >100 MeV γ-ray emission. The shock surface at these connections also exhibited supercritical Mach numbers required for significant particle energization. The strongest γ-ray emissions occurred when the flanks of the shocks were connected in a quasi-perpendicular geometry to the field lines reaching the visible surface. Multipoint, in situ, measurements of solar energetic particles (SEPs) were


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin


    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  10. Two-dimensional equilibrium in coronal magnetostatic flux tubes: an accurate equilibrium solver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, A. J. C.; Poedts, S.; Goedbloed, J. P.


    To study linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, continuous spectra, and instabilities in coronal magnetic flux tubes that are anchored in dense chromospheric and photospheric regions, a two-dimensional numerical code, called PARIS, has been developed. PARIS solves the pertinent nonlinear

  11. Clinical comparison of various esthetic restorative options for coronal build-up of primary anterior teeth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duhan, Himanshu; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur


    This study was designed to compare the clinical performance of composite, strip crowns, biological restoration, and composite with stainless steel band when used for the coronal build-up of anterior teeth...

  12. Coronal tibial slope is associated with accelerated knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Stout, Alina C; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lo, Grace H; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Ward, Robert J; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E


    .... The geometry of an articular surface (e.g., coronal tibial slope), which is a determinant of altered joint biomechanics, may be an important risk factor for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis...

  13. Even at 4 months, a labial is a good enough coronal, but not vice versa. (United States)

    Tsuji, Sho; Mazuka, Reiko; Cristia, Alejandrina; Fikkert, Paula


    Numerous studies have revealed an asymmetry tied to the perception of coronal place of articulation: participants accept a labial mispronunciation of a coronal target, but not vice versa. Whether or not this asymmetry is based on language-general properties or arises from language-specific experience has been a matter of debate. The current study suggests a bias of the first type by documenting an early, cross-linguistic asymmetry related to coronal place of articulation. Japanese and Dutch 4- and 6-month-old infants showed evidence of discrimination if they were habituated to a labial and then tested on a coronal sequence, but not vice versa. This finding has important implications for both phonological theories and infant speech perception research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Sun's Global Photospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields: Observations and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mackay


    Full Text Available In this review, our present day understanding of the Sun’s global photospheric and coronal magnetic fields is discussed from both observational and theoretical viewpoints. Firstly, the large-scale properties of photospheric magnetic fields are described, along with recent advances in photospheric magnetic flux transport models. Following this, the wide variety of theoretical models used to simulate global coronal magnetic fields are described. From this, the combined application of both magnetic flux transport simulations and coronal modeling techniques to describe the phenomena of coronal holes, the Sun’s open magnetic flux and the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments is discussed. Finally, recent advances in non-eruptive global MHD models are described. While the review focuses mainly on solar magnetic fields, recent advances in measuring and modeling stellar magnetic fields are described where appropriate. In the final section key areas of future research are identified.

  15. Progress on Using Image-Optimization to Improve Coronal Magnetic Field Models (United States)

    Jones, Shaela; Davila, Joseph M.; Uritsky, Vadim M.


    Reliable measurements of the coronal magnetic field have proven to be very elusive. Over several decades, solar physicists have developed means of extrapolating photospheric magnetic field measurements into the corona and ultimately into the heliosphere. However, these methods can be very sensitive to the photospheric measurements, with a significant range of heliospheric conditions possible within the uncertainty of the photospheric magnetograms. Recently we have presented a method to obtain morphological information about the coronal magnetic field from coronagraph images, and to incorporate this information into a PFSS coronal magnetic field model via optimization. Here we will present details of the method and recent progress in its development, including a significant speed-up of the optimization process that allows the optimization of higher-resolution coronal models.

  16. Onset of a Large Ejective Solar Eruption from a Typical Coronal-jet-base Field Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Yong-Jae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L., E-mail:, E-mail: [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)


    Utilizing multiwavelength observations and magnetic field data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES ), and RHESSI , we investigate a large-scale ejective solar eruption of 2014 December 18 from active region NOAA 12241. This event produced a distinctive “three-ribbon” flare, having two parallel ribbons corresponding to the ribbons of a standard two-ribbon flare, and a larger-scale third quasi-circular ribbon offset from the other two. There are two components to this eruptive event. First, a flux rope forms above a strong-field polarity inversion line and erupts and grows as the parallel ribbons turn on, grow, and spread apart from that polarity inversion line; this evolution is consistent with the mechanism of tether-cutting reconnection for eruptions. Second, the eruption of the arcade that has the erupting flux rope in its core undergoes magnetic reconnection at the null point of a fan dome that envelops the erupting arcade, resulting in formation of the quasi-circular ribbon; this is consistent with the breakout reconnection mechanism for eruptions. We find that the parallel ribbons begin well before (∼12 minutes) the onset of the circular ribbon, indicating that tether-cutting reconnection (or a non-ideal MHD instability) initiated this event, rather than breakout reconnection. The overall setup for this large-scale eruption (diameter of the circular ribbon ∼10{sup 5} km) is analogous to that of coronal jets (base size ∼10{sup 4} km), many of which, according to recent findings, result from eruptions of small-scale “minifilaments.” Thus these findings confirm that eruptions of sheared-core magnetic arcades seated in fan–spine null-point magnetic topology happen on a wide range of size scales on the Sun.

  17. The Blob Connection: Searching for Low Coronal Signatures of Solar Post-CME Blobs (United States)

    Schanche, Nicole E.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Webb, David F.


    Bright linear structures, thought to be indicators of a current sheet (CS), are often seen in Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) white-light data in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In a subset of these post-CME structures, relatively bright blobs are seen moving outward along the rays. These blobs have been interpreted as consequences of the plasmoid instability in the CS, and can help us to understand the dynamics of the reconnection. We examine several instances, taken largely from the SOHO/LASCO CME-rays Catalog, where these blobs are clearly visible in white-light data. Using radially filtered, difference, wavelet enhanced, and multiscale Gaussian normalized images to visually inspect Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data in multiple wavelengths, we look for signatures of material that correspond both temporally and spatially to the later appearance of the blobs in LASCO/C2. Constraints from measurements of the blobs allow us to predict the expected count rates in DN pixel-1 s-1 for each AIA channel. The resulting values would make the blobs bright enough to be detectable at 1.2 R ⊙. However, we do not see conclusive evidence for corresponding blobs in the AIA data in any of the events. We do the same calculation for the “cartwheel CME,” an event in which blobs were seen in X-rays, and find that our estimated count rates are close to those observed. We suggest several possibilities for the absence of the EUV blobs including the formation of the blob higher than the AIA field of view, blob coalescence, and overestimation of blob densities.

  18. An Innovative Approach for Management of Vertical Coronal Fracture in Molar: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambica Kathuria


    Full Text Available Unlike anterior teeth, acute exogenous trauma is an infrequent cause of posterior coronal vertical tooth fractures. Endodontic and restorative management of such fractures is a great challenge for the clinician. Newer advancements in adhesive techniques can provide successful intracoronal splinting of such teeth to reinforce the remaining tooth structure. This paper describes the diagnosis and management of a case of complicated vertical coronal fracture in mandibular first molar induced by a traffic accident.

  19. Plot inflation in Greater Weatherfield: Coronation Street in the 1990s


    Smart, Billy


    This article outlines the substantial changes in production practice undergone by the long-running series Coronation Street between the late 1980s and late 1990s and attempts to explain how these changes affected the form of the programme. \\ud Coronation Street underwent two concurrent moments of change in 1989, transmitting three episodes a week, as opposed to two, and recording location scenes on videotape instead of on 16mm film. This change in recording technology enabled the programme to...

  20. Vertical axis dislocation with coronal fracture of the patella: A previously unreported injury pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Murphy


    Full Text Available The patella usually dislocates laterally. Less commonly, intra-articular dislocation occurs about either the vertical or horizontal axis. Patellar fractures are generally transverse with varying degrees of comminution, and less frequently vertical in the sagittal plane. We present a 9-year follow-up of a previously undescribed coronal patellar fracture associated with vertical axis dislocation of the patella. The mechanism of this severe injury is described. Keywords: Trauma, Coronal patellar fracture, Vertical axis patellar dislocation, Mechanism of injury