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Sample records for atm abr service

  1. TCP performance in ATM networks: ABR parameter tuning and ABR/UBR comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien Fang [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Lin, A. [Cisco Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-02-27

    This paper explores two issues on TOP performance over ATM networks: ABR parameter tuning and performance comparison of binary mode ABR with enhanced UBR services. Of the fifteen parameters defined for ABR, two parameters dominate binary mode ABR performance: Rate Increase Factor (RIF) and Rate Decrease Factor (RDF). Using simulations, we study the effects of these two parameters on TOP over ABR performance. We compare TOP performance with different ABR parameter settings in terms of through-puts and fairness. The effects of different buffer sizes and LAN/WAN distances are also examined. We then compare TOP performance with the best ABR parameter setting with corresponding UBR service enhanced with Early Packet Discard and also with a fair buffer allocation scheme. The results show that TOP performance over binary mode ABR is very sensitive to parameter value settings, and that a poor choice of parameters can result in ABR performance worse than that of the much less expensive UBR-EPD scheme.

  2. Source Behavior for ATM ABR Traffic Management: An Explanation

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Raj; Kalyanaraman, Shiv; Fahmy, Sonia; Goyal, Rohit; Kim, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Available Bit Rate (ABR) service has been developed to support data applications over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The network continuously monitors its traffic and provides feedback to the source end systems. This paper explains the rules that the sources have to follow to achieve a fair and efficient allocation of network resources.

  3. Binary ABR flow control over ATM networks with uncertainty using discrete-time variable structure controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming YAN; Yuanwei JING

    2008-01-01

    A binary available bit rate (ABR) scheme based on discrete-time variable structure control (DVSC) theory is proposed to solve the problem of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks congestion in this paper. A discrete-time system model with uncertainty is introduced to depict the time-varying ATM networks. Based on the system model, an asymptotically stable sliding surface is designed by linear matrix inequality (LMI). In addition, a novel discrete-time reaching law that can obviously reduce chatter is also put forward. The proposed discrete-time variable structure controller can effectively constrain the oscillation of allowed cell rate (ACR) and the queue length in a router. Moreover, the controller is self-adaptive against the uncertainty in the system. Simulations are done in different scenarios. The results demonstrate that the controller has better stability and robustness than the traditional binary flow controller, so it is good for adequately exerting the simplicity of binary flow control mechanisms.

  4. THE DDTCI SWITCH ALGORITHM FOR ABR TRAFFIC CONTROL IN ATM NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhaoyi; Ning Yuxin

    2005-01-01

    For the issue of flow control for Available Bit Rate (ABR) traffic in ATM network,a new improved Explicit Rate (ER) algorithm named Dynamic Double Threshold Congestion Indication (DDTCI) algorithm is presented based on the Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (EFCI) Current Cell Rate (CCR) algorithm and Relative Rate (RR) algorithm. Different from the early ER algorithm, both the high-level and the low-level threshold is dynamically changing according to the state of the bottleneck node. We determinate the congestion state with the information of the two dynamic threshold, and control the cell rate of the source by feed back mechanism. Except for the well performance in both link utilization and fairness in distribution of available bandwidth, the improved algorithm can alleviate the fluctuation of sending rate dramatically. The mechanism is modeled by a fluid model, and the useful expressions are derived.Simulation results show up our conclusion.

  5. Efficient Bandwidth Allocation for Integrated Services in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo;

    1999-01-01

    An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is proposed for supporting intergrated services in wireless ATM networks. These include CBR, VBR amd ABR types of traffic. The proposed scheme is based om A-PRMA for carrying ATM traffic in a dynamic TDMA type access system. It allows mobile users to adjust...

  6. ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo Yong Ahn

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the error control of the partial buffer sharing of ATM by a queueing system M1,M2/G/1/K+1 with threshold and instantaneous Bernoulli feedback. We first derive the system equations and develop a recursive method to compute the loss probabilities at an arbitrary time epoch. We then build an approximation scheme to compute the mean waiting time of each class of cells. An algorithm is developed for finding the optimal threshold and queue capacity for a given quality of service.

  7. Exploring the Influence on ATM Service Quality with Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Dr. V.; Sruthi, R.; Shoniyaa, V. S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the various dimensions of ATM service quality and its impact on customer satisfaction. This study was conducted in Tirupur district, Tamilnadu. The researchers adopted questionnaire method for collecting data from the ATM customers. In the study, eight dimensions of ATM service quality emerged. These are: Trust, Ease of use, Appearance, Security, Accuracy, Grievance handling, Fulfilment and Responsiveness. Among the identified dimension, Appearance was ...

  8. Preslikavanje parametara kvaliteta usluga na protokole ATM mreža / Quality of service mapping to ATM network protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojko Jevtović

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Preslikavanje parametara kvaliteta usluga (Quality of Service - QoS jedan je od bitnih elemenata u koncepciji ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode širokopojasnih mreža. U radu su opisani parametri QoS-a (verovatnoće pogrešnih ramova i ćelija, propusni opseg, kašnjenje ćelija, varijacija kašnjenja koji se preslikavaju na protokole ATM mreža. Preslikavanje se izvodi između korisničkog i aplikacionog QoS-a, a aplikacioni QoS se preslikava na QoS prenosa i komutacije, odnosno na ATM protokole, tzv. protokole ATM adaptacionog sloja i, konačno, preslikava se (mapira na ATM mrežne performanse (ATM sloj. Analiza procesa preslikavanja parametara kvaliteta usluga značajna je sa stanovišta korisnika usluga ATM mreža pri izboru klasa usluga koje će koristiti u komunikaciji preko date ATM mreže. / Quality of service mapping is one of the crucial elements in ATM concept of wide networks. In this paper QoS parameters mapping to ATM network protocols are described. Mapping is made between QoS user and QoS application, and application QoS is mapped to QoS transfer and commutation i.e. to ATM protocols - ATM adaptation layer protocols and finally it is mapped to ATM network performances. Analysis of this QoS mapping parameters process is very important for ATM users when they are choosing classes of service that can be used in communication process through ATM network.

  9. Multiple access protocol for supporting multimedia services in wireless ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo;

    1999-01-01

    The furture broadband wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks must provide seamless extension of multimedia services from the wireline ATM networks. This requires an effecient wireless access protocol to fulfill varying Quality-og-Service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications...

  10. Factors affecting on customers’ satisfaction an empirical investigation of ATM service

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbhar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    The present empirical study focuses on identifying key factors that have influences customers satisfaction in ATM service provided by public and private sector banks. For the purpose of the study primary data were collected using schedule and collected data from March to November 2010. Results of factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis show that a cost effectiveness, easy to use and security and responsiveness in ATM service were most important factors in customer satisfaction.

  11. Design and evaluation of a connection management mechanism for an ATM-based connectionless service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    1996-01-01

    The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has been developed as a connection-oriented technique for the transfer of fixed-size cells over high-speed networks. Many applications, however, require a connectionless network service. In order to provide such a technique, one can built a connectionless service

  12. Virtual queueing techniques for UBR+ service in ATM with fair access and minimum bandwidth guarantee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, K.Y.; Wu, Y.; Ren, W.

    1998-11-01

    The ATM Forum is currently discussing the need for a new best-effort service called UBR+, which is an enhancement to the existing UBR service, to support data traffic. The objective of the UBR+ service is to provide each user with a minimum service rate guarantee and a fair access to any excess available bandwidth. In this paper, the authors present a new efficient scheme for supporting this service. The key advantage of the scheme is that it employs only FIFO queueing (instead of per-VC queueing) and admits simple implementation in ATM switches. The ideas involve a simple scheduling mechanism that is based on per-VC queueing and incorporate the virtual queueing technique that can efficiently emulate per-VC queueing on a shared FIFO queue. Simulation results are presented to show that the schemes can deliver almost ideal performance for supporting the new service requirements of UBR+.

  13. Analysis of a multi-server queueing model of ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Núñez-Queija

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a queueing model for the performance analysis of Available Bit Rate (ABR traffic in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM networks. We consider a multi-channel service station with two types of customers, denoted by high priority and low priority customers. In principle, high priority customers have preemptive priority over low priority customers, except on a fixed number of channels that are reserved for low priority traffic. The arrivals occur according to two independent Poisson processes, and service times are assumed to be exponentially distributed. Each high priority customer requires a single server, whereas low priority customers are served in processor sharing fashion. We derive the joint distribution of the numbers of customers (of both types in the system in steady state. Numerical results illustrate the effect of high priority traffic on the service performance of low priority traffic.

  14. Impact of ATM Service on Customer Perception and Satisfaction of Indian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Malik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Indian banking sector has completely changed. It has undergone much technological advancement that makes banking easy. Technological advancements are important but at the end what build customer satisfaction is proper management, employee behavior and customer relationship handling. Customer satisfaction is a sum of many variables that is many factors together leads to customer satisfaction. This modern electronic banking has completely changed the concept and functioning of banking system in India. Indian banking has moved from cash economy to cheque to and finally to the use of plastic cards. The customer satisfaction is dependent on customer awareness to a lot of extent. An unaware customer has less knowledge and therefore they cannot use the facilities completely even if they have it at their disposal. Customers prefer public sector banks when they are looking for trust and security and reliability. When it comes to speed, advancements and up gradation people shits from public sector banks to private sector banks. Customer gets satisfied only when they get quality service from the brand they are dealing with. This is very important for the marketers or the service providers as this leads to consumer satisfaction which benefits them and this brings loyalty to the brand enhancing the brand positioning. This research is important because new modern era has made people technology savvy they start their day with technology and end with technology therefore it is important to see the perception of users towards various factors of ATM. This research is conducted to see the highlighting factors that have direct impact on ATM services. Keywords: ATM, Customer satisfaction, Service quality, Private Banks, Public banks

  15. A hybrid medium access control for convergence of broadband wireless and wireline ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid medium access control protocol for supporting broadband integrated services in the wireless ATM networks. The integrated services include CBR, VBR and ABR traffic varying from low bit-rate to very high bit-rate. The proposed protocol is an excellent compromise...... of contention, reservation and polling access techniques based on the dynamic TDMA system. Extensive simulation results using realistic data traffic sources, show that the proposed medium access scheme may provide QoS guarantees to different ATM traffic including the realistic MPEG video traces with low cell...

  16. ATM traffic experiments: A laboratory study of service interaction, loss fairness and loss characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvik, B. E.; Stol, N.

    1995-04-01

    A reference measurement scenario is defined, where an ATM switch (OCTOPUS) is offered traffic from three source types representing the traffic resulting from typical services to be carried by an ATM network. These are high quality video (HQTV), high speed data (HSD) and constant bitrate transfer (CBR). In addition to be typical, these have widely different characteristics. Detailed definitions for these, and other actual source types, are made and entered into the Synthetic Traffic Generator (STG) database. Recommended traffic mixes of these sources are also made. Based on the above, laboratory measurements are carried out to study how the various kinds of traffic influence each other, how fairly the loss is distributed over services and connections, and what are the loss characteristics experienced. (Due to a software error detected in the measurement equipment after the work was concluded, the measurements are carried out with a HSD source with a load less 'aggressive' than intended.) The main findings are: Cell loss is very unfairly distributed among the various connections. During a loss burst, which occurs less frequently than the duration of a typical connection, affects mainly one or a few connections; Cell loss is unfairly distributed among the services. The ratios in the range from HSD: HQTV: CBR = 5 : 1 : 0.85 are observed, and unfairness increases with decreasing load burstiness; The loss characteristics vary during a loss burst, from one burst to the next and between services. Hence, it does not seem feasible to use 'typical-loss-statistics' to study the impairments on various services. In addition some supplementing work is reported.

  17. Improving the Quality of Service Guarantee in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J. Ogwu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a technique for improving the quality of service (QoS guarantee in an ATM network. In the proposed model, it was assumed that high priority traffic have been allocated a switch resource to guarantee a given QoS and low priority cells are allowed to enter the buffer, to improve the exploitation of reserved resources. The proposed technique was backed up with an exact analytical model for evaluating the cell loss probability of high and low priority cells. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using C++ programming language. The results of the simulation shows that the loss probability of both high and low cells reduces as the buffer capacity increase and that the performance of high priority cell is better than that of low priority cell.

  18. 在ATM网络中如何管理SLA%How to Manage Service Level Agreements for ATM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢喜秋; 黄娟

    2001-01-01

    ATM的不断增长的需求和ATM网络的操作复杂性推动了ATM SLA(Service Level Agreement:ATM服务水平协议)的发展.ATM SLA顺应了网络管理者的要求,它包括对网络的设计、执行、监视、维护和日常管理等方面的内容.介绍了ATM网络中SLA的基本组成,并举例说明国外大公司如何将SLA应用在ATM网络中.

  19. Integrated Service Provisioning in an Ipv6 over ATM Research Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eli Dart; Helen Chen; Jerry Friesen; Jim Brandt; Jim Hutchins; Perry Robertson

    1999-02-01

    During the past few years, the worldwide Internet has grown at a phenomenal rate, which has spurred the proposal of innovative network technologies to support the fast, efficient and low-latency transport of a wide spectrum of multimedia traffic types. Existing network infrastructures have been plagued by their inability to provide for real-time application traffic as well as their general lack of resources and resilience to congestion. This work proposes to address these issues by implementing a prototype high-speed network infrastructure consisting of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) on top of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transport medium. Since ATM is connection-oriented whereas IP uses a connection-less paradigm, the efficient integration of IPv6 over ATM is especially challenging and has generated much interest in the research community. We propose, in collaboration with an industry partner, to implement IPv6 over ATM using a unique approach that integrates IP over fast A TM hardware while still preserving IP's connection-less paradigm. This is achieved by replacing ATM's control software with IP's routing code and by caching IP's forwarding decisions in ATM's VPI/VCI translation tables. Prototype ''VR'' and distributed-parallel-computing applications will also be developed to exercise the realtime capability of our IPv6 over ATM network.

  20. The Wireless ATM Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    R. Palitefka; Dobos, L.; A. Cizmar

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the proposed wireless ATM structure is provided. Wireless communication have been developed to a level where offered services can now be extended beyond voice and data. There are already wireless LANs, cordless systems offering data services and mobile data. Wireless LAN systems are basically planned for local, on-promises and in-house networking providing short distance radio or infrared links between computer system. The main challenge of wireless ATM is to harmonise the deve...

  1. ABR Flow Control for Multipoint Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Sonia; Jain, Raj

    1998-01-01

    Multipoint capabilities are essential for ATM networks to efficiently support many applications, including IP multicasting and overlay applications. The current signaling and routing specifications for ATM define point-to-multipoint capabilities. Multipoint-to-point connection support is also being discussed by the signaling and PNNI groups, and will be defined in the near future for the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. We examine point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-point flow control fo...

  2. Main: ABRE2HVA1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ound in barley (H.v.) HVA1 gene encoding a class 3 late embryogenesis-abundant protein; stress response; ABRE; ABA; HVA1; ABRE2; seed; embryo; barley (Hordeum vulgare); CCTACGTGGCGG ... ...ABRE2HVA1 S000134 29-Sep-1999 (last modified) kehi ABA responsive element, ABRE2, f

  3. Main: ABRE3HVA1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ound in barley (H.v.) HVA1 gene encoding a class 3 late embryogenesis-abundant protein; stress response; ABRE; ABA; HVA1; ABRE3; seed; embryo; barley (Hordeum vulgare); GCAACGTGTC ... ...ABRE3HVA1 S000135 29-Sep-1999 (last modified) kehi ABA responsive element, ABRE3, f

  4. Congestion control scheme in ATM networks based on fast tracing-queue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhixin; Guan Xinping

    2007-01-01

    One of the more challenging and unresolved issues in ATM networks is the congestion control of available bit rate (ABR). The dynamic controller is designed based on the control theory and the feedback mechanism of explicit rates.With the given method of a chosen parameter, it can guarantee the stability of the controller and closed loop system with propagation delay and bandwidth oscillation. It needs less parameters(only one) to be designed. The queue length can converge to the given value in the least steps. The fairness of different connections is considered further. The simulations show better performance and good quality of service(QoS) is achieved.

  5. MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, John; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.

    1996-11-01

    Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

  6. Abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, James A.; Joly, Danièle; Khosrokhavar, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    ABH Actual bodily harm BNP British National Party BOV Board of Visitors (now renamed Independent Monitoring Board CADIS Centre d'Analyse et d'Intervention Sociologiques CARATS Counselling, Assessment, Referral, Advice and Throughcare Services CFCM Conseil Français du Culte Musulman CI Circular Instruction CNA Certified Normal Accommodation CRE Commission for Racial Equality DAP Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire DOM Département d'Outre-Mer EIHS European Institute of Human Sciences ES...

  7. Abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    act. Actualité aff. Affaire AJDA Actualité juridique Droit administratif ALD Actualité législative Dalloz al. Alinéa anc. Ancien Arch. phil. dr. Archives de philosophie du droit art. Article Ass. Plén. Arrêt de l'Assemblée plénière de la Cour de cassation auj. Aujourd'hui BGB Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (Code civil allemand) BOCCRF Bulletin officiel de la concurrence, consommation et répression des fraudes (à compter de 1987) BOSP Bulletin officiel du service des prix (jusqu'en 1986) BW Burgerlij...

  8. Performance and robustness analysis of a fuzzy-immune flow controller in ATM networks with time-varying multiple time-delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao REN; Zhenhua GAO; Weiming KONG; Yuanwei JING; Muyi YANG; Georgi M.DIMIROVSKI

    2008-01-01

    For the Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM)networks with time-varying multiple time-delays.a more realistic model for the available bit rate(ABR)traffic class with explicit rate feedback is introduced.A fuzzy-immune con.troller is designed,which can adjust the rates of ABR on-line,overcome the bad effect caused by the saturation nonlinearitv and satisfy the weighted fairness.Also,the sufficient condition that guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system with a fuzzy'immune controller is presented in theory for the first time.The algorithm exhibits good performance,and most importantly,has a solid theoretical foundation and can be implemented in practice easily.Simulation results show that the control system is rapid,adaptive,robust,and meanwhile,the quality of service(QoS)is guaranteed.

  9. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...

  10. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  11. Performance of a connectionless protocol over ATM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert J.; Moorsel, van Aad P.A.; Niemegeers, Ignas G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies show the existence of a demand for a connectionless broadband service. In order to cope with this demand, a connectionless protocol for the B-ISDN needs to be designed. Such a protocol should make use of ATM and the ATM Adaptation Layer. It needs to specify destination and bandwidth o

  12. ATM encryption testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Joyce; Deeth, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes why encryption was selected by Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space as the means for securing ATM networks. The ATM encryption testing program is part of an ATM network trial provided by Pacific Bell under the California Research Education Network (CalREN). The problem being addressed is the threat to data security which results when changing from a packet switched network infrastructure to a circuit switched ATM network backbone. As organizations move to high speed cell-based networks, there is a break down in the traditional security model which is designed to protect packet switched data networks from external attacks. This is due to the fact that most data security firewalls filter IP packets, restricting inbound and outbound protocols, e.g. ftp. ATM networks, based on cell-switching over virtual circuits, does not support this method for restricting access since the protocol information is not carried by each cell. ATM switches set up multiple virtual connections, thus there is no longer a single point of entry into the internal network. The problem is further complicated by the fact that ATM networks support high speed multi-media applications, including real time video and video teleconferencing which are incompatible with packet switched networks. The ability to restrict access to Lockheed Martin networks in support of both unclassified and classified communications is required before ATM network technology can be fully deployed. The Lockheed Martin CalREN ATM testbed provides the opportunity to test ATM encryption prototypes with actual applications to assess the viability of ATM encryption methodologies prior to installing large scale ATM networks. Two prototype ATM encryptors are being tested: (1) `MILKBUSH' a prototype encryptor developed by NSA for transmission of government classified data over ATM networks, and (2) a prototype ATM encryptor developed by Sandia National Labs in New Mexico, for the encryption of proprietary data.

  13. A Satellite access scheme for trasmission of ATM CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Potort?, Francesco; Temel, Rupert

    1995-01-01

    In this report the design of a system for transmitting ATM cells over a satellite channel is resented. The ro osed access scheme, named SACDA-TDMA Satellite ATM Cells Demand Assignment is a modified version of the FODA-TDMA system, described in [1]. ATM is a connection-oriented transport technology designed to provide a wide variety of services. ATM networks can achieve bandwidth efficiency through statistical multiplexing ofcells from different connections, each of which may have widely diff...

  14. The Research and Application of ATM Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The advantage of ATM technology for statistically multiplexingnetwork resources by different users invokes the competition of network resources. This competition has some damaging effects on message transmitting.The research for testing methods and technology of ATM is important for us to develop ATM networks, to promote their construction, to ensure that various ATM devices provided by different providers interoperate properly and to provide excellent services for telecommunication users. After discussing the abstract testing method of conformance testing and the abstract description of protocol testing, the thesis puts forward a kind of abstract testing configuration for ATM testing and a kind of abstract description method for testing case. From the angle of application, the thesis discusses the basic rules for ATM testing. After that, the thesis points out that the ATM testing must be made from the four aspects of normal testing, conformance testing, performance testing and interoperability testing. The general testing methods, general configuration and connection for ATM testing and the selection of ATM testing items are discussed, respectively, in the four aspects. Combined with the characteristics of the traffics supported by ATM systems, the thesis discusses several kinds of traffic models for conducting ATM testing. On the basis of studying various traffic models, the author classifies traffic models for ATM testing as three kinds: periodic traffic models, stochastic traffic models and manual traffic models. The parameters of describing traffic models and their calculating method are discussed in the thesis. A new kind of periodic cell-sequence traffic model is proposed in this thesis. The periodic cell-sequence traffic model has excellent linearly descending characteristics in the cell interval. The traffic models discussed in this thesis can be applied to various ATM testing cases. From the point of normal testing, physical layer testing, ATM layer

  15. Reference: ABRE2HVA22 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ABRE2HVA22 Shen Q, Ho TH Functional dissection of an abscisic acid(ABA)-inducible gene re...veals two independent ABA-responsive complexes each containing a G-box and a novel cis-acting element. Plant Cell 7:295-307 (1995) PubMed: 7734964; ...

  16. ABR Examinations: The Why, What, and How

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Gary J.; Bosma, Jennifer L., E-mail: jbosma@theabr.org; Guiberteau, Milton J.; Gerdeman, Anthony M.; Frush, Donald P.; Borgstede, James P.

    2013-10-01

    The American Board of Radiology (ABR) has provided certification for diagnostic radiologists and other specialists and subspecialists for more than 75 years. The Board certification process is a tangible expression of the social contract between the profession and the public by which the profession enjoys the privilege of self-regulation and the public is assured that it can expect medical professionals to put patients' interests first, guarantees the competence of practitioners, and guards the public health. A primary tool used by the ABR in fulfilling this responsibility is the secure proctored examination. This article sets forth seven standards based on authoritative sources in the field of psychometrics (the science of mental measurements), and explains in each case how the ABR implements that standard. Readers are encouraged to understand that, despite the multiple opinions that may be held, these standards developed over decades by experts using the scientific method should be the central feature in any discussion or critique of examinations given for the privilege of professional practice and for safeguarding the public well-being.

  17. ABR Examinations: The Why, What, and How

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Board of Radiology (ABR) has provided certification for diagnostic radiologists and other specialists and subspecialists for more than 75 years. The Board certification process is a tangible expression of the social contract between the profession and the public by which the profession enjoys the privilege of self-regulation and the public is assured that it can expect medical professionals to put patients' interests first, guarantees the competence of practitioners, and guards the public health. A primary tool used by the ABR in fulfilling this responsibility is the secure proctored examination. This article sets forth seven standards based on authoritative sources in the field of psychometrics (the science of mental measurements), and explains in each case how the ABR implements that standard. Readers are encouraged to understand that, despite the multiple opinions that may be held, these standards developed over decades by experts using the scientific method should be the central feature in any discussion or critique of examinations given for the privilege of professional practice and for safeguarding the public well-being

  18. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  19. ATMS Step By Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This manual is designed to provide an introduction and basic guide to the use of IBM's Advanced Text Management System (ATMS), the text processing system to be used for the creation of Australian data bases within AUSINET. Instructions are provided for using the system to enter, store, retrieve, and modify data, which may then be displayed at the…

  20. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... characteristics of the traffic for allocating bandwidth effeciently to CBR, VBR and ABR/UBR connections by a compromise of assignment, contetion, reservation and polling access techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol can achieve a very high channel utilization of 90 % while providing...

  1. OPEN ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN PROVIDING TESTING AND SIGNALING IN HIGH SPEED ATM NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.S.Riaz Ahamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing asynchronous transfer mode (ATM communications and network equipment is the function of performing the testing phases required for complete evaluation of ATM products. The test phases measure andanalyze all aspects of ATM—from the characteristics of lower-layer cell transmission through to the complex ATM services used to transmit multimedia over ATM networks. ATM technology has become inextricably linked to promises of a global communications infrastructure. The expectation is that seamless integration ofvoice data and video across high-speed ATM links will provide universal access to multimedia services. ATM equipment developers, service providers, and end users are all faced with these same challenges when testing ATM products.

  2. Locating ATMs in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MoradiTabar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the banks and financial institutions have considerably attempted to provide better and more varied services to the customers. These varied services may satisfy needs of differentgroup of customers. In this regard, the location of these services as well as their level of accessibility (access to these services is greatly important. The importance of these issues is well recognized by responsible managers of the financial firms. In other words, the managers accept the importance of these services and they know that the quality and location of these services significantly affect their success in the business. Therefore, bank managers sought scientific methods, which may facilitate the locating process for their services. How to select the most effective methods and how to use these methods in this regard depend on following factors: the customers' demands, local capacities and fair distribution of theservices, etc. The effective impact of these factors as well as the interactive relationship between them should also be noted in the application. This study is a descriptive kind of research, which is applicable in various areas. Library and environmental studies were used to conduct the study. Considering the parameters that considerably affect the level of acceptability of ATMs services and analyzing the importance of these parameters according to this criterion, the researchers tried to use multiple attribute decision-making model. a heuristic algorithm was used in the context of this approach. Then, the most appropriate locations around the optimal locations were introduced based on fuzzy concept as well as quantitative and qualitative factors, including the minimum cost and maximum coverage according to the customers’ demands. The case study was located in the 13th district of Tehran city.

  3. 400-Mbps, 8 times 8 ATM switch LSI. 400Mbps 8 times 8 ATM switch LSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S.; Tanaka, S.; Noda, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    Was developed at Toshiba, an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switch large scale integrated circuit (LSI), which can be used for next-generation telecommunication network systems, such as broadband-integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) For this ATM switch LSI, the common buffer method, which has a good buffer operation efficiency, was adopted as a switch architecture. The flow control and the cell incorporation sequential method were also adopted to improve the cell-loss rate. Furthermore, the BiCMOS (bipolar complimentary MOS) process was applied to the fabrication of this LSI. Consequently, a one-chip 8 input/8 output ATM switch LSI was realized. In addition, the operation speed per channel of this LSI was 400Mbps, and the throughput was 3.2Gbps. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Multicast Tree Algorithm in ATM Network Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许磊; 刘斌; 徐光佑

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks are undergoing a remarkable transformation. Thewidespread use of optical fiber has tremendously increased network bandwidth. Furthermore, greater CPU power, increasing disk capacity, and support for digital audio and video are creating demand for a new class of network services. For example, video-on-demand (VOD), distant learning, distant diagnosis, video conferences, and many other applications have popped up one after another in recent years. Many of these services have one thing in common. They all require that the same data be sent to multiple recipients. Even in traditional networks, this operation, called multicasting, can not be handled easily and cheaply. When scaled up to high-speed ATM-based networks, the situation becomes more difficult. Multiple data streams travel around the ATM networks with each stream sent to many different destinations simultaneously. Therefore, the networks need a very efficient algorithm for multicast routing. This paper proposes an algorithm for multicast routing in ATM networks. The network routing cost is defined as the combination of the cost of establishing connections, the cost of overall bandwidth and the cost of overall switching. Our routing algorithm generates an optimal multicast routing with minimal overall network cost.

  5. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  6. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were 241Am, 237Np, and 239Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Analysis list: Atm [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atm Embryonic fibroblast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atm....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atm.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j...p/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atm.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Atm.Embryonic_fibroblas

  9. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  10. NEW HOPE AND TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES ON VOICE AND VIDEO OVER ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.S.Riaz Ahamed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the structure of the telecommunications industry and market conditions have brought new opportunities and challenges for network operators and public service providers. Networks that have been primarily focused on providing better voice services are evolving to meet new multimedia communications challenges and competitive pressures. Services based on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM provide the flexible infrastructure essential for success in this evolving market. ATM, which was once envisioned as the technology of future public networks, is now a reality, with service providers around the world introducing and rolling out ATM and ATM–based services.

  11. Penerapan EDP dalam Proses Transaksi ATM pada PT.(Persero) Bank Tabungan Negara Regional Medan.

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Jusep Fajar

    2011-01-01

    This ABSTRACTION Research study to regarding Applying of EDP in course of Transaction of ATM that happened at one particular Bank. In this case ATM represent system service of electronic executing function of teller automatically capable to give amenity to client in doing banking transaction. ATM can do transaction which is on generally withdrawal of cash, balance information, Opentransfer and others. Amenity in transacting and finance of non-financial can enjoy by Bank client ...

  12. ABR and auditory P300 findings inchildren with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Schochat Eliane; Scheuer Claudia Ines; Andrade Ênio Roberto de

    2002-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APD), also referred as central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) have become popular diagnostic entities for school age children. It has been demonstrated a high incidence of comorbid ADHD with communication disorders and auditory processing disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate ABR and P300 auditory evoked potentials in children with ADHD, in a double-blind study. Twenty-one children, ages bet...

  13. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Terence M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Nyati, Shyam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ross, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rehemtulla, Alnawaz, E-mail: alnawaz@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  14. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  15. Buffer management optimization strategy for satellite ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    ECTD (erroneous cell tail drop), a buffer management optimization strategy is suggested which can improve the utilization of buffer resources in satellite ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. The strategy, in which erroneous cells caused by satellite channel and the following cells that belong to the same PDU (protocol data Unit) are discarded, concerns non-real-time data services that use higher layer protocol for retransmission. Based on EPD (early packet drop) policy, mathematical models are established with and without ECTD. The numerical results show that ECTD would optimize buffer management and improve effective throughput (goodput), and the increment of goodput is relative to the CER (cell error ratio) and the PDU length. The higher their values are, the greater the increment. For example,when the average PDU length values are 30 and 90, the improvement of goodput are respectively about 4% and 10%.

  16. Evaluation of ATM Functioning Using VHDL and FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Dhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been almost four decades that banks and other financial organizations have been gradually computerised, in order to improve service and efficiency and to reduce cost. The birth of Electronic Fund Transfer and Automated Teller Machines has given rise to 24-hour banking and a greater variety of services for the customer. This method uses a computer to transfer debits and credits, with the help of electronic pulses, which are carried through wires either to a magnetic disk or tape. ATM (Automated Teller Machine has become an important part in our daily lives. People use ATM for various purposes such as money withdrawal, checking balance, changing password etc. Since it mainly deals with people's money, it has to be a secure system on which we can rely. We have taken a step towards increasing this security and integrity by trying to implement the functioning of an ATM using VLSI-based programming, HDL(Hardware Description Language.The conventional coding languages such as C,C++ are replaced by VHDL(Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language so that the code cannot be easily hacked or changed. This article consists of an insight into the various functions that can be performed using an ATM, a brief description of the Coding and the obtained simulation results. It also consists of the implementation of the code using FPGA Kit (Spartan3; Model no.-XC 3S50.

  17. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  18. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  19. Dynamics of TCP traffic over ATM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.; Romanow, A. [Sun Microsystems Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The authors investigate the performance of TCP (Transport Control Protocol) connections over ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks without ATM-level congestion control, and compare it to the performance of TCP over packet-based networks. For simulations of congested networks, the effective throughput of TCP over ATM can be quite low when cells are dropped at the congested ATM switch. The low throughput is due to wasted bandwidth as the congested link transmits cells from ``corrupted`` packets, i.e., packets in which at least one cell is dropped by the switch. This fragmentation effect can be corrected and high throughput can be achieved if the switch drops whole packets prior to buffer overflow; they call this strategy Early Packet Discard. They also discuss general issues of congestion avoidance for best-effort traffic in ATM networks.

  20. Reform of the ATM System - One Year On

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Filipovski; Darren Flood

    2010-01-01

    The payments industry, with support from the Reserve Bank, introduced major reforms to the ATM system in March 2009. The reforms were designed to increase competition and efficiency in the ATM system. They have, by and large, been meeting their objectives. Cardholders have responded to clearer price signals by changing their pattern of ATM transactions, resulting in a reduction in total ATM fees paid. Flexibility in ATM pricing has helped to increase the number of ATMs, including in locations...

  1. Fitting model of ABR age dependency in a clinical population of normal hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia; Immerzeel, Tabitha; Hoeve, Hans; Goedegebure, Andre

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a simple and powerful fitting model that describes age-dependent changes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in a clinical population of normal hearing children. A total of 175 children (younger than 200 weeks postconceptional age) were referred for audiologic assessment with normal ABR results. ABR parameters of normal hearing children between 2003 and 2008 were included. The results of the right ears recorded at 90 dB nHL were analyzed....

  2. Recording of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABR) with an integrated stimulus generator in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, Andreas; Peter, Otto; Baumann, Uwe

    2008-08-30

    Electrical auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs) of subjects with cochlear implants are used for monitoring the physiologic responses of early signal processing of the auditory system. Additionally, E-ABR measurements allow the diagnosis of retro-cochlear diseases. Therefore, E-ABR should be available in every cochlear implant center as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost setup designed to perform an E-ABR as well as a conventional ABR for research purposes. The distributable form was developed with Matlab and the Matlab Compiler (The Mathworks Inc.). For the ABR, only a PC with a soundcard, conventional system headphones, and an EEG pre-amplifier are necessary; for E-ABR, in addition, an interface to the cochlea implant is required. For our purposes, we implemented an interface for the Combi 40+/Pulsar implant (MED-EL, Innsbruck).

  3. Lack of bcr and abr promotes hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bcr and Abr are GTPase activating proteins that specifically downregulate activity of the small GTPase Rac in restricted cell types in vivo. Rac1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells, a critical cell type involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. The molecular mechanisms that underlie hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension are not well-defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bcr and abr null mutant mice were compared to wild type controls for the development of pulmonary hypertension after exposure to hypoxia. Also, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from those mice were cultured in hypoxia and examined for proliferation, p38 activation and IL-6 production. Mice lacking Bcr or Abr exposed to hypoxia developed increased right ventricular pressure, hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Perivascular leukocyte infiltration in the lungs was increased, and under hypoxia bcr-/- and abr-/- macrophages generated more reactive oxygen species. Consistent with a contribution of inflammation and oxidative stress in pulmonary hypertension-associated vascular damage, Bcr and Abr-deficient animals showed elevated endothelial leakage after hypoxia exposure. Hypoxia-treated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from Bcr- or Abr-deficient mice also proliferated faster than those of wild type mice. Moreover, activated Rac1, phosphorylated p38 and interleukin 6 were increased in these cells in the absence of Bcr or Abr. Inhibition of Rac1 activation with Z62954982, a novel Rac inhibitor, decreased proliferation, p38 phosphorylation and IL-6 levels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells exposed to hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS: Bcr and Abr play a critical role in down-regulating hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by deactivating Rac1 and, through this, reducing both oxidative stress generated by leukocytes as well as p38 phosphorylation, IL-6 production and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

  4. Transputer-based architecture for ATM LAN protocol testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Concetto, M.; Crocetti, P.; Marino, G.; Merli, E.; Pavesi, M.; Zizza, F.

    1993-10-01

    Local Area Networks (LANs) have completed two generations of development (Ethernet and Token Ring the first, and FDDI and DQDB the second); the large volumes of traffic involved in the emerging multimedia applications, however, lead towards a third generation of LANs. This generation must provide real-time capabilities needed by new services and solve the problems of interworking with ATM-based B-ISDN. Moreover the possibility to vary the subscribed bandwidth with the B-ISDN will be given to the LAN interfaces. This paper focuses on an architecture for protocol testing of a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol inserted in a LAN environment based on ATM technology. In fact, the technology of the third LAN generation will be the Asynchronous Transfer Mode solving every interface problem with the public B-ISDN. A testing and debugging environment which checks the implementation of the Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol at the interface host/LAN- ATM is discussed. The main concepts of the overall system architecture are analyzed, evidencing both software and hardware issues.

  5. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating communal wastewater under mesophilic conditions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, N; Buckley, C A

    2016-01-01

    A review concerning the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating communal wastewater under mesophilic conditions is presented. Existing studies indicate strong resilience of the reactor towards loading variations and shock-loads. The compartmentalisation of the ABR is a strongly stabilising factor with feed fluctuations being evened out across reactor chambers. Significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction occurs almost exclusively in the first three chambers. The hydraulic rather than the organic loading rate is treatment limiting. Laboratory-scale studies show high treatment efficiencies of above 80% COD removal. It was found that most laboratory-scale studies do not factor in important aspects of field operation, such as diurnal fluctuations of feed characteristics, adequate start-up periods and periods of constant loading and optimised chamber outlet design, and never studied the effect of loading on sludge digestion. Performance data on full-scale ABR implementations, however, are extremely scarce, and existing studies are without exception affected by site-specific treatment-limiting factors hindering the extrapolation of generally valid conclusions. In view of a large-scale roll-out, communal ABRs are not sufficiently understood. Current challenges concerning the optimisation of reactor design require numerous well-monitored long-term full-scale reactor investigations. Existing ABR investigations yield encouraging results, supporting that the ABR may be one of the solutions answering the global call for low-maintenance, robust treatment systems. PMID:26877027

  6. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating communal wastewater under mesophilic conditions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, N; Buckley, C A

    2016-01-01

    A review concerning the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating communal wastewater under mesophilic conditions is presented. Existing studies indicate strong resilience of the reactor towards loading variations and shock-loads. The compartmentalisation of the ABR is a strongly stabilising factor with feed fluctuations being evened out across reactor chambers. Significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction occurs almost exclusively in the first three chambers. The hydraulic rather than the organic loading rate is treatment limiting. Laboratory-scale studies show high treatment efficiencies of above 80% COD removal. It was found that most laboratory-scale studies do not factor in important aspects of field operation, such as diurnal fluctuations of feed characteristics, adequate start-up periods and periods of constant loading and optimised chamber outlet design, and never studied the effect of loading on sludge digestion. Performance data on full-scale ABR implementations, however, are extremely scarce, and existing studies are without exception affected by site-specific treatment-limiting factors hindering the extrapolation of generally valid conclusions. In view of a large-scale roll-out, communal ABRs are not sufficiently understood. Current challenges concerning the optimisation of reactor design require numerous well-monitored long-term full-scale reactor investigations. Existing ABR investigations yield encouraging results, supporting that the ABR may be one of the solutions answering the global call for low-maintenance, robust treatment systems.

  7. APPLICATION OF QUEUING THEORY TO AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM FACILITIES USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDOANYA RAYMOND MANUEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of applying queuing theory to the Automated Teller Machine (ATM using Monte Carlo Simulation in order to determine, control and manage the level of queuing congestion found within the Automated Teller Machine (ATM centre in Nigeria and also it contains the empirical data analysis of the queuing systems obtained at the Automated Teller Machine (ATM located within the Bank premises for a period of three (3 months. Monte Carlo Simulation is applied to this study in order to review the queuing congestion and queuing discipline at the Automated Teller Machine facilities or Automated Teller Machine service centers, and also estimate the arrival time, waiting time and service time of each customer found during the peak hours and off peak hours. An experiment was been carried out with the aid of a stop watch, recording material, etc on order to obtain the time in which every customer spends at the Automated Teller Machine (ATM service centre from the time of arrival to the time of departure. The model contains five servers which are heavily congested during the peak hours and during the off peak hours, servers are found being idle. Policy recommendations that could be use to manage and control the high level of queuing congestion at Automated Teller Machine (ATM centers were made using the statistical results presented by Monte Carlo simulation software attached to this work, such results include having not more than 15 customers within 1 hour, etc.

  8. Performance analysis of ATM/DQDB interworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kvols, Kenn

    1992-01-01

    The cell loss ratio and cell delay variation of a distributed-queue dual-bus (DQDB) network receiving traffic from a number of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connections are considered. Every connection carries either connection oriented or connectionless traffic. In the analysis of the access...

  9. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  10. Perancangan Sistem Penyampaian Permasalahan Mesin ATM (Automated Teller Machine dan EDC (Electronic Data Capture) Berbasis Platform Menggunakan Phonegap Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Adya Zizwan

    2015-01-01

    ATM (Automated Teller Machine) and EDC (Electronic Data Capture) are machines that serve banking customers for 24 hours. These machines sometimes have problems or problems when used by bank customers. Cases which often occur at the ATM machine swallowed like a debit card, the offline system and other issues. So, we need a system of complaint (places to accommodate all the problems or obstacles in the use of the machines) and a service solution that can help solve the problems of customers in ...

  11. Leo Satellite Communication through a LEO Constellation using TCP/IP Over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The simulated performance characteristics for communication between a terrestrial client and a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite server are presented. The client and server nodes consist of a Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over ATM configuration. The ATM cells from the client or the server are transmitted to a gateway, packaged with some header information and transferred to a commercial LEO satellite constellation. These cells are then routed through the constellation to a gateway on the globe that allows the client/server communication to take place. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is specified as the quality of service (QoS). Various data rates are considered.

  12. Improved virtual queuing and dynamic EPD techniques for TCP over ATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Siu, K.Y.; Ren, W.

    1998-11-01

    It is known that TCP throughput can degrade significantly over UBR service in a congested ATM network, and the early packet discard (EPD) technique has been proposed to improve the performance. However, recent studies show that EPD cannot ensure fairness among competing VCs in a congested network, but the degree of fairness can be improved using various forms of fair buffer allocation techniques. The authors propose an improved scheme that utilizes only a single shared FIFO queue for all VCs and admits simple implementation for high speed ATM networks. The scheme achieves nearly perfect fairness and throughput among multiple TCP connections, comparable to the expensive per-VC queuing technique. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the validity of this new scheme and significant improvement in performance as compared with existing fair buffer allocation techniques for TCP over ATM.

  13. Airborne and underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) studied with ABR and laser vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulvej, Tina; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    Airborne and Underwater Hearing in the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) Studied with ABR and Laser Vibrometry Ole Næsbye Larsen1, Tina Marie Huulvej1, Magnus Wahlberg1, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard1 1Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark Background Numerous studies have...

  14. ATM Mutations in Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael; Kipps, Thomas; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-08-01

    Activation of checkpoint arrest and homologous DNA repair are necessary for maintenance of genomic integrity during DNA replication. Germ-line mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene result in the well-characterized ataxia telangiectasia syndrome, which manifests with an increased cancer predisposition, including a 20% to 30% lifetime risk of lymphoid, gastric, breast, central nervous system, skin, and other cancers. Somatic ATM mutations or deletions are commonly found in lymphoid malignancies, as well as a variety of solid tumors. Such mutations may result in chemotherapy resistance and adverse prognosis, but may also be exploited by existing or emerging targeted therapies that produce synthetic lethal states. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1781-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27413114

  15. Flow enforcement algorithms for ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B.; Moth, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Four measurement algorithms for flow enforcement in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks are presented. The algorithms are the leaky bucket, the rectangular sliding window, the triangular sliding window, and the exponentially weighted moving average. A comparison, based partly on teletraffic....... Implementations are proposed on the block diagram level, and dimensioning examples are carried out when flow enforcing a renewal-type connection using the four algorithms. The corresponding hardware demands are estimated aid compared...

  16. [Nitrogen removal performance of ANAMMOX ABR process in tannery wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qu; Jia, Xiao-Shan

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-N removal from tannery wastewater was investigated using a lab-scale anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). The results indicated that ABR could be used as a good anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactor, the stable and effective performance of ammonium-N and COD removal from tannery wastewater was demonstrated in the ANAMMOX ABR. When the NH4(+) -N concentration of the influents were in the range of 25.0 mg x L(-1) to 76.2 mg x L(-1) and COD ranged from 131 mg x L(-1) to 237 mg x L(-1), under the volumetric loading of 0.05 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) to 0.15 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the NH4(+)-N and COD of the effluents were from 0.20 mg x L(-1) to 7.12 mg x L(-1) and from 35.1 mg x L(-1) to 69.2 mg x L(-1), respectively, and the removal efficiency of NH4(+) -N and COD were 90.8% to 99.6% and 66.9% to 74.7%, respectively. In addition, the brown-red, brown-yellow, red granular sludges were developed in ABR. SEM observation confirmed the presence of ANAMMOX bacteria in granular sludge of all four compartments of ANAMMOX ABR. According to FISH results, ANAMMOX bacteria had grown in all four compartments to various degrees during the acclimatization and running process, the percentage of ANAMMOX bacteria in sludge increased from 4% to 9%, 8%, 12% and 30% in compartment 1, compartment 2, compartment 3 and compartment 4, respectively, and a higher population percentage of ANAMMOX bacteria existed in the rear than in the front compartments. PMID:25826933

  17. ATM and ATR:Sensing DNA damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yang; Zheng-Ping Xu; Yun Huang; Hope E. Hamrick; Penelope J. Duerksen-Hughes; Ying-Nian Yu

    2004-01-01

    Cellular response to genotoxic stress is a very complex process, and it usually starts with the "sensing" or "detection" of the DNA damage, followed by a series of events that include signal transduction and activation of transcription factors. The activated transcription factors induce expressions of many genes which are involved in cellular functions such as DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and cell death. There have been extensive studies from multiple disciplines exploring the mechanisms of cellular genotoxic responses, which have resulted in the identification of many cellular components involved in this process, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascade. Although the initial activation of protein kinase cascade is not fully understood,human protein kinases ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are emerging as potential sensors of DNA damage. Current progresses in ATM/ATR research and related signaling pathways are discussed in this review, in an effort to facilitate a better understanding of genotoxic stress response.

  18. MODELING OF THE PRIORITY SCHEDULING INPUT-LINE GROUP OUTPUT WITH MULTI-CHANNEL IN ATM EXCHANGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an extended Kendall model for the priority scheduling input-line group output with multi-channel in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) exchange system is proposed and then the mean method is used to model mathematically the non-typical non-anticipative PRiority service (PR) model. Compared with the typical and non-anticipative PR model, it expresses the characteristics of the priority scheduling input-line group output with multi-channel in ATM exchange system. The simulation experiment shows that this model can improve the HOL block and the performance of input-queued ATM switch network dramatically. This model has a better developing prospect in ATM exchange system.

  19. ABR and auditory P300 findings inchildren with ADHD Achados em ABR e P300 auditivo em crianças com TDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schochat

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing disorders (APD, also referred as central auditory processing disorders (CAPD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD have become popular diagnostic entities for school age children. It has been demonstrated a high incidence of comorbid ADHD with communication disorders and auditory processing disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate ABR and P300 auditory evoked potentials in children with ADHD, in a double-blind study. Twenty-one children, ages between 7 and 10 years, with a primary diagnosis of ADHD, participated in this experiment. Results showed that all children had normal ABR with normal latency for wave V. Results also showed that among 42 ears combined 52.38% did not have P300. For the medicated subjects we observed that among 28 ears, 42.85% did not have P300 and for the non-medicated 71.43% (N = 14 ears did not have P300. Our results suggest that the medicated subjects had more presence of P300 (57.15% than the non-medicated group (28.57%, though the absence of these potentials were high among the group - 52.38%.Alterações do processamento auditivo, também chamadas alterações no processamento auditivo central e o transtorno do deficit de atenção/ hiperatividade (TDAH, tornaram-se entidades populares nos diagnósticos de crianças escolares. Uma grande incidência de TDAH em comorbidade com alterações na comunicação e com o processamento auditivo central tem sido demonstrada. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar potenciais evocados auditivos, ABR e P300, em crianças com TDAH, em um estudo duplo cego. Vinte e uma crianças, idades entre 7 e 10 anos, com diagnostico primário de TDAH, participaram deste experimento. Os resultados mostraram que todas as crianças tinham ABR com latência normal para a onda V e que, entre 42 orelhas, 52,38% não tinham P300. Para os sujeitos medicados observou-se que entre 28 orelhas, 42,85% não tinham P300 e para os não medicados 71,43% (N = 14

  20. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-12 glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-12 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The composition has been adjusted to match that predicted for HLW type 76-68 glass at an age of 300 y. Radioactive constituents contained in this glass include depleted uranium, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The glass was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). ATM-12 glass ws produced from July to November of 1984 at the request of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigations (NNWSI) Program and is the third in a series of glasses produced for NNWSI. Most of the glass produced was in the form of cast bars; special castings and crushed material were also produced. Three kilograms of ATM-12 glass were produced from a feedstock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1150{sup 0}C in a platinum crucible, and formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars and the special casting shapes requested by NNWSI. Bars of ATM-12 were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm, with an average mass of 111 g each. Nineteen bars and 37 special castings were made. ATM-12 glass has been provided to the NNWSI Program, in the form of bars, crushed powder and special castings. As of August 1985 approximately 590 g of ATM-12 is available for distribution. Requests for materials or services related to this glass should be directed to the Materials Characterization Center Program Office, PNL.

  1. ATMS Snowfall Rate Product and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, H.; Kongoli, C.; Dong, J.; Wang, N. Y.; Ferraro, R. R.; Zavodsky, B.; Banghua Yan, B.

    2015-12-01

    A snowfall rate (SFR) algorithm has been developed for the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) aboard S-NPP and future JPSS satellites. The product is based on the NOAA/NESDIS operational Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) SFR but with several key advancements. The algorithm has benefited from continuous development to improve accuracy and snowfall detection efficiency. The enhancements also expand the applicable temperature range for the algorithm and allow significantly more snowfall to be detected than the operational SFR. Another major improvement is the drastically reduced product latency by using Direct Broadcast (DB) data. The new developments have also been implemented in the MHS SFR to ensure product consistency across satellites. Currently, there are five satellites that carry either ATMS or MHS: S-NPP, NOAA-18/-19 and Metop-A/-B. The combined satellites deliver up to ten SFR estimates a day at any location over land in mid-latitudes. The product provides much needed winter precipitation estimates for applications such as weather forecasting and hydrology. Both ATMS and MHS SFR serve as input to a global precipitation analysis product, the NOAA/NCEP CMORPH-Snow. SFR is the sole satellite-based snowfall estimates in the blended product. In addition, ATMS and MHS SFR was assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and NESDIS/Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) for its operational values in winter 2015. This is a joint effort among NASA/SPoRT, NOAA/NESDIS, University of Maryland/CICS, and the WFOs. The feedback from the assessment indicated that SFR provides useful information for snowfall forecast. It is especially valuable for areas with poor radar coverage and ground observations. The feedback also identified some limitations of the product such as inadequate detection of shallow snowfall. The algorithm developers will continue to improve product quality as well as developing SFR for new microwave sensors and over ocean in a project

  2. Nonlocal two dimensional denoising of frequency specific chirp evoked ABR single trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J Kristof; Teuber, Tanja; Steidl, Gabriele; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that denoising evoked potential (EP) images is possible using two dimensional diffusion filtering methods. This restoration allows for an integration of regularities over multiple stimulations into the denoising process. In the present work we propose the nonlocal means (NLM) method for EP image denoising. The EP images were constructed using auditory brainstem responses (ABR) collected in young healthy subjects using frequency specific and broadband chirp stimulations. It is concluded that the NLM method is more efficient than conventional approaches in EP imaging denoising, specially in the case of ABRs, where the relevant information can be easily masked by the ongoing EEG activity, i.e., signals suffer from rather low signal-to-noise ratio SNR. The proposed approach is for the a posteriori denoising of single trials after the experiment and not for real time applications. PMID:23366439

  3. A proposed medical physics curriculum: preparing for the 2013 ABR examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachiappan, Arun C; Wynne, David M; Katz, David P; Willis, Marc H; Bushong, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming ABR examination format for radiology residents is undergoing significant changes in 2013. This requires adaptation of the didactic curriculum for radiology residents entering in July 2010 to meet these changes. Physics will now be incorporated into the core (qualifying) examination during the third year of residency, instead of being tested as a separate examination that was often taken earlier in residency training in past years. In this article, the authors discuss the past, present, and future of medical physics instruction and outline a revised medical physics curriculum for radiology residents that has been internally approved for implementation at the authors' institution and has not been advocated by any society or by the ABR. Starting with this article, the authors hope to encourage a discussion of physics curriculum revision with other institutions.

  4. Design of a Regenerable Air Revitalization Control System for the ABRS Plant Growth Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Monje, Oscar; Shellack, James; Mortenson, Todd; Wells, Howard

    Design of a Regenerable Air Revitalization Control System for the ABRS Plant Growth Facility. O. Monje Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Dynamac Corp., DYN-3, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA J.L. Shellack, T.E. Mortenson, and H.W. Wells. Bionetics Corporation, BIO-1, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA The Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) is a rear-breathing, single middeck locker equivalent plant growth system. ABRS is composed of two independently controlled growth chambers (each with 330 cm2 of growth area). The air revitalization system in each chamber is composed of two subsystems: CO2 Control and a Ethylene/VOC Control. The CO2 Control subsystem must control chamber [CO2] within a range of 300-2000 ppm, with a nominal setpoint of 1500 ppm. The Ethylene/VOC Control subsystem is required to maintain chamber ethylene concentration at ¡50 ppb. Previous spaceflight plant payloads have used non-regenerable cartridges for CO2 control and photocatalytic scrubbers for controlling concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Non-regenerable systems have used LiOH cartridges for [CO2] control with a combination of Purafil (KMnO4)/Activated charcoal for scrubbing VOCs. Regenerable air revitalization systems offer the potential for reducing the mass and volume of consumables used during spaceflight plant experiments. A system utilizing technologies employing regenerable adsorbents: zeolites 13X and 5A for CO2 control and Carbosieve SIII (C molecular sieve) for VOC control has been designed for ABRS. The filter cartridges were sized using expected chamber leak rates, measurements of adsorptive capacities, and measured CO2 consumption and VOC generation rates.

  5. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Vijaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation.

  6. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  7. A Control and Management Network for Wireless ATM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Stephen F.; Jagannath, Sunil; Evans, Joseph B.; Frost, Victor; Minden, Gary; Shanmugan, K. Sam

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a control and management network (orderwire) for a mobile wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network. This mobile wireless ATM network is part of the Rapidly Deployable Radio Network (RDRN). The orderwire system consists of a packet radio network which overlays the mobile wireless ATM network, each network element in this network uses Global Positioning System (GPS) information to control a beamforming antenna subsystem which provides for spatial reus...

  8. Synthetic studies on taxanes: A domino-enyne metathesis/Diels-Alder approach to the AB-ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna P Kaliappan; Velayutham Ravikumar; Sandip A Pujari

    2008-01-01

    A domino enyne cross-metathesis/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has been successfully used to synthesize a bicyclo[5.3.1] undecene, corresponding to AB-ring of taxol without the gem dimethyl group.

  9. Accelerating ATM Optimization Algorithms Using High Performance Computing Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is developing algorithms and methodologies for efficient air-traffic management (ATM). Several researchers have adopted an optimization framework for solving...

  10. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REGARDING BANK’S DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS – THE ATM NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharie Monica Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to traditional distribution methods (network of territorial units, to better meet market requirements in terms of speed and efficiency of services, banks have developed interactive electronic and computerized systems for clients: banking services via telephone, internet banking, network of automatic teller machines (ATMs, Electronic Funds Transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS. Automatic Teller Machines have become in recent years one of the common instruments through which banks offer the possibility of conducting routine operations such as: cash withdrawals, bill payments, transfer between accounts. This article presents the results obtained following a research that focused on determining the customers’ degree of satisfaction with the distribution channels used by a Top Five Romanian Bank, in particular the ATMs distribution network.

  12. 采用ABR-MBR处理豆制品废水的工程实践%Engineering practice of bean products wastewater treatment by ABR-MBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曦; 刘迎九; 陈朝猛; 周书葵; 左洪泽

    2015-01-01

    豆制品废水具有污染物浓度高、成分复杂、水质多变、色度高的特点,采用ABR-MBR工艺对其进行处理:在进水COD≤8 000 mg/L、NH3-N≤200 mg/L情况下,出水水质COD≤60 mg/L、NH3-N≤14 mg/L,去除率分别达到98.87%和93.15%以上.工程实践运行表明:该工艺具有工程费用低、运行稳定、维护简单、操作方便等优点,处理后出水达到了《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978—2002)一级排放标准.%Bean products wastewater are characterized by high-concentrations pollutants,complex composition,multi-variant water quality and high chroma.The ABR-MBR process has been used for its treatment.The effluent COD is≤60 mg/L,NH3-N≤14 mg/L and their removal rates are 98.87%and 93.15%respectively.When influent COD is 8 000 mg/L and NH3-N 200 mg/L.The engineering practice proved that this process has advantages,such as low engineering cost,stable operation,simple maintenance,convenient operation,etc.The treated effluent by this process can reach the first level requirements specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978—2002).

  13. Traffic Control in ATM Networks : Engineering Impacts of Realistic Traffic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, Ajit K.; Popescu, Adrian; Pruthi, Parag; Erramilli, Ashok

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art in the rapidly developing areas of ATM traffic controls and traffic modeling, and identifies future research areas to facilitate the implementation of control methods that can support a desired quality of service without sacrificing network utilizations. Two sets of issues are identified, one on the impacts of realistic traffic on the efficacy of traffic controls in supporting specific traffic management objectives, and the other dealing with th...

  14. ATM LAN Emulation: Getting from Here to There.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses current LAN (local area network) configuration and explains ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) as the future telecommunications transport. Highlights include LAN emulation, which enables the interconnection of legacy LANs and the new ATM environment; virtual LANs; broadcast servers; and standards. (LRW)

  15. A Case Study of Employing A Single Server Nonpreemptive Priority Queuing Model at ATM Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Furquan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a case study of employing a single server nonpreemptivepriorityqueuing model [1]at ATM machine which originally operates on M/M/1 model. In this study we have taken two priority classes of people in following order:- .Priority class 1- woman .Priority class 2- man Sometimea long queue is formed at ATMmachine (single serverbut the bank management don’t have enough money to invest on installing new ATM machine.In this situation we want to apply single server nonpreemptive priority queuing model.The security guard at the ATM will divide the customers in two category and arrange the customers in the above said priority order Thuspriority class 1 people willreceive theatm service ahead of priority class 2 people.This will reduce the waiting time of priority class 1 people. Of course by doing this the waiting time of priority class 2will increase. This is ok as long as the increment in waiting time of priority class2 people is reasonable and within the tolerable limitof priority class 2people.This will be true when percentage of priority class 1 people is relatively less as compared to priority class 2 people To know the attitude and tolerable limit of priority class 2 people towards the single server non preemtive priority model a sample survey has been done on the incomingpriority class 2 population at the atm machine.Against this background, the queuing process is employed with emphasis to Poisson distribution to assess the waiting time. The data for this study was collected from primary source and is limited to ATM service point of state bank of India located at Ramesh chowk, Aurangabad, bihar, India.. The assistance of three colleague was sought in collecting the data. The Interarrival time and service time data was collected during busy working hours (i.e. 10.30am to 4:00pm during the first 60 days. A sample survey was done to know the attitude and tolerable limit of priority class 2people towards the single server

  16. MO-F-16A-03: AAPM Online Learning Support of New ABR MOC Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 the American Board of Radiology (ABR) discontinued issuing lifetime board certification. After that time diplomates received a timelimited certificate and must participate in the Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program in order to maintain their certification. Initially certificates were issued with a 10 year expiration period and the MOC had requirements to be met over that 10 year period. The goal was to demonstrate continuous maintenance of clinical competency, however some diplomates were attempting to fulfill most or all of the requirements near the end of the 10 year period. This failed to meet the continuous aspect of the goal and so the ABR changed to a sliding 3-year window. This was done to recognize that not every year would be the same, but that diplomates should be able to maintain a reasonable average over any 3 year period.A second significant change occurred in 2013. The initial requirements included 20 selfassessment modules (SAMs) over the original 10 year term. SAMs are a special type of continuing education (CE) credit that were an addition to the 250 standard CE credits required over the 10 year period. In 2013, however, the new requirement is 75 CE credits over the previous 3 years, of which 25 must include self-assessment. Effectively this raised the self-assessment requirement from 20 in 10 years to 25 in 3 years. Previously SAMs were an interactive presentation available in limited quantities at live meetings. However, the new requirement is not for SAMs but CE-SA which includes SAMs, but also includes the online quizzes provided at the AAPM online learning center. All credits earned at the AAPM online learning center fulfill the ABR SA requirement.This talk will be an interactive demonstration of the AAPM online learning center along with a discussion of the MOC requirements

  17. 5'-Hydroxyzearalenol, a new β-resorcylic macrolide from Fusarium sp. 05ABR26

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Ling Zhao; Yue Gai; Hisayoshi Kobayashi; Chang Qi Hu; Hui Ping Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A new β-resorcylic maerolide, 5'-hydroxyzearalenol (1), was isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus Fusarium sp. 05ABR26. Three known compounds, zearalenone (2), 8'-hydroxyzearalenone (3) and zearalenol (4) were also isolated. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound 2 displayed potent inhibitory activity against Pyricularia oryzae with a MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL, while compound 3 was much less active; however, 1 and 4 showed no obvious activity.

  18. A Survey of ATM Security Implementation within the Nigerian Banking Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaye Adeyinka Adesuyi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research work reviews the current practices in Nigeria’s customer banking services with an empirical investigation into ATM fraud as well as a physical and technical implementation of security.The survey was conducted using questionnaire as the research instrument. Four hundred 400 questionnaires were distributed among Entrepreneurs, Civil servants and Students from four states of the federation namely Lagos, Abuja, Kaduna and Jos. Three hundred and twenty seven (327 were retrieved successfully while three hundred and three (303 were properly responded. The data collected was analyzed using Chi-Square test and one way ANOVA. The results obtained shows there is no statistically significant difference in the perception of entrepreneurs, civil servants and students on the positive impact of ATM on banking. The perceptions of the three variables on security challenges of ATM services are equal. It was concluded in the research that the current security implementation does not proffer the adequate security necessary to secure electronic transactions, customers’ information and funds.

  19. RESEARCH ADVANCES IN ANAEROBIC BAFFLED REACTOR (ABR)%折流式厌氧反应器(ABR)的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙; 韩英健; 钱易

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is a new high efficient anaerobic treatmen t system. ABR has some advantages over other anaerobic reactors, such as sim ple design,inexpensive to construct,stable to hydraulic and organic shock load ings, and high treatment efficiency. Different types of ABR are described, the study progress and application situation are summarized, and the future development is prospected in this paper. Fig 2, Tab 2, Ref 45

  20. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  1. D-ATM, a working example of health care interoperability: From dirt path to gravel road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClaris, John-William

    2009-01-01

    For many years, there have been calls for interoperability within health care systems. The technology currently exists and is being used in business areas like banking and commerce, to name a few. Yet the question remains, why has interoperability not been achieved in health care? This paper examines issues encountered and success achieved with interoperability during the development of the Digital Access To Medication (D-ATM) project, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). D-ATM is the first government funded interoperable patient management system. The goal of this paper is to provide lessons learned and propose one possible road map for health care interoperability within private industry and how government can help. PMID:19963614

  2. A COMBINED ADMISSION CONTROL ALGORITHM WITH DA PROTOCOL FOR SATELLITE ATM NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    Admission control is an important strategy for Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. Based on a control-theory model of resources on-Demand Allocation (DA) protocol, the paper studies the effect of the protocol on the statistical characteristics of network traffic,and proposes a combined connection admission control algorithm with the DA protocol to achieve full utilization of link resources in satellite communication systems. The proposed algorithm is based on the cross-layer-design approach. Theoretical analysis and system simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can admit more connections within certain admission thresholds than one that does not take into account the DA protocol. Thus, the proposed algorithm can increase admission ratio of traffic sources for satellite ATM networks and improve satellite link utilization.

  3. Radiosensitization by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting ATM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work by us (Guha, C., et al, Gene Therapy 7, 2000 and Fan, Z., et al, Human Gene Therapy 7, 2000), using antisense ATM approaches demonstrated radiosensitization of prostate and glioblastoma cell lines. In an attempt to further develop radiosensitizing gene therapy strategies for attenuation of ATM protein expression, we screened a series of siRNAs against ATM in human transformed kidney and cervical carcinoma cells. siRNAs were constructed as double-stranded ATM siRNA or the siRNA Hairpin cloned into pSilencer 1.0 -U6 expression vectors and transfected into HeLa and 293 cells. All transfected cell-lines were clonally expanded and isolated for Western blot analysis. Clonogenic survival assay (0 - 10Gy single dose or 2Gy x 2q 4hr separation) for selected transfectant lines was perfomed. Cell cycle progression and S-phase fraction were determined by FACScan analysis. Significant down-regulation of ATM expression occurred as early as 48hrs in both oligonucleotide and plasmid-transfected cells. Protein down-regulation was dependent on target sequences selected and independent of format, whether in oligonucleotide only or as hairpin-plasmid. These siRNAs also demonstrated cytotoxicity as assessed by reduction of plating efficiencies in clonogenic assay. ATM siRNA-transfected cells exhibited enhanced radiosensitivity, compared to cells transfected with control vectors. These data suggest that attenuation of ATM by transfection of siRNAs against ATM could be useful tools for studying the role of ATM in radiosensitivty of tumors. Adenoviral vectors expressing these siRNAs are being developed for potential use in radiosensitizing gene therapy

  4. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  5. SU-B-213-05: Development of ABR Certification Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American medical physics community validates the education received by medical physicists and the clinical qualifications for medical physicists through accreditation of educational programs and certification of medical physicists. Medical physics educational programs (graduate education and residency education) are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), whereas medical physicists are certified by several organizations, the most familiar of which is the American Board of Radiology (ABR). In order for an educational program to become accredited or a medical physicist to become certified, the applicant must meet certain specified standards set by the appropriate organization. In this Symposium, representatives from both CAMPEP and the ABR will describe the process by which standards are established as well as the process by which qualifications of candidates for accreditation or certification are shown to be compliant with these standards. The Symposium will conclude with a panel discussion. Learning Objectives: Recognize the difference between accreditation of an educational program and certification of an individual Identify the two organizations primarily responsible for these tasks Describe the development of educational standards Describe the process by which examination questions are developed GS is Executive Secretary of CAMPEP

  6. SU-B-213-06: Development of ABR Examination Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American medical physics community validates the education received by medical physicists and the clinical qualifications for medical physicists through accreditation of educational programs and certification of medical physicists. Medical physics educational programs (graduate education and residency education) are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), whereas medical physicists are certified by several organizations, the most familiar of which is the American Board of Radiology (ABR). In order for an educational program to become accredited or a medical physicist to become certified, the applicant must meet certain specified standards set by the appropriate organization. In this Symposium, representatives from both CAMPEP and the ABR will describe the process by which standards are established as well as the process by which qualifications of candidates for accreditation or certification are shown to be compliant with these standards. The Symposium will conclude with a panel discussion. Learning Objectives: Recognize the difference between accreditation of an educational program and certification of an individual Identify the two organizations primarily responsible for these tasks Describe the development of educational standards Describe the process by which examination questions are developed GS is Executive Secretary of CAMPEP

  7. 3rd ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI) held its third International Workshop on ATM / CNS in 2013 with the theme of "Drafting the future sky". There is worldwide activity taking place in the research and development of modern air traffic management (ATM) and its enabling technologies in Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS). Pioneering work is necessary to contribute to the global harmonization of air traffic management and control. At this workshop, leading experts in  research, industry and academia from around the world met to share their ideas and approaches on ATM/CNS related topics.

  8. Study on the Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil by Wastewater Treatment Agent ABR Hydrocarbon%废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon对石油污染土壤生物修复的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国丰

    2016-01-01

    The application conditions of wastewater treatment agent ABR Hydrocarbon and the microbial remediation of petroleum contaminated soil were studied. The results showed that the optimal fermentation temperature of wastewater treatment agent ABR Hydrocarbon was 40 ℃, and the optimal fermentation pH was 7. 0 , surfactants produced in the fermentation liquid, there was a good correlation between the activity of dehydrogenase activity and the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. After continuous cultivation for 32 days, petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate reached 33. 4%, soil microbial dehydrogenase activity was 83. 0 μg/( g · h ) . The experiments showed that the wastewater treatment agent ABR Hydrocarbon had good petroleum hydrocarbon degradation ability.%对废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon的应用条件及其对石油污染土壤的微生物修复进行了研究。结果表明:废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon的最佳发酵温度为40益、最佳发酵pH为7.0,发酵液中有表面活性物质产生,土壤中微生物的脱氢酶活性与石油烃降解率之间存在较好的相关性。连续培养32天,石油烃的降解率达到了33.4%,土壤微生物脱氢酶活性为83.0μg/( g·h)。试验表明废水处理剂ABR Hydrocarbon具有较好的石油烃降解能力。

  9. Study on the treatment of wastewater from rice wine production by ABR-CSTR combined process%ABR-CSTR组合工艺处理黄酒生产废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉洁; 吴鹏; 徐乐中; 沈耀良

    2016-01-01

    采用ABR-CSTR组合工艺对黄酒生产废水处理进行了研究.结果表明,采用低负荷启动并逐步提高容积负荷是ABR-CSTR组合工艺成功启动的关键,在温度为(30±2)℃时,COD容积负荷从0.3 kg/(m3·d)增至4.0 kg/(m3·d),历时100 d启动成功.系统总去除率保持在95%~98%,出水平均氨氮、总氮分别为0.57、20.4 mg/L,表明ABR-CSTR组合工艺能有效处理黄酒生产废水.%The research on the treatment of wastewater from rice wine production by the combined process ,ABR-CSTR,has been accomplished. The results show that the key of starting up the ABR-CSTR process successfully is by means of using low load start-up and then increasing the volume load gradually. When the operation temperature is (30±2)℃,the COD volume load increases from 0.3 kg/(m3·d) to 4.0 kg/(m3·d). The start-up is successful in 100 d. The total removing rate of the system stays constant at 95%-98%. The average effluent concentration of NH4+-N and TN are 0.57 mg/L and 20.4 mg/L,respectively. The results indicate that ABR-CSTR process can effectively treat the wastewater from rice wine production.

  10. Video transmission on ATM networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1993-01-01

    The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

  11. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) user's manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software User Guide (SUG) constitutes the user procedures for the ATMS System. Information in this document will be used by the user to operate the automated system. It is intended to be used as a reference manual to guide and direct the user(s) through the ATMS software product and its environment. The objectives of ATMS are as follows: to better support the Procurement function with freight rate information; to free Transportation Logistics personnel from routine activities such as the auditing and input of freight billing information; to comply with Headquarters Department of Energy-Inspector General (DOE-IG) audit findings to automate transportation management functions; to reduce the keying of data into the Shipment Mobility Accountability Collection (SMAC) database; and to provide automation for the preparing of Bill of Lading, Declaration of Dangerous Goods, Emergency Response Guide and shipping Labels using HM181 Retrieval of hazardous material table text information

  12. Deciphering the regulon of the Streptomyces coelicolor AbrC3, a positive response regulator of antibiotic production.

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, Sergio; Santamaría, Ramón I; Yepes, Ana; Rodríguez, Héctor; Laing, Emma; Bucca, Giselda; Smith, Colin P; Díaz, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The atypical two-component system (TCS) AbrC1/C2/C3 (encoded by SCO4598, SCO4597, and SCO4596), comprising two histidine kinases (HKs) and a response regulator (RR), is crucial for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor and for morphological differentiation under certain nutritional conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of the RR-encoding gene, abrC3 (SCO4596), results in a dramatic decrease in actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodiginine (RED) production and delays m...

  13. Abr1, a Transposon-Like Element in the Genome of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1999-01-01

    A 300-bp repetitive element was found in the genome of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and designated Abr1. It is present in ∼15 copies per haploid genome in the commercial strain Horst U1. Analysis of seven copies showed 89 to 97% sequence identity. The repeat has features typical of class II transposons (i.e., terminal inverted repeats, subterminal repeats, and a target site duplication of 7 bp). The latter shows a consensus sequence. When used as probe on Southern blots, Abr1...

  14. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Nicolas; Hoen, Michel; Truy, Eric; Gallego, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CIs) are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The “modern” CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies) has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% to 60%, and sentence comprehension close to 90%). These good average results however hide a very important interindividual variability as scores in a given patients’ population often vary from 5 to 95% in comparable testing conditions. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model for patients with unilateral CI. A novel method of objectively measuring electrical and neuronal interactions using electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) is proposed. Methods and Findings The method consists of two measurements: 1) eABR measurements with stimulation by a single electrode at 70% of the dynamic range (four electrodes distributed within the cochlea were tested), followed by a summation of these four eABRs; 2) Measurement of a single eABR with stimulation from all four electrodes at 70% of the dynamic range. A comparison of the eABRs obtained by these two measurements, defined as the monaural interaction component (MIC), indicated electrical and neural interactions between the stimulation channels. Speech recognition performance without lip reading was measured for each patient using a logatome test (64 "vowel-consonant-vowel"; VCV; by forced choice of 1 out of 16). eABRs were measured in 16 CI patients (CIs with 20 electrodes, Digisonic SP; Oticon Medical ®, Vallauris, France). Significant correlations were found between speech recognition performance and the ratio of the amplitude of the V wave of the eABRs obtained with the two measurements (Pearson's linear regression

  15. A unified approach to fast teller queues and ATM

    OpenAIRE

    BECK, B.; Dabrowski, A R; McDonald, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines a problem of importance to the telecommunications industry. In the design of modern ATM switches, it is necessary to use simulation to estimate the probability that a queue within the switch exceeds a given large value. Since these are extremely small probabilities, importance sampling methods must be used. Here we obtain a change of measure for a broad class of models with direct applicability to ATM switches. ¶ We consider a model with A independent ...

  16. Teleoperation system using Asynchronous transfer mode, ATM network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the application of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in a distributed industrial environment such as in teleoperation, which performs real time control manipulation from a remote location. In our study, two models of teleoperation are proposed; the first model is a point to point connection and the second model is through an ATM network. The performance results are analysed as to determine whether the two models can support the teleoperation traffics via simulation using commercial software design tool. (Author)

  17. The Integrated Control-Mechanism in ATM-Based Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Survivability is one of the important issues in ATM-based networks since even a single network element failure may cause a serious data loss. This paper introduces a new restoration mechanism based on multi-layer ATM survivable network management architecture. This mechanism integrates the general control and restoration control by establishing the Working VPs logical network, Backup VPs logical network and spare logical network in order to optimally utilize the network resources while maintaining the restoration requirements.

  18. Modeling Traffic Management in ATM Networks with OPNET

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Narayanaswamy, Shobana

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the new generation of computer and communication networks that are being deployed throughout the telecommunication industry as well as in campus backbones. ATM technology distinguishes itself from the previous networking protocols in that it has the latest traffic management technology and thus allows guaranteeing delay, throughput, and other performance measures. This in turn, allows users to integrate voice, video, and data on the same network. Available ...

  19. Tropical Cyclone Warm Core Structure Retrieved from ATMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B.; Zhu, T.; Weng, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board Suomi NPP was successfully launched on October 28, 2011. ATMS consists of a microwave radiometer that measures microwave radiances at 22 channels from 23.8 GHz to 183.3 GHz. Combining the capabilities of current Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), ATMS provides sounding observations with improved sampling and coverage for retrieving atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles. A new algorithm is developed to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles for tropical cyclone with ATMS data. The cross-track asymmetric pattern is investigated for ATMS three window channels. It is found that the asymmetric biases are close to the simulations when the polarization alignment angles are set between 91o and 92o. The algorithm is applied for Tropical Cyclone Giovanna case study and compared with the retrievals from NOAA-15 AMSU-A observation. ATMS retrievals clearly depict the cold temperature anomalies in TC spiral rain bands and the storm warm core. More case study results will be provided at the conference.

  20. ATM-mediated Snail Serine 100 phosphorylation regulates cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Activation of the DNA damage responsive protein kinase ATM is a critical step for cellular survival in response to ionizing irradiation (IR). Direct targets of ATM regulating radiosensitivity remain to be fully investigated. We have recently reported that ATM phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor Snail on Serine 100. We aimed to further study the functional significance of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation in response to IR. Material and methods: We transfected vector-only, wild-type, the Serine 100 to alanine (S100A) or to glutamic acid (S100E) substitution of Snail into various cell lines. We assessed colony formation, γ-H2AX focus formation and the invasion index in the cells treated with or without IR. Results: We found that over-expression of the S100A mutant Snail in HeLa cells significantly increased radiosensitivity. Meanwhile the expression of S100E, a phospho-mimicking mutation, resulted in enhanced radio-resistance. Interestingly, S100E could rescue the radiosensitive phenotype in ATM-deficient cells. We also found that expression of S100E increased γ-H2AX focus formation and compromised inhibition of invasion in response to IR independent of cell survival. Conclusion: ATM-mediated Snail Serine 100 phosphorylation in response to IR plays an important part in the regulation of radiosensitivity

  1. Experiences with TCP/IP over an ATM OC12 WAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzan, Rebecca L.; Tierney, Brian L.

    1999-12-23

    This paper discusses the performance testing experiences of a 622.08 Mbps OC12 link. The link will be used for large bulk data transfer, and as such, of interest are both the ATM level throughput rates and end-to-end TCP/IP throughput rates. Tests were done to evaluate the ATM switches, the IP routers, the end hosts, as well as the underlying ATM service provided by the carrier. A low level of cell loss, (resulting in <.01 % packet loss), decreased the TCP throughput rate considerably when one TCP flow was trying to use the entire OC12 bandwidth. Identifying and correcting cell loss in the network proved to be extremely difficult. TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) improved performance dramatically, and the maximum throughput rate increased from 300 Mbps to 400 Mbps. The effects of TCP slow start on performance at OC12 rates are also examined, and found to be insignificant for very large file transfers (e.g., for a 10 GB file). Finally, a history of TCP performance over high-speed networks is presented.

  2. Audiometria de tronco encefálico (abr: o uso do mascaramento na avaliação de indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva unilateral Auditory brainstem response (abr: use of masking in unilateral hearing loss patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. T. Toma

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade do mascaramento na avaliação da audição por meio da ABR ainda é um assunto consideravelmente debatido (Durrant & Ferraro, 2001. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo propôs investigar a necessidade do mascaramento contralateral, empregado na orelha normal, ao realizar a ABR em indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra constituiu-se de 22 indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral de grau profundo, sendo 10 do sexo feminino e 12 do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 9 e 44 anos. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a: audiometria tonal liminar, logoaudiometria (SRT, IPRF e SDT, medidas de imitância acústica (incluindo a pesquisa dos reflexos acústicos - modo ipsilateral e contralateral e audiometria de tronco encefálico na ausência e na presença do mascaramento. RESULTADOS: Todos os indivíduos apresentaram perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral de grau profundo e curvas timpanométricas do tipo A bilateralmente. Na avaliação da ABR, 100% da amostra apresentou presença da Onda V na orelha comprometida, sendo que ao introduzir o mascaramento contralateral tais respostas não foram observadas. CONCLUSÕES: O mascaramento é um procedimento necessário para a avaliação da audição por meio da ABR em indivíduos portadores de perdas auditivas unilaterais, visando a obtenção de resultados fidedignos. Na ABR, a atenuação interaural para clicks foi maior (65 dB do que a observada na audiometria tonal liminar, sendo necessário, portanto, uma menor intensidade de mascaramento para eliminar a resposta da via auditiva contralateral.The need of masking in auditory brainstem response (ABR evaluation is still considerably debated issue (Durrant and Ferraro, 2001. AIM: In addition, the present study was to investigate the need of masking in ABR with unilateral hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical

  3. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  4. Design of ATM Networks Congestion Controller Based on the Virtual Queue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-xin; GUAN Xin-ping; LONG Cheng-nian

    2004-01-01

    The single bottleneck node of ATM networks is considered. The virtual queue mechanism and the method of proportion-integral-differential(PID) control are adopted in the congestion control. The sufficient condition of the considered system's stability is given. The method of determining the PID parameters is given further. To quicken the speed of startup and remove the congestion rapidly, the factors of increase and decrease are set according to the length of queue. The result of simulation shows that the system, given an appropriate group of parameters, can acquire good robustness and dynamic performance, and guarantees the quality of service at the same time.

  5. A queueing model for error control of partial buffer sharing in ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Boo Yong

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the error control of the partial buffer sharing of ATM by a queueing system M 1 , M 2 / G / 1 / K + 1 with threshold and instantaneous Bernoulli feedback. We first derive the system equations and develop a recursive method to compute the loss probabilities at an arbitrary time epoch. We then build an approximation scheme to compute the mean waiting time of each class of cells. An algorithm is developed for finding the optimal threshold and queue capacity for a given quality of service.

  6. A New SDH-Based ATM Network Survivability Escalation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates survivability escalation strategies in multi-layers transport networks such as ATM/SDH/WDM networks, and presents oriented-failures and oriented-traffic escalation mechanisms. Furthermore, We present a new survivability Escalation strategy for SDH-Based ATM transport networks, which addresses difficult problem for resources sharing pool(RSP) among different layers restoration mechanisms. In this paper, we also present integer programming (IP) model for the resources sharing pool (RSP) design problem and the node simulation model for escalation Node. The simulation results show that the proposed ESP is very efficient. The proposed model can be easily extended for other types of multi-layer networks, such as WDM-based ATM networks or WDM-based SDH networks.

  7. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J., E-mail: m.neale@sussex.ac.uk

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  8. A simulation study of TCP performance in ATM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien Fang; Chen, Helen; Hutchins, J.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation study of TCP performance over congested ATM local area networks. We simulated a variety of schemes for congestion control for ATM LANs, including a simple cell-drop, a credit-based flow control scheme that back-pressures individual VC`s, and two selective cell-drop schemes. Our simulation results for congested ATM LANs show the following: (1) TCP performance is poor under simple cell-drop, (2) the selective cell-drop schemes increase effective link utilization and result in higher TCP throughputs than the simple cell-drop scheme, and (3) the credit-based flow control scheme eliminates cell loss and achieves maximum performance and effective link utilization.

  9. ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusapati, Raju V.; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Hong, Sungki; Powers, John T.; Yan, Mingshan; Kiguchi, Kaoru; McArthur, Mark J.; Wong, Paul K.; Johnson, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a major regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. In a transgenic mouse model overexpressing Myc in squamous epithelial tissues, inactivation of Atm suppresses apoptosis and accelerates tumorigenesis. Deregulated Myc expression induces DNA damage in primary transgenic keratinocytes and the formation of H2AX and phospho-SMC1 foci in transgenic tissue. These findings suggest that Myc overexpression causes DNA damage in vivo and that the ATM-dependent response to this damage is critical for p53 activation, apoptosis, and the suppression of tumor development. p53 | DNA damage

  10. Improved EPRCA Congestion Control Scheme for ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M.Sreenivasulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic management and congestion control are major issues in Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM networks. Congestion arises when traffic in the network is more than offered load. The primary function of congestion control is to ensure good throughput and low delay performance while maintaining a fair allocation of network resources to users. In this paper, Enhanced Proportional Rate based Congestion Avoidance (EPRCA scheme proposed by ATM forum has been considered. But this scheme has limitation of higher cell drop problem for the bursty traffic. Improvements to EPRCA scheme have been proposed to reduce cell drop problem and results of improved EPRCA schemes were analyzed with basic EPRCA scheme.

  11. Simulation of the Tree Algorthm in ATM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for multicast routing in ATM networks. We define the network cost of a routing as the combination of the cost. If establishing connections, the cost of the overall bandwidth and overall switchings, our routing algorithm works on the original topology of ATM networks with physical switches and physical links, and different switching functionalities of Virtual Path(VP) switches and Virtual Channel(VC) switches in the networks. It generates an optimal multicast routing with the minimal overall network cost. Simulations with MATLAB have been made to compare the quality of the routing generated by our algorithm with those of other two major algorithms.

  12. ATM Security Using Fingerprint Biometric Identifer: An Investigative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use personal identification numbers (PIN's for identification and security clearances. Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for automated teller machine (ATM banking systems is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, a fingerprint biometric technique is fused with the ATM for person authentication to ameliorate the security level.

  13. [Research on Cultivation and Stability of Nitritation Granular Sludge in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Shen, Yao-liang; Li, Yue-han; Wang, Han-fang; Xu, Yue-zhong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: The last two compartments of the Anaerobic Baffled Readtor ( ABR) were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively to get an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor, using anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and aerobic granular sludge in aerobic zone as seed sludge. The research explored the condition to cultivate nitritation granular sludge, under the condition of continuous flow. The C/N rate was decreased from 1 to 0.4 and the ammonia nitrogen volumetric loading rate was increased from 0.89 kg x ( m3 x d)(-1) to 2.23 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) while the setting time of 1 h was controlled in the aerobic zone. After the system was operated for 45 days, the mature nitritation granular sludge in aerobic zone showed a compact structure and yellow color while the nitrite accumulation rate was about 80% in the effluent. The associated inhibition of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) dominated the nitritation. Part of granules lost stability during the initial period of operation and flocs appeared in the aerobic zone. However, the flocs were transformed into newly generated small particles in the following reactor operation, demonstrating that organic carbon was benefit to granulation and the enrichment of slow-growing nitrifying played an important role in the stability of granules.

  14. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen. PMID:27209704

  15. Medical Physics Residency Consortium: collaborative endeavors to meet the ABR 2014 certification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brent C; Duhon, John; Yang, Claus C; Wu, H Terry; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Gibbons, John P

    2014-03-06

    In 2009, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center (MBPCC) established a Radiation Oncology Physics Residency Program to provide opportunities for medical physics residency training to MS and PhD graduates of the CAMPEP-accredited Louisiana State University (LSU)-MBPCC Medical Physics Graduate Program. The LSU-MBPCC Program graduates approximately six students yearly, which equates to a need for up to twelve residency positions in a two-year program. To address this need for residency positions, MBPCC has expanded its Program by developing a Consortium consisting of partnerships with medical physics groups located at other nearby clinical institutions. The consortium model offers the residents exposure to a broader range of procedures, technology, and faculty than available at the individual institutions. The Consortium institutions have shown a great deal of support from their medical physics groups and administrations in developing these partnerships. Details of these partnerships are specified within affiliation agreements between MBPCC and each participating institution. All partner sites began resident training in 2011. The Consortium is a network of for-profit, nonprofit, academic, community, and private entities. We feel that these types of collaborative endeavors will be required nationally to reach the number of residency positions needed to meet the 2014 ABR certification requirements and to maintain graduate medical physics training programs.

  16. Evaluation of COD effect on anammox process and microbial communities in the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjun; Sun, Faqian; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Jianfang; Shen, Yaoliang; Liang, Xinqiang

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen removal with different organic carbon effect was investigated using anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) anammox reactor. Results indicated that organic carbon exert an important effect on nitrogen removal through anammox process. When the feeding COD concentration was lower than 99.7mgL(-1), nitrogen removal could be enhanced via the coexistence of denitrification and anammox. Elevated COD could further deteriorate the anammox activity with almost complete inhibition at the COD concentration of 284.1mgL(-1). The nitrogen removal contribution rate of anammox was varied from 92.7% to 6.9%. However, the anammox activity was recovered when the COD/TN was decreased from 2.33 to 1.25 with influent nitrite addition. And, the anammox process was again intensified from 27.0 to 51.2%. High-throughput Miseq sequencing analyses revealed that the predominant phylum changed from Chloroflexi to Proteobacteria with the elevated COD addition, which indicated COD concentration was the most important factor regulating the bacterial community structure. PMID:27285572

  17. Performance Analysis of Using ATM-LSR to Implement MPLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The explosive growth of Internet traffic has imposed tremendous stress on today's routers. Labelswitching is a new technique in network interconnection, which presents attractive performance of scalable, traffic engineering and large processing capability. This paper discusses the MPLS architecture, mainly focuses on the analysis of some problems in using Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) based on the ATM backbone network and its solving mechanisms.

  18. ATM Couples Replication Stress and Metabolic Reprogramming during Cellular Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Aird

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Replication stress induced by nucleotide deficiency plays an important role in cancer initiation. Replication stress in primary cells typically activates the cellular senescence tumor-suppression mechanism. Senescence bypass correlates with development of cancer, a disease characterized by metabolic reprogramming. However, the role of metabolic reprogramming in the cellular response to replication stress has been little explored. Here, we report that ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM plays a central role in regulating the cellular response to replication stress by shifting cellular metabolism. ATM inactivation bypasses senescence induced by replication stress triggered by nucleotide deficiency. This was due to restoration of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP levels through both upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway via increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity and enhanced glucose and glutamine consumption. These phenotypes were mediated by a coordinated suppression of p53 and upregulation of c-MYC downstream of ATM inactivation. Our data indicate that ATM status couples replication stress and metabolic reprogramming during senescence.

  19. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report

  20. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material--ATM-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material 104 (ATM-104), which is spent fuel from Assembly DO47 of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1), a pressurized-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-104 consists of 128 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 42 MWd/kgM and expected fission gas release of about 1%. A variety of analyses were performed to investigate cladding characteristics, radionuclide inventory, and redistribution of fission products. Characterization data include (1) fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling history; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding.

  1. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  2. Tödliches Menetekel für die Menschheit : Abrüstung am Anfang des 21. Jahrhunderts

    OpenAIRE

    Kötter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Atomare, biologische und chemische Waffen bedrohen das Überleben der Menschheit. Friedens- und Konfliktforscher Wolfgang Kötter aus Potsdam untersucht die differenzierten Ergebnisse bei der Beseitigung dieser Gefahr. Während die chemische Abrüstung, wenn auch mit Verzögerungen, voran kommt, fehlt dem Verbot der B-Waffen ein wirksames Kontrollinstrument. Atomare Waffen erleben sogar eine Renaissance und das nukleare Nichtverbreitungsregime droht zu zerbrechen.

  3. Role of ATM in Suppressing Oncogenic Translocations and Mature B Cell Lymphomas

    OpenAIRE

    Tepsuporn, Suprawee

    2013-01-01

    The ATM protein senses DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and facilitates proper repair. B and T lymphocytes of ATM-deficient patients have increased antigen receptor locus translocations associated with aberrant V(D)J recombination. Correspondingly, ATM-deficient humans are predisposed to both T and B cell malignancies. However, ATM-deficiency in mice only leads to T cell lymphomas, all of which harbor T cell receptor locus translocations resulting from aberrant V(D)J recombination. The first...

  4. ATM down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, R C; Canevari, R A; Villacis, R A R;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene downexpression has been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas (BC); however, the prognostic value and mechanisms of ATM deregulation remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ATM and miRNAs (miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-203, miR-421, miR-664, miR-576-5p...

  5. SU-E-E-02: An Excel-Based Study Tool for ABR-Style Exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, K; Stanley, D; Defoor, D; Stathakis, S; Gutierrez, A; Papanikolaou, N; Kirby, N [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: As the landscape of learning and testing shifts toward a computer-based environment, a replacement for paper-based methods of studying is desirable. Using Microsoft Excel, a study tool was developed that allows the user to populate multiple-choice questions and then generate an interactive quiz session to answer them. Methods: The code for the tool was written using Microsoft Excel Visual Basic for Applications with the intent that this tool could be implemented by any institution with Excel. The base tool is a template with a setup macro, which builds out the structure based on user’s input. Once the framework is built, the user can input sets of multiple-choice questions, answer choices, and even add figures. The tool can be run in random-question or sequential-question mode for single or multiple courses of study. The interactive session allows the user to select answer choices and immediate feedback is provided. Once the user is finished studying, the tool records the day’s progress by reporting progress statistics useful for trending. Results: Six doctoral students at UTHSCSA have used this tool for the past two months to study for their qualifying exam, which is similar in format and content to the American Board of Radiology (ABR) Therapeutic Part II exam. The students collaborated to create a repository of questions, met weekly to go over these questions, and then used the tool to prepare for their exam. Conclusion: The study tool has provided an effective and efficient way for students to collaborate and be held accountable for exam preparation. The ease of use and familiarity of Excel are important factors for the tool’s use. There are software packages to create similar question banks, but this study tool has no additional cost for those that already have Excel. The study tool will be made openly available.

  6. 基于ATM网络IP的QoS的研究%Study of IP QoS based on ATM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳珠; 范亚芹

    2004-01-01

    针对传统IPOA(IP(Internet Protocol) Over ATM)不保证任何QoS(Quality of Service)的问题,通过扩展IP数据头,提出了一种用户业务优先级方案.它可在ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode)交换虚通路SVC(Switched Virtual Circuit)上为IP(Internet Protocol)综合业务提供QoS,以获得更好的分组传送性能.与传统方案相比较,能够享有ATM网络提供的各种QoS的保证.

  7. ATM-based cluster computing for multi-problem domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.Y.; Brandt, J.M.; Armstrong, R.C.

    1996-08-01

    This study evaluates the performance of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) local area network (LAN) for general as well as parallel distributed computing. General distributed computing uses client-server based applications that employ Remote Procedure Call (RPC) on top of the TCP/UDP/IP protocol. These applications typically require high throughput, good response time, and fairness. In contrast, parallel applications favor much simpler models of computation which require more direct access to data among processors. To efficiently run these programs, the network needs to achieve hardware speed. This paper describe our experience in building a multi-programmed distributed computing environment using Digital Equipment Corporation`s (DEC) AN2 ATM switch and Alpha workstations. We extend our study to include more elaborate network using simulation results.

  8. Atm Client Authentication System Using Biometric Identifier & Otp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Shamdasani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a design, to add more security to the current ATM systems by using biometric and GSM technology. In conventional method identification is done based on ID cards and static 4 digit password. Whereas in our purposed system, Bankers will collect the customer fingerprints and mobile number at the time of opening the accounts then only customer will be able to access ATM machine. The primary step of this project is to verify currently scanned fingerprint with the fingerprint which is registered in the bank during the account opening time. If the two fingerprints get matched, then a message will be delivered to the user’s mobile which is the random 4 digit pin number to access the account. For every transaction new pin numbers will be send to the user’s mobile thus there will not be fixed pin number for every transaction. Thus, Pin number will vary during each transaction .

  9. Downregulation of ATM Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo-Ferreira, T M M; Bueno, R C; Terra, E M;

    2016-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein associated with DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. In women, ATM transcript and protein downregulation have been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas, and the absence of ATM protein expression has been associated...... with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ATM gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors and their association with clinical outcome. ATM gene and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry...... downregulation is involved in canine mammary gland tumorigenesis....

  10. Event Building in Future Daq Architectures Using ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, David C.; Game, David; Holt, Stephanie; Mitchell, Lisa; Banta, Paul; Heyes, Graham; Putnam, Theodore; Watson, W. A.

    ATM switches and links have been investigated for use as the event building fabric for future data acquisition architectures and will be used in CEBAF's CLAS detector. To avoid contention problems and cell-loss, a linked dual token passing algorithm has been devised, with two different types of tokens being passed through the switch. This algorithm leads to a `barrel shifter' type of parallel data transfer. We describe the hardware architecture and the dual token algorithm, and present simulation and test results.

  11. Enhanced ATM Security using Biometric Authentication and Wavelet Based AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedharan Ajish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ATM terminal customer recognition systems rely only on bank cards, passwords and such identity verification methods are not perfect and functions are too single. Biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. This paper presents a highly secured ATM banking system using biometric authentication and wavelet based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. Two levels of security are provided in this proposed design. Firstly we consider the security level at the client side by providing biometric authentication scheme along with a password of 4-digit long. Biometric authentication is achieved by considering the fingerprint image of the client. Secondly we ensure a secured communication link between the client machine to the bank server using an optimized energy efficient and wavelet based AES processor. The fingerprint image is the data for encryption process and 4-digit long password is the symmetric key for the encryption process. The performance of ATM machine depends on ultra-high-speed encryption, very low power consumption, and algorithmic integrity. To get a low power consuming and ultra-high speed encryption at the ATM machine, an optimized and wavelet based AES algorithm is proposed. In this system biometric and cryptography techniques are used together for personal identity authentication to improve the security level. The design of the wavelet based AES processor is simulated and the design of the energy efficient AES processor is simulated in Quartus-II software. Simulation results ensure its proper functionality. A comparison among other research works proves its superiority.

  12. New Role of ATM in Controlling GABAergic Tone During Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, Lara; Focchi, Elisa; Murru, Luca; Tamborini, Matteo; Passafaro, Maria; Menna, Elisabetta; Matteoli, Michela; Antonucci, Flavia

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to guarantee the proper excitatory/inhibitory balance is one of the most critical steps during early development responsible for the correct brain organization, function, and plasticity. GABAergic neurons guide this process leading to the right structural organization, brain circuitry, and neuronal firing. Here, we identified the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a serine/threonine protein kinase linked to DNA damage response, as crucial in regulating neurotransmission. We found that reduced levels of ATM in the hippocampal neuronal cultures produce an excitatory/inhibitory unbalance toward inhibition as indicated by the higher frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current events and an increased number of GABAergic synapses. In vivo, the increased inhibition still persists and, even if a higher excitation is also present, a reduced neuronal excitability is found as indicated by the lower action potential frequency generated in response to high-current intensity stimuli. Finally, we found an elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in heterozygous hippocampi associated with lower expression levels of the ERK1/2 phosphatase PP1. Given that the neurodegenerative condition associated with genetic mutations in the Atm gene, ataxia telangiectasia, presents a variable phenotype with impairment in cognition, our molecular findings provide a logical frame for a more clear comprehension of cognitive defects in the pathology, opening to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27166172

  13. ASYNCHRONOUS MEASUREMENT OF CDV IN ATM NETWORKS USING OAM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GARCÍA-HERNÁNDEZ

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The synchronisation between source and destination clocks at network nodes to a common reference time of day is important in order to achieve accurate measurements of cells delays in ATM networks. Otherwise, direct measurement of the cell transfer delay and cell delay variation using time-stamped OAM cells would be inaccurate. In this work, a method for the accurate measurement of cell delay variation using OAM cells, which does not rely on synchronised clocks at the measurement points is presented. This is achieved by assuming that each ATM switch has the capability to process and to modify the information contained in the OAM cells. The system presented here was modelled by means of a block-oriented network simulator (BONeS, which is a graphically-oriented, general-purpose simulation language for modelling and simulating communications networks, including ATM networks. The measurements of the cell delay variation were carried out on a VBR video source generated by a real MPEG-2 encoder with a fixed quantizer step size. The simulation results obtained show that measurements of the cumulative cell delay variation carried out without synchronised clocks at the measurement points were very closed to those obtained using synchronised clocks at the measurement points.

  14. Rapid screen for truncating ATM mutations by PTT-ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Liutao; Lai, C.-H. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, CA 90095 (United States); Concannon, Patrick [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, VA 22908 (United States); Gatti, Richard A. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, CA 90095 (United States); Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: rgatti@mednet.ucla.edu

    2008-04-02

    Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are responsible for the autosomal recessive genetic disorder, ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Approximately 80% of ATM mutations found in A-T patients results in truncations, which can be detected by Protein Truncation Test (PTT). Conventional PTT uses SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to detect mobility of radiolabeled truncated protein fragments. In this study, we developed a non-radioactive Protein Truncation Test which utilizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTT-ELISA) to detect ATM mutations in eight overlapping fragments. N- and C-terminal epitopes (c-myc and V5, respectively) were introduced into transcription/translation products, which could then be detected by Sandwich ELISA. Using this assay, we screened 9 newly diagnosed A-T patients consecutively. Of the 18 expected mutations, 14 truncating mutations were independently identified by cDNA direct sequencing and/or DNA dHPLC analysis. PTT-ELISA detected all of these 14. Four mutations were novel. The PTT-ELISA provides a rapid method for detecting truncating mutations in large genes and should be considered prior to using more laborious or costly methods, such as direct sequencing.

  15. ABR-MBR 一体化工艺节能降耗措施优化研究%Optimization of Energy Saving Measures with ABR-MBR Integrated Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏; 陆爽君; 徐乐中; 刘捷; 沈耀良

    2015-01-01

    能耗高和膜污染是限制膜生物反应器(MBR)广泛应用的重要因素。为降低工艺运行能耗和延缓膜污染,以厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)-MBR 工艺处理生活污水为例,对工艺结构和脱氮除磷运行条件进行优化。结果表明,通过优化 ABR-MBR工艺结构,可降低43%的运行能耗,同时可保持较高的 COD、 NH +4-N、 TN 和 TP 去除效果,平均去除率分别为91%、85%、76%和86%。另外,添加颗粒填料可有效延缓膜污染,不过也改变了膜污染的形成过程,膜内部污染物含量显著增多,碳水化合物含量增加,而蛋白质含量减少,碳水化合物/蛋白质比明显增大。最终,增强了 MBR 反应器的实际应用性能。%High energy consumption and membrane fouling are important factors that limit the wide use of membrane bioreactor (MBR). In order to reduce energy consumption and delay the process of membrane fouling, the process of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-MBR was used to treat domestic sewage. The structure of the process and conditions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal were optimized in this study. The results showed that energy consumption was reduced by 43% through optimizing the structure of ABR-MBR process. Meanwhile, the process achieved a high level of COD, NH +4 -N, TN and TP removal, with the average removal efficiencies of 91% , 85% , 76% and 86% , respectively. In addition, the added particulate media could effectively delay membrane fouling, while the formation process of membrane fouling was changed. The extracted amount of carbohydrates increased while the amount of proteins decreased. Finally, the potential was enhanced for the practical application of MBR.

  16. Phosphorylation of p300 by ATM controls the stability of NBS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Eun Ryoung [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Duk [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gajin [School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsjlee@mail.ajou.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    Acetyltransferase, p300 is a transcriptional cofactor of signal-responsive transcriptional regulation. The surveillance kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in regulation of a wide range of cellular DNA damage responses. Here, we investigated whether and how ATM mediates phosphorylation of p300 in response to DNA damage and how p300 phosphorylation is functionally linked to DNA damage. ATM-phosphorylated p300 in vitro and in vivo, in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylation of p300 proteins was observed upon {gamma}-irradiation in ATM{sup +} cells but not ATM{sup -} cells. Importantly, expression of nonphosphorylatable serine to alanine form of p300 (S106A) destabilized both p300 and NBS1 proteins, after DNA damage. These data demonstrate that ATM transduces a DNA damage signal to p300, and that ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p300 is required for stabilization of NBS1 proteins in response to DNA damage.

  17. Satellite/Terrestrial Networks: End-to-End Communication Interoperability Quality of Service Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite/terrestrial end-to-end communication interoperability are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Quality of service; 2) ATM performance characteristics; 3) MPEG-2 transport stream mapping to AAL-5; 4) Observation and discussion of compressed video tests over ATM; 5) Digital video over satellites status; 6) Satellite link configurations; 7) MPEG-2 over ATM with binomial errors; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM channel characteristics; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM over emulated satellites; 9) MPEG-2 transport stream with errors; and a 10) Dual decoder test.

  18. Development of a global flood monitoring system using ATMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temimi, M.; Tesfagiorgis, K. B.; Lacava, T.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operational global flood monitoring system using NPP-ATMS microwave brightness temperature measurements. The operational tool is based on a microwave-based soil wetness index (SWI). Swath-wise brightness temperatures (BT) of ATMS 89 GHz and 23 GHz channels are routinely downloaded from NOAA's CLASS. Each swath data is resampled to a regular grid of 35 km by 35 km using the nearest neighborhood technique to produce daily global brightness temperature maps. Global values of SWI are calculated using the difference in BT between the 89 and 23 GHz channels. Using these daily SWI values, we implemented the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) to calculate the Soil Wetness Variational Index (SWVI) which is dependent on the mean and standard deviation of SWIs of the same months of previous years using ATMS data. These SWVI values are influenced by changes in surface conditions. The determined mean and standard deviation values of SWI that were used to estimate the SWVI were determined on a monthly basis to mitigate the impact of the seasonal variation of the vegetation cover and surface conditions on the microwave signal. The determined SWVI using ATMS data showed significant sensitivity to inundation and allows for capturing changes in wet areas (inundation, flooding or very wet surface) across the globe. Snow and ice on the ground were masked out using a threshold-based approach that uses microwave brightness temperature observations. The advantage of the new ATMS sensor with respect to the older AMSU sensor that has similar channels consists of narrower orbit gaps and better spatial coverage and resolution. We nevertheless adapted the developed tool to AMSU data to investigate time series of inundation records across the globe since 2002. The obtained maps were verified against historical flood events in Australia and other parts of the world. Relationship between determined inundation and measured discharge was analyzed. A

  19. Effects of nitrobenzene concentration and hydraulic retention time on the treatment of nitrobenzene in sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2009-04-01

    The effects of increasing nitrobenzene (NB) concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT) on the treatment of NB were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. In the first step of the study, the maximum COD removal efficiencies were found as 88% and 92% at NB concentrations varying between 30 mg L(-1) and 210 mg L(-1) in ABR. The minimum COD removal efficiency was 79% at a NB concentration of 700 mg L(-1). The removal efficiency of NB was nearly 100% for all NB concentrations in the ABR reactor. The methane gas production and the methane gas percentage remained stable (1500 mL day(-1) and 48-50%, respectively) as the NB concentration was increased from 30 to 210 mg L(-1). In the second step of the study it was found that as the HRT decreased from 10.38 days to 2.5 days the COD removal efficiencies decreased slightly from 94% to 92% in the ABR. For maximum COD and NB removal efficiencies the optimum HRT was found as 2.5 days in the ABR. The total COD removal efficiency was 95% in sequential anaerobic (ABR)/aerobic (CSTR) reactor system at a minimum HRT of 1 day. When the HRT was decreased from 10.38 days to 1 day, the methane percentage decreased from 42% to 29% in an ABR reactor treating 100 mg L(-1) NB. Nitrobenzene was reduced to aniline under anaerobic conditions while aniline was mineralized to catechol with meta cleavage under aerobic conditions.

  20. Process evaluation of the health education resource Abre los Ojos for street-involved youth in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Wylie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conduct a process evaluation of a health education resource (pamphlet¸ Abre los Ojos, designed for street-involved youth in Medellín. The primary foci of the evaluation were the process of developing the resource and youth’s subsequent perception of the resource. Methodology: Drawing upon both qualitative and quantitative data, a process evaluation was undertaken. Ninety four street-involved youth between the ages of 14–24 years completed surveys about the resource. These semi-structured interviews were key for the information about youth perception of the resource. In addition to individual interviews, prior to resource creation, a series of focus groups were integral for the development of the resource. Results: The process of consulting with the target population through the focus groups was effective in obtaining their ideas and feedback about what type of content they would like to see in a health education resource, and how they wanted that content presented. After distribution, participants described that Abre los Ojos contained information that was valuable and relevant to their experiences. While not a primary focus of this evaluation, the individual interviews were also able to provide some preliminary insight into whether Abre los Ojos was an effective means for participants to increase their knowledge of content included in the resource. Conclusion: The collaborative process of jointly developing the resource content in partnership with the youth proved very worthwhile. While our research team chose to include information about HIV, through focus group dialogue, the youth themselves determined the additional content themes (piercings, use of solvents, and description of life on the street. The resulting resource was well-received by members of the street-involved population who had not been involved in its design.

  1. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Technique in ATM Networks Based on Fuzzy Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangLiangjie; LiYanda; 等

    1997-01-01

    In this paper,a dynamic bandwidth allocation technique based on fuzz neural networks(FNNs) and genetic algorithm(GA)is proposed for preventive congestion control in ATM network.The traffic model based on FNN does not need the descriptive traffic parameters in detail,which greatly depend on the user's terminal.Genetic algorithm is used to predict the equivalent bandwidth of the accepted traffic in real-time.Thus,the proposed scheme can estimate the dynamic bandwidth of the network in the time scale from the call arrival to the call admission/rejection due to the fuzzy-tech and GA hardware implementation.Simulation results show that the scheme can perform accurate dynamic bandwidth allocation to DN/OFF bursty traffic in accordance with the required quality of service(QOS),and the bandwidth utilization is improved from the overall point of view.

  2. ATM is required for telomere maintenance and chromosome stability during Drosophila development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elizabeth; Tiong, Stanley; Pedersen, Michael; Homola, Ellen; Royou, Anne; Fasulo, Barbara; Siriaco, Giorgia; Campbell, Shelagh D

    2004-08-10

    ATM is a large, multifunctional protein kinase that regulates responses required for surviving DNA damage: including DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we show that Drosophila ATM function is essential for normal adult development. Extensive, inappropriate apoptosis occurs in proliferating atm mutant tissues, and in clonally derived atm mutant embryos, frequent mitotic defects were seen. At a cellular level, spontaneous telomere fusions and other chromosomal abnormalities are common in atm larval neuroblasts, suggesting a conserved and essential role for dATM in the maintenance of normal telomeres and chromosome stability. Evidence from other systems supports the idea that DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair functions of ATM kinases promote telomere maintenance by inhibition of illegitimate recombination or fusion events between the legitimate ends of chromosomes and spontaneous DSBs. Drosophila will be an excellent model system for investigating how these ATM-dependent chromosome structural maintenance functions are deployed during development. Because neurons appear to be particularly sensitive to loss of ATM in both flies and humans, this system should be particularly useful for identifying cell-specific factors that influence sensitivity to loss of dATM and are relevant for understanding the human disease, ataxia-telangiectasia.

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of a human ATM gene analogue at Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human ATM gene, whose inactivation is responsible for the human disease ataxia telangiectasia is conserved throughout the Eukaryotes and plays an important role in the cellular responses to DNA damage, in particular to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we describe the identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of ATM (AtATM), and the molecular and cytological characterization of plants, hereafter called atm, carrying a disrupting T-DNA insertion in this gene. AtATM covers a 32 kb region on chromosome 3. The AtATM transcript has a complex structure, is 12 kb long and formed by 79 exons. The transcriptional level of AtATM is very low in all the tissues tested, and does not vary after exposure to ionizing radiations (IR). In atm plants, the protein is not detected suggesting the mutants are null. The atm mutants are partially sterile. Aberrant segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I on both male and female sides account for this sterility. However, meiotic recombination frequency is normal. Mutant plants are also hypersensitive to gamma rays and methyl methane sulfonate, but not to UV-B, pointing to a specific defect of atm mutants in the response to DNA DSBs. In plants, ionizing radiations induce a strong, rapid and transient transcriptional activation of genes involved in the cellular response to or the repair of DSBs. This transcriptional regulation of AtRAD51, AtPARP1, atGR1 and AtL1G4 is lost in the atm mutants . The absence of AtRAD51 induction associated with ionizing radiation sensitivity suggest that AtAtm play an important function in DSB repair by homologous recombination. In addition we show that homologous intra-chromosomal recombination frequency is elevated in the mutant comparing to wild-type, with or without gamma irradiation. These results show the implication of AtAtm in the genomic stability. (author)

  4. The behaviour of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR as the first stage in the biological treatment of hog farming effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This present paper reports a study of the efficiency of an anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR composed of three chambers working as the first stage of a biological treatment system for swine wastewater, over a period of 116 days. The average value of the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR was 17.8 kgCODtotal m-3 d-1, the biological organic loading rates (BOLR based on total and filtered COD influents of 14381 mg L-1 and 3610 mg L-1, respectively, were: 1.3 kgCODtotal kgTVS d-1 and 0.98 kgCODfiltered kgTVS d-1, respectively, and the hydraulic loading rate (HLR was about 1.4 m³ m-3 d-1. The average removal efficiency for total COD was 80% at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of about 18 hours. The average alkalinity in the effluent was 3801 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average removal efficiencies for oil and grease and total soluble solids were 41% and 78%, respectively. The sludge granulation and biogas production in the ABR were quite different between the first and third compartment, showing a distinct microbial consortium in each chamber. Through this research it was confirmed that this type of reactor can be employed as the first stage in a system treating swine wastewater.

  5. VLSI implementation of a fairness ATM buffer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.V.; Dittmann, Lars; Madsen, Jens Kargaard;

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a VLSI implementation of a resource allocation scheme, based on the concept of weighted fair queueing. The design can be used in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks to ensure fairness and robustness. Weighted fair queueing is a scheduling and buffer management scheme...... that can provide a resource allocation policy and enforcement of this policy. It can be used in networks in order to provide defined allocation policies (fairness) and improve network robustness. The presented design illustrates how the theoretical weighted fair queueing model can be approximated...

  6. A New Approach to VC Routing in ATM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new ant-algorithm-based routing approach is proposed for the VC routing problem with considering the comprehensive effect between the resource utilization and the load balance in ATM networks. In the approach, the backup paths are calculated first, and then an ant algorithm based on the ability of ants to find the shortest path between their nest and the food source during their searching food, is constructed to optimize the VC global route.Simulation results show that the proposed approach can realize VC routing effectively according to the current traffic states in the networks and the user-specified delay requirements.

  7. ABR-生物接触氧化法处理果汁废水实验分析%Study on Juice Wastewater Treatment by ABR-Biological Contact Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玉; 樊萍; 芦艳

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) is a new and high-efficiency anaerobic reactor with many advantages such as straightforward process, low construction costs, convenient operation and management, effective solid-liquid separation, highquality outlet water, stable and reliable operation, strong adaptability to toxic substances, etc. It is a new technology for biological wastewater treatment and has vast foreground on development and application. The most important feature of ABR is set next baffled in the direction of flow turn into a series of chambers so that the microbial populations along the length direction of achieving different compartment acid production and the production of methane phase separation. The reactor is simple in structure, strong in sludge retaining ability, stable treatme.nt system and easy in operation and management. This paper summarized the application of ABR and the combination of ABR with other processes in juice wastewater treatment.%厌氧式折流反应器(Anaerobic Baffled Reactor,简称ABR)是一种新型高效厌氧反应器,具有工艺技术简单、建设投资费用低、运行管理方便、固液分离效果好、出水水质好、运行稳定可靠、对有毒物质适应性强等优点,是一种极具开发应用前景的废水生物处理新技术。ABR最大的特点是在反应器中设置上下折流板而在水流方向上形成依次串联的隔室,从而使其中的微生物种群沿长度方向的不同隔室实现产酸和产甲烷相的分离。该反应器具有结构简单,截留污泥能力强,系统处理效果稳定,运行管理方便等优点。分析了ABR及ABR与其它工艺的联合在果汁废水处理方面的应用。

  8. HALA!'s White Paper. Towards Higher Levels of Automation in ATM

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Gonzalez, Eduardo Jose

    2011-01-01

    • Objectives of HALA! • Main Activities • HALA! Magement Team • Participants • Intended Audience • Heritage in ATM and Automation • The new paradigm shift in Automation in ATM • Overall system performance as main driver for ATM Automation • The three interdependent dimensions for the paradigm change. • New roles assignment based on : • “best time” • “decision place” • “best player” • HALA! main research areas

  9. Global ATM security Management - D2.2 - Security objective report

    OpenAIRE

    Airbus DS CYB, .; Paz Goncalves Martins, Ana; Stelkens-Kobsch, Tim H.; Schaper, Meilin; Selex ES, .; Airbus Prosky, .; Thales Alenia Space, .; BRTE, .; ENAV, .; ULANC, .; RNCA, .; Thales RT, .; SEA, .; ISDEFE, .; ROMATSA, .

    2015-01-01

    This document is the deliverable D2.2 – Security objective report of GAMMA WP2 “ATM threat assessment model”, providing a list of security objectives for the ATM system. It is based on the risk assessment made in D2.1 with the context and scope, threat scenarios and risks identified on the ATM system, in order to provide a list of security objectives.

  10. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Matarese; Patrizia Montefusco; José Neves; André Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the definition of a new methodology for carrying out security risk assessment in the air traffic management (ATM) domain so as to enhance security awareness and integrate secure and cost-effective design objectives. This process is carried out by modelling the system, identifying the assets, threats and vulnerabilities, prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM a...

  11. Elimination of Unauthorized and Fraudulent Transactions of ATM Using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Swaminathan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chip and Magnetic stripe are the types of technologies embedded on debit, credit and ATM cards in order to store the payment information. This paper mainly deals with the magnetic stripe technology and proposes techniques that can be used to eliminate unauthorized and fraudulent transactions of ATM, Automated Teller Machine. The techniques that this paper proposes such as Attaching a ThumbReader on an ATM to get an impression of the left-thumb from the person who has inserted ...

  12. The tumor targeted superantigen ABR-217620 selectively engages TRBV7-9 and exploits TCR-pMHC affinity mimicry in mediating T cell cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Hedlund

    Full Text Available The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120, now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells.

  13. Atm-haploinsufficiency enhances susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shu; Shen, Kate; Wang, Yaolin; Santner, Steven J.; Chen, Jie; Brooks, S. C.; Wang, Y. Alan

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & effect:: validationBiomarker: A-T carriersExposure/effect represented: DMBAStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): Atm male miceMode of exposure (if in vivo) (acute, chronic, root of exposure): administration by oral gavageMethod of analysis: PCRDose-response: Nearly twice as many Atm heterozygotes developed mammary tumors (64.7%) as the wild-type mice (37.5%). RR for DMBA-induced mammary tumors is 1.7 for Atm heterozygotesAtm heterozygotes developed mammary tumors wi...

  14. Loss of p53 Ser18 and Atm results in embryonic lethality without cooperation in tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Armata

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation at murine Serine 18 (human Serine 15 is a critical regulatory process for the tumor suppressor function of p53. p53Ser18 residue is a substrate for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM and ATM-related (ATR protein kinases. Studies of mice with a germ-line mutation that replaces Ser18 with Ala (p53(S18A mice have demonstrated that loss of phosphorylation of p53Ser18 leads to the development of tumors, including lymphomas, fibrosarcomas, leukemia and leiomyosarcomas. The predominant lymphoma is B-cell lymphoma, which is in contrast to the lymphomas observed in Atm(-/- animals. This observation and the fact that multiple kinases phosphorylate p53Ser18 suggest Atm-independent tumor suppressive functions of p53Ser18. Therefore, in order to examine p53Ser18 function in relationship to ATM, we analyzed the lifespan and tumorigenesis of mice with combined mutations in p53Ser18 and Atm. Surprisingly, we observed no cooperation in survival and tumorigenesis in compound p53(S18A and Atm(-/- animals. However, we observed embryonic lethality in the compound mutant animals. In addition, the homozygous p53Ser18 mutant allele impacted the weight of Atm(-/- animals. These studies examine the genetic interaction of p53Ser18 and Atm in vivo. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate a role of p53Ser18 in regulating embryonic survival and motor coordination.

  15. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  16. ATM, FDDI and Network Intrusion Simulation for Packet Data Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the use of the OPNET simulation tool for analysis of packet data networks. The motivation is to provide knowledge on packet level networks: Fiber Distributed Data Interface and Network intrusion simulation. FDDI protocol is examined by varying network parameters in two network configurations. Geographic distribution of servers and workstations in different buildings by capitalizing on the long-distance capability also saves money by eliminating the necessity for moving equipment to a single location provides high utilization on the FDDI LAN, thus lowering the cost of transporting data. We discussed about OPNET process model and its performance and effect on the traffic patterns in an ATM network. In this paper we also report studies of simulation efficiency and network performance of simulated network using firewall.

  17. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, J.A.; Pellegrini, M.; Filsuf, D.;

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) is a key deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage signaling kinase that regulates DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. The majority of patients with A-T, a cancer-prone neurodegenerative disease, present with null mutations in Atm. To determine wh...

  18. Inhibition of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that inhibition of ATM, an apical kinase in the mammalian DNA damage response pathway, suppresses HSV-1 replication in corneal epithelial cells and explanted human and rabbit corneas. ATM inhibition also reduces stromal keratitis severity in mice without causing corneal toxicity.

  19. Missense Variants in ATM in 26,101 Breast Cancer Cases and 29,842 Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, O.; Johnson, N.; Silva, Andreá Lema Da;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Truncating mutations in ATM have been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer but the effect of missense variants remains contentious. Methods: We have genotyped five polymorphic (minor allele frequency, 0.9-2.6%) missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in ATM (S49C, S707P,...

  20. ATM protein is located on presynaptic vesicles and its deficit leads to failures in synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Graham; Cheng, Aifang; Han, Yu Ray; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl; Plummer, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a multisystemic disorder that includes a devastating neurodegeneration phenotype. The ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein is well-known for its role in the DNA damage response, yet ATM is also found in association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures: endosomes and lysosomes, as well as neuronal synaptic vesicles. In keeping with this latter association, electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collateral pathway in hippocampal slices from ATM-deficient mice does not elicit normal long-term potentiation (LTP). The current study was undertaken to assess the nature of this deficit. Theta burst-induced LTP was reduced in Atm(-/-) animals, with the reduction most pronounced at burst stimuli that included 6 or greater trains. To assess whether the deficit was associated with a pre- or postsynaptic failure, we analyzed paired-pulse facilitation and found that it too was significantly reduced in Atm(-/-) mice. This indicates a deficit in presynaptic function. As further evidence that these synaptic effects of ATM deficiency were presynaptic, we used stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that ATM is significantly more closely associated with Piccolo (a presynaptic marker) than with Homer1 (a postsynaptic marker). These results underline how, in addition to its nuclear functions, ATM plays an important functional role in the neuronal synapse where it participates in the regulation of presynaptic vesicle physiology. PMID:27075534

  1. Abre La Boca: A Component of the California Plan for the Education of Migrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Carol

    A 1969 summer program under the Region III Migrant Education Project in Merced County, California, brought dental services to migrant children in the northern San Joaquin Valley. The goal was to screen and test as many children of migratory agricultural workers as possible in a set span of time. The University of California School of Dentistry was…

  2. Mitochondria are required for ATM activation by extranuclear oxidative stress in cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Akinori, E-mail: morita@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiological Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Tanimoto, Keiji; Murakami, Tomoki; Morinaga, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Hosoi, Yoshio, E-mail: hosoi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiation Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Oxidative ATM activation can occur in the absence of nuclear DNA damage response. • The oxidized Hep G2 cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation. • The obtained results suggest that the ATM activation occurs in mitochondria. • ATM failed to respond to oxidative stress in mitochondria-depleted Hep G2 cells. • Mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. - Abstract: Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response (DDR). A recent study reported that oxidized ATM can be active in the absence of DDR. However, the issue of where ATM is activated by oxidative stress remains unclear. Regarding the localization of ATM, two possible locations, namely, mitochondria and peroxisomes are possible. We report herein that ATM can be activated when exposed to hydrogen peroxide without inducing nuclear DDR in Hep G2 cells, and the oxidized cells could be subjected to subcellular fractionation. The first detergent-based fractionation experiment revealed that active, phosphorylated ATM was located in the second fraction, which also contained both mitochondria and peroxisomes. An alternative fractionation method involving homogenization and differential centrifugation, which permits the light membrane fraction containing peroxisomes to be produced, but not mitochondria, revealed that the light membrane fraction contained only traces of ATM. In contrast, the heavy membrane fraction, which mainly contained mitochondrial components, was enriched in ATM and active ATM, suggesting that the oxidative activation of ATM occurs in mitochondria and not in peroxisomes. In Rho 0-Hep G2 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA and functional mitochondria, ATM failed to respond to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. These findings strongly suggest that ATM can be activated in response to oxidative stress in mitochondria

  3. Mitochondria are required for ATM activation by extranuclear oxidative stress in cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oxidative ATM activation can occur in the absence of nuclear DNA damage response. • The oxidized Hep G2 cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation. • The obtained results suggest that the ATM activation occurs in mitochondria. • ATM failed to respond to oxidative stress in mitochondria-depleted Hep G2 cells. • Mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. - Abstract: Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response (DDR). A recent study reported that oxidized ATM can be active in the absence of DDR. However, the issue of where ATM is activated by oxidative stress remains unclear. Regarding the localization of ATM, two possible locations, namely, mitochondria and peroxisomes are possible. We report herein that ATM can be activated when exposed to hydrogen peroxide without inducing nuclear DDR in Hep G2 cells, and the oxidized cells could be subjected to subcellular fractionation. The first detergent-based fractionation experiment revealed that active, phosphorylated ATM was located in the second fraction, which also contained both mitochondria and peroxisomes. An alternative fractionation method involving homogenization and differential centrifugation, which permits the light membrane fraction containing peroxisomes to be produced, but not mitochondria, revealed that the light membrane fraction contained only traces of ATM. In contrast, the heavy membrane fraction, which mainly contained mitochondrial components, was enriched in ATM and active ATM, suggesting that the oxidative activation of ATM occurs in mitochondria and not in peroxisomes. In Rho 0-Hep G2 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA and functional mitochondria, ATM failed to respond to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. These findings strongly suggest that ATM can be activated in response to oxidative stress in mitochondria

  4. Pre-Launch Characterization of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Satellite (JPSS-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Leslie, Vince; Lyu, Joseph; Smith, Craig; McCormick, Lisa; Anderson, Kent

    2016-04-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is the newest generation of microwave sounder in the international fleet of polar-orbiting weather satellites, replacing the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) which first entered service in 1998. The first ATMS was launched aboard the Suomi NPP (S-NPP) satellite in late 2011. The second ATMS is manifested on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Satellite (JPSS-1). ATMS provides 22 channels of temperature and humidity sounding observations over a frequency range from 23 to 183 GHz. These microwave soundings provide the highest impact data ingested by operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, and are the most critical of the polar-orbiting satellite observations, particularly because microwave sensing can penetrate clouds. This paper will present performance characterizations from pre-launch calibration measurements of the JPSS-1 ATMS just completed in December, 2015. The measurements were conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber with blackbody targets simulating cold space, ambient, and a variable Earth scene. They represent the best opportunity for calibration characterization of the instrument since the environment can be carefully controlled. We will present characterizations of the sensitivity (NEDT), accuracy, nonlinearity, noise spectral characteristics, gain stability, repeatability, and inter-channel correlation. An estimate of expected "striping" will be presented, and a discussion of reflector emissivity effects will also be provided. Comparisons will be made with the S-NPP flight unit. Finally, we will describe planned on-orbit characterizations - such as pitch and roll maneuvers - that will further improve both the measurement quality and the understanding of various error contributions.

  5. Recently emerging signaling landscape of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Attar, Rukset; Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Romero, Mirna Azalea; ul Haq, Muhammad Fahim; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Research over the years has progressively and sequentially provided near complete resolution of regulators of the DNA repair pathways which are so important for cancer prevention. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase has emerged as a master regulator of DNA damage signaling and extensive cross-talk between ATM and downstream proteins forms an interlaced signaling network. There is rapidly growing scientific evidence emphasizing newly emerging paradigms in ATM biology. In this review, we provide latest information regarding how oxidative stress induced activation of ATM can be utilized as a therapeutic target in different cancer cell lines and in xenografted mice. Moreover, crosstalk between autophagy and ATM is also discussed with focus on how autophagy inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:25169474

  6. ATM Kinase Is Required for Telomere Elongation in Mouse and Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Suyong Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Short telomeres induce a DNA damage response, senescence, and apoptosis, thus maintaining telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell viability. Telomerase addition of telomere repeats is tightly regulated in cells. To probe pathways that regulate telomere addition, we developed the ADDIT assay to measure new telomere addition at a single telomere in vivo. Sequence analysis showed telomerase-specific addition of repeats onto a new telomere occurred in just 48 hr. Using the ADDIT assay, we found that ATM is required for addition of new repeats onto telomeres in mouse cells. Evaluation of bulk telomeres, in both human and mouse cells, showed that blocking ATM inhibited telomere elongation. Finally, the activation of ATM through the inhibition of PARP1 resulted in increased telomere elongation, supporting the central role of the ATM pathway in regulating telomere addition. Understanding this role of ATM may yield new areas for possible therapeutic intervention in telomere-mediated disease.

  7. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, β-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53

  8. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production. PMID:27503884

  9. ATM-Dependent Hyper-Radiosensitivity in Mammalian Cells Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and the later appearing radioresistance (termed induced radioresistance [IRR]) was mainly studied in low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation with survival observation. The aim of this study was to find out whether equivalent hypersensitivity occurred in high LET radiation, and the roles of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Methods and Materials: Survival and mutation were measured by clonogenic assay and HPRT mutation assay. ATM Ser1981 activation was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment of specific ATM inhibitor (10 μM KU55933) and activator (20 μg/mL chloroquine) before carbon radiation were adopted to explore the involvement of ATM. The roles of ATM were also investigated in its G2/M checkpoint function with histone H3 phosphorylation analysis and flow cytometric assay, and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair function measured using γ-H2AX foci assay. Results: HRS/IRR was observed with survival and mutation in normal human skin fibroblast cells by carbon ions, while impaired in cells with intrinsic ATM deficiency or normal cells modified with specific ATM activator or inhibitor before irradiation. The dose-response pattern of ATM kinase activation was concordant with the transition from HRS to IRR. The ATM-dependent 'early' G2 checkpoint arrest and DNA DSB repair efficiency could explain the difference between HRS and IRR. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the HRS/IRR by carbon ion radiation is an ATM-dependent phenomenon in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  10. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production.

  11. Processamento auditivo e potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral (BERA Auditory precessing and auditory brainstem response (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pfeiffer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar relação existente entre os potenciais auditivos de tronco cerebral e a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo. MÉTODOS: foi realizada em um grupo de 60 meninas residentes de Paraíba do Sul na idade de nove a 12 anos com limiares tonais dentro dos padrões de normalidade e timpanometria tipo A com presença dos reflexos acústicos. Os testes utilizados para a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo foram: avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo, teste de fala no ruído, teste de dissílabos alternados e teste dicótico não verbal. Após a avaliação do processamento auditivo, as crianças foram subdivididas em dois grupos, G1 (sem alteração no processamento auditivo e G2 (com alteração no processamento auditivo e submetidas aos potenciais auditivos de tronco cerebral. Os parâmetros utilizados na comparação dos dois grupos foram: latência absoluta das ondas I, III e V; latência interpicos das ondas I-III, I-V, III-V; diferença interaural da latência interpico I-V; e diferença interaural da latência da onda V. RESULTADOS: foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas nos parâmetros de latência interpico das ondas I-V na orelha esquerda (p=0,009, diferença interaural da latência interpico de ondas I-V (p=0,020 e diferença da latência interpico de ondas I e V da orelha direita para a esquerda entre os grupos G1 e G2 (p=0,025. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível encontrar relação dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral com a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo nos parâmetros de latência interpico entre as ondas I e V da orelha esquerda e diferença interaural da latência interpico I-V na orelha esquerda.PURPOSE: to investigate the correlation of auditory brainstem response (ABR and behavioral auditory processing evaluation. METHODS: sixty girls, from Paraíba do Sul, ranging from 9 to 12-year-old were evaluated. In order to take part in the study

  12. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jufang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Methods Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Results Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. Conclusions The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation.

  13. Low levels of ATM in breast cancer patients with clinical radiosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhiming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose Adjuvant radiotherapy for cancer can result in severe adverse side effects for normal tissues. In this respect, individuals with anomalies of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia protein/gene are of particular interest as they may be at risk of both breast cancer and clinical radiosensitivity. The association of specific ATM gene mutations with these pathologies has been well documented, however, there is uncertainty regarding pathological thresholds for the ATM protein. Results Semi-quantitative immuno-blotting provided a reliable and reproducible method to compare levels of the ATM protein for a rare cohort of 20 cancer patients selected on the basis of their severe adverse normal tissue reactions to radiotherapy. We found that 4/12 (33% of the breast cancer patients with severe adverse normal tissue reactions following radiotherapy had ATM protein levels Conclusions ATM mutations are generally considered low risk alleles for breast cancer and clinical radiosensitivity. From results reported here we propose a tentative ATM protein threshold of ~55% for high-risk of clinical radiosensitivity for breast cancer patients.

  14. Human lymphocyte damage and phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM induced by γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate 60Co γ-ray induced damage in lymphocytes and the relationship between doses of 60Co γ-ray irradiation and the levels of phosphorylated H2AX and ATM. Methods: Cells were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays in the range of 0-8 Gy. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and ATM were detected by Western blot and FACScan,respectively. The micronucleus(MN)was analyzed by CB method to evaluate DNA damage. Results: FACScan results showed the dose-effect relationship of γ-H2AX expression were linear.square at 0.5 h post-irradiation to different doses, and the fitting curve was shown as Y=3.96+11.29D-0.45D2. The level of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) was not changed significantly by using the same method. Western blot showed that p-ATM protein expression was significantly increased after irradiation compared with sham, irradiated group. The MN assay which represented DNA damage was sensitive to different doses. Conclusions: γ-ray irradiation could induce the phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM, which may play an important role in indicating DNA damage. Both of H2AX and ATM have the potential as sensitive biomarker and biodosimeter for radiation damage. (authors)

  15. ATM promotes the obligate XY crossover and both crossover control and chromosome axis integrity on autosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barchi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis in most sexually reproducing organisms, recombination forms crossovers between homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes and thereby promotes proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. The number and distribution of crossovers are tightly controlled, but the factors that contribute to this control are poorly understood in most organisms, including mammals. Here we provide evidence that the ATM kinase or protein is essential for proper crossover formation in mouse spermatocytes. ATM deficiency causes multiple phenotypes in humans and mice, including gonadal atrophy. Mouse Atm-/- spermatocytes undergo apoptosis at mid-prophase of meiosis I, but Atm(-/- meiotic phenotypes are partially rescued by Spo11 heterozygosity, such that ATM-deficient spermatocytes progress to meiotic metaphase I. Strikingly, Spo11+/-Atm-/- spermatocytes are defective in forming the obligate crossover on the sex chromosomes, even though the XY pair is usually incorporated in a sex body and is transcriptionally inactivated as in normal spermatocytes. The XY crossover defect correlates with the appearance of lagging chromosomes at metaphase I, which may trigger the extensive metaphase apoptosis that is observed in these cells. In addition, control of the number and distribution of crossovers on autosomes appears to be defective in the absence of ATM because there is an increase in the total number of MLH1 foci, which mark the sites of eventual crossover formation, and because interference between MLH1 foci is perturbed. The axes of autosomes exhibit structural defects that correlate with the positions of ongoing recombination. Together, these findings indicate that ATM plays a role in both crossover control and chromosome axis integrity and further suggests that ATM is important for coordinating these features of meiotic chromosome dynamics.

  16. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  17. CATCOM catalyst 5 atm 1000 hour aging study using No. 2 fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgerby, I. T.; Olson, B. A.; Lee, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of the CATCOM catalyst for use in catalytically supported thermal combustion has been demonstrated at 5 atm, complementing a previous 1000 hour durability study at 1 atm. Both of these studies were conducted at about 640 K air preheat temperature at a reference velocity of about 14 m/s; the adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel/air mixture was about 1530 K. The catalyst proved to be capable of low emissions operations after 1000 hours of diesel fuel aging. However, more severe deactivation occurred in the 5 atm test; this was attributed to a loss in kinetic (ignition) activity.

  18. A New ATM Self-Healing Algorithm with Back-Routing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The self-healing mechanism of ATM networks is one of the key techniques for ensuring the network survivability. Based on the consideration of the future development of ATM networks and the limitation of the former various algorithms, this paper proposed a new self-healing algorithm for ATM networks: back-routing self-healing back-routing self-healing. First, we show the basic principles about our scheme. Next, we give the concept of back-routing self-healing algorithm. Finally, we analyze the new mechanism and confirm the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  19. The combined status of ATM and p53 link tumor development with therapeutic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hai; Reinhardt, H Christian; Bartkova, Jirina;

    2009-01-01

    commonly used by tumors to bypass early neoplastic checkpoints ultimately determine chemotherapeutic response and generate tumor-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited with targeted therapies. Specifically, evaluation of the combined status of ATM and p53, two commonly mutated tumor suppressor...... genes, can help to predict the clinical response to genotoxic chemotherapies. We show that in p53-deficient settings, suppression of ATM dramatically sensitizes tumors to DNA-damaging chemotherapy, whereas, conversely, in the presence of functional p53, suppression of ATM or its downstream target Chk2...

  20. ABR反应器的水力特征研究%Study on Hydraulic Characteristics of ABR Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈耀良; 赵丹; 王承武; 王惠民

    2003-01-01

    采用LiCl示踪法对厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)在不同条件下的水力特征进行了研究.结果表明,ABR是一种各格室趋于CSTR流态而整体趋于推流流态的复合流态反应器.进水有机物浓度及HRT对水力流态均有影响,而前者为主要因素.进水有机物浓度越高则各格室的混合流态越好,ABR可在较低的上升流速下运行.当各格室去除有机物量相同时,HRT越长则其混合流态越趋于CSTR流态.进水底物浓度较低时,反应器的分格数宜控制在3~4格;进水底物浓度较高时,宜将分格数控制在6~8格.

  1. Gene cloning and function analysis of ABP9 protein which specifically binds to ABRE2 motif of maize Cat1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using mRNA extracted from 17 days post-pollination (dpp) maize embryos and was screened by employing a yeast one-hybrid system for proteins specifically interacting with ABRE2 motif of maize Cat1 gene. Three truncated overlapping positive clones designated ABP9 were obtained and the full-length cDNA was isolated by 5′ RACE. Searching the database revealed that ABP9 protein belongs to a bZIP-type transcription factor family. ABP9 protein specifically binds to ABRE2 motif and activates the expression of downstream reporter gene in yeast cells. Our results strongly suggest that the ABP9 protein functions as a transcription activator.

  2. PEATE automático em recém nascidos de risco: estudo da sensibilidade e especificidade Automatic ABR in newborns risk: study of sensitivity and specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mariangela Giaffredo Angrisani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico em equipamento automático (PEATEa, comparando-o ao teste de potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico em equipamento diagnóstico (PEATE em um programa de triagem auditiva neonatal em neonatos de risco. MÉTODO: foram avaliados 186 neonatos, 83 nascidos a termo e 103 pré-termo, sendo 88 do sexo masculino e 98 feminino. A triagem constou de emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulos transientes (EOAT, PEATEa e ao PEATE na mesma semana. RESULTADOS: dos 186 neonatos avaliados, 156 (83,9% apresentaram audição normal. A perda condutiva foi encontrada em 9 neonatos (4,8%,sendo 7 bilaterais e 2 unilaterais. A perda auditiva coclear foi observada em 5 neonatos (2,7% sendo um unilateral. Alteração central foi obtida em 11 neonatos (5,9% e um neonato foi diagnosticado como espectro da neuropatia auditiva -ENA(0,5%.Em 4 casos houve atraso maturacional na avaliação inicial com normalização das respostas no mês seguinte Comparando-se os resultados do PEATEa com o PEATE, observou-se alta sensibilidade ( superior a 99% para identificação de perda coclear,condutiva, central, atraso maturacional e ENA .A especificidade do PEATEa foi de 100% para ENA, mediana para perda coclear (75% na OD e 60% na OE, e para alterações centrais (54,5%OD e 63,6% OE. Para identificação de perdas condutivas (inferior a 43%. CONCLUSÃO: o PEATEa foi eficaz na identificação das neuropatias auditivas com elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Contudo, falsos negativos foram observados para perdas cocleares, condutivas, para alterações centrais e atraso maturacional.PURPOSE: to study the sensitivity and specificity of automatic ABR in comparison to diagnostic ABR of newborns under risk in a neonatal hearing screening program. METHOD: one hundred and eighty six neonates were evaluated, 83 born at term and 103 were pre terms, 88 male and 98

  3. Forecasting the Effect of the Change in Timing of the ABR Diagnostic Radiology Examinations: Results of the ACR Survey of Practice Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Edward I; Muroff, Lawrence R; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Moore, Arl V; Smith, Geoffrey G; Flug, Jonathan; DeStigter, Kristen K; Allen, Bibb; Thorwarth, William T; Roberts, Anne C

    2015-05-01

    The results of a survey sent to practice leaders in the ACR Practice of Radiology Environment Database show that the majority of responding groups will continue to hire recently trained residents and fellows even though they have been unable to take the final ABR diagnostic radiology certifying examination. However, a significant minority of private practice groups will not hire these individuals. The majority of private practices expect the timing change for the ABR certifying examinations to affect their groups' function. In contrast, the majority of academic medical school practices expect little or no impact. Residents and fellows should not expect work time off or protected time to study for the certifying examination or for their maintenance of certification examinations in the future. PMID:25737379

  4. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sun (Jiying); Y. Oma (Yukako); M. Harata (Masahiko); K. Kono (Kazuteru); H. Shima (Hiroki); A. Kinomura (Aiko); T. Ikura (Tsuyoshi); H. Suzuki (Hidekazu); S. Mizutani (Shuki); R. Kanaar (Roland); S. Tashiro (Satoshi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, incre

  5. ATM网络的配置与管理%Configuration and Management of ATM Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文芳

    2001-01-01

    The library network system is the basic construction project applied in the "211 Project" of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. This article mainly deals with the configuration method and the management of ATM network.

  6. NESDIS-Unique CrIS-ATMS Product System (NUCAPS) Cloud-Cleared Radiances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA-Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS Center...

  7. Treating Tannin Substances Treatment with ABR Reactor%ABR反应器对单宁类物质的处理效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁绍兰; 蔡丽; 董凌霄; 贾文颖

    2013-01-01

    采用单宁废水驯化厌氧折流板反应器(ABR),然后用驯化后的ABR预处理栲胶废水,研究ABR反应器对BA浅色栲胶和荆树皮栲胶的处理效果.结果表明:驯化过程中,VFA、pH以及碱度都保持在一个比较稳定的水平.驯化结束后,污泥产甲烷活性更高.驯化后的ABR反应器对栲胶废水有较高的去除作用,COD为2000mg/L的BA浅色栲胶废水和荆树皮栲胶废水的去除率分别达80%以上和70%以上,表明荆树皮栲胶废水比BA浅色栲胶废水更难降解.%Tanning extracts were domesticated by tannin with anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and the tannin waste water was pre-treated.It shows that the values of VFA,pH and alkalinity are kept at a relatively stable level during the process of domestication.When domestication ended,ABR reactor has higher sludge activity of producing methane.It has higher removal rate for tanning extracts when ABR was domesticated by tannin.When COD of wastewater,which was simulated with BA light color vegetable wastewater and the thorns bark tannin extracts,is 2000 mg/L,removal rate of COD is more than 80% and 70%,respectively.It shows that the thorns bark tannin extracts wastewater is more difficult for degradation than BA light color tanning extracts.

  8. Assessing the potential number of ATMs in banks, financial and credit institutions using Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Gray Clustering Analysis (GCA) Case study: between Enghelab Sq and Ferdowsi Sq- Enghelab Street of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    H.A. Faraji Sabokbar; GH. Ashournejad; Rahimi, S.; A. Farhadipoor

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstracts1- IntroductionMost organizations and financial institutions are facing with spatial decision makings. Optimum decision making affects the institutes’ success, achievement to their objectives and attracting customers. Modern banking services have evolved by the development of modern technologies. The most sensible aspect of banking services evolution is based on using the modern technologies of ATMs. The rapid growth in application of these devices could have been caused by ...

  9. ATM Modulates the Loading of Recombination Proteins onto a Chromosomal Translocation Breakpoint Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Jiying Sun; Yukako Oma; Masahiko Harata; Kazuteru Kono; Hiroki Shima; Aiko Kinomura; Tsuyoshi Ikura; Hidekazu Suzuki; Shuki Mizutani; Roland Kanaar; Satoshi Tashiro

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, increases the incidence of chromosome translocations. However, how ATM protects cells from chromosome translocations is still unclear. Chromosome translocations involving the MLL gene on 11q23 are the m...

  10. Traffic Analysis and Synthetic Scenario Generation for ATM Operational Concepts Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Besada Portas, Juan Alberto; Portillo Garcia, Javier Ignacio; Miguel Vela, Gonzalo de; Andrea, Rafael de; Canino, Jose Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a pair of systems which can be used to obtain realistic traffic samples in a Sector/TMA from a given real traffic database. Those are a traffic analyzer and a traffic pattern generator. These two systems allow the ATM engineer to both gain insight on the traffic structure of the area under analysis and to obtain statistically significant samples for the evaluation of operational concepts and procedure changes, perform analysis of ATM performance under traffic changes, ...

  11. ABR-AO反应器处理双乙烯酮、安赛蜜废水的启动试验%START EXPERIMENT OF TREATING DIKETENE,ACESULFAME-K WASTEWATER WITH ABR-AO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔颖; 李勇; 陈小萍; 王若云

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of the start-up operation of ABR-AO reactor for treating diketene, acesulfame-K wastewater have been investigated. The granular sludge was cultivated with domestic sewage whose COD was 4O~4OO mg'L, reactivated the suldge through 8d aerating; Then put the suldge into reactor, acclimatized with the mixture of domestic sewage and diketene, acesulfame-K wastewater, the diketene and acesulfame-K wastewater was gradually increased with 10% proportion. Result showed that at the condition of the returned sludge ratio 50%, the returned supernatant ratio 100%, the inflowed COD 300~800 mg/L, and the rate of flow 0.1 L/h, the first room and the second room were acid-making reactor, the third room was methane-making reactor, and isolation of microbes stage was realized; After 45 d the proportion of industrial wastewaler up to 70%, and the COD removal rate keep steadily remains on 75% in the reactor, the NH3-N removal rate keep steadily between 60%~70%, the capability of granular sludge was favorable and the start-up operation has thus been finished.%考察了ABR-AO反应器处理双乙烯酮、安赛蜜废水的启动运行特点.先以COD为40~400 mg/L的生活污水培养颗粒污泥,闷曝8d使污泥恢复活性;再将污泥投入反应器中,用生活污水和生产废水的混合液驯化污泥,并以10%的比例逐步提高生产废水的比例.试验结果表明,在污泥体积回流比为50%,上清液体积回流比为100%,进水COD为300~800mg/L,流量为0.1 L/h的条件下,ABR中第1、2格室为产酸反应器,第3格室为产甲烷反应器,实现了微生物相分离;运行45 d后,生产废水比例达到70%,此时反应器对COD的去除率稳定在75%左右,对NH3-N的去除率稳定在60%~70%,且颗粒污泥性能良好,可以认为启动工作完成.

  12. Accuracy Assessments of ATMS Upper-Level Temperature Sounding Channels Using COSMIC RO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Weng, F.; Zou, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) is a 22-channel passive microwave radiometer that can provide high-spatial-resolution data for generating temperature and moisture soundings in cloudy conditions. Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) data have high vertical resolution, are not affected by clouds, and are most accurate from 8 to 30 km, making them ideally suited for estimating the precision of ATMS measurements for upper level temperature sounding channels. In this study, Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) RO data are collocated with ATMS observation from December 10, 2011 to June 30, 2012. Compared with GPS simulations using the U.S. Joint Center of Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), the global biases of brightness temperatures from ATMS measurements are within 0.5K for channels 6 to 13 for clear-sky data over ocean. This value is well within the pre-launch specification, indicating that the ATMS upper level temperature sounding channels have high accuracy. The monthly variation and angular dependence of ATMS bias are also examined.

  13. Downregulated Ku70 and ATM associated to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer among Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuanfang Lu,1,2 Jingyan Gao,1,3 Yuanming Lu,1 1Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guilin Medical University, Guangxi, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Clinical Research Center, Affiliated 2nd Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Background: Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs are a key factor in carcinogenesis. The necessary repair of DSBs is pivotal in maintaining normal cell division. To address the relationship between altered expression of DSB repair of proteins Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM in colorectal cancer (CRC, we examined the expression levels and patterns of Ku70 and ATM in CRC samples. Methods: Expression and coexpression of Ku70 and ATM were investigated by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and confirmed further with fluorescent immunohistochemistry in CRC and pericancerous samples from 112 Chinese patients. Results: Downexpression patterns for both Ku70 and ATM were found in the CRC samples and were significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis stage and decreased 5-year overall survival rate. Conclusion: Downregulated Ku70 and ATM were associated with poor disease-free survival. Loss of Ku70 and ATM expression might act as a biomarker to predict poor prognosis in patients with CRC. Keywords: DNA double-strand breaks, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, Ku70, colorectal cancer

  14. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting ATM strengthen apoptosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma grown in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongsheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To conserve laryngeal function and elevate living quality of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC patients, we designed antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs to reduce expression of ATM and to enhance the apoptosis of hep-2 (Human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cells to radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods The expression of ATM mRNA and protein in hep-2 cells were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting respectively. Clonogenic survival assay was carried out to detect the survival ability of hep-2 cells after irradiation, and analyzed the cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The volume of solid tumors was measured, while TUNEL assay and western blotting used to analyze cell apoptosis and protein expression after irradiation. Results The relative ATM mRNA and protein expression in hep-2 cells treated with ATM AS-ODNs were decreased to 11.03 ± 2.51% and 48.14 ± 5.53% of that in untreated cells respectively (P Conclusion AS-ODNs of ATM reduce ATM expression and enhance hep-2 cells apoptosis to radiation in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Characteristics and hydrogen production efficiency in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) system%ABR发酵系统运行特性及产氢效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国臣; 李建政; 昌盛; 张照韩; 官涤; 金羽; 郭静波; 卢海凤

    2013-01-01

    To solve the continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) hydrogen system has low efficient and waste energy,a 3-compartment anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), with an effective volume of 27.8L, was adapted and its performing characteristics and hydrogen production efficiency were investigated,using diluted molasses as the material. ABR had higher efficiency and lower energy consumption comparing with CSTR. ABR achieved stable ethanol type fermentation within 26d with 35℃ and initial COD of 5000mg/L, and the specific hydrogen production rate was 0.13L/(gMLVSSd) while that of CSTR under the same conditions was 0.06L/g MLVSS-d. Results showed that ABR was an ideal facility for hydrogen production from organic wastewater fermentation.%为解决连续流搅拌槽式反应器(CSTR)发酵制氢系统存在的不足,如单位基质氢气转化率低、因搅拌带来的耗能,抗负荷冲击能力不强等问题,开展了厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)发酵产氢的研究.结果表明,在35℃和进水COD 5000mg/L等条件下,ABR系统可在26d达到乙醇型发酵,其比产氢速率为0.13L/(gMLVSS.d),而在同样条件下,CSTR达到乙醇型发酵后,比产氢速率仅为0.06L/(gMLVSS.d).ABR通过生物相的分离,使产氢系统梯级利用有机物并达到深度产氢的目的.与CSTR相比,ABR具有较高的产氢活性、较低能源消耗等优点,是一种较为理想的有机废水发酵制氢反应设备.

  16. ATM-mediated transcriptional and developmental responses to gamma-rays in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ricaud

    Full Text Available ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated is an essential checkpoint kinase that signals DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotes. Its depletion causes meiotic and somatic defects in Arabidopsis and progressive motor impairment accompanied by several cell deficiencies in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT. To obtain a comprehensive view of the ATM pathway in plants, we performed a time-course analysis of seedling responses by combining confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of root development and genome-wide expression profiling of wild-type (WT and homozygous ATM-deficient mutants challenged with a dose of gamma-rays (IR that is sublethal for WT plants. Early morphologic defects in meristematic stem cells indicated that AtATM, an Arabidopsis homolog of the human ATM gene, is essential for maintaining the quiescent center and controlling the differentiation of initial cells after exposure to IR. Results of several microarray experiments performed with whole seedlings and roots up to 5 h post-IR were compiled in a single table, which was used to import gene information and extract gene sets. Sequence and function homology searches; import of spatio-temporal, cell cycling, and mutant-constitutive expression characteristics; and a simplified functional classification system were used to identify novel genes in all functional classes. The hundreds of radiomodulated genes identified were not a random collection, but belonged to functional pathways such as those of the cell cycle; cell death and repair; DNA replication, repair, and recombination; and transcription; translation; and signaling, indicating the strong cell reprogramming and double-strand break abrogation functions of ATM checkpoints. Accordingly, genes in all functional classes were either down or up-regulated concomitantly with downregulation of chromatin deacetylases or upregulation of acetylases and methylases, respectively. Determining the early transcriptional indicators of

  17. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Fengxia [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Minjie [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Genomic Stability, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, MA 02134 (United States); Price, Brendan, E-mail: Brendan_Price@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Genomic Stability, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, MA 02134 (United States); Sun, Yingli, E-mail: sunyl@big.ac.cn [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  18. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  19. Critical involvement of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response in the apoptotic demise of HIV-1-elicited syncytia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Perfettini

    Full Text Available DNA damage can activate the oncosuppressor protein ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, which phosphorylates the histone H2AX within characteristic DNA damage foci. Here, we show that ATM undergoes an activating phosphorylation in syncytia elicited by the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 in vitro. This was accompanied by aggregation of ATM in discrete nuclear foci that also contained phospho-histone H2AX. DNA damage foci containing phosphorylated ATM and H2AX were detectable in syncytia present in the brain or lymph nodes from patients with HIV-1 infection, as well as in a fraction of blood leukocytes, correlating with viral status. Knockdown of ATM or of its obligate activating factor NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 protein, as well as pharmacological inhibition of ATM with KU-55933, inhibited H2AX phosphorylation and prevented Env-elicited syncytia from undergoing apoptosis. ATM was found indispensable for the activation of MAP kinase p38, which catalyzes the activating phosphorylation of p53 on serine 46, thereby causing p53 dependent apoptosis. Both wild type HIV-1 and an HIV-1 mutant lacking integrase activity induced syncytial apoptosis, which could be suppressed by inhibiting ATM. HIV-1-infected T lymphoblasts from patients with inactivating ATM or NBS1 mutations also exhibited reduced syncytial apoptosis. Altogether these results indicate that apoptosis induced by a fusogenic HIV-1 Env follows a pro-apoptotic pathway involving the sequential activation of ATM, p38MAPK and p53.

  20. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori, E-mail: fukumoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto, E-mail: nyama@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  1. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagamatsu, Go, E-mail: gonag@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kosaka, Takeo [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Takubo, Keiyo [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hotta, Akitsu [Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Department of Reprogramming Science, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ellis, James [Ontario Human iPS Cell Facility, Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, SickKids, Toronto, Canada MG1L7 (Canada); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. {yields} ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. {yields} iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. {yields} ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  2. The Empirical Study of ATM Abnormal Behaviors in Cash Deposit and Withdrawals%ATM现金存取款异常行为的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宁伟

    2015-01-01

    ATM已成为中国部分商业银行最大的交易渠道,我国ATM保有量2014年已在全世界排名第一,在分流柜面业务、降低运营成本、提高运营效率等方面发挥了重要作用.在梳理ATM核心业务的基础上,以某商业银行A为样本,选取历时8个月的一手数据,探讨验证了ATM现金存取款异常行为的类型划分,提出了交易金额和频率两项主要维度. 针对交易主体的特征提出存取款人数与持卡数的两维划分,并尝试区别结构化与非结构化客户. 最后,对监管机构和金融机构分别提出若干建议,以进一步改善ATM现金保障和运营服务.%ATM has become the largest channel in some Chinese Leading Commercial Banks, while the number of ATMs in China has been the first all over the world since 2014. ATMs play an important role in the diversion counter service , reduce operating costs and improving operating efficiency. On the basis of ATMs' core business, we selected 8 months first-hand data to test the four two-dimensional types in A commercial bank of ATM abnormal behaviors in cash deposit and withdrawals. Base on the characters of customers, we proposed further four types in customer number and card number, and tried to distinguish the structural customers and unstructured customers. In the end , the paper proposed some suggestions to supervise institutions and commercial organizations , which tried to improve cash guarantee and operation services.

  3. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  4. Comparing the Efficiency of IP and ATM Telephony

    OpenAIRE

    Risso, Fulvio Giovanni Ottavio; Baldi, Mario

    1999-01-01

    Circuit switching, suited to providing real-time services due to the low and fixed switching delay, is not cost effective for building integrated services networks bursty data traffic because it is based on static allocation of resources which is not efficient with bursty data traffic. Moreover, since current circuit switching technologies handle flows at rates which are integer multiples of 64 kb/s, low bit rate voice encoding cannot be taken advantage of without aggregating multiple phone c...

  5. Analysis of CrIS-ATMS Data Using an AIRS Science Team Version 6 - Like Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.

    2013-01-01

    CrIS/ATMS is flying on NPP and is scheduled to fly on JPSS-1. CrIS/ATMS has roughly equivalent capabilities to AIRS/AMSU. The AIRS Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing very high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDR's) that will be critical for understanding climate processes AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS AMSU. I have been asked by Ramesh Kakar if CrIS/ATMS can be counted on to adequately continue the AIRS/AMSU CDRs beyond 2020, or is something better needed? This research is being done to answer that question. A minimum requirement to obtain a yes answer is that CrIS/ATMS be analyzed using an AIRS Version 6 - like algorithm. NOAA is currently generating CrIS/ATMS products using 2 algorithms: IDPS and NUCAPS

  6. Loss of the DNA Damage Repair Kinase ATM Impairs Inflammasome-Dependent Anti-Bacterial Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erttmann, Saskia F; Härtlova, Anetta; Sloniecka, Marta; Raffi, Faizal A M; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Edgren, Tomas; Rofougaran, Reza; Resch, Ulrike; Fällman, Maria; Ek, Torben; Gekara, Nelson O

    2016-07-19

    The ATM kinase is a central component of the DNA damage repair machinery and redox balance. ATM dysfunction results in the multisystem disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). A major cause of mortality in AT is respiratory bacterial infections. Whether ATM deficiency causes innate immune defects that might contribute to bacterial infections is not known. Here we have shown that loss of ATM impairs inflammasome-dependent anti-bacterial innate immunity. Cells from AT patients or Atm(-/-) mice exhibited diminished interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in response to bacteria. In vivo, Atm(-/-) mice were more susceptible to pulmonary S. pneumoniae infection in a manner consistent with inflammasome defects. Our data indicate that such defects were due to oxidative inhibition of inflammasome complex assembly. This study reveals an unanticipated function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in negative regulation of inflammasomes and proposes a theory for the notable susceptibility of AT patients to pulmonary bacterial infection. PMID:27421701

  7. Abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AB Agriculture biologique certifiée et réglementée AC Agriculture conventionnelle AE Agriculture agro-écologique Afsaa Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments Amap Associations pour le maintien d'une agriculture paysanne AOP Appellation d'origine protégée. Appellation européenne qui remplace l'appellation française AOC (appellation d'origine contrôlée) AR Agriculture raisonnée (ou agriculture intégrée) Bio Issu de l'agriculture biologique (AB) Coopmar Coopérative porcine de Martin...

  8. Abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    MALTE ACM : Archives of the Cathedral of Mdina AIM : Archives of the Inquisition of Malta AOM : Archives of the Order of Malta NAM : National Archives of Malta NAV : Notarial Archives of Valetta NLM : National Library of Malta ROME ACDF : Archivio della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede ARSI : Archivum romanum Societatis Iesu ASPF : Archivio storico de Propaganda Fide ASV : Archivio segreto vaticano BAV : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana SMOM : Sovrano militare Ordine di Malta FRANCE AN ...

  9. Abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A : acte adapt. : adapté ap. : après A. N. : Archives Nationales b. : ballet b.f. : ballet-féerie b.p. : ballet-pantomime B. O. : Bibliothèque de l’Opéra com. : comédie com. lyr. : comédie lyrique coul. : couleur div. : divertissement div. p. : divertissement-pantomime dr. : drame, dramatique dr. mus. : drame musical dr. : droite extr. : extrait fol. : folie fol. p. : folie-pantomime fol., ff. : folio, folios g. : gauche h. : hauteur id. : idem indic. : indication l. : largeur lég. : légen...

  10. Abréviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AREU Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit BCS Badloon Consultancy and Civil Society BHC Basic Health Clinic BPRM Bureau of Populations, Movement and Refugees CSO Central Statistics Organization DCDA Dehsabz-Barikab City Development Authority IDKA Independent Directorate of Kuchi Affairs IDLG Independent Directorate of Local Governance IDP Internally Displaced Persons IOM International Organization for Migration ...

  11. Abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sigle Signification $ Dollar (monnaie) £ Livre sterling (monnaie) AA Administration apostolique, administrateur apostolique AA.EE.SS. Segreteria di Stato, Sezione per i Rapporti con gli Stati, Archivio Storico (Città del Vaticano), fondo Archivio della Congregazione degli Affari Ecclesiastici Straordinari AAC Archives du prieuré bénédictin d’Amay-Chevetogne AAS Acta Apostolicae Sedis (périodique) ACDF Archivio della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede ACEC Archivio della Congregazione pe...

  12. Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Rate Control (ARC for Burst Traffic over ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research works have already been done for congestion control and resource management in ATM networks using static and dynamic algorithms. However, no comprehensive scheme has been suggested, which can claim optimized the resource allocations fulfilling the requirements of quality of services (QoS for existing and incoming sources. The paper suggests a new approach, which would make the dynamic allocation of resources by controlling the input rate (l, output/server rate (m and buffer size (c individually or in conjunction. The newly proposed approach with dynamical allocation of resources is much more comprehensive in nature and claims a shorter convergence time than the other previously suggested schemes based on similar dynamic allocation principle. In this paper we describe an Adaptive Rate Control (ARC implemented to improve the performance of high-speed network to handle burst traffic by guaranteeing the cell loss ratio (CLR for all cell streams. First, the cases in which a Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, SACK and Plain schemes are applicable in peak-cell-rate (PCR are discussed. The ARC improves the performance by regulating the increment (up and the decrease (down of window size (flow control. Incoming traffic rate, number of cell drop, preset size of the window and estimated delay time are taken into account for this regulation. Simulations are used to investigate how Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, SACK and Plain can conduct, as congestion existed. Then we compare these results from four schemes to the “Plain” scheme (no flow control application and to the proposed ARC. By altering windows size for the mentioned six schemes, we can obtain the supportive results.

  13. 基于Smith原则的ATM网络拥塞控制%The Congestion Control of ATM Networks Based on the Smith Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关新平; 刘志新; 龙承念

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the prediction of available bandwidth and Smith principle are applied into the congestion control based on the ATM model of single bottleneck node. The method can realize that the queue length in the switch traces the given desired value without error. And it also restrains the effect under the existence of wave of available bandwidth. In the simulation, we can see that the queue length keeps in a certain bound. The phenomenon of congestion is avoided and guarantees the quality of service at the same time. It verifies the effectivity and feasibility of the scheme.

  14. Striping noise mitigation in ATMS brightness temperatures and its impact on cloud LWP retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Zou, Xiaolei

    2015-07-01

    Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provides global distributions of microwave brightness temperature measurements at 22 temperature and humidity sounding channels twice daily. However, the differences between observations and brightness temperature simulations exhibit a systematic along-track striping noise for all channels. In this study, a set of 22 "optimal" filters is designed to remove the striping noise in different channels. It is shown that the original method for ATMS striping noise mitigation developed by Qin et al. can be simplified and made suitable for use in an operational context. Impacts of striping noise mitigation on small-scale weather features are investigated by comparing ATMS cloud liquid water path (LWP) retrieved before and after striping noise mitigation. It is shown that the optimal filters do not affect small-scale cloud features while smoothing out striping noise in brightness temperatures. It is also shown that the striping noise is present in the LWP retrievals if the striping noise in brightness temperatures of ATMS channels 1 and 2 is not removed. The amplitude of the striping noise in LWP is linearly related to the magnitude of striping noise in ATMS brightness temperature observations.

  15. Activation of the ATM-Snail pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mianen; Guo, Xiaojing; Qian, Xiaolong; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Chunying; Brinkman, Kathryn L.; Serrano-Gonzalez, Monica; Jope, Richard S.; Zhou, Binhua; Engler, David A.; Zhan, Ming; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for the maintenance of genetic stability and serves as an anti-cancer barrier during early tumorigenesis. However, the role of the DDR in tumor progression and metastasis is less known. Here, we demonstrate that the ATM kinase, one of the critical DDR elements, is hyperactive in late stage breast tumor tissues with lymph-node metastasis and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition marker, Snail. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that ATM regulates Snail stabilization by phosphorylation on Serine-100. Using mass spectrometry, we identified HSP90 as a critical binding protein of Snail in response to DNA damage. HSP90 binds to and stabilizes phosphorylated Snail. We further provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that activation of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation promotes tumor invasion and metastasis. Finally, we demonstrate that Snail Serine-100 phosphorylation is elevated in breast cancer tissues with lymph-node metastasis, indicating clinical significance of the ATM-Snail pathway. Together, our findings provide strong evidence that the ATM-Snail pathway promotes tumor metastasis, highlighting a previously undescribed role of the DDR in tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:22923499

  16. Activation of the ATM-Snail pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mianen Sun; David A. Engler; Ming Zhan; Stephen T.C. Wong; Li Fu; Bo Xu; Xiaojing Guo; Xiaolong Qian; Haibo Wang; Chunying Yang; Kathryn L. Brinkman; Monica Serrano-Gonzalez; Richard S. Jope; Binhua Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for the maintenance of genetic stability and serves as an anti-cancer barrier during early tumorigenesis.However,the role of the DDR in tumor progression and metastasis is less known.Here,we demonstrate that the ATM kinase,one of the critical DDR elements,is hyperactive in late stage breast tumor tissues with lymph-node metastasis and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epitheliai-mesenchymal transition marker,Snail.At the molecular level,we demonstrate that ATM regulates Snail stabilization by phosphorylation on Serine-100.Using mass spectrometry,we identified HSP90 as a critical binding protein of Snail in response to DNA damage.HsP9o binds to and stabilizes phosphorylated Snail.We further provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that activation of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation promotes tumor invasion and metastasis.Finally,we demonstrate that Snail Serine-100 phosphorylation is elevated in breast cancer tissues with lymph-node metastasis,indicating clinical significance of the ATM-Snail pathway.Together,our findings provide strong evidence that the ATM-Snail pathway promotes tumor metastasis,highlighting a previously undescribed role of the DDR in tumor invasion and metastasis.

  17. Limited Role of Murine ATM in Oncogene-Induced Senescence and p53-Dependent Tumor Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Soria, Rebeca; Collado, Manuel; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Serrano, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts efficiently induced senescence but this occurred in the absence of detectable DNA damage signaling, thus suggesting a fundamental difference between human and murine cells. Moreover, lung adenomas initiated by endogenous levels of oncogenic K-Ras presented abundant senescent cells, but undetectable DNA damage signaling. Accordingly, K-Ras-driven adenomas were also senescent in Atm-null mice, and the tumorigenic progression of these lesions was only modestly accelerated by Atm-deficiency. Finally, we have examined chemically-induced fibrosarcomas, which possess a persistently activated DNA damage response and are highly sensitive to the activity of p53. We found that the absence of Atm favored genomic instability in the resulting tumors, but did not affect the persistent DNA damage response and did not impair p53-dependent tumor suppression. All together, we conclude that oncogene-induced senescence in mice may occur in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Regarding murine Atm, our data suggest that it plays a minor role in oncogene-induced senescence or in p53-dependent tumor suppression, being its tumor suppressive activity probably limited to the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:19421407

  18. Limited role of murine ATM in oncogene-induced senescence and p53-dependent tumor suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Efeyan

    Full Text Available Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts efficiently induced senescence but this occurred in the absence of detectable DNA damage signaling, thus suggesting a fundamental difference between human and murine cells. Moreover, lung adenomas initiated by endogenous levels of oncogenic K-Ras presented abundant senescent cells, but undetectable DNA damage signaling. Accordingly, K-Ras-driven adenomas were also senescent in Atm-null mice, and the tumorigenic progression of these lesions was only modestly accelerated by Atm-deficiency. Finally, we have examined chemically-induced fibrosarcomas, which possess a persistently activated DNA damage response and are highly sensitive to the activity of p53. We found that the absence of Atm favored genomic instability in the resulting tumors, but did not affect the persistent DNA damage response and did not impair p53-dependent tumor suppression. All together, we conclude that oncogene-induced senescence in mice may occur in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Regarding murine Atm, our data suggest that it plays a minor role in oncogene-induced senescence or in p53-dependent tumor suppression, being its tumor suppressive activity probably limited to the maintenance of genomic stability.

  19. Involvement of ATM/ATR-p38 MAPK cascade in MNNG induced G1-S arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Qing Zhu; Suo-Jiang Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To understand the effect of low concentration of Nmethyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), which is a widely distributed environmental mutagen and carcinogen especially for human gastric cancer, on DNA damage and to study its possible pathway in regulating cell cycle arrest.METHODS: The DNA damage effect was measured by Comet assay. A specific phospho-(Ser/Thr) ATM/ATR substrate antibody was used to detect the damage sensor by Western blot. p38 kinase activity was measured by direct kinase assay,and immunoprecipitation for the possible connection between ATM/ATR and p38 MAPK. Flow cytometry analysis and p38MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 were combined to detect the possible cell cycle arrest by p38 MAPK.RESULTS: With the same low concentration MNNG exposure (0.2μM 2.5 h), Comet assays indicated that strand breaks accumulated, Western blot and kinase assay showed ATM/ATR and p38 kinase activated, immunoprecipitation showed phospho-ATM/ATR substrate antibody combined with both p38 MAPK antibody and phospho-p38 MAPK antibody, p38MAPK pathway was involved in the G1-S arrest.CONCLUSION: Activation of ATM/ATR by MNNG induced DNA damage leads to activation of p38 MAPK, which involves in the G1 checkpoint in mammalian cells.

  20. Authenticated tracking and monitoring system (ATMS) tracking shipments from an Australian uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) answers the need for global monitoring of the status and location of sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items and environmental conditions. A receiver and processing unit collect a variety of sensor event data. The collected data are transmitted to the INMARSAT satellite communication system, which then sends the data to appropriate ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the safety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements. Following discussions between the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in early 1995, the parties mutually agreed to conduct and evaluate a field trial prototype ATMS to track and monitor shipments of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) from an operating uranium mine in Australia to a final destination in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with numerous stops along the way. During the months of February and March 1998, the trial was conducted on a worldwide basis, with tracking and monitoring stations located at sites in both Australia and the US. This paper describes ATMS and the trial

  1. A high frequency of distinct ATM gene mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J.; Teraoka, S.; Concannon, P. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The clinical features of the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) include a progressive cerebellar ataxia, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and an increased susceptibility to malignancies. Epidemiological studies have suggested that AT heterozygotes may also be at increased risk for malignancy, possibly as a consequence of radiation exposure. A gene mutated in AT patients (ATM) has recently been isolated, making mutation screening in both patients and the general population possible. Because of the relatively large size of the ATM gene, the design of screening programs will depend on the types and distribution of mutations in the general population. In this report, we describe 30 mutations identified in a panel of unrelated AT patients and controls. Twenty-five of the 30 were distinct, and most patients were compound heterozygotes. The most frequently detected mutation was found in three different families and had previously been reported in five others. This corresponds to a frequency of 8% of all reported ATM mutations. Twenty-two of the alterations observed would be predicted to lead to protein truncation at sites scattered throughout the molecule. Two fibroblast cell lines, which displayed normal responses to ionizing radiation, also proved to be heterozygous for truncation mutations of ATM. These observations suggest that the carrier frequency of ATM mutations may be sufficiently high to make population screening practical. However, such screening may need to be done prospectively, that is, by searching for new mutations rather than by screening for just those already identified in AT families. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Integrated services to the home and small business over a service-independent HFC network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counterman, Raymond

    1995-11-01

    This paper proposes three different approaches to providing integrated digital services to small businesses and residential customers over modern hybrid fiber and coaxial (HFC) access networks. The target delivery system is one that is flexible and forms a multiservice, service- independent platform capable of providing a wide range of services (voice, video, data, and multimedia). The merits and limitations of the three approaches are explored. In the first approach, the common facilities of an HFC access network may be shared by the frequency partitioning of the coaxial plant's radio frequency spectrum. video, data, and telephony services each use different portions of this spectrum -- a service-dependent network. In the second approach, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) transmission is used as the information delivery vehicle all the way to the home or small business, creating a more flexible delivery system. The ATM-based architecture is expected to support any service or service mix -- a service-independent network. In the third approach, a common transport protocol composed of both asynchronous and synchronous transfer modes (ATM/STM) is used. Such an approach could (1) provide a common interface between home/small business premises equipment and both the circuit and ATM switching networks; (2) meet a wide range of delay and throughput requirements; and (3) allow for many network migration scenarios.

  3. ¡Abre los ojos! Un proyecto de mejora educativa para la prevención de drogas en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Mª AZORÍN ABELLÁN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La Educación para la Salud (EpS es un tema transversal del currículo que adolece de propuestas didácticas novedosas para la intervención pedagógica. El objetivo del trabajo que se presenta es poner en marcha un plan de mejora para la prevención de drogadicciones en adolescentes. Para ello, se ha trabajado con un total de 142 estudiantes de 3º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 16 años que cursan estudios en el Instituto “Francisco Salzillo” de la localidad de Alcantarilla (Murcia. Concretamente, este artículo da luz al Proyecto ¡Abre los ojos!, que forma parte del Plan de Acción Tutorial (PAT y del Plan de Mejora para la Prevención de Drogas (PMPD propuesto desde el Departamento de Orientación. Se exponen ad hoc las actividades implementadas durante las 3 sesiones trabajadas con cada uno de los 6 grupos-clase escolarizados en este nivel. Haciendo uso de la reflexión-acción, el alumnado ha desarrollado una conciencia crítica acerca de los riesgos que entraña para la salud el consumo de drogas. Asimismo, mediante la técnica de grupos de discusión los discentes han realizado un interesante debate cuyas ideas han sido organizadas en torno a tres aspectos clave: causas por las que se empieza a consumir, cómo evitar caer en las drogas, y alternativas de ocio y tiempo libre para una vida saludable. Finalmente, se especifica la necesidad de abordar tareas de prevención en los centros educativos así como de facilitar información y de resolver las inquietudes de los jóvenes acerca de esta temática.

  4. Squalene Inhibits ATM-Dependent Signaling in γIR-Induced DNA Damage Response through Induction of Wip1 Phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tatewaki

    Full Text Available Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM kinase plays a crucial role as a master controller in the cellular DNA damage response. Inhibition of ATM leads to inhibition of the checkpoint signaling pathway. Hence, addition of checkpoint inhibitors to anticancer therapies may be an effective targeting strategy. A recent study reported that Wip1, a protein phosphatase, de-phosphorylates serine 1981 of ATM during the DNA damage response. Squalene has been proposed to complement anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, there is little mechanistic information supporting this idea. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of squalene on ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Squalene itself did not affect cell viability and the cell cycle of A549 cells, but it enhanced the cytotoxicity of gamma-irradiation (γIR. The in vitro kinase activity of ATM was not altered by squalene. However, squalene increased Wip1 expression in cells and suppressed ATM activation in γIR-treated cells. Consistent with the potential inhibition of ATM by squalene, IR-induced phosphorylation of ATM effectors such as p53 (Ser15 and Chk1 (Ser317 was inhibited by cell treatment with squalene. Thus, squalene inhibits the ATM-dependent signaling pathway following DNA damage through intracellular induction of Wip1 expression.

  5. Squalene Inhibits ATM-Dependent Signaling in γIR-Induced DNA Damage Response through Induction of Wip1 Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatewaki, Naoto; Konishi, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Miyako; Saito, Masafumi; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Ikekawa, Nobuo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase plays a crucial role as a master controller in the cellular DNA damage response. Inhibition of ATM leads to inhibition of the checkpoint signaling pathway. Hence, addition of checkpoint inhibitors to anticancer therapies may be an effective targeting strategy. A recent study reported that Wip1, a protein phosphatase, de-phosphorylates serine 1981 of ATM during the DNA damage response. Squalene has been proposed to complement anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, there is little mechanistic information supporting this idea. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of squalene on ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Squalene itself did not affect cell viability and the cell cycle of A549 cells, but it enhanced the cytotoxicity of gamma-irradiation (γIR). The in vitro kinase activity of ATM was not altered by squalene. However, squalene increased Wip1 expression in cells and suppressed ATM activation in γIR-treated cells. Consistent with the potential inhibition of ATM by squalene, IR-induced phosphorylation of ATM effectors such as p53 (Ser15) and Chk1 (Ser317) was inhibited by cell treatment with squalene. Thus, squalene inhibits the ATM-dependent signaling pathway following DNA damage through intracellular induction of Wip1 expression. PMID:26824362

  6. An experimental study of VBR video over various ATM switch architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hsieh, J.; Du, D.H.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most important components of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network is the switch. Switch design is not a part of the ATM standards so vendors use a wide variety of techniques to build their switches. In this paper, the authors present experimental results of switching and multiplexing real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video traffic (JPEG, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2) through two different ATM switch architectures. Real-time VBR traffic, such as digital video, is particularly interesting due to its high demands in terms of bandwidth, real-time delivery and processing requirements. The experiments show that the fastest switches, i.e., lowest latencies, do not necessarily perform better when transmitting VBR video. The impact of the high speed network components; characteristics, such as switch fabric architecture, buffering strategies, and higher layer transport protocols (i.e., UDP, TCP/IP), are illustrated through the experimental results.

  7. Inter-calibration and validation of observations from SAPHIR and ATMS instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave instruments aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS instrument) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR instrument) satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-calibration of observations of similar channels from the two instruments, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and GPS Radio Occultaion Observations from COSMIC mission, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these instruments as well as for extending current climate data records from similar instruments such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR instruments. Reference: Moradi et al., Intercalibration and Validation of Observations From ATMS and SAPHIR Microwave Sounders. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 01/2015; DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2427165

  8. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high speed GaAs ATM Mux Demur ASIC (AMDA) which is the key element in a high speed ATM Add-Drop unit. This unit is used in a new distributed ATM multiplexing-demultiplexing architecture for broadband switching systems. The Add-Drop unit...... provides a cell based interface between networks/systems operating at different data rates, the high speed interface being 2.5 Gb/s and the low speed interface being 155/622 Mb/s. Self-timed FIFOs are used for handling the speed gaps between domains operating at different clock rates, and a Self-Timed At...... Receiver's Input (STARI) interface is used at all high speed chip-to-chip links to eliminate timing skews The AMDA demonstrated operation above 4 Gb/s (500 MHz clock frequency) with an associated power dissipation of 5 W...

  9. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements

  10. An Efficient Method to Construct the A,B-Rings Component toward Total Syntheses of Phycocyanobilin and Its Derivative as a Photoprobe

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasundera, Krishanthi Padmarani; Kinoshita, Hideki; Inomata, Katsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    Total syntheses of phycocyanobilin and its derivative bearing a photoreactive group at the D-ring were accomplished by developing a new and efficient method for the construction of A,B-rings component, which consists of the Wittig-type new coupling reaction of 4-(1-methoxyethyl or 1-tosylethyl)-3-methyl-5-tosyl-1,5-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-2-one and a 2-formyl pyrrole derivative in the presence of nBu3P and a base, followed by reduction with aluminum amalgam and a subsequent acid or base treatment.

  11. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. PMID:26653982

  12. Final Report for the Scaled Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Encryption Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This effort studied the integration of innovative methods of key management crypto synchronization, and key agility while scaling encryption speed. Viability of these methods for encryption of ATM cell payloads at the SONET OC- 192 data rate (10 Gb/s), and for operation at OC-48 rates (2.5 Gb/s) was shown. An SNL-Developed pipelined DES design was adapted for the encryption of ATM cells. A proof-of-principle prototype circuit board containing 11 Electronically Programmable Logic Devices (each holding the equivalent of 100,000 gates) was designed, built, and used to prototype a high speed encryptor.

  13. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Matarese

    2014-01-01

    prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM assets in order to prevent threats and limit their effects on the overall aviation network. This effect limitation can be achieved by removing the vulnerability from the system and/or increasing the tolerance in case of component failures due to attacks. The security risk assessment methodology proposed is based on what is currently being done by the industry (the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO and the International Standard Organization (ISO, etc..

  14. Experiments at SRT Using the NOAA CrIS/ATMS Proxy Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the talk are: (1) Assess the performance of NGAS Version-1.5.03.00 CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm as delivered by LaRC, modified to include the MW and IR tuning coefficients and new CrIS noise model (a) Percent acceptance (b) RMS and mean differences of T(p) vs. ECMWF truth as a function of % yield (2) Compare performance of NGAS retrieval algorithm with an AIRS Science Team Version-6 like retrieval algorithm modified at Sounder Research Team (SRT) for CrIS/ATMS

  15. APPLICATION OF GRAY EVALUATION MODEL BASED ON AHP IN ATM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhijun; Pan Wen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchy model of Air Traffic Management (ATM) according to the security requirements in ATM system, analyzes it by grey assessment and Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP), and evaluates it in details. It also provides theoretical support for building an effective evaluation system. The basic idea is to use AHP and Grey Assessment to obtain the weights of the indicators, and count grey evaluation coefficients with whitening function. The compositive clustering coefficients are obtained by combining the weights and the grey evaluation coefficients. Evaluation result can be gotten from the compositive clustering coefficients.

  16. Envasado en atmósfera modificada de pimiento de carne gruesa

    OpenAIRE

    Escalona Contreras, Víctor Hugo; Aguayo Giménez, Encarnación Pilar; Artés Calero, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la composición gaseosa sobre la calidad comercial d pimientos rojos "Lamuyo" y "California" durante 14 y 21 días a 5 y 8 grados centígrados en atmósfera controlada (AC) y mediante envasado en atmósfera modificada (EAM). Se determinaron la tasa respiratoria y la emisión de etileno bajo aire y AC (5 kPa O2 y 5 kPa CO2) y la composición gaseosa, alteraciones fisiológicas, podredumbres, deformación y atributos sensoriales (apariencia, sabor y textura) bajo EAM....

  17. Towards Designing a Biometric Measure for Enhancing ATM Security in Nigeria E-Banking System

    CERN Document Server

    Ibidapo,; Omogbadegun, Zaccheous O; Oyelami, Olufemi M

    2011-01-01

    Security measures at banks can play a critical, contributory role in preventing attacks on customers. These measures are of paramount importance when considering vulnerabilities and causation in civil litigation. Banks must meet certain standards in order to ensure a safe and secure banking environment for their customers. This paper focuses on vulnerabilities and the increasing wave of criminal activities occurring at Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) where quick cash is the prime target for criminals rather than at banks themselves. A biometric measure as a means of enhancing the security has emerged from the discourse. Keywords-Security, ATM, Biometric, Crime.

  18. A Virtual Private Local PCN Ring Network Based on ATM VP Cross—Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinBin; MaYingjun; 等

    1995-01-01

    Avirtual private local PCNring network (VPLPR)is proposed .VPLPR is a virtual logic ring seuved for digital cordless telephone system and it works on ATM VP cross-connection mechanism.Full-distributed data bases are organized for visitor location registers(VLR)and home location register(HLR).The signaling protocols are compatible upward to B-ISDN. The architecture and some of the main characteristics of VPLPR are given.How to configure the ATM VP cross-connection ring is described.And then a protocol conversion between STM frames and ATMcells in base station controller(BSC)is presented.

  19. Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Reiley, Daniel J.; Novotny, Robert A.; Morrison, Rick L.; Sasian, Jose M.; Beckman, Martin G.; Buchholz, D. B.; Hinterlong, Stephen J.; Cloonan, Thomas J.; Richards, Gaylord W.; McCormick, Frederick B., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    In the past few years, the demand for telecommunications services beyond voice telephony has skyrocketed. For the growth of these services to continue at this rate, cost effective means of transporting and switching large amounts of information must be found. Although fiber optic transmission has significantly reduced the cost of transmission, switching high bandwidth signals remains expensive. While all electronic switching systems are certainly possible for these high bandwidth systems, considerable effort has been expended to reduce the cost of fiber optic connections between frames or racks of equipment separated by several meters. As an example, one can envision fiber-optic data links connecting the line units that receive and transmit data from the outside world with an electronic switching fabric. Optical data links, ODLs, can perform the optical to electrical conversions. Several of these optical data links can be electrically connected with electronic switching chips on a printed circuit board. As the demand for bandwidth increases, several hundred to several thousand optical fibers might be incident on the switching fabric. Discrete optical data links and parallel data links with up to 32 fibers per data link remain an expensive solution to transporting this information due to their per-link cost, physical size, and power dissipation. Power dissipation on the switching chips is high because of the need for electronic drivers for the high speed electrical interconnections between the switching chips and the data links. By integrating the O/E conversions directly onto the switching chips, lower cost and higher density systems can be built. In this paper, we describe preliminary results of an experimental optoelectronic switching network based on this lower cost solution. The network is designed to be part of an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network based on the Growable Packet Architecture. The switching chip consists of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well

  20. Physical-chemical and operational performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR treating swine wastewater - 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i4.7203

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Lopes Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since hog raising concentrates a huge amount of swine manure in small areas, it is considered by the environmental government organizations to be one of the most potentially pollutant activities. Therefore the main objective of this research was to evaluate by operational criteria and removal efficiency, the performance of a Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR, working as a biological pre-treatment of swine culture effluents. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: total COD, BOD5, total solids (TS, fix (TFS and volatiles (TVS, temperature, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphorus, total acidity and alkalinity. The ABR unit worked with an average efficiency of 65.2 and 76.2%, respectively, concerning total COD and BOD5, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT about 15 hours. The results for volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR, organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic loading rate (HLR were: 4.46 kg BOD m-3 day-1; 1.81 kg BOD5 kg TVS-1 day-1 and 1.57 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. The average efficiency of the whole treatment system for total COD and BOD5 removal were 66.5 and 77.8%, showing an adequate performance in removing the organic matter from swine wastewater.

  1. An ABRE-binding factor, OSBZ8, is highly expressed in salt tolerant cultivars than in salt sensitive cultivars of indica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sudhiranjan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bZIP class Abscisic acid Responsive Element (ABRE-binding factor, OSBZ8 (38.5 kD has been considered to regulate ABA-mediated transcription in the suspension cultured cells of japonica rice. Still, nothing is known about the expression of OSBZ8 at protein level in vegetative tissue of salt sensitive and salt tolerant rice plants. In our previous study, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA of [32P]ABRE-DNA and nuclear extracts prepared from the lamina of Pokkali rice plants has detected the presence of an ABRE-binding factor. Northern analysis has also detected salinity stress induced accumulation of transcripts for bZIP class of factor. Therefore, OSBZ8 was considered to play an important role in the regulation of transcription in the vegetative tissue of rice. The aim of this study is to find out whether OSBZ8 has any role in regulating the NaCl-stress induced gene expression in vegetative tissue and whether the expression of OSBZ8 factor directly correlates with the stress tolerance of different varieties of indica type rice. Results Northern analysis of total RNA from roots and lamina of salt-sensitive M-I-48 and salt-tolerant Nonabokra, when probed with the N-terminal unique region of OSBZ8 (OSBZ8p, without the highly conserved basic region, a transcript of 1.3 kb hybridized and its level was much higher in tolerant cultivar. EMSA with Em1a, the strongest ABA Responsive Element till reported from the upstream of EmBP1, and the nuclear extracts from laminar tissue of untreated and salt-treated seedlings of three salt sensitive, one moderately sensitive and two salt tolerant indica rice cultivars showed specific binding of nuclear factor to ABRE element. Intensity of binding was low and inducible in salt sensitive rice cultivars while high and constitutive in salt tolerant cultivars. EMSA with 300 bp 5'upstream region of Rab16A gene, a well known salt stress and ABA-inducible gene of rice, showed formation of two

  2. PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM rare variants and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southey, Melissa C; Goldgar, David E; Winqvist, Robert;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BR...

  3. Hemizygosity for Atm and Brca1 influence the balance between cell transformation and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jiayun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years data from both mouse models and human tumors suggest that loss of one allele of genes involved in DNA repair pathways may play a central role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Additionally several examples in mouse models confirmed that loss of one allele of two functionally related genes may have an additive effect on tumor development. To understand some of the mechanisms involved, we examined the role of monoallelic loss or Atm and Brca1 on cell transformation and apoptosis induced by radiation. Methods Cell transformation and apoptosis were measured in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF and thymocytes respectively. Combinations of wild type and hemizygous genotypes for ATM and BRCA1 were tested in various comparisons. Results Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 resulted in an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced transformation of MEF and a corresponding decrease in the proportion of thymocytes dying an apoptotic death, compared with cells from wild-type animals. Combined haploinsufficiency for both genes resulted in an even larger effect on apoptosis. Conclusions Under stress, the efficiency and capacity for DNA repair mediated by the ATM/BRCA1 cell signalling network depends on the expression levels of both proteins.

  4. ROS-activated ATM-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic substrates identified by large scale phosphoproteomics screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (OSR1, HDGF and ccdc82) as ATM...

  5. Risk of cancer by ATM missense mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Weischer, Maren; Allin, Kristine Højgaard;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Truncating and missense mutations in the ATM gene, which cause insufficient DNA damage surveillance, allow damaged cells to proceed into mitosis, which eventually results in increased cancer susceptibility. We tested the hypotheses that ATM Ser49Cys and ATM Ser707Pro heterozygosity......: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for ATM Ser49Cys heterozygotes versus noncarriers were 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.5) for cancer overall, 0.8 (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.0) for breast cancer, 4.8 (95% CI, 2.2 to 11) for melanoma, 2.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 5.0) for prostate cancer, and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.1 to 11) for cancer...... increase the risk of cancer overall, of breast cancer, and of 26 other cancer subtypes in the general population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped 10,324 individuals from the Danish general population who were observed prospectively for 36 years, during which 2,056 developed cancer. RESULTS...

  6. Congestion Control for ATM Networks Based on Diagonal Recurrent Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangYunxian; YanWei

    1997-01-01

    An adaptive control model and its algorithms based on simple diagonal recurrent neural networks are presented for the dynamic congestion control in broadband ATM networks.Two simple dynamic queuing models of real networks are used to test the performance of the suggested control scheme.

  7. A Java based Implementation of a Network Level Information Model for the ATM / Frame Relay Interconnection

    OpenAIRE

    State, Radu; Nataf, Emmanuel; Festor, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation, we illustrate the use of the Java technology to implement a network information model which captures the essence of the ATM and Frame Relay Interconnection. We show how the TMN concepts stay valid and how the existing and extended information models can be reused and implemented according to the TMN principles in a full Java environment.

  8. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  9. Características de la atmósfera del Bilbao metropolitano

    OpenAIRE

    Marcaida Ormazabal, Iker

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se identifican los compuestos característicos de la atmósfera de Bilbao, se presentan las concentraciones obtenidas experimentalmente y en función a estas y los gradientes observados se identifican posibles focos de emisión.

  10. Hemizygosity for Atm and Brca1 influence the balance between cell transformation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years data from both mouse models and human tumors suggest that loss of one allele of genes involved in DNA repair pathways may play a central role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Additionally several examples in mouse models confirmed that loss of one allele of two functionally related genes may have an additive effect on tumor development. To understand some of the mechanisms involved, we examined the role of monoallelic loss or Atm and Brca1 on cell transformation and apoptosis induced by radiation. Cell transformation and apoptosis were measured in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) and thymocytes respectively. Combinations of wild type and hemizygous genotypes for ATM and BRCA1 were tested in various comparisons. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 resulted in an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced transformation of MEF and a corresponding decrease in the proportion of thymocytes dying an apoptotic death, compared with cells from wild-type animals. Combined haploinsufficiency for both genes resulted in an even larger effect on apoptosis. Under stress, the efficiency and capacity for DNA repair mediated by the ATM/BRCA1 cell signalling network depends on the expression levels of both proteins

  11. TINJAUAN YURIDIS PARA PIHAK DALAM TRANSAKSI PENGAMBILAN ATAU TRANSFER DANA MELALUI MESIN ANJUNGAN TUNAI MANDIRI (ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinus Simanjuntak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to civil code or Burgerlijk Wetboek (BW, article 1320, there are four legal conditions of business contract must be fulfilled by parties. One of condition is agreement. Based on this condition, the position of each parties must be equal at the same level. Besides, each parties must be exist and make effective communication before get in to that agreement. Commonly, every subjects in business transaction need dealing process first between one to another party, and than the parties goes to delivering or transfering the object of transaction. At least they have to know each other first if transaction will be implemented. But, this legal term is not fully found in one of banking transaction facilities that is automatic teller machine as we called Anjungan Tunai Mandiri (ATM. The legal issue which come out from this transaction system is particularly regarding to the subjects or parties. Every time the customer goes to ATM, she or he will not find another party existing there. It means that customer do transaction without presence of bank party. So, if ATM has broken and the balance in costumer account has decreased for debit, bank does not always liable for the costumer loss. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Menurut pasal 1320 Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Perdata atau Burgerlijk Wetboek (BW, ada empat syarat sahnya suatu kontrak bisnis yang harus dipenuhi oleh para pihak. Salah satunya ialah kesepakatan. Berdasarkan syarat ini, posisi para pihak harus sejajar pada tingkat yang sama. Selain itu, masing-masing pihak harus eksis dan melakukan komunikasi yang efektif sebelum mencapai kesepakatan. Lazimnya, setiap subjek dalam transaksi bisnis membutuhkan proses persetujuan terlebih dahulu antara pihak yang satu dengan pihak lainnya, dan kemudian para pihak menuju pada penyerahan atau pemindahan objek transaksi. Paling tidak, mereka harus saling mengetahui bila transaksi akan dilaksanakan. Tetapi, syarat hukum ini tidak sepenuhnya ditemukan di salah

  12. An Integrated Broadband Switching System with Narrowband Service Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xiangyang; ZHANG Peng; CHENG Shiduan

    2001-01-01

    It is considered that ATM is not suitable for traditional narrowband services such as voice because of large adapting delay. In this paper,we present an ATM-based broadband switching system, which is capable of supporting narrowband services. A composite cell adapting method is adopted in this system to reduce adapting delay and guarantee QoS (Quality of Service). In the realized system, several key parameters have been measured. The results prove that it can guarantee perfect QoS and relative high bandwidth efficiency.

  13. S-NPP ATMS Instrument Prelaunch and On-Orbit Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-Hsuan; Anderson, Kent; Leslie, Vincent R.; Blackwell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of a new generation of microwave sounders was launched aboard the Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) combines the capabilities and channel sets of three predecessor sounders into a single package to provide information on the atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles that are the most critical observations needed for numerical weather forecast models. Enhancements include size/mass/power approximately one third of the previous total, three new sounding channels, the first space-based, Nyquist-sampled cross-track microwave temperature soundings for improved fusion with infrared soundings, plus improved temperature control and reliability. This paper describes the ATMS characteristics versus its predecessor, the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU), and presents the first comprehensive evaluation of key prelaunch and on-orbit performance parameters. Two-year on-orbit performance shows that the ATMS has maintained very stable radiometric sensitivity, in agreement with prelaunch data, meeting requirements for all channels (with margins of 40% for channels 1-15), and improvements over AMSU-A when processed for equivalent spatial resolution. The radiometric accuracy, determined by analysis from ground test measurements, and using on-orbit instrument temperatures, also shows large margins relative to requirements (specified as evaluation of the performance of ATMS is especially important for this first proto-flight model unit of what will eventually be a series of ATMS sensors providing operational sounding capability for the U.S. and its international partners well into the next decade.

  14. Statistical multiplexing of identical bursty sources in an ATM network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B

    1988-01-01

    The authors study the performance of a statistical multiplexer with a common buffer and bursty sources. A uniform arrival and service model has been used to calculate the loss probability as a function of several parameters. It is shown that the ratio of the number of cells in an average burst to...... buffer capacity per source is a more important parameter than burstiness. When this ratio is much greater than one, performance will be poor unless the load is very low. If the ratio is of the order of one or less, acceptable performance can be achieved. It is shown that combining small load with with...... multiplexing of many sources can be a very efficient way to lower cell loss probability...

  15. Simulation method of ATM switch architecture and proposal for the delay priority control in ATM crosspoint switch; ATM kokanki no simulation shuho to crosspoint switch ni okeru chien yusen seigyo no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    A simulation method for switch analysis of ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) switch architecture has been developed. When various electric power information is integrated in the ATM switch architecture, delay priority control method has been proposed, by which the delay time and delay time fluctuation can be guaranteed for important information, such as system protection control information. The simulation method has been developed for analyzing the output buffer type crosspoint switch. The analysis solutions of waiting time of cells at the switch were determined and compared with the simulation results. The both agreed well mutually, and the validity of this method was confirmed. Priority was added to the cells of crosspoint switch, and different buffer was given for each priority, to exchange the important information, selectively. Thus, a switch was proposed, by which the delay time and delay time fluctuation can be restricted. The mean waiting time of the high class cells was suppressed less than 1 cts even at the switch load factor of 0.98, and the fluctuation range of 4 cts was guaranteed. 11 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Antisense inhibition of ATM gene enhances the radiosensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xuelian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment failure after radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC could be a significant problem. Our objective is to sensitize SCCVII cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting ATM expression using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs, and investigate the potential mechanism of radiosensitization. Methods We designed and synthesized AS-ODNs that target ATM mRNA to reduce the ATM expression. The influence on the expression of ATM mRNA and protein in SCCVII cells were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting respectively. Clonogenic survival assay was performed to detect the survival ability of SCCVII cells after irradiation, while flow cytometry used to analyse the cell cycle and apoptosis. The volume of solid tumors generated with SCCVII cells was measured, and cell apoptosis was analysed by TUNEL assay after irradiation. Results The relative ATM mRNA and protein expression in SCCVII cells treated with ATM AS-ODNs were decreased to 25.7 ± 3.1% and 24.1 ± 2.8% of that in untreated cells respectively (P P P P P Conclusion Inhibition of ATM expression sensitized SCCVII cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. The potential mechanism should be the defective G2/M cell cycle checkpoint control and enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis.

  17. Tetraploidization or autophagy: The ultimate fate of senescent human endometrial stem cells under ATM or p53 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, Aleksandra V; Shatrova, Alla N; Deryabin, Pavel I; Grukova, Anastasiya A; Nikolsky, Nikolay N; Burova, Elena B

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that endometrium-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) via activation of the ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway enter the premature senescence in response to oxidative stress. Down regulation effects of the key components of this signaling pathway, particularly ATM and p53, on a fate of stressed hMESCs have not yet been investigated. In the present study by using the specific inhibitors Ku55933 and Pifithrin-α, we confirmed implication of both ATM and p53 in H(2)O(2)-induced senescence of hMESCs. ATM or p53 down regulation was shown to modulate differently the cellular fate of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs. ATM inhibition allowed H(2)O(2)-stimulated hMESCs to escape the permanent cell cycle arrest due to loss of the functional ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway, and induced bypass of mitosis and re-entry into S phase, resulting in tetraploid cells. On the contrary, suppression of the p53 transcriptional activity caused a pronounced cell death of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs via autophagy induction. The obtained data clearly demonstrate that down regulation of ATM or p53 shifts senescence of human endometrial stem cells toward tetraploidization or autophagy.

  18. C68 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid-virus pSSVx is a novel member of the AbrB-like transcription factor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; D'Ambrosio, Katia; Pirone, Luciano;

    2011-01-01

    that does not show significant sequence homology with any protein with known three-dimensional structure. EMSA (electrophoretic mobility-shift assay) experiments, DNA footprinting and CD analyses indicate that recombinant C68, purified from Escherichia coli, binds to two different operator sites...... that are located upstream of its own promoter. The three-dimensional structure, solved by a single-wavelength anomalous diffraction experiment on a selenomethionine derivative, shows that the protein assumes a swapped-hairpin fold, which is a distinctive fold associated with a family of prokaryotic transcription...... factors, such as AbrB from Bacillus subtilis. Nevertheless, C68 constitutes a novel representative of this family because it shows several peculiar structural and functional features....

  19. Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer: Instrument description, parameter determination, and analysis example (15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Skylab ATM/S-056 X-Ray Event Analyzer, part of an X-ray telescope experiment, is described. The techniques employed in the analysis of its data to determine electron temperatures and emission measures are reviewed. The analysis of a sample event - the 15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare - is performed. Comparison of the X-Ray Event Analyzer data with that of the SolRad 9 observations indicates that the X-Ray Event Analyzer accurately monitored the sun's 2.5 to 7.25 A X-ray emission and to a lesser extent the 6.1 to 20 A emission. A mean average peak temperature of 15 million K at 1,412 UT and a mean average peak electron density (assuming a flare volume of 10 to the 13 power cu km) of 27 million/cu mm at 1,416 to 1,417 UT are deduced for the event. The X-Ray Event Analyzer data, having a 2.5 s time resolution, should be invaluable in comparisons with other high-time resolution data (e.g., radio bursts).

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  1. SU-E-E-01: ABR Diagnostic Radiology Core Exam: Was Our Redesigned Physics Course Successful in Teaching Physics to Radiology Residents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanal, K; Hoff, M; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D; Stewart, B [UniversityWashington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of our two year physics course in preparing radiology residents for the American Board of Radiology (ABR) diagnostic radiology exam. Methods: We designed a new two-year physics course that integrates radiology clinical content and practice and is primarily based on the AAPM curriculum and RSNA/AAPM physics modules. Biweekly classes focus on relevant concepts from assigned reading and use audience response systems to encourage participation. Teaching efficiency is optimized through lecturer rotations of physicists, radiologists, and guest speakers. An emphasis is placed on clinical relevance by requiring lab work and providing equipment demonstrations. Periodic quiz were given during the course. The course website was also redesigned for usability, and physics review lectures were conducted two weeks before the board exam to refresh key concepts. At the completion of our first two-year course, we conducted a confidential evaluation of the faculty and course. The evaluation assessed metrics such as overall organization, clinical relevance of content, and level of difficulty, with a rating scale from poor to excellent. Results: Our evaluation indicated that the redesigned course provided effective board exam preparation, with most responses between good and excellent. There was some criticism on the course length and on chronological discontinuity, but the review lectures were appreciated by the residents. All of our residents passed the physics component of the ABR exam with scores exceeding the minimum passing score by a significant margin. Conclusion: The course evaluation and board exam results indicate that our new two-year course format provides valuable board exam preparation. This is possible thanks to the time and effort taken by the physics faculty on ensuring the residents get quality physics education.

  2. SU-E-E-01: ABR Diagnostic Radiology Core Exam: Was Our Redesigned Physics Course Successful in Teaching Physics to Radiology Residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of our two year physics course in preparing radiology residents for the American Board of Radiology (ABR) diagnostic radiology exam. Methods: We designed a new two-year physics course that integrates radiology clinical content and practice and is primarily based on the AAPM curriculum and RSNA/AAPM physics modules. Biweekly classes focus on relevant concepts from assigned reading and use audience response systems to encourage participation. Teaching efficiency is optimized through lecturer rotations of physicists, radiologists, and guest speakers. An emphasis is placed on clinical relevance by requiring lab work and providing equipment demonstrations. Periodic quiz were given during the course. The course website was also redesigned for usability, and physics review lectures were conducted two weeks before the board exam to refresh key concepts. At the completion of our first two-year course, we conducted a confidential evaluation of the faculty and course. The evaluation assessed metrics such as overall organization, clinical relevance of content, and level of difficulty, with a rating scale from poor to excellent. Results: Our evaluation indicated that the redesigned course provided effective board exam preparation, with most responses between good and excellent. There was some criticism on the course length and on chronological discontinuity, but the review lectures were appreciated by the residents. All of our residents passed the physics component of the ABR exam with scores exceeding the minimum passing score by a significant margin. Conclusion: The course evaluation and board exam results indicate that our new two-year course format provides valuable board exam preparation. This is possible thanks to the time and effort taken by the physics faculty on ensuring the residents get quality physics education

  3. Formal Verification of Finger Print ATM Transaction through Real Time Constraint Notation RTCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the Formal Verification of existing models like in banking sector ie ATM Transaction through biometric (Finger Print with the help of Real Time Constraint Notation. Finger print recognition is most popular and commonest method of using the biometrics. In the finger print technology, the uniqueness of epidermis of fingers is utilized for identification of user. The user has to keep its finger on a sensory pad, which reads the ridges of epidermis of finger and try to match it with available data of the finger with the bank. Sequence Diagrams (SDs, Finite State Machine (FSM have proven useful for describing transaction-oriented systems, and can form a basis for creating state charts. However, Finger Print ATM system require special support for branching, state information, and composing SDs.

  4. Activation of the ATM-Snail pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mianen; Guo, Xiaojing; Qian, Xiaolong; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Chunying; Brinkman, Kathryn L; Serrano-Gonzalez, Monica; Jope, Richard S.; Zhou, Binhua; Engler, David A.; Zhan, Ming; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for the maintenance of genetic stability and serves as an anti-cancer barrier during early tumorigenesis. However, the role of the DDR in tumor progression and metastasis is less known. Here, we demonstrate that the ATM kinase, one of the critical DDR elements, is hyperactive in late stage breast tumor tissues with lymph-node metastasis and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition marker, Snail. A...

  5. THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRIX OF A MARKOV CHAIN MODEL IN AN ATM NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Dequan; ZHANG Huachen; TU Fengsheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider a Markov chain model in an ATM network, which has been studied by Dag and Stavrakakis. On the basis of the iterative formulas obtained by Dag and Stavrakakis, we obtain the explicit analytical expression of the transition probability matrix. It is very simple to calculate the transition probabilities of the Markov chain by these expressions. In addition, we obtain some results about the structure of the transition probability matrix, which are helpful in numerical calculation and theoretical analysis.

  6. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) is not required for telomerase-mediated elongation of short telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Feldser, David; Strong, Margaret A.; Greider, Carol W

    2006-01-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere addition counteracts telomere shortening due to incomplete DNA replication. Short telomeres are the preferred substrate for telomere addition by telomerase; however, the mechanism by which telomerase recognizes short telomeres is unclear. In yeast, the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) homolog, Tel1, is necessary for normal telomere length regulation likely by altering telomere structure, allowing telomerase recruitment to short telomeres. To examine the role of...

  7. Sistem Pemrosesan Transaksi (SPT) Anjungan Tunai Mandiri (ATM) Pada PT. Bank CIMB Niaga Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Maya, Dewi

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Bagaimana Sistem Pemrosesan Transaksi ATM yang digunakan oleh Bank CIMB Niaga. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif. Jenis data dan sumber data yang dipakai adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada PT. Bank Cimb Niaga Medan yang beralamat di jalan Bukit Barisan No. 5 Medan. Jadwal penelitian dimulai dari bulan Juli 2009 sampai bulan Oktober 2009. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah wawancara dan teknik kepustakaan. M...

  8. ENTORNOS MPLS Y ATM PARA EL TRANSPORTE DE VOZ SOBRE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Yaneth Gelvez García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la calidad de servicio sobre redes IP en tráficos sensibles al retardo como la VoIP sobre la tecnología ATM y MPLS. Se analizaran diferentes topologías con características propias que permitirán evaluar valores tales como el retardo y el ancho de banda.

  9. Human papillomaviruses activate the ATM DNA damage pathway for viral genome amplification upon differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary A Moody

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV are the causative agents of cervical cancers. The infectious HPV life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelia, with viral genome amplification, late gene expression and virion production restricted to suprabasal cells. The E6 and E7 proteins provide an environment conducive to DNA synthesis upon differentiation, but little is known concerning the mechanisms that regulate productive viral genome amplification. Using keratinocytes that stably maintain HPV-31 episomes, and chemical inhibitors, we demonstrate that viral proteins activate the ATM DNA damage response in differentiating cells, as indicated by phosphorylation of CHK2, BRCA1 and NBS1. This activation is necessary for viral genome amplification, as well as for formation of viral replication foci. In contrast, inhibition of ATM kinase activity in undifferentiated keratinocytes had no effect on the stable maintenance of viral genomes. Previous studies have shown that HPVs induce low levels of caspase 3/7 activation upon differentiation and that this is important for cleavage of the E1 replication protein and genome amplification. Our studies demonstrate that caspase cleavage is induced upon differentiation of HPV positive cells through the action of the DNA damage protein kinase CHK2, which may be activated as a result of E7 binding to the ATM kinase. These findings identify a major regulatory mechanism responsible for productive HPV replication in differentiating cells. Our results have potential implications for the development of anti-viral therapies to treat HPV infections.

  10. MOF phosphorylation by ATM regulates 53BP1-mediated DSB repair pathway choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Hunt, Clayton R.; Hegdec, Muralidhar L.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Singh1, Mayank; Ramnarain, Deepti B.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Namjoshi, Sarita; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Hazra, Tapas K.; Ludwig, Thomas; Pandita, Raj K.; Tyler, Jessica K.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that DSBs induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase) phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF) and that phosphorylated MOF co-localizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A) impedes DNA repair in S- and G2-phase but not G1-phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also reverses the reduction in DSB associated 53BP1 seen in wild type S/G2-phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2-phase. PMID:24953651

  11. MOF Phosphorylation by ATM Regulates 53BP1-Mediated Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ or homologous recombination (HR. Here, we report that double-strand breaks (DSBs induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF and that phosphorylated MOF colocalizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A impedes DNA repair in S and G2 phase but not G1 phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also blocks the reduction in DSB-associated 53BP1 seen in wild-type S/G2 phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair, and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM-mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2 phase.

  12. Characterization of Early and Late Adopters of ATM Card in Indian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalpreet Kaur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with affect of adoption pattern of the ATMs by banks on its characteristics. With the exploration of various characteristics of the banks like Size, Profi tability, Efficiency, Cost of Operations, Asset quality and Credit risk, Financing Pattern, Diversifi cation and Age etc.; the study has tried to differentiate between the early and late adopter category of the banks regarding ATM cards. The banks have been categorized into early and late adopters on the basis of their adoption period. For this purpose, 50 scheduled commercial banks consisting of 27 Public Sector Banks and 23 Private Sector Banks have been taken as sample to investigate the various aspects of and early adopter banks in comparison to late adopter banks. The time period of the study is 20 years i.e. from 1991 to 2010. It can be concluded that the initiators and fi rst movers take advantage over the late adopters and laggards. They have found to perform better in terms of various parameters. Overall, the early adopter banks are larger in size, more diversifi ed, having lesser branches, more market share and wide ATM network as compared to late adopter ones. Thus, the empirical results evidently reveal that the both the groups have their own different characteristics.

  13. ABR处理大豆蛋白废水产氢效能的研究%Performance of hydrogen production in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating soy protein wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 李博; 赵倩; 姜力行; 曹莉; 李永峰

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) is a class derived from multi-phase anaerobic reactor stages (Staged Multi -Phase Anaerobic Reactor, SMPA) theory of the third generation of a new anaerobic reactor. To study of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) soy protein wastewater treatment efficiency and operating characteristics of the 4 cell room operation of the system of ABR control measures were studied using the effective volume of 42 L four -room frame ABR, MLVSS in the sludge inoculum for the 18.0 g/ L, influent COD concentration of 2 000 mg/L , HRT 48 h, (35 ± 1) ℃ and other conditions (ie OLR1. 0 kg/( m3 · d) ) , running through a period of 80 d of the study based on the influent COD concentration was increased organic load ( OLR) to change the impact of its processing power, can successfully started in 31 d and reached the initial ABR and stable operation. In addition, rate of 96% , studied different organic load, ABR reactor COD removal efficiency and gas production. On this basis, for the efficient development of ABR equipment, and successfully applied to fermentation technology and bio-hydrogen production of soy protein wastewater treatment under study was provided.%厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)是一类源于分阶段多相厌氧反应器(Staged Multi -Phase Anaerobic Reactor,SMPA)理论的第三代新型厌氧反应器.为考察厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)处理大豆蛋白生产废水的效能及其运行特征,对4格室ABR反应系统的运行控制对策进行了研究,采用有效容积为42L的四格室ABR,在污泥接种量MLVSS为18.0 g/L、进水COD质量浓度2 000 mg/L、HRT 48 h、(35±1)℃等条件下(即OLR 1.0 kg/(m3·d)),通过为期80 d的运行,研究了基于进水COD质量浓度提高的有机负荷(OLR)改变对其处理效能的影响,可在31 d内成功启动ABR并达到初步稳定运行,研究不同有机负荷下,ABR反应器的COD去除效率及产气量.为在此基础上研发高效的ABR反应设备,并成功将其应用到发

  14. Challenges of Automated Teller Machine (ATM Usage and Fraud Occurrences in Nigeria – A Case Study of Selected Banks in Minna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelowo Solomon Adepoju

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Over time, consumers have come to depend on and trust the Automatic Teller Machine (ATM to conveniently meet their banking needs. But in recent time there have been a proliferation of ATM frauds in the country even and across the globe. Managing the risk associated with ATM fraud as well as diminishing its impact is an important issue that face financial institutions as fraud techniques have become more advanced with increased occurrences. The ATM is only one of many Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT devices that are vulnerable to fraud attacks. This paper carried out an empirical research to analyse the cases of ATM usage and fraud occurrences within some banks in Minna. The research identifies the common ATM fraud, how, where and when these frauds are perpetuated and then proffer security recommendation that should be adhered to by both the banks as financial institutions and the ATM users in order to eliminate or reduce it to the barest minimum

  15. The ATM-related domain of TRRAP is required for histone acetyltransferase recruitment and Myc-dependent oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeonghyeon; Kunjibettu, Sudeesha; McMahon, Steven B.; Cole, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The ATM-related TRRAP protein is a component of several different histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes but lacks the kinase activity characteristic of other ATM family members. We identified a novel function for this evolutionarily conserved domain in its requirement for the assembly of a functional HAT complex. Ectopic expression of TRRAP protein with a mutation in the ATM-related domain inhibits Myc-mediated oncogenic transformation. The Myc-binding region of TRRAP maps to a separable domain, and ectopic expression of this domain inhibits cell growth. These findings demonstrate that the ATM-related domain of TRRAP forms a structural core for the assembly and recruitment of HAT complexes by transcriptional activators. PMID:11445536

  16. Does Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) protect testicular and germ cell DNA integrity by regulating the redox status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Vanhees, Kimberly; Maas, Lou; Drittij, Marie-Jose; Pachen, Daniëlle; van Doorn-Khosrovani, Sahar van Waalwijk; van Schooten, Frederik J; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2016-08-01

    A balanced redox homeostasis in the testis is essential for genetic integrity of sperm. Reactive oxygen species can disturb this balance by oxidation of glutathione, which is regenerated using NADPH, formed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). G6PDH is regulated by the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (Atm) protein. Therefore, we studied the redox status and DNA damage in testes and sperm of mice that carried a deletion in Atm. The redox status in heterozygote mice, reflected by glutathione levels and antioxidant capacity, was lower than in wild type mice, and in homozygotes the redox status was even lower. The redox status correlated with oxidative DNA damage that was highest in mice that carried Atm deletions. Surprisingly, G6PDH activity was highest in homozygotes carrying the deletion. These data indicate that defective Atm reduces the redox homeostasis of the testis and genetic integrity of sperm by regulating glutathione levels independently from G6PDH activity. PMID:27318254

  17. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, J.

    2015-12-01

    A main objective of AIRS/AMSU on EOS is to provide accurate sounding products that are used to generate climate data sets. Suomi NPP carries CrIS/ATMS that were designed as follow-ons to AIRS/AMSU. Our objective is to generate a long term climate data set of products derived from CrIS/ATMS to serve as a continuation of the AIRS/AMSU products. The Goddard DISC has generated AIRS/AMSU retrieval products, extending from September 2002 through real time, using the AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Level-3 gridded monthly mean values of these products, generated using AIRS Version-6, form a state of the art multi-year set of Climate Data Records (CDRs), which is expected to continue through 2022 and possibly beyond, as the AIRS instrument is extremely stable. The goal of this research is to develop and implement a CrIS/ATMS retrieval system to generate CDRs that are compatible with, and are of comparable quality to, those generated operationally using AIRS/AMSU data. The AIRS Science Team has made considerable improvements in AIRS Science Team retrieval methodology and is working on the development of an improved AIRS Science Team Version-7 retrieval methodology to be used to reprocess all AIRS data in the relatively near future. Research is underway by Dr. Susskind and co-workers at the NASA GSFC Sounder Research Team (SRT) towards the finalization of the AIRS Version-7 retrieval algorithm, the current version of which is called SRT AIRS Version-6.22. Dr. Susskind and co-workers have developed analogous retrieval methodology for analysis of CrIS/ATMS data, called SRT CrIS Version-6.22. Results will be presented that show that AIRS and CrIS products derived using a common further improved retrieval algorithm agree closely with each other and are both superior to AIRS Version 6. The goal of the AIRS Science Team is to continue to improve both AIRS and CrIS retrieval products and then use the improved retrieval methodology for the processing of past and

  18. The ATM signaling cascade promotes recombination-dependent pachytene arrest in mouse spermatocytes.

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    Sarai Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most mutations that compromise meiotic recombination or synapsis in mouse spermatocytes result in arrest and apoptosis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. Two main mechanisms are thought to trigger arrest: one independent of the double-strand breaks (DSBs that initiate meiotic recombination, and another activated by persistent recombination intermediates. Mechanisms underlying the recombination-dependent arrest response are not well understood, so we sought to identify factors involved by examining mutants deficient for TRIP13, a conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the completion of meiotic DSB repair. We find that spermatocytes with a hypomorphic Trip13 mutation (Trip13mod/mod arrest with features characteristic of early pachynema in wild type, namely, fully synapsed chromosomes without incorporation of the histone variant H1t into chromatin. These cells then undergo apoptosis, possibly in response to the arrest or in response to a defect in sex body formation. However, TRIP13-deficient cells that additionally lack the DSB-responsive kinase ATM progress further, reaching an H1t-positive stage (i.e., similar to mid/late pachynema in wild type despite the presence of unrepaired DSBs. TRIP13-deficient spermatocytes also progress to an H1t-positive stage if ATM activity is attenuated by hypomorphic mutations in Mre11 or Nbs1 or by elimination of the ATM-effector kinase CHK2. These mutant backgrounds nonetheless experience an apoptotic block to further spermatogenic progression, most likely caused by failure to form a sex body. DSB numbers are elevated in Mre11 and Nbs1 hypomorphs but not Chk2 mutants, thus delineating genetic requirements for the ATM-dependent negative feedback loop that regulates DSB numbers. The findings demonstrate for the first time that ATM-dependent signaling enforces the normal pachytene response to persistent recombination intermediates. Our work supports the conclusion that recombination defects trigger

  19. Effect of silencing of ATM expression by siRNA on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of silencing of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression by plasmid-mediated RNA interference on the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Methods: Eukaryotic expression plasmid containing ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) (pSilencer2.1-ATM), as well as pSilencer2.1-nonspecific, was constructed.Lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were divided into positive group, negative group,and control group to be transfected with pSilencer2.1-ATM, pSilencer2.1-nonspecific, and no plasmid, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of ATM was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The change in cell radiosensitivity was observed by colony-forming assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The eukaryotic expression plasmid containing ATM siRNA was successfully constructed. The RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the expression of ATM was down-regulated in the positive group. The sensitization enhancement ratios (D0 ratios) for the positive group and negative group were 1.50 and 1.01, respectively. The flow cytometry revealed that the proportions of A549 cells in G1 and G2/M phases were significantly lower in the positive group than in the control group (51.27% vs 61.85%, P = 0.012; 6.34% vs 10.91%, P = 0.008) and that the apoptosis rate was significantly higher in the positive group than in the control group and negative group (49.31% vs 13.58%, P = 0.000; 49.31% vs 13.17%, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Silencing of ATM expression may increase the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, probably by affecting the cell cycle and promoting cell apoptosis. (authors)

  20. Relationship of HepG2 cell sensitivity to continuous low dose-rate irradiation with ATM phosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quelin Mei; Jianyong Yang; Duanming Du; Zaizhong Cheng; Pengcheng liu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells and its effect on HepG2 cell survival under a continuous low dose-rate irradiation.Methods: HepG2 cells were exposed to equivalent doses of irradiation delivered at either a continuous low dose-rate (7.76 cGy/h) or a high dose-rate (4500 cGy/h).The ATM phosphorylated proteins and surviving fraction of HepG2 cell after low dose-rate irradiation were compared with that after equivalent doses of high dose-rate irradiation.Results: The phosphorylation of ATM protein was maximal at 0.5 Gy irradiation delivered at either a high dose-rate or a continuous low dose-rate.As the radiation dose increased, the phosphorylation of ATM protein decreased under continuous low dose-rate irradiation.However, the phosphorylation of ATM protein was remained stable under high dose-rate irradiation.When the phosphorylation of ATM protein under continuous low dose-rate irradiation was equal to that under high dose-rate irradiation, there was no significant difference in the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells between two ir-radiation methods (P>0.05).When the phosphorylation of ATM protein significantly decreased after continuous low dose-rate irradiation compared with that after high dose-rate irradiation, increased amounts of cell killing was found in low dose-rate irradiation (P<0.01).Conclusion: Continuous low dose-rate irradiation increases HepG2 cells radiosensitivity compared with high dose-rate irradiation.The increased amounts of cell killing following continuous low dose-rate exposures are associated with reduced ATM phosphorylated protein.

  1. Full activation of PKB/Akt in response to insulin or ionizing radiation is mediated through ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra, Juan Guinea; Martínez, Natalia; Modirassari, Pegah; Hernández Losa, Javier; Parada Cobo, Carlos; Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo, Víctor Javier; Aceves Luquero, Clara Isabel; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Rojas, José María; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo

    2005-02-11

    The gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, ATM, has been implicated in several cell functions such as cell cycle control and response to DNA damage and insulin. PKB/Akt has also been implicated in the cellular response to insulin, gamma-radiation, and cell cycle control. Interestingly, lack of PKB/Akt function in vivo is able to mimic some phenotypic abnormalities associated with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Here we show that ATM is a major determinant of full PKB/Akt activation in response to insulin or gamma-radiation. This effect is mediated through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase domain of ATM that specifically affects Akt serine 473 phosphorylation. This conclusion was inferred from the results obtained in transient transfection assays using exogenous PKB/Akt and ATM in Cos cells. Moreover, the use of ATM inhibitors or small interfering RNA confirmed our observation. Further supporting these results, we also observed that biological responses tightly regulated by Akt, such as transcription factor of the forkhead family activity after insulin treatment or gamma-radiation response, were altered in cell lines derived from AT patients and knockout mice for ATM in which phosphorylation in serine 473 was almost abolished. This study proposes new clues in the search of the unknown PDK2 and new explanations for the radiosensitivity or insulin intolerance described more than 30 years ago in AT patients. PMID:15546863

  2. The association between ATM IVS 22-77 T>C and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has become increasingly clear that ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated safeguards genome stability, which is a cornerstone of cellular homeostasis, and ATM IVS 22-77 T>C affects the normal activity of ATM proteins. However, the association between the ATM IVS 22-77 T>C genetic variant and cancer risk is controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to estimate the overall cancer risk associated with the polymorphism and to quantify any potential between-study heterogeneity. METHODS: A total of nine studies including 4,470 cases and 4,862 controls were analyzed for ATM IVS 22-77 T>C association with cancer risk in this meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested. RESULTS: Our results showed that no association reached the level of statistical significance in the overall risk. Interestingly, in the stratified analyses, we observed an inverse relationship in lung and breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Further functional research on the ATM mechanism should be performed to explain the inconsistent results in different cancer types.

  3. ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Lyne; Guikema, Jeroen E J; Linehan, Erin K; Ucher, Anna J; Leus, Niek G J; Ogilvie, Colin; Lou, Zhenkun; Schrader, Carol E; Stavnezer, Janet

    2014-05-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner. PMID:24729610

  4. High-concentrated Organic and Poisoning Wastewater Treatment by ABR and Biological Contact Oxidation Combined Process%ABR+生物接触氧化法处理高浓度有毒有机废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蒙蒙; 戴博文; 赵思远; 赵贤广; 徐炎华

    2015-01-01

    The combined process of ABR and biological contact oxidation is used to treat organic wastewater which contains phenol and high COD .The toxicity -resistance and the removal efficiencies of COD ,phenol and NH3 -N of ABR have been experimentally studied .The results show that the removal of COD and phenol mainly happens in the anaerobic stage . When the mass concentration of phenol is 1 000 mg/L ,the removal efficiencies of COD and phenol of the ABR and traditional anaerobic reactor are both decreased obviously ,but the toxicity -resistance ability of ABR reactor is higher than that of the traditional anaerobic reactor .The hydraulic characteristic of ABR makes the acidogenic bacteria and methanogen separated , resulting in its stronger toxicity -resistance ability and higher removal efficiencies of COD and phenol than that of the tradition-al anaerobic reactor .However ,the NH3 -N removal efficiency can’t be strengthened obviously by the ABR reactor .%本文采用ABR+生物接触氧化组合工艺处理含苯酚的高COD有毒有机废水,实验研究了ABR反应器的抗毒性及对COD、苯酚和NH3-N的处理效果。实验结果表明:废水COD和苯酚的去除主要发生在厌氧阶段;在苯酚质量浓度1000 mg/L左右时,ABR反应器和常规厌氧反应器的处理效率均出现明显的下降趋势,但ABR反应器对苯酚的耐受浓度明显高于常规厌氧反应器;相比于常规厌氧反应器,ABR反应器推流式的特性实现了产酸和产甲烷优势菌群的分离,具有较高的COD、苯酚的去除率和较强的抗毒性;对NH3-N的去除,ABR反应器的强化效果不明显。

  5. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinario, Ellen; Han, Hye-Jung; Furuta, Saori; Heiser, Laura M; Jakkula, Lakshmi R; Rodier, Francis; Spellman, Paul T; Campisi, Judith; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2012-01-01

    SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2), but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  6. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ordinario

    Full Text Available SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2, but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-9 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-9 glass is designed to be representative of glass to be produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. ATM-9 glass contains all of the major components of the DWPF glass and corresponds to a waste loading of 29 wt %. The feedstock material for this glass was supplied by Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC, as SRL-165 Black Frit to which was added Ba, Cs, Md, Nd, Zr, as well as 99Tc, depleted U, 237Np, 239+240Pu, and 243Am. The glass was produced under reducing conditions by the addition of 0.7 wt % graphite during the final melting process. Three kilograms of the glass were produced from April to May of 1984. On final melting, the glass was formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars of two sizes: 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm and 1.3 x 1.3 x 10 cm. Seventeen bars of each size were made. The analyzed composition of ATM-9 glass is listed. Examination by optical microscopy of a single transverse section from one bar showed random porosity estimated at 0.36 vol % with nominal pore diameters ranging from approx. 5 μm to 200 μm. Only one distinct second phase was observed and it was at a low concentraction level in the glass matrix. The phase appeared as spherical metallic particles. X-ray diffraction analysis of this same sample did not show any diffraction peaks from crystalline components, indicating that the glass contained less than 5 wt % of crystalline devitrification products. The even shading on the radiograph exposure indicated a generally uniform distribution of radioactivity throughout the glass matrix, with no distinct high-concentration regions

  8. PROTOCOLOS ESTÁNDARES PARA ASEGURAMIENTO DE INTEROPERABILIDAD DE UNI 4.0 DE ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monicet Márquez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la presente investigación es plantear estándares y protocolos de prueba de interoperabilidad entre equipos de transmisión ATM a través del análisis de las especificaciones para la interfase entre usuario y Red UNI, específicamente su versión 4.0. El proyecto se caracteriza por ser de tipo descriptivo y documental correspondiendo a la modalidad de proyecto factible, al no manipular variables. Para establecer dichos protocolos, se realizó una indagación de las especificaciones desarrolladas y sugeridas por los cuerpos de estandarización, tal como la ITU y el ATM Forum, utilizando como instrumento de recolección de información la técnica de fichas bibliográficas. Como resultado de ello se identificaron los factores indispensables para avalar interoperabilidad a nivel de la interfase de señalización UNI 4.0, tal como el establecimiento de PVCs para servicios con requerimiento de un canal dedicado para preservar la conexión, identificación de los elementos que conforman el encabezado de la celda ATM y recepción y reconocimiento de los diferentes tipos de mensajes de señalización y control utilizados también para ensayar conexiones virtuales conmutadas (SVCs y SPVCs. Por ende, se estableció una propuesta, donde se plantean, de forma estructurada, las diversas pruebas a realizar en el proceso de verificación de interoperabilidad.

  9. Retrieving Atmospheric Temperature and Moisture Profiles from NPP CRIS/ATMS Sensors Using Crimss EDR Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Kizer, S.; Barnet, C.; Dvakarla, M.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) mission in collaboration with the U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) and international partners. The NPP Cross-track Infrared Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the infrared (IR) Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the microwave (MW) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The CrIS instrument is hyperspectral interferometer, which measures high spectral and spatial resolution upwelling infrared radiances. The ATMS is a 22-channel radiometer similar to Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU) A and B. It measures top of atmosphere MW upwelling radiation and provides capability of sounding below clouds. The CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithm provides three EDRs, namely the atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP, respectively), with the lower tropospheric AVTP and the AVMP being JPSS Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). The operational CrIMSS EDR an algorithm was originally designed to run on large IBM computers with dedicated data management subsystem (DMS). We have ported the operational code to simple Linux systems by replacing DMS with appropriate interfaces. We also changed the interface of the operational code so that we can read data from both the CrIMSS science code and the operational code and be able to compare lookup tables, parameter files, and output results. The detail of the CrIMSS EDR algorithm is described in reference [1]. We will present results of testing the CrIMSS EDR operational algorithm using proxy data generated from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite data and from the NPP CrIS/ATMS data.

  10. Silicon Monoxide at 1 atm and Elevated Pressures: Crystalline or Amorphous?

    KAUST Repository

    AlKaabi, Khalid

    2014-03-05

    The absence of a crystalline SiO phase under ordinary conditions is an anomaly in the sequence of group 14 monoxides. We explore theoretically ordered ground-state and amorphous structures for SiO at P = 1 atm, and crystalline phases also at pressures up to 200 GPa. Several competitive ground-state P = 1 atm structures are found, perforce with Si-Si bonds, and possessing Si-O-Si bridges similar to those in silica (SiO2) polymorphs. The most stable of these static structures is enthalpically just a little more stable than a calculated random bond model of amorphous SiO. In that model we find no segregation into regions of amorphous Si and amorphous SiO2. The P = 1 atm structures are all semiconducting. As the pressure is increased, intriguing new crystalline structures evolve, incorporating Si triangular nets or strips and stishovite-like regions. A heat of formation of crystalline SiO is computed; it is found to be the most negative of all the group 14 monoxides. Yet, given the stability of SiO2, the disproportionation 2SiO (s) → Si(s)+SiO2(s) is exothermic, falling right into the series of group 14 monoxides, and ranging from a highly negative ΔH of disproportionation for CO to highly positive for PbO. There is no major change in the heat of disproportionation with pressure, i.e., no range of stability of SiO with respect to SiO2. The high-pressure SiO phases are metallic. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhongli [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wencheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Xiao, Zefen, E-mail: xiaozefen@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tan, Wen, E-mail: tanwen@cicams.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  12. A Rapid Prototyping Capability Experiment to Evaluate CrIS / ATMS Observations for Urban Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. M.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Riishojgaard, L.

    2007-12-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential for data from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) to impact forecasting of a significant mesoscale weather event over a major urban center along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The ATMS and the CrIS will be deployed as part of a suite of atmospheric sensors aboard the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and the preceding NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, scheduled to be launched in 2009. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology is adopted to characterize the uncertainties associated with instrument measurement and retrieval processes. The methodology will be based on the procedures adopted by NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) and NOAA Environmental Modeling Center (EMC). Within the OSSE framework, a nature run (NR) is a proxy for real atmospheric and land surface conditions; it is based on a "free run" of a global-scale forecast model. For an OSSE, it is very important that different data-assimilating models be used to generate the NR and subsequent sensitivity tests. Otherwise, a "fraternal twin" problem may result, in which a low error bias between models does not realistically portray the error bias expected with assimilation of the candidate sensor data. A regional-scale NR (RSNR) will be produced using the MM5, and will serve as "truth" for our modeling experiments. The RSNR will be a nest simulation within one of the larger scale NRs produced from the ECMWF model. To simulate observations from the candidate sensors, error and bias characteristics may be adopted from the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed (NAST), in which prototypes of the ATMS and the CrIS were tested aboard aircraft. The WRF model is in conjunction with the MM5 to perform the sensitivity experiments involving the assimilation of existing sensor data and synthesized data representing candidate

  13. ATMES: An evaluation of long range atmospheric dispersion models using radioactivity data from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATMES was organized in 1989 by CEC, WMO and IAEA with the main purpose of reviewing and calibrating long range atmospheric dispersion models, to identify the more successful approaches. This document provides some findings of the study which employed 21 models from various institutions of 14 countries. They had to produce the model results without knowing in advance the measurements to which their results had to be compared. Many out of the participating models were able to predict the arrival times at the two selected sites using the analysed windfields within a few hours

  14. MPLS y ATM como tecnologías backbone para la transferencia de videoconferencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained by modeling the performance of a core IP/ATM network compared to a CRLDP/IP/MPLS network when carrying delay sensitive traffic (videoconferencing with minimum resource reservation guarantees and optimal interaction between user and applications. In order conduct the experiments, OPNET-modeler simulation software (educational version was used, which encouraged alternative implementation features that help decide which of the two technologies represents a suitable solution for current networking problems, where large volumes of information need to be transmitted and the QoS offered to average users is pretty poor.

  15. PROTOCOLOS ESTÁNDARES PARA ASEGURAMIENTO DE INTEROPERABILIDAD DE UNI 4.0 DE ATM

    OpenAIRE

    Monicet Márquez

    2005-01-01

    El propósito de la presente investigación es plantear estándares y protocolos de prueba de interoperabilidad entre equipos de transmisión ATM a través del análisis de las especificaciones para la interfase entre usuario y Red UNI, específicamente su versión 4.0. El proyecto se caracteriza por ser de tipo descriptivo y documental correspondiendo a la modalidad de proyecto factible, al no manipular variables. Para establecer dichos protocolos, se realizó una indagación de las especificaciones d...

  16. Desarrollos de parametrizaciones urbanas y optimización del acoplamiento ciudad-atmósfera

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Moral, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Las ciudades interaccionan con la atmósfera, produciéndose un aumento de la temperatura con respecto al medio rural circundante (Isla de calor) y una disminución de la velocidad del viento. Estos fenómenos pueden llegar a ocasionar problemas para la salud de la población, que cada vez mas, esta en aumento, en detrimento de la población que habita las zonas rurales. Con la idea de mejorar las condiciones de vida en las ciudades, la comprensión y caracterización del clima urbano, mediante la mo...

  17. Correction of ATM gene function by aminoglycoside-induced read-through of premature termination codons

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chun, Helen H.; Nahas, Shareef A.; Mitui, Midori; Gamo, Kristin M.; Du, Liutao; Gatti, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 14% of genetic mutations in patients with ataxia-telangiectsia (A-T) are single-nucleotide changes that result in primary premature termination codons (PTCs), either UAA, UAG, or UGA. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential therapeutic approach for this subset of patients by using aminoglycosides to induce PTC read-through, thereby restoring levels of full-length ATM (A-T mutated) protein. In experiments using a modified in vitro cDNA coupled transcription/translati...

  18. Estudio de los principales procesos que originan emisiones de gases a la atmósfera.

    OpenAIRE

    María Elvira Font Pérez; Francisco Luis Hernández Arias

    2011-01-01

    Se abordaron los diferentes procesos que originaron emisiones de gases a la atmósfera y principalmente los ocasionados por la combustión de los motores diesel estacionarios y del efecto que estos causan al medio ambiente y sus consecuencias. Por otra parte se muestran los distintos procedimientos empleados para el control y la prevención de la contaminación ambiental originada por la actividad del hombre y los diferentes métodos de control. Se brindan datos de planes de control para la calida...

  19. Psico-atmósfera: Investigar para pensar y expresar la experiencia arquitectónica.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuset Davó, Juan José; Guimaraens Igual, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Póster presentado en la sesión dedicada a Ámbitos, Innovación y Calidad, en las IV Jornadas Internacionales sobre Investigación en Arquitectura y Urbanismo. Apreciar que todo lo que nos rodea determina la arquitectura y preguntarse cuales son las códigos que rigen la percepción de lo que nos rodea son cuestiones propias del arquitecto. El grupo de investigación emergente e interdisciplinar Atmósferas de la ETSAV estableció en el año 2010 una experiencia docente con la intención de indagar ...

  20. Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Modified Sequencing Batch Reactor for Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment%ABR/MSBR工艺联用处理屠宰废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松; 张健君; 杨淑芳; 邹高龙

    2013-01-01

    The amount of wastewater discharged from a slaughterhouse is 220 m3/d, and the two-stage treatment process is used. The first stage is an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for anaerobic treatment. The second stage is a modified sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) for aerobic treatment. After the commissioning for two months, the removal rates of COD, BOD5 and NH4+ - N were more than 97% , 98% and 80% respectively. The effluent quality met the second criteria specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard ( GB 8978 - 1996). The practice showed that good economic and environmental benefits were achieved using the combined process from slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.%某屠宰厂废水量为220 m3/d,采用两段处理,第一段为ABR厌氧处理,第二段为MSBR好氧处理.经过2个月的工程调试,对COD、BOD5、氨氮的去除率分别达到97%、98%、80%以上,出水水质均达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978-1996)的一级标准.实践证明,采用该组合工艺处理屠宰废水具有良好的经济效益和环境效益.

  1. Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzebio Beli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

  2. Abnormal mRNA splicing but normal auditory brainstem response (ABR) in mice with the prestin (SLC26A5) IVS2-2A>G mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Ziyi; Chang, Aoshuang; Fang, Jie; Men, Yuqin; Tian, Yong; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Yan, Denise; Zhang, Aizhen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Tang, Jie; Liu, Xuezhong; Zuo, Jian; Gao, Jiangang

    2016-08-01

    Prestin is critical to OHC somatic motility and hearing sensitivity in mammals. Several mutations of the human SLC26A5 gene have been associated with deafness. However, whether the IVS2-2A>G mutation in the human SLC26A5 gene causes deafness remains controversial. In this study, we created a mouse model in which the IVS2-2A>G mutation was introduced into the mouse Slc26a5 gene by gene targeting. The homozygous Slc26a5 mutant mice were viable and fertile and displayed normal hearing sensitivity by ABR threshold analysis. Whole-mount immunostaining using prestin antibody demonstrated that prestin was correctly targeted to the lateral wall of OHCs, and no obvious hair cell loss occurred in mutant mice. No significant difference in the amount of prestin protein was observed between mutants and controls using western blot analysis. In OHCs isolated from mutants, the NLC was also normal. However, we observed a splicing abnormality in the Slc26a5 mRNA of the mutant mice. Eleven nucleotides were missing from the 5' end of exon 3 in Slc26a5 mRNA, but the normal ATG start codon in exon 3 was still detected. Thus, the IVS2-2A>G mutation in the Slc26a5 gene is insufficient to cause hearing loss in mice. PMID:27232762

  3. Workshop on The Epidemiology of the ATM Gene: Impact on Breast Cancer Risk and Treatment, Present Status and Future Focus, Lillehammer, Norway, 29 June 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) heterozygosity in cancer is uncertain. In vitro studies of cells from ATM heterozygotes provide strong evidence of radiation sensitivity. Some, but not all, clinical studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among ATM gene carriers, and this risk may be greater among those exposed to radiation. This possible excess risk of breast cancer associated with ATM heterozygosity constitutes the basis for several genetic epidemiological studies designed to clarify the role that the ATM gene plays in the etiology of breast and other cancers. The primary focus of this international, multidisciplinary, National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop was to discuss ongoing and planned epidemiologic studies aimed at understanding the complexities of the ATM gene and its role in carcinogenesis. The invited participants were from diverse disciplines including molecular and clinical genetics, radiation biology and physics, epidemiology, biostatistics, pathology, and medicine. In the present meeting report, the aims of each project are described

  4. Analysis of Chromosomal Aberrations after Low and High Dose Rate Gamma Irradiation in ATM or NBS Suppressed Human Fibroblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z.; Pluth, J. M.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the biological effects of heavy nuclei is needed for space radiation protection and for cancer therapy. High-LET radiation produces more complex DNA lesions that may be non-repairable or that may require additional processing steps compared to endogenous DSBs, increasing the possibility of misrepair. Interplay between radiation sensitivity, dose, and radiation quality has not been studied extensively. Previously we studied chromosome aberrations induced by low- and high- LET radiation in several cell lines deficient in ATM (ataxia telangactasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. We found that the yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations were significantly increased in the DSB repair defective cells compared to normal cells. The increased aberrations observed for the ATM and NBS defective lines was due to a significantly larger quadratic dose-response term compared to normal fibroblasts for both simple and complex aberrations, while the linear dose-response term was significantly higher in NBS cells only for simple exchanges. These results point to the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that function to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. To further understand the sensitivity differences that were observed in ATM and NBS deficient cells, in this study, chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in normal lung fibroblast cells treated with KU-55933, a specific ATM kinase inhibitor, or Mirin, an MRN complex inhibitor involved in activation of ATM. We are also testing siRNA knockdown of these proteins. Normal and ATM or NBS suppressed cells were irradiated with gamma-rays and chromosomes were collected with a premature chromosome

  5. Induction of G2/M arrest by pseudolaric acid B is mediated by activation of the ATM signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-guo MENG; Ling-lingJIANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pseudolaric acid B (PLAB)-induced cell cycle arrest in human melanoma SK-28 cells. Methods: Cell growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis.Results: PLAB inhibited the growth of human melanoma ceils and induced G2/M arrest in SK-28 cells, accompanied by an up-regulation of Cdc2 phosphorylation and a subsequent down-regulation of Cdc2 expression. Furthermore, PLAB decreased the expression of Cdc25C phosphatase and increased the expression of Wee1 kinase. Meanwhile, a reduction in Cdc2 activity was party due to induction of the expression of p21wsaf1/cip1 in a p53-dependent manner. In addition, PLAB activated the checkpoint kinase, Chk2, and increased the expression of p53, two major targets of ATM kinase. These effects were inhibited by caffeine, an ATM kinase inhibitor. We also found that PLAB significantly enhanced ATM kinase activity. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that PLAB induced G2/M arrest in human melanoma cells via a mechanism involving the activation of ATM, and the effect of PLAB on Cdc2 activity was mediated via interactions with the Chk2-Cdc25C and p53 signalling pathways, two distinct downstream pathways of ATM. PLAB may be a promising chemopreventive agent for treating human melanoma.

  6. A novel role for ATM in regulating proteasome-mediated protein degradation through suppression of the ISG15 conjugation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Wood

    Full Text Available Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder wherein mutation of the ATM kinase is responsible for the A-T pathogenesis. Although the precise role of ATM in A-T pathogenesis is still unclear, its function in responding to DNA damage has been well established. Here we demonstrate that in addition to its role in DNA repair, ATM also regulates proteasome-mediated protein turnover through suppression of the ISG15 pathway. This conclusion is based on three major pieces of evidence: First, we demonstrate that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is impaired in A-T cells. Second, we show that the reduced protein turnover is causally linked to the elevated expression of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 in A-T cells. Third, we show that expression of the ISG15 is elevated in A-T cells derived from various A-T patients, as well as in brain tissues derived from the ATM knockout mice and A-T patients, suggesting that ATM negatively regulates the ISG15 pathway. Our current findings suggest for the first time that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is impaired in A-T cells due to elevated expression of the ISG15 conjugation pathway, which could contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in A-T patients.

  7. An Operational Tool for Global Monitoring of Inundation Using NPP ATMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfagiorgis, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study is to introduce an operational microwave-based tool for the detection and monitoring of inundation across the globe using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) sensor onboard SUOMI NPP. ATMS surface sensitive channels, namely, the 23 GHz and the 89 GHz are used in this study. The inundation detection approach is based on the analysis of the standardized anomalies of a soil wetness index that is determined from the gradient between 89 and 23 GHz brightness temperatures. The dimensionless index is sensitive to extreme wetness conditions. Appropriate threshold-based techniques were implemented in the developed tool to detect and eliminate rainy pixels as well as snow and ice covered pixels. An automated tool was developed to process, analyze the data, develop the inundation product, and disseminate the detected inundated area through a web-based interface. The outputs of the developed algorithm were verified against records from the Darthmouth Flood Observatory data archive. The agreement was acceptable with POD reaching 80 % globally for flood with durations longer than 5 days. The analysis of the flood records showed that the most frequent flood events have a duration of 3 days. The flood detection and mapping system was able to reports more short duration events that lasted 1 day or less than what is in the flood observatory records. The inundation global mapping tool was deployed operationally using real time readouts from NOAA-CREST satellite receiving station in New York, USA.

  8. Adoption of Biometric Fingerprint Identification as an Accessible, Secured form of ATM Transaction Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mireku Kwakye

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Security is continuously an important concern for most Information Technology-related industries, especially the banking industry. The banking industry is concerned with protecting and securing the privacy and data of their customers, as well as their transactions. The adoption of biometric technology as a means of identifying and authenticating individuals has been proposed as one of the varied solutions to many of the security challenges faced by the banking industry. In this paper, the authors address the ATM transaction authentication problem of banking transactions using fingerprint identification as one form of biometric authentication. The novel methodology adopted proposes the use of an online off-card fingerprint verification, which involves the matching of live fingerprint (templates with pre-stored templates read from the ATM smart card. The experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology presents a system that offers a faster and relatively better security of authentication, as compared to previous and existing methodologies. Moreover, the use of BioHASH templates ensures an irreversible cryptographic hash function, facilitates a faster authentication, and enables an efficient framework of detecting potential duplicates of banking account holders.

  9. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM TERHADAP NASABAH KORBAN KEJAHATAN PENGGANDAAN KARTU ATM PADA BANK SWASTA NASIONAL DI DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Juniawan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Responsibility of the bank to refund customers money that became victims of ATMcard duplication is the bank have responsibility to refund the customer money, so that theloss of customer funds was caused by his own negligence, then the bank is not haveresponsibility to refund losses suffered by customers. Legal efforts taken by the bank torefund customers money that became victims of ATM card duplication such as :Clarification of customer complaints by checking the data to determine the customer'saccount transactions that cause a reduction in the customer's account balance, thendeliver customer transactions was conducted customer; Checking customer transactionsallegedly clumsy, one of which is checking the CCTV at the cash machine withdrawalsare not recognized by the customer, checking and known whether the transaction isconcluded that the transaction is correct or odd transactions; Returns missing customerfunds, if it is concluded that the clients do not make transactions recorded in thecustomer's account, and making a crime report in the ATM card duplication police to dothe investigation against the perpetrators

  10. Association of ATM activation and DNA repair with induced radioresistance after low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian cells often exhibit a hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) to radiation doses <20 cGy, followed by increased radioresistance (IRR) at slightly higher doses (∼20-30 cGy). Here, the influence of DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) on IRR was examined. The failure of Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells to undergo IRR reported by others was confirmed. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that normal cells fail to show a measurable increase in serine 1981 phosphorylated AT-mutated (ATM) protein after 10 cGy up to 4 h post irradiation, but a two- to fourfold increase after 25 cGy. Similarly, more proficient reduction of phosphorylated histone H2AX was observed 24 h after 25 cGy than after 10 cGy, suggesting that DSBR is more efficient during IRR than HRS. A direct examination of the consequences of inefficient DNA repair per se (as opposed to ATM-mediated signal transduction/cell cycle responses), by determining the clonogenic survival of cells lacking the DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase, indicated that these cells have a response similar to AT cells, i.e. HRS but no IRR, strongly linking IRR to DSBR. (authors)

  11. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-8 glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-8 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Its composition is based upon the simulated HLW glass type 76-68 (Mendel, J.E. et al., 1977, Annual Report of the Characteristics of High-Level Waste Glasses, BNWL-2252, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington), to which depleted uranium, technetium-99, neptunium-237 and plutonium-239 have been added at moderate to low levels. The glass was requested by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute. ATM-8 glass was produced in April of 1984, and is the second in a series of testing materials for NNWSI. This report discusses its fabrication (starting materials, batch and glass preparation, measurement and testing equipment, other equipment, procedures, identification system and materials availability and storage, and characterization (bulk density) measurements, chemical analysis, microscopic examination, and x-ray diffraction analysis. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. DBC1 phosphorylation by ATM/ATR inhibits SIRT1 deacetylase in response to DNA damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Zannini; Giacomo Buscemi; Ja-Eun Kim; Enrico Fontanella; Domenico Delia

    2012-01-01

    Human DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer-1; KIAA1967) is a nuclear protein that,in response to DNA damage,competitively inhibits the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1,a regulator of p53 apoptotic functions in response to genotoxic stress.DBC1 depletion in human cells increases SIRT1 activity,resulting in the deacetylation of p53 and protection from apoptosis.However,the mechanisms regulating this process have not yet been determined.Here,we report that,in human cell lines,DNA damage triggered the phosphorylation of DBC1 on Thr454 by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated) and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related)kinases.Phosphorylated DBC1 bound to and inhibited SIRT1,resulting in the dissociation of the SIRT1-p53 complex and stimulating p53 acetylation and p53-dependent cell death.Indeed,DBC1-mediated genotoxicity,which was shown in knockdown experiments to be dependent on SIRT1 and p53 expression,was defective in cells expressing the phospho-mutant DBC1T454A.This study describes the first post-translational modification of DBC1 and provides new mechanistic insight linking ATM/ATR to the DBC1-SIRT1-p53 apoptotic axis triggered by DNA damage.

  13. Estudio de los principales procesos que originan emisiones de gases a la atmósfera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elvira Font Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se abordaron los diferentes procesos que originaron emisiones de gases a la atmósfera y principalmente los ocasionados por la combustión de los motores diesel estacionarios y del efecto que estos causan al medio ambiente y sus consecuencias. Por otra parte se muestran los distintos procedimientos empleados para el control y la prevención de la contaminación ambiental originada por la actividad del hombre y los diferentes métodos de control. Se brindan datos de planes de control para la calidad de aire aplicados en algunos países y las características del equipamiento necesario para estos fines. Se presenta como objetivo fundamental la realización de un estudio teórico de los procesos que provocan la contaminación atmosférica durante la explotación prolongada de los motores diesel estacionarios y el objetivo fue describir los métodos utilizados para el control y la prevención de la contaminación ambiental. Se abordaron los principios básicos aplicados para eliminar los impactos negativos sobre la calidad del agua, la atmósfera y el suelo; se consideró cómo la atención se ha desviado del control a la prevención y por último se analizaron las limitaciones de las soluciones propuestas para un medio en particular.

  14. A New Player in the Development of TRAIL Based Therapies for Hepatocarcinoma Treatment: ATM Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagni, Venturina; Santini, Simonetta; Barilà, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.barila@uniroma2.it [Department of Biology, University of Tor Vergata, Rome 00133 (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Santa Lucia Foundation-IRCCS, Rome 00179 (Italy)

    2012-04-05

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. HCCs are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous tumors characterized by very poor prognosis, mainly due to the lack, at present, of effective therapeutic options, as these tumors are rarely suitable for radiotherapy and often resistant to chemotherapy protocols. In the last years, agonists targeting the Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) death receptor, has been investigated as a valuable promise for cancer therapy, based on their selectivity for malignant cells and low toxicity for healthy cells. However, many cancer models display resistance to death receptor induced apoptosis, pointing to the requirement for the development of combined therapeutic approaches aimed to selectively sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. Recently, we identified ATM kinase as a novel modulator of the ability of chemotherapeutic agents to enhance TRAIL sensitivity. Here, we review the biological determinants of HCC responsiveness to TRAIL and provide an exhaustive and updated analysis of the molecular mechanisms exploited for combined therapy in this context. The role of ATM kinase as potential novel predictive biomarker for combined therapeutic approaches based on TRAIL and chemotherapeutic drugs will be closely discussed.

  15. Production of bioenergy in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and sludge blanket (UASB) in the treatment os swine waste water; Producao de bioenergia em reatores anaerobios compartimentado (RAC) e de manta de lodo (UASB) no tratamento de efluentes de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moterani, Fabricio; Pereira, Erlon Lopes; Campos, Claudio M.M. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: fabricio_moterani@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biogas is obtained in the processes of degradation of organic matter by the action of bacterial consortium in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biogas production in anaerobic UASB and ABR in swine wastewater treatment. For this we used the theoretical estimated and actual production of biogas measured by anaerobic gasometers installed in the units. Methane was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and its theoretical output was 66 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 11.9 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 24.7 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} and 5.4 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} to ABR and UASB, respectively. Regarding the actual production of biogas in the reactor provided by the gas tank, found the values of 1,166.4 m{sup 3}; 0.1 m{sup 3}; 27.4 m{sup 3} and 12,598.5 m{sup 3} of biogas for compartments 1, 2 and 3 and ABR for the UASB reactor, respectively, totaling, production of 13,792.4 m{sup 3} in the units together, with an average of 113 m{sup 3} of biogas per day. But, it concludes with this research that the use of effluent from produce energy through biogas in swine farming is effective, which can be used in rural productive system itself. (author)

  16. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars;

    1998-01-01

    The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both the princi......The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both...... the mobile terminals use buffer lengths of only 200-300 cells. The different components of this access system are currently under implementation and the MAC unit has been successfully implemented for a 32 Mbit/s wireless channel supporting 25 Mbit/s ATM introducing only 22% of protocol overhead...

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Dynamic Response to Aphidicolin-Mediated Replication Stress Uncovers Targets for ATM and ATMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Mazouzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cellular response to replication stress requires the DNA-damage-responsive kinase ATM and its cofactor ATMIN; however, the roles of this signaling pathway following replication stress are unclear. To identify the functions of ATM and ATMIN in response to replication stress, we utilized both transcriptomics and quantitative mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. We found that replication stress induced by aphidicolin triggered widespread changes in both gene expression and protein phosphorylation patterns. These changes gave rise to distinct early and late replication stress responses. Furthermore, our analysis revealed previously unknown targets of ATM and ATMIN downstream of replication stress. We demonstrate ATMIN-dependent phosphorylation of H2AX and of CRMP2, a protein previously implicated in Alzheimer’s disease but not in the DNA damage response. Overall, our dataset provides a comprehensive resource for discovering the cellular responses to replication stress and, potentially, associated pathologies.

  18. Discovery of Novel 3-Quinoline Carboxamides as Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degorce, Sébastien L; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Dishington, Allan; Ducray, Richard; Glossop, Steven C; Hassall, Lorraine A; Lach, Franck; Lau, Alan; McGuire, Thomas M; Nowak, Thorsten; Ouvry, Gilles; Pike, Kurt G; Thomason, Andrew G

    2016-07-14

    A novel series of 3-quinoline carboxamides has been discovered and optimized as selective inhibitors of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. From a modestly potent HTS hit (4), we identified molecules such as 6-[6-(methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-{[(1R)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)ethyl]amino}-3-quinolinecarboxamide (72) and 7-fluoro-6-[6-(methoxymethyl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-{[(1S)-1-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)ethyl]amino}quinoline-3-carboxamide (74) as potent and highly selective ATM inhibitors with overall ADME properties suitable for oral administration. 72 and 74 constitute excellent oral tools to probe ATM inhibition in vivo. Efficacy in combination with the DSB-inducing agent irinotecan was observed in a disease relevant model. PMID:27259031

  19. Naphthalimides Induce G2 Arrest Through the ATM-Activated Chk2-Executed Pathway in HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalimides, particularly amonafide and 2-(2-dimethylamino-6-thia-2-aza-benzo[def]chrysene-1,3-diones (R16, have been identified to possess anticancer activities and to induce G2-M arrest through inhibiting topoisomerase II accompanied by Chk1 degradation. The current study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s responsible for the naphthalimide-induced cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Using phosphorylated histone H3 and mitotic protein monoclonal 2 as mitosis markers, we first specified the G2 arrest elicited by the R16 and amonafide. Then, R16 and amonafide were revealed to induce phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by both the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine and the specific small interference RNA (siRNA rescued the G2 arrest elicited by R16, indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Furthermore, depletion of Chk2, but not Chk1 with their corresponding siRNA, statistically significantly reversed the R16- and amonafide-triggered G2 arrest. Moreover, the naphthalimides phosphorylated Chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner but induced Chk1 degradation. These data indicate that R16 and amonafide preferentially used Chk2 as evidenced by the differential ATM-executed phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Thus, a clear signaling pathway can be established, in which ATM relays the DNA DSBs signaling triggered by the naphthalimides to the checkpoint kinases, predominantly to Chk2,which finally elicits G2 arrest. The mechanistic elucidation not only favors the development of the naphthalimides as anticancer agents but also provides an alternative strategy of Chk2 inhibition to potentiate the anticancer activities of these agents.

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Critical Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM as a basis for studying critical factors that affects the acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM in Nigeria. Questionnaire approach was used with the respondents predominantly between 20-29 years old. Factor analysis was used to test which of the factors are the main factors affecting the adoption of the technology in Nigeria. It was discovered that the major factors affecting people’s intention to accept ATM are the security issues and poor internet connectivity.

  1. Comparative Results of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS/AMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS/AMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of long term CrIS/ATMS CDRs using a retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRS/AMSU Version-7.

  2. Novel Smad proteins localize to IR-induced double-strand breaks: interplay between TGFβ and ATM pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Minli; Saha, Janapriya; Hada, Megumi; Anderson, Jennifer A.; Pluth, Janice M.; O’Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular damage from ionizing radiation (IR) is in part due to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species, which activate DNA damage response (DDR) and cytokine signaling pathways, including the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and transforming growth factor (TGF)β/Smad pathways. Using classic double-strand breaks (DSBs) markers, we studied the roles of Smad proteins in DDR and the crosstalk between TGFβ and ATM pathways. We observed co-localization of phospho-Smad2 (pSmad2) and Smad7 with DSB...

  3. Association of common ATM variants with familial breast cancer in a South American population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta Octavio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ATM gene has been frequently involved in hereditary breast cancer as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene but evidence regarding the role of ATM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene has been contradictory. Methods In this study, a full mutation analysis of the ATM gene was carried out in patients from 137 Chilean breast cancer families, of which 126 were BRCA1/2 negatives and 11 BRCA1/2 positives. We further perform a case-control study between the subgroup of 126 cases BRCA1/2 negatives and 200 controls for the 5557G>A missense variant and the IVS38-8T>C and the IVS24-9delT polymorphisms. Results In the full mutation analysis we detected two missense variants and eight intronic polymorphisms. Carriers of the variant IVS24-9delT, or IVS38-8T>C, or 5557G>A showed an increase in breast cancer risk. The higher significance was observed in the carriers of IVS38-8T>C (OR = 3.09 [95%CI 1.11–8.59], p = 0.024. The IVS24-9 T/(-T, IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype confered a 3.19 fold increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 3.19 [95%CI 1.16–8.89], p = 0.021. The haplotype estimation suggested a strong linkage disequilibrium between the three markers (D' = 1. We detected only three haplotypes in the cases and control samples, some of these may be founder haplotypes in the Chilean population. Conclusion The IVS24-9 T/(-T, IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype alone or in combination with certain genetic background and/or environmental factors, could modify the cancer risk by increasing genetic inestability or by altering the effect of the normal DNA damage response.

  4. Association of common ATM variants with familial breast cancer in a South American population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATM gene has been frequently involved in hereditary breast cancer as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene but evidence regarding the role of ATM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene has been contradictory. In this study, a full mutation analysis of the ATM gene was carried out in patients from 137 Chilean breast cancer families, of which 126 were BRCA1/2 negatives and 11 BRCA1/2 positives. We further perform a case-control study between the subgroup of 126 cases BRCA1/2 negatives and 200 controls for the 5557G>A missense variant and the IVS38-8T>C and the IVS24-9delT polymorphisms. In the full mutation analysis we detected two missense variants and eight intronic polymorphisms. Carriers of the variant IVS24-9delT, or IVS38-8T>C, or 5557G>A showed an increase in breast cancer risk. The higher significance was observed in the carriers of IVS38-8T>C (OR = 3.09 [95%CI 1.11–8.59], p = 0.024). The IVS24-9 T/(-T), IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype confered a 3.19 fold increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 3.19 [95%CI 1.16–8.89], p = 0.021). The haplotype estimation suggested a strong linkage disequilibrium between the three markers (D' = 1). We detected only three haplotypes in the cases and control samples, some of these may be founder haplotypes in the Chilean population. The IVS24-9 T/(-T), IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype alone or in combination with certain genetic background and/or environmental factors, could modify the cancer risk by increasing genetic inestability or by altering the effect of the normal DNA damage response

  5. Tasquinimod (ABR-215050, a quinoline-3-carboxamide anti-angiogenic agent, modulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 in human prostate tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs John T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orally active quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod [ABR-215050; CAS number 254964-60-8, which currently is in a phase II-clinical trial in patients against metastatic prostate cancer, exhibits anti-tumor activity via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in human and rodent tumors. To further explore the mode of action of tasquinimod, in vitro and in vivo experiments with gene microarray analysis were performed using LNCaP prostate tumor cells. The array data were validated by real-time semiquantitative reversed transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR and protein expression techniques. Results One of the most significant differentially expressed genes both in vitro and in vivo after exposure to tasquinimod, was thrombospondin-1 (TSP1. The up-regulation of TSP1 mRNA in LNCaP tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo correlated with an increased expression and extra cellular secretion of TSP1 protein. When nude mice bearing CWR-22RH human prostate tumors were treated with oral tasquinimod, there was a profound growth inhibition, associated with an up-regulation of TSP1 and a down- regulation of HIF-1 alpha protein, androgen receptor protein (AR and glucose transporter-1 protein within the tumor tissue. Changes in TSP1 expression were paralleled by an anti-angiogenic response, as documented by decreased or unchanged tumor tissue levels of VEGF (a HIF-1 alpha down stream target in the tumors from tasquinimod treated mice. Conclusions We conclude that tasquinimod-induced up-regulation of TSP1 is part of a mechanism involving down-regulation of HIF1α and VEGF, which in turn leads to reduced angiogenesis via inhibition of the "angiogenic switch", that could explain tasquinimods therapeutic potential.

  6. Study on Cell Error Rate of a Satellite ATM System Based on CDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彤宇; 张乃通

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the cell error rate (CER) of a CDMA-based satellite ATM system is analyzed. Two fading models, i.e. the partial fading model and the total fading model are presented according to multi-path propagation fading and shadow effect. Based on the total shadow model, the relation of CER vs. the number of subscribers at various elevations under 2D-RAKE receiving and non-diversity receiving is got. The impact on cell error rate with pseudo noise (PN) code length is also considered. The result that the maximum likelihood combination of multi-path signal would not improve the system performance when multiple access interference (MAI) is small, on the contrary the performance may be even worse is abtained.

  7. Fenómenos solares que afectan la atmósfera terrestre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, M.

    Se describen los principales fenómenos solares como fulguraciones, prominencias eruptivas, viento solar y eyecciones de masa coronal (CME) que tienen consecuencias en la atmósfera terrestre. En algunos casos el material es eyectado a velocidades superiores a los 900 km/seg y tarda menos de 48 horas en llegar a la Tierra. En general, estos CME no son peligrosos ya que el campo magnético terrestre actúa como protector siendo un aislante efectivo. Si el viento solar es muy intenso puede comprimir la magnetósfera y producir una tormenta geomagnética. En casos extremos, puede interferir la transmisión de potencia eléctrica, perturbar los satélites y producir auroras polares.

  8. A NEW BUSINESS MODEL FOR ATM TRANSACTION SECURITY USING FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOWMYA RAVIKUMAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Money transactions play a vital role in the nature of trade. Today, ATMs and Credit cards are used for this purpose, the authentication of these transactions are unsecure. To overcome this shortcoming of piracy in money transactions, the author proposes the idea of using fingerprints of customers as password in place of traditional pin number. Here, if the fingerprint is recognized, then it allows transaction. This model has an additional feature i.e., a reference fingerprint of the nominee or a close family member of the customer can be used if the customer is not available in case of emergencies. This proposed business model helps the society, mainly the rural people, by enhancing the security using Fingerprint recognition in Digital image processing. As the fingerprint of every person is unique and unchangeable, this biometric feature is used over the others.

  9. Millimeter and sub-millimeter atmospheric performance at Dome C combining radiosoundings and ATM synthetic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    De Gregori, S; Decina, B; Lamagna, L; Pardo, J R; Petkov, B; Tomasi, C; Valenziano, L

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of astronomical observations at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths closely depends on a low vertical content of water vapor as well as on high atmospheric emission stability. Although Concordia station at Dome C (Antarctica) enjoys good observing conditions in this atmospheric spectral windows, as shown by preliminary site-testing campaigns at different bands and in, not always, time overlapped periods, a dedicated instrument able to continuously determine atmospheric performance for a wide spectral range is not yet planned. In the absence of such measurements, in this paper we suggest a semi-empirical approach to perform an analysis of atmospheric transmission and emission at Dome C to compare the performance for 7 photometric bands ranging from 100 GHz to 2 THz. Radiosoundings data provided by the Routine Meteorological Observations (RMO) Research Project at Concordia station are corrected by temperature and humidity errors and dry biases and then employed to feed ATM (Atmospheric Tra...

  10. TIGAR regulates DNA damage and repair through pentosephosphate pathway and Cdk5-ATM pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Pei; Xie, Jia-Ming; Li, Bin; Sun, Yi-Hui; Gao, Quan-Geng; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Hao-Rong; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Previous study revealed that the protective effect of TIGAR in cell survival is mediated through the increase in PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) flux. However, it remains unexplored if TIGAR plays an important role in DNA damage and repair. This study investigated the role of TIGAR in DNA damage response (DDR) induced by genotoxic drugs and hypoxia in tumor cells. Results showed that TIGAR was increased and relocated to the nucleus after epirubicin or hypoxia treatment in cancer cells. Knockdown of TIGAR exacerbated DNA damage and the effects were partly reversed by the supplementation of PPP products NADPH, ribose, or the ROS scavenger NAC. Further studies with pharmacological and genetic approaches revealed that TIGAR regulated the phosphorylation of ATM, a key protein in DDR, through Cdk5. The Cdk5-AMT signal pathway involved in regulation of DDR by TIGAR defines a new role of TIGAR in cancer cell survival and it suggests that TIGAR may be a therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:25928429

  11. Modular and Stochastic Approaches to Molecular Pathway Models of ATM, TGF beta, and WNT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.

  12. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  13. Installation and maintenance of SDH/SONET, ATM, Xdsl, and synchronization networks

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Jose; Sequra, Roger; Guimera, Andreu

    2003-01-01

    Service level agreements guaranteeing quality of service have helped your organization to keep old customers and win new ones over. Although it may be easy for the sales department to ink a service level agreement, you have to handle the constant problems of phase fluctuations, jitter, and wander, that threaten the quality of service spelled out in these service level agreements.

  14. Autoprotección del aluminio anodizado sin sellar expuesto a la atmósfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, E.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed anodised specimens with three different film thicknesses were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Iberoamérica with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m sup>-2 day-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coatings during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. Keywords

    Para confirmar o rebatir la idea, muy difundida, de que la operación de sellado es imprescindible para garantizar una buena resistencia del aluminio anodizado a la corrosión atmosférica, se expusieron muestras de anodizados sin sellar, de tres espesores diferentes, en 9 atmósferas de Iberoamérica, con salinidades comprendidas entre 3,9 y 684 mg m-2 d-1 de cloruros. Por las más variadas técnicas, desde la microscopía electrónica de barrido o transmisión a la medida directa por gravimetría, pasando por los ensayos normalizados de control de calidad del sellado y la medida indirecta por técnicas electroquímicas, se demuestra la capacidad de autosellado, durante la exposición a la atmósfera, de los recubrimientos anódicos sin sellar. Sorprendentemente, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en recubrimientos protectores de otra naturaleza, la calidad de los anodizados mejora con el envejecimiento.

  15. FY1995 next generation highly parallel database / dataminig server using 100 PC's and ATM switch; 1995 nendo tasudai no pasokon wo ATM ketsugoshita jisedai choheiretsu database mining server no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the research is first to build a highly parallel processing system using 100 personal computers and an ATM switch. The former is a commodity for computer, while the latter can be regarded as a commodity for future communication systems. Second is to implement parallel relational database management system and parallel data mining system over the 100-PC cluster system. Third is to run decision-support queries typicalto data warehouses, to run association rule mining, and to prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture as a next generation parallel database/datamining server. Performance/cost ratio of PC is significantly improved compared with workstations and proprietry systems due to its mass production. The cost of ATM switch is also considerably decreasing since ATM is being widely accepted as a communication-on infrastructure. By combining 100 PCs as computing commodities and ATM switch as a communication commodity, we built large sca-le parallel processing system inexpensively. Each mode employs the Pentium Pro CPU and the communication badwidth between PC's is more than 120Mbits/sec. A new parallel relational DBMS is design-ed and implemented. TPC-D, which is a standard benchmark for decision support applicants (100GBytes) is executed. Our system attained much higher performance than current commercial systems which are also much more expensive than ours. In addition, we developed a novel parallel data mining algorithm to extract associate rules. We implemented it in our system and succeeded toattain high performance. Thus it is verified that ATM connected PC cluster is very promising as a next generation platform for large scale database/dataminig server. (NEDO)

  16. Mre11 ATLD17/18 mutation retains Tel1/ATM activity but blocks DNA double-strand break repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Limbo (Oliver); D. Moiani (Davide); A. Kertokalio (Aryandi); C. Wyman (Claire); J.A. Tainer (John); P. Russell (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Mre11 complex (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 or MRN) binds double-strand breaks where it interacts with CtIP/Ctp1/Sae2 and ATM/Tel1 to preserve genome stability through its functions in homology-directed repair, checkpoint signaling and telomere maintenance. Here, we combine biochemical, structur

  17. Novel Smad proteins localize to IR-induced double-strand breaks: interplay between TGFβ and ATM pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Saha, Janapriya; Hada, Megumi; Anderson, Jennifer A.; Pluth, Janice M.; O’Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular damage from ionizing radiation (IR) is in part due to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species, which activate DNA damage response (DDR) and cytokine signaling pathways, including the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and transforming growth factor (TGF)β/Smad pathways. Using classic double-strand breaks (DSBs) markers, we studied the roles of Smad proteins in DDR and the crosstalk between TGFβ and ATM pathways. We observed co-localization of phospho-Smad2 (pSmad2) and Smad7 with DSB repair proteins following low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The decays of both foci were similar to that of γH2AX foci. Irradiation with high LET particles induced pSmad2 and Smad7 foci tracks indicating the particle trajectory through cells. pSmad2 foci were absent in S phase cells, while Smad7 foci were present in all phases of cell cycle. pSmad2 (but not Smad7) foci were completely abolished when ATM was depleted or inactivated. In contrast, a TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFβR1) inhibitor abrogated Smad7, but not pSmad2 foci at DSBs sites. In summary, we suggest that Smad2 and Smad7 contribute to IR-induced DSB signaling in an ATM or TGFβR1-dependent manner, respectively. PMID:23221633

  18. Measurement of Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentrations, [BC]atm, in the Arctic Region from ~1700 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, L.; Sarkar, S.; Jyethi, D. S.; Ruppel, M.; Dutkiewicz, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosols play a key role in Earth's climate through direct and indirect effects. Due to a lack of long-term BC data, climate models are used to estimate BC based on fuel inventories, which have large uncertainties. Hence, long term BC data is needed to verify global models. We report here the first measurements of atmospheric BC concentrations, [BC]atm, from ~1700 to 2013 using sediments from Finnish lakes, Saanajarvi (SJ)(690 44' N, 200 52' E), and Vuoskojarvi (VJ)(69044'N, 26057'E). The cores were collected from the deepest parts of the lakes using a HTH gravity corer, sliced in 0.25 cm sections; freeze dried, and ages determined using 210Pb dating method. The BC was chemically separated, and [BC] determined by the thermal optical method. The [BC] varied from 50 to 1140µg/gdry weight in SJ; and 20 to 130µg/gdry weight in VJ. Husain et al.,(JGR, vol 113, D13102,doi:10.1029/2007JD009398, 2008) showed that the atmospheric deposition of BC into lake sediments depends on the characteristic of individual lakes, BC washout ratios, precipitation intensity, and sedimentation rates. The deposition rate, K, for a lake is defined by, [BC]sed = K[BC]atm where [BC]sed, is the concentration of BC in the sediment. We have measured [BC]atm from 1970 to 2010 in Kevo, Finland, where VJ and SJ are located. The [BC]atm from Kevo, and [BC]sed from VJ, and SJ were used to determine K for each of the lake. Owing to the availability of the long term atmospheric BC data from 1970 to 2010 multiple measurements of K were made, and provided a high measure of precision. The mean values of K for VJ, and SJ were 226 ± 60, and 830 ± 290 (m3air/ gdry weight). The K values were used to determine [BC]atm for the years before 1970. The [BC]atm from 2013 to 2006 was 82ng/m3. It increased slowly reaching a peak value of about 947 ± 322 ng/m3.The concentrations decreased subsequently to 244 ± 83ng/m3 in 1920, and changed little ~ 1774.The lowest concentration, 77

  19. ATM protein is indispensable to repair complex-type DNA double strand breaks induced by high LET heavy ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Fujimori, Akira; Anzai, Kazunori; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated) protein responsible for a rare genetic disease with hyperradiosensitivity, is the one of the earliest repair proteins sensing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). ATM is known to phosphorylate DNA repair proteins such as MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50 and NBS1), 53BP1, Artemis, Brca1, gamma-H2AX, and MDC. We studied the interactions between ATM and DNA-PKcs, a crucial NHEJ repair protein, after cells exposure to high and low LET irradiation. Normal human (HFL III, MRC5VA) and AT homozygote (AT2KY, AT5BIVA, AT3BIVA) cells were irradiated with X-rays and high LET radiation (carbon ions: 290MeV/n initial energy at 70 keV/um, and iron ions: 500MeV/n initial energy at 200KeV/um), and several critical end points were examined. AT cells with high LET irradiation showed a significantly higher radiosensitivity when compared with normal cells. The behavior of DNA DSB repair was monitored by immuno-fluorescence techniques using DNA-PKcs (pThr2609, pSer2056) and ATM (pSer1981) antibodies. In normal cells, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs was clearly detected after high LET irradiation, though the peak of phosphorylation was delayed when compared to X-irradiation. In contrast, almost no DNA-PKcs phosphorylation foci were detected in AT cells irradiated with high LET radiation. A similar result was also observed in normal cells treated with 10 uM ATM kinase specific inhibitor (KU55933) one hour before irradiation. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with low LET X-rays is mostly ATM-independent, and the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with high LET radiation seems to require ATM probably due to its complex nature of DSB induced. Our study indicates that high LET heavy ion irradiation which we can observe in the space environment would provide a useful tool to study the fundamental mechanism associated with DNA DSB repair.

  20. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) are directly responsible for the maintenance of genomic integrity by mounting DDR through signaling and facilitating the recruitment of repair factors at the sites of DNA damage along with coordinating the deployment of cell cycle checkpoints to permit repair by phosphorylating Checkpoint kinase Chk1, Chk2 and p53. High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of protons and high energy and charged (HZE) particles from SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk for astronauts on their space flight missions. The determination of these risks and the design of potential safeguards require sound knowledge of the biological consequences of lesion induction and the capability of the cells to counter them. We here strive to determine the coordination of ATM and ATR kinases at the break sites directly affecting checkpoint signaling and DNA repair and whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation leads to possible augmentation of swap of these damage sensors at the sites of DNA damage. Exposure of cells to IR triggers rapid autophosphorylation of serine-1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates monomer formation of ATM. ATM kinase activity depends on the disruption of the dimer, which allows access and phosphorylation of downstream ATM substrates like Chk2. Evidence suggests that ATM is activated by the alterations in higher-order chromatin structure although direct binding of ATM to DSB ends may be a crucial step in its activation. On the other hand, in case of ATR, RPA (replication protein A)-coated ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) generated as a result of stalled DNA replication or during processing of chromosomal lesions is crucial for the localization of ATR to sites of DNA damage in association with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP). Although the

  1. Regulation of ATM in DNA double strand break repair accounts for the radiosensitivity in human cells exposed to high linear energy transfer ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Lian, E-mail: xuelian@suda.edu.cn [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, No. 199, Ren' ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yu Dong, E-mail: ydong@ncc.go.jp [Tumor Endocrinology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya; Okayasu, Ryuichi [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Tong Jian; Cao Jianping; Fan Saijun [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, No. 199, Ren' ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2009-11-02

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation shows different biological effects from low-LET radiation. The complex nature of high LET radiation-induced damage, especially the clustered DNA damage, brings about slow repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which finally lead to higher lethality and chromosome aberration. Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA DSBs are repaired by both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways in mammalian cells. The novel function of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein is its involvement in the DSB repair of slow kinetics for 'dirty' breaks rejoining by NHEJ, this suggests that ATM may play a more important role in high LET radiation-induced DNA damage. We show here that KU55933, an ATM inhibitor could distinctly lower the clonogenic survival in normal human skin fibroblast cells exposed to carbon ion radiation and dramatically impair the normal process for DSB repair. We also implicated the involvement of ATM in the two pathways of DNA DSB repair, with DNA-PKcs and Rad51 as the representative proteins. The phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Thr-2609 with both immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining indicated an ATM-dependent change, while for Rad51, KU55933 pretreatment could postpone the formation of nuclear Rad51 foci. Interestingly, we also found that pretreatment with chloroquine, an ATM stimulator could protect cells from carbon ion radiation only at lower doses. For doses over 1 Gy, protection was no longer observed. There was a dose-dependent increase for ATM kinase activity, with saturation at about 1 Gy. Chloroquine pretreatment prior to 1 Gy of carbon ion radiation did not enhance the autophosphorylation of ATM at serine 1981. The function of ATM in G2/M checkpoint arrest facilitated DSB repair in high-LET irradiation. Our results provide a possible mechanism for the direct involvement of ATM in DSB repair by high-LET irradiation.

  2. ATM Polymorphisms Predict Severe Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Huihua [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan (China); Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Zhensheng [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Qiming; Liu, Hongliang [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Li-E [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Qingyi, E-mail: qwei@mdanderson.org [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene mediates detection and repair of DNA damage. We investigated associations between ATM polymorphisms and severe radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: We genotyped 3 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ATM (rs1801516 [D1853N/5557G>A], rs189037 [-111G>A] and rs228590) in 362 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who received definitive (chemo)radiation therapy. The cumulative severe RP probabilities by genotypes were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The associations between severe RP risk and genotypes were assessed by both logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard model with time to event considered. Results: Of 362 patients (72.4% of non-Hispanic whites), 56 (15.5%) experienced grade ≥3 RP. Patients carrying ATM rs189037 AG/GG or rs228590 TT/CT genotypes or rs189037G/rs228590T/rs1801516G (G-T-G) haplotype had a lower risk of severe RP (rs189037: GG/AG vs AA, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.83, P=.009; rs228590: TT/CT vs CC, HR=0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-0.97, P=.036; haplotype: G-T-G vs A-C-G, HR=0.52, 95% CI, 0.35-0.79, P=.002). Such positive findings remained in non-Hispanic whites. Conclusions: ATM polymorphisms may serve as biomarkers for susceptibility to severe RP in non-Hispanic whites. Large prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.

  3. Frequency of the ATM IVS10-6T→G variant in Australian multiple-case breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for only a proportion of hereditary breast cancer, suggesting that additional genes contribute to hereditary breast cancer. Recently a heterozygous variant in the ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, IVS10-6T→G, was reported by an Australian multiple-case breast cancer family cohort study (the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer) to confer a substantial breast cancer risk. Although this variant can result in a truncated ATM product, its clinical significance as a high-penetrance breast cancer allele or its role as a low-penetrance risk-modifier is controversial. We determined the frequency of ATM IVS10-6T→G variants in a cohort of individuals affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer who underwent BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing at four major Australian familial cancer clinics. Seven of 495 patients (1.4%) were heterozygous for the IVS10-6T→G variant; the carrier rate in unselected Australian women with no family history of breast cancer is reported to be 6 of 725 (0.83%) (P = 0.4). Two of the seven probands also harboured a pathogenic BRCA1 mutation and one patient had a BRCA1 unclassified variant of uncertain significance. These findings indicate that the ATM IVS10-6T→G variant does not seem to occur at a significantly higher frequency in affected individuals from high-risk families than in the general population. A role for this variant as a low-penetrance allele or as a modifying gene in association with other genes (such as BRCA1) remains possible. Routine testing for ATM IVS10-6T→G is not warranted in mutation screening of affected individuals from high-risk families

  4. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  5. Clinical significance of ABR results in unilateral tinnitus with normal hearing%听力正常单侧耳鸣的双侧ABR结果比较及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海弟; 彭解人; 区永康; 黄夏茵

    2012-01-01

    目的 听力正常单侧耳鸣患者的双侧听性脑干反应(ABR)的结果比较及临床意义进行探讨,阐明听力正常耳鸣的可能发病机制.方法 对20例听力正常的单侧耳鸣患者,常规进行耳专科检查及声导抗检查,排除外中耳病变.分别记录双侧纯音测听、耳声发射(DPOAE)及ABR,将耳鸣侧与非耳鸣侧的ABR结果进行对比分析.结果 耳鸣侧与非耳鸣侧在纯音听阈、声导抗、DPOAE及ABR阈值上均表现正常,无统计学差异,但耳鸣侧ABR的I波幅度0.19uV,V波幅度0.24uV,V/I比值为1.31;非耳鸣侧ABR的I波幅度0.14uV,V波幅度0.26uV,V/I比值为2.19.结论 虽然单侧耳鸣患者耳鸣侧未发现听阈提高,但其V/I比值明显较非耳鸣侧下降(V/I比值为1.31vs2.19),提示在中脑传入信号减少,在听觉中枢维持内环境神经平衡的机制作用下导致听觉皮层神经元兴奋性增强,可能是耳鸣产生的原因之一.%Objective Comparison the bilateral auditory brainstem response ( ABR ) results of unilateral tinnitus patients with normal hearing and analysis clinical significance,discussed the possible mechanism of tinnitus with normal hearing. Methods 20 cases of unilateral tinnitus patients with normal hearing were documented bilateral audiometry, otoacoustic emission ( DPOAE ) and ABR, comparative analysis the ABR results of the side with the tinnitus and non-tinnitus side.Results The pure tone audiometry, DPOAE and ABR threshold showed normal, no statistical difference, but the tinnitus side I wave amplitude is 0.19uV,V wave amplitude is 0.24uV, V/I ratio is 1.31; but the non-tinnitus side I wave amplitude is 0.14uV, V wave amplitude is 0.26uV,V/I ratio is 2.19. Conclusion Although unilateral tinnitus patients with tinnitus side did not found threshold increase, but the V/I ratio was significantly decreased than the non-tinnitus side (V/I is 1.31vs 2.19), prompting in the midbrain afferent signal is reduced, in the central auditory system of

  6. Study on the start-up technology of treating sugar wastewater in ABR%厌氧折流板反应器处理制糖废水的启动试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立媛; 宿程远; 李思敏; 黄智

    2012-01-01

    The start-up tests and micro-ecological conditions of treating sugar wastewater in Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR) have been studied. The results show that under the following conditions: when the water temperature is 33℃ ,HRT=24 h,and the influent COD increases from 1 200 mg/L to 2 400 mg/L gradually .after 68 days the COD removing rate by using ABR can be above 92%. In the process of start-up,the impact resistance in the first compartment is the strongest, and volatile acid concentration is as high as 22.69 mmol/L. About micro-ecological state,in the first compartment,the main bacteria are bacillus. In the second compartment,the chain structure made up of bacillus is obvious. In the fifth compartment, the comparatively mature cocci appear. The content of granular sludge coenzyme F420 in the fifth compartment is the highest (1.25μmol/g) , having good methanogenic activity. The small-bottle static batch experiments show that ABR has good impact resistance portative capacity.%对厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)处理制糖废水的启动过程及其微生态进行了研究.结果表明:在水温为33℃,水力停留时间为24h的条件下,进水COD由1 200 mg/L逐步提升到2 400 mg/L,经过68 d,ABR对COD的去除率可达到92%以上.启动过程中第1隔室的抗冲击性最大,挥发酸浓度最高达22.69 mmo1/L.微生态情况第1隔室以杆菌为主,第2隔室中由杆菌组成的链状结构较为明显,第5隔室则出现了比较成熟的球菌.第5隔室颗粒污泥的辅酶F420含量最高,为1.25 μmo1/g,具有较好的产甲烷活性.小瓶静态批量试验表明ABR具有较好的抗冲击负荷能力.

  7. Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction of automated teller machine service: case study of a private commercial joint stock bank in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Phan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of key challenge for Vietnamese commercial banks is how to compete in the market place with commonly undifferentiated services. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality performance on customer satisfaction on ATM service in a commercial bank in Vietnam. This study applies SERVPERF framework to analyze the data collected from a questionnaire survey and found that ASSURANCE and TANGIBLES factors significantly impact on the customer satisfaction.

  8. Dancing on damaged chromatin. Functions of ATM and the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex in cellular responses to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to preserve and protect genetic information, eukaryotic cells have developed a signaling or communications network to help the cell respond to DNA damage, and ATM and NBS1 are key players in this network. ATM is a protein kinase which is activated immediately after a DNA double strand break (DSB) is formed, and the resulting signal cascade generated in response to cellular DSBs is regulated by post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In addition, to ensure the efficient functioning of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, the highly ordered structure of eukaryotic chromatin must be appropriately altered to permit access of repair-related factors to DNA. These alterations are termed chromatin remodeling, and are executed by a specific remodeling complex in conjunction with histone modifications. Current advances in the molecular analysis of DNA damage responses have shown that the auto-phosphorylation of ATM and the interaction between ATM and NBS1 are key steps for ATM activation, and that the association of ATM and NBS1 is involved in chromatin remodeling. Identification of novel factors which function in ubiquitination (RNF8, Ubc13, Rap80, etc.) has also enabled us to understand more details of the early stages in DNA repair pathways which respond to DSBs. In this review, the focus is on the role of ATM and the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex in DSB response pathways, and their role in DSB repair and in the regulation of chromatin remodeling. (author)

  9. Design and Structural Evaluation of the ABTR IHTS Piping for Representative Duty Events of a Level A Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ABTR(Advanced Burner Test reactor) developed at Argon National Laboratory is a 95MWe(250MWt) pool-type Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor. The primary objectives of the ABTR are 1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an advanced fuel cycle, 2) to qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR(Advanced Burner Reactor), 3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The structural design of the ABTR preconceptual design can accommodate the specified duty cycle events to assure its structural integrity. In this study, the structural integrity of the IHTS piping is evaluated for the representative duty cycle events for Level A Service

  10. Simultaneous depletion of Atm and Mdl rebalances cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly but not heme import into the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, Eva; Changmai, Piya; Paris, Zdeněk; Salmon, Didier; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-11-01

    ABC transporter mitochondrial 1 (Atm1) and multidrug resistance-like 1 (Mdl) are mitochondrial ABC transporters. Although Atm1 was recently suggested to transport different forms of glutathione from the mitochondrion, which are used for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster maturation in the cytosol, the function of Mdl remains elusive. In Trypanosoma brucei, we identified one homolog of each of these genes, TbAtm and TbMdl, which were downregulated either separately or simultaneously using RNA interference. Individual depletion of TbAtm and TbMdl led to limited growth defects. In cells downregulated for TbAtm, the enzymatic activities of the Fe-S cluster proteins aconitase and fumarase significantly decreased in the cytosol but not in the mitochondrion. Downregulation of TbMdl did not cause any change in activities of the Fe-S proteins. Unexpectedly, the simultaneous downregulation of TbAtm and TbMdl did not result in any growth defect, nor were the Fe-S cluster protein activities altered in either the cytosolic or mitochondrial compartments. Additionally, TbAtm and TbMdl were able to partially restore the growth of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δatm1 and Δmdl2 null mutants, respectively. Because T. brucei completely lost the heme b biosynthesis pathway, this cofactor has to be obtained from the host. Based on our results, TbMdl is a candidate for mitochondrial import of heme b, which was markedly decreased in both TbMdl and TbAtm + TbMdl knockdowns. Moreover, the levels of heme a were strongly decreased in the same knockdowns, suggesting that TbMdl plays a key role in heme a biosynthesis, thus affecting the overall heme homeostasis in T. brucei. PMID:26277108

  11. 网络接入设备的ATM UTOPIA接口设计与实现%The Design and Implement of ATM UTOPIA Interface in Network Access Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅娟; 田素芬; 冉茂儒

    2003-01-01

    本文针对网络接入设备为用户端提供ATM支持,主要探讨了基于MPC850研制的网络接入设备设计中如何设计ATM UTOPIA接口,并探讨了在物理层上信元传输的时序与传输过程.

  12. Congestion control for ATM multiplexers using neural networks:multiple sources/single buffer scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜树新; 袁石勇

    2004-01-01

    A new neural network based method for solving the problem of congestion control arising at the user network interface (UNI) of ATM networks is proposed in this paper. Unlike the previous methods where the coding rate for all traffic sources as controller output signals is tuned in a body, the proposed method adjusts the coding rate for only a part of the traffic sources while the remainder sources send the cells in the previous coding rate in case of occurrence of congestion. The controller output signals include the source coding rate and the percentage of the sources that send cells at the corresponding coding rate. The control methods not only minimize the cell loss rate but also guarantee the quality of information (such as voice sources) fed into the multiplexer buffer. Simulations with 150 ADPCM voice sources fed into the multiplexer buffer showed that the proposed methods have advantage over the previous methods in the aspect of the performance indices such as cell loss rate (CLR) and voice quality.

  13. Congestion control for ATM multiplexers using neural networks:multiple sources/single buffer scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜树新; 袁石勇

    2004-01-01

    A new neural network based method for solving the problem of congestion control arising at the user network interface (UNI) of ATM networks is proposed in this paper. Unlike the previous methods where the coding rate for all traffic sources as controller output signals is tuned in a body, the proposed method adjusts the coding rate for only a part of the traffic sources while the remainder sources send the cells in the previous coding rate in case of occurrence of congestion. The controller output signals include the source coding rate and the percentage of the sources that send cells at the corresponding coding rate. The control methods not only minimize the cell loss rate but also guarantee the quality of information (such as voice sources) fed into the multiplexer buffer. Simulations with 150 ADPCM voice sources fed into the multiplexer buffer showed that the proposed methods have advantage over the previous methods in the aspect of the performance indices such as cell loss rate (CLR) and voice quality.

  14. Nuclear initiated NF-κB signaling: NEMO and ATM take center stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeki Miyamoto

    2011-01-01

    A large body of literature describes elaborate NF-κB signaling networks induced by inflammatory and immune signals.Decades of research has revealed that transcriptionally functional NF-κB dimers are activated by two major pathways,canonical and non-canonical.Both pathways involve the release of NF-κB dimers from inactive cytoplasmic complexes to cause their nuclear translocation to modulate gene expression programs and biological responses.NF-κB is also responsive to genotoxic agents; however,signal communication networks that are initiated in the nucleus following DNA damage induction are less defined.Evidence in the literature supports the presence of such signaling pathways induced by multiple distinct genotoxic agents,resulting in the activation of cytoplasmic IKK complex.An example is a pathway that involves the DNA damage-responsive kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated(ATM)and a series of post-translational modifications of NF-κB essential modulator(NEMO)in the nucleus of a genotoxinexposed cell.Recent evidence also suggests that this nuclear-initiated NF-κB signaling pathway plays significant physiological and pathological roles,particularly in lymphocyte development and human cancer progression.This review will summarize these new developments,while identifying significant unanswered questions and providing new hypotheses that may be addressed in future studies.

  15. Effects of arsenic trioxide on ATM/ATR gene expression and cell apoptosis in K562 cells%As2O3对K562 ATM/ATR基因表达和细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶敏军; 任行洲

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同浓度As2O3对K562细胞ATM(Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated)/ATR(ATM-Rad3-Related)基因表达的影响及相应的细胞周期变化和细胞凋亡机制.方法 以不同剂量的As2O3作用于K562细胞株,RT-PCR半定量检测ATM/ATR基因表达,流式细胞术检测P53、Annexin V和细胞周期.结果 随药物浓度升高,ATM基因表达量增强而ATR基因表达量降低,P53水平升高,细胞凋亡显著,亚二倍体和G1期细胞数增多,S期和G2/M期细胞减少.不加入药物的K562细胞ATM和ATR几乎不表达.结论 ATM和ATR基因表达变化呈As203浓度依赖的形式,且与P53水平、细胞周期和细胞凋亡率的改变相关.

  16. ATMS_Phase_II: a standalone code for counting non-overlapping high-density nuclear tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Omid

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we focus on counting and density measurements of non-overlapping high-density nuclear track images. This paper is a continuum of another paper of the author introducing ATMS software which has been particularly developed for overlapping nuclear tracks. Here, as the second phase of the ATMS software, a hybrid algorithm is presented for counting the tracks according to user parameter initialization, template inserting and correlation estimation to initially detect nuclear track candidates, then to evaluate geometrical and contextual features of track candidates and finally a decision-making process according to the user's sensitivity considerations. The presented hybrid algorithm is verified and validated by a database containing 100 randomly selected Alpha track images captured from the surface of CR-39 polycarbonate detectors irradiated by environmental Alpha particles emitted from Rn-222 near a copper mine around Anarak city.

  17. ATM承载IP的地址解析方法分析%Analyses on Address Resolution for IP over ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊家军; 陈钢; 张红君

    2001-01-01

    地址解析方法的研究是ATM承载IP数据的主要研究课题之一。介绍了ATM承载IP数据的几种典型技术的地址解析过程,并对它们的解析结构、解析效率、解析功能等特性进行了比较分析。%The research of address resolution methods is one of the key subjects for IP over ATM. The paper introduces a few kinds of typical address resolution methods for IP over ATM, and gives some analyses and comparisons on their address resolution architecture, efficiency, function.

  18. ATM sequence variants and risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    AND MATERIALS: DNA samples isolated from fibroblast cell lines established from 41 women treated with postmastectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer were screened for genetic variants in ATM using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). A minimum follow-up of 2 years enabled analysis of late...... in 22 patients. The ED50 (95% confidence interval) of 60.2 (55.7-65.1) Gy calculated for patients without a sequence variation did not differ significantly from the ED50 of 58.4 (54.0-63.1) Gy for the group of patients with any ATM sequence abnormality. The ED50 of 53.7 (50.2-57.5) Gy for those patients...

  19. Reality of LOG analytical tool of ATM teller machines movement actions%ATM取款机机芯动作LOG文件解析工具的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何惠英; 李纪红; 俞妍; 沈虹

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the demands to general maintenance personnels for bank self-service teller machines, it provides a log files analytical tool of ATM teller machine in Chinese based on Python language. By analyzing data in nearly 20,000 machines of 500G capacity with the analytical tool based on the method mentioned in this article, it can concluded that by using this method , the operating performance of the machines can be obtained fastly, accurately and detailedly, and machine failures can be excluded easily.%文中基于降低对银行自助取款机一般维护人员要求的目的,采用Python编程语言编写了取款机机芯运行记录文件的中文解析工具.通过近两万台500G容量的生产环境下机器运行数据分析,得出采用本文所述方法编写的解析工具可以快速、准确、详细地获得机器的运行性能并能据此排除机器故障的结论.

  20. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom...

  1. ATMS software: Fuzzy Hough Transform in a hybrid algorithm for counting the overlapped etched tracks and orientation recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program named ATMS written in MATLAB and running with a friendly interface has been developed for recognition and parametric measurements of etched tracks in images captured from the surface of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The program, using image analysis tools, counts the number of etched tracks and depending on the current working mode classifies them according to their radii (small object removal) or their axis (non-perpendicular or non-circular etched tracks), their mean intensity value and their orientation through the minor and major axes. Images of the detectors' surfaces are input to the code, which generates text and figure files as output, including the number of counted etched tracks with the associated track parameters, histograms and a figure showing edge and center of detected etched tracks. ATMS code is running hierarchically as calibration, testing and measurement modes to demonstrate the reliability, repeatability and adaptability. Fuzzy Hough Transform is used for the estimation of the number of etched tracks and their parameters, providing results even in cases that overlapping and orientation occur. ATMS code is finally converted to a standalone file which makes it able to run out of MATLAB environment. - Highlights: ► Presenting a novel code named ATMS for nuclear track measurements. ► Execution in three modes for generality, adaptability and reliability. ► Using Fuzzy Hough Transform for overlapping detection and orientation recognition. ► Using DFT as a filter for noise removal process in track images. ► Processing the noisy track images and demonstration of the presented code

  2. Alterations in Cellular Energy Metabolism Associated with the Antiproliferative Effects of the ATM Inhibitor KU-55933 and with Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Zakikhani, Mahvash; Bazile, Miguel; Hashemi, Sina; Javeshghani, Shiva; Avizonis, Daina; Pierre, Julie St; Pollak, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT), we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AM...

  3. Alterations in cellular energy metabolism associated with the antiproliferative effects of the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, Mahvash; Bazile, Miguel; Hashemi, Sina; Javeshghani, Shiva; Avizonis, Daina; St Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT), we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AMPK activation, glucose uptake and lactate production while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and coupled respiration. The stimulation of glycolysis by KU-55933 did not fully compensate for the reduction in mitochondrial functions, leading to decreased cellular ATP levels and energy stress. These actions are similar to those previously described for the biguanide metformin, a partial inhibitor of respiratory complex I. Both compounds decreased mitochondrial coupled respiration and reduced cellular concentrations of fumarate, malate, citrate, and alpha-ketogluterate. Succinate levels were increased by KU-55933 levels and decreased by metformin, indicating that the effects of ATM inhibition and metformin are not identical. These observations suggest a role for ATM in mitochondrial function and show that both KU-55933 and metformin perturb the TCA cycle as well as oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:23185347

  4. Alterations in cellular energy metabolism associated with the antiproliferative effects of the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and with metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Zakikhani

    Full Text Available KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT, we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AMPK activation, glucose uptake and lactate production while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and coupled respiration. The stimulation of glycolysis by KU-55933 did not fully compensate for the reduction in mitochondrial functions, leading to decreased cellular ATP levels and energy stress. These actions are similar to those previously described for the biguanide metformin, a partial inhibitor of respiratory complex I. Both compounds decreased mitochondrial coupled respiration and reduced cellular concentrations of fumarate, malate, citrate, and alpha-ketogluterate. Succinate levels were increased by KU-55933 levels and decreased by metformin, indicating that the effects of ATM inhibition and metformin are not identical. These observations suggest a role for ATM in mitochondrial function and show that both KU-55933 and metformin perturb the TCA cycle as well as oxidative phosphorylation.

  5. Penetrance of ATM Gene Mutations in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Different Measures of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabelli, Monica; Cheng, Su-Chun; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The gene responsible for ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome, ATM, is also an intermediate-risk breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene. Numerous studies have been carried out to determine the contribution of ATM gene mutations to BC risk. Epidemiological cohorts, segregation analyses, and case-control studies reported BC risk in different forms, including penetrance, relative risk, standardized incidence ratio, and odds ratio. Because the reported estimates vary both qualitatively and quantitatively, we developed a general model allowing the integration of the different types of cancer risk available in the literature. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis identifying 19 studies, and used our model to obtain a consensus estimate of BC penetrance. We estimated the cumulative risk of BC in heterozygous ATM mutation carriers to be 6.02% by 50 years of age (95% credible interval: 4.58-7.42%) and 32.83% by 80 years of age (95% credible interval: 24.55-40.43%). An accurate assessment of cancer penetrance is crucial to help mutation carriers make medical and lifestyle decisions that can reduce their chances of developing the disease. PMID:27112364

  6. 水杨酸钠致耳鸣大鼠的行为学及听性脑干反应改变%Changes of the Behavior and ABR on the Tinnitus Rat Model Induced by Salicylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈抗松; 廖华; 杨希林; 陈建新; 解为全; 吴莎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe behavioral changes and auditory brainstcm response ( ABR) changes of tinnitus rat model induced by salicylate. Methods Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group,saline group and salicylate group with 6 rats for each. The salicylate group was injected intrapcritoncaiiy by salicylate on dose of 350 mg/kg at 8:00 am every day and the saline group was managed with saline on same dose at the same time. Animal behaviours were observed respectively by automatic tracking system on day one before injection, 14 days and 28 days after onset. In the present study, ABR was also tested by TDT at 1 day before injection,7 days, 14 days,28 days after onset for rats in the salicylate group. Results Compared with the control group and the saline group, the basic index of animal behaviour in Psychopharmacoiogy were markedly difference in the salicylate group(P0. 05). Within the salicylate group, the ABR threshold after injection were significantly higher than that before experiment ,and the longer the injection,the higher the ABR thresholds. At 7 days after onset, there were no statistical difference on latencies of each wave and intcrpcak latency intervals we could recorded (P>0. 05) . Compared with the ABR results before experiment and at 7 days, there were significant differences on the above latencies and intervals at 14 days and 28 days(P0.05).水杨酸组大鼠注射前和注射第7、14、28天ABR反应阈分别为36.67±4.08、50.00±5.48、64.17±8.61、75.00±4.47 dB SPL,差异均有统计学意义(均P0.05);注射第28天与注射前、注射第7天比较,各波潜伏期及Ⅲ-Ⅴ、Ⅰ-Ⅴ波间期延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与注射第14天比较,各波潜伏期及Ⅰ-Ⅲ波间期差异无统计学意义(P<0.05),而Ⅲ-Ⅴ、Ⅰ-Ⅴ波间期延长(P<0.05).结论 水杨酸钠致耳鸣大鼠的旷场行为表现异常,在一定程度上可反映耳鸣对其精神心理的影响;长期注射水杨酸钠可导致

  7. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  8. An Empirical Investigation of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs)and Customers' Satisfaction in Nigeria: A case study of Ilorin, Kwara State

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Danlami, Mohammed; Richard Mayowa, Dada

    2014-01-01

    The paper examined the impact of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) on customers’ satisfaction in Ilorin metropolis, the capital city of Kwara state, Nigeria, using three purposively selected commercial banks in the city, that is; First Bank of Nigeria Plc., Guaranty Trust Bank Plc. and First City Monument Bank Plc. The objective is to ascertain the relationship between ATM usage and customers’ satisfaction in Nigeria. The study employed primary data sourced through structured questionnaires as...

  9. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 down-regulation and defective proliferation in ATM-deficient neural stem cells can be restored by Akt activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeesun Kim

    Full Text Available A-T (ataxia telangiectasia is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ of Atm(-/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm(-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm(-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm(-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway.

  10. Research Data Acquired in World-Class, 60-atm Subsonic Combustion Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Wey, Changlie

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's new, world-class, 60-atmosphere (atm) combustor research facility, the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), is in operation and producing highly unique research data. Specifically, data were acquired at high pressures and temperatures representative of future subsonic engines from a fundamental flametube configuration with an advanced fuel injector. The data acquired include exhaust emissions as well as pressure and temperature distributions. Results to date represent an improved understanding of nitrous oxide (NOx) formation at high pressures and temperatures and include an NOx emissions reduction greater than 70 percent with an advanced fuel injector at operating pressures to 800 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). ASCR research is an integral part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Propulsion Program. This program is developing critical low-emission combustion technology that will result in the next generation of gas turbine engines producing 50 to 70 percent less NOx emissions in comparison to 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) limits. The results to date indicate that the AST low-emission combustor goals of reducing NOx emissions by 50 to 70 percent are feasible. U.S. gas turbine manufacturers have started testing the low-emissions combustors at the ASCR. This collaborative testing will enable the industry to develop low-emission combustors at the high pressure and temperature conditions of future subsonic engines. The first stage of the flametube testing has been implemented. Four GE Aircraft Engines low-emissions fuel injector concepts, three Pratt & Whitney concepts, and two Allison concepts have been tested at Lewis ASCR facility. Subsequently, the flametube was removed from the test stand, and the sector combustor was installed. The testing of low emissions sector has begun. Low-emission combustors developed as a result of ASCR research will enable U.S. engine manufacturers to compete on a

  11. Nbn and atm cooperate in a tissue and developmental stage-specific manner to prevent double strand breaks and apoptosis in developing brain and eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M G Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Nibrin (NBN or NBS1 and ATM are key factors for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB signaling and repair. Mutations in NBN or ATM result in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome and Ataxia telangiectasia. These syndromes share common features such as radiosensitivity, neurological developmental defects and cancer predisposition. However, the functional synergy of Nbn and Atm in different tissues and developmental stages is not yet understood. Here, we show in vivo consequences of conditional inactivation of both genes in neural stem/progenitor cells using Nestin-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of Atm in the central nervous system of Nbn-deficient mice led to reduced life span and increased DSBs, resulting in increased apoptosis during neural development. Surprisingly, the increase of DSBs and apoptosis was found only in few tissues including cerebellum, ganglionic eminences and lens. In sharp contrast, we showed that apoptosis associated with Nbn deletion was prevented by simultaneous inactivation of Atm in developing retina. Therefore, we propose that Nbn and Atm collaborate to prevent DSB accumulation and apoptosis during development in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  12. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and NBS1-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 on Ser-317 in response to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatei, Magtouf; Sloper, Katie; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard;

    2003-01-01

    . In mammalian cells, evidence has been presented that Chk1 is devoted to the ATR signaling pathway and is modified by ATR in response to replication inhibition and UV-induced damage, whereas Chk2 functions primarily through ATM in response to ionizing radiation (IR), suggesting that Chk2 and Chk1 might have......In mammals, the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) protein kinases function as critical regulators of the cellular DNA damage response. The checkpoint functions of ATR and ATM are mediated, in part, by a pair of checkpoint effector kinases termed Chk1 and Chk2....... Phosphorylation of Chk1 on Ser-317 in response to IR is ATM-dependent. We also show that functional NBS1 is required for phosphorylation of Chk1, indicating that NBS1 might facilitate the access of Chk1 to ATM at the sites of DNA damage. Abrogation of Chk1 expression by RNA interference resulted in defects in IR-induced...

  13. Enzymological Characterization of Atm, the First Laccase from Agrobacterium sp. S5-1, with the Ability to Enhance In Vitro digestibility of Maize Straw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Si

    Full Text Available Laccase is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of phenolic compounds, diamines and aromatic amines. In this study, a novel laccase-like gene (atm in a ligninolyitic isolate Agrobacterium sp. S5-1 from soil humus was identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Atm exhibited its maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at 50°C. This enzyme was tolerant to high temperature, a broad range of pH, heavy metal ions (Co3+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+, 20 mM and all tested organic solvents. Furthermore, Atm significantly (p<0.05 increased dry matter digestibility of maize straw from 23.44% to 27.96% and from 29.53% to 37.10% after 8 or 24 h of digestion and improved acid detergent fiber digestibility from 5.81% to 10.33% and from 12.80% to 19.07% after 8 or 24 h of digestion, respectively. The combination of Atm and fibrolytic enzymes significantly (p<0.05 enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestibility from 19.02% to 24.55% after 24 h of digestion respectively. Results showed treatment with Atm effectively improved in vitro digestibility of maize straw, thus suggesting that Atm has an application potential for bioconversion of lignin rich agricultural byproducts into animal feed and cellulosic ethanol.

  14. Real-time telemedicine using shared three-dimensional workspaces over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Peter; Forsey, David R.; Hutchison, Susan

    1999-03-01

    During the past five years a high speed ATM network has been developed at UBC that provides a campus testbed, a local testbed to the hospitals, and a National testbed between here and the BADLAB in Ottawa. This testbed has been developed to combine a commercial shared audio/video/whiteboard environment coupled with a shared interactive 3-dimensional solid model. This solid model ranges from a skull reconstructed from a CT scan with muscles and an overlying skin, to a model of the ventricle system of the human brain. Typical interactions among surgeon, radiologist and modeler consist of having image slices of the original scan shared by all and the ability to adjust the surface of the model to conform to each individuals perception of what the final object should look like. The purpose of this interaction can range from forensic reconstruction from partial remains to pre-maxillofacial surgery. A joint project with the forensic unit of the R.C.M.P. in Ottawa using the BADLAB is now in the stages of testing this methodology on a real case beginning with a CT scan of partial remains. A second study underway with the department of Maxiofacial reconstruction at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia and concerns a subject who is about to undergo orthognathic surgery, in particular a mandibular advancement. This subject has been MRI scanned, a solid model constructed of the mandible and the virtual surgery constructed on the model. This model and the procedure have been discussed and modified by the modeler and the maxillofacial specialist using these shared workspaces. The procedure will be repeated after the actual surgery to verify the modeled procedure. The advantage of this technique is that none of the specialists need be in the same room, or city. Given the scarcity of time and specialists this methodology shows great promise. In November of this last year a shared live demonstration of this facial modeler was done between Vancouver and Dalhousie University in

  15. Multi-objective optimisation of aircraft flight trajectories in the ATM and avionics context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardi, Alessandro; Sabatini, Roberto; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2016-05-01

    The continuous increase of air transport demand worldwide and the push for a more economically viable and environmentally sustainable aviation are driving significant evolutions of aircraft, airspace and airport systems design and operations. Although extensive research has been performed on the optimisation of aircraft trajectories and very efficient algorithms were widely adopted for the optimisation of vertical flight profiles, it is only in the last few years that higher levels of automation were proposed for integrated flight planning and re-routing functionalities of innovative Communication Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) systems. In this context, the implementation of additional environmental targets and of multiple operational constraints introduces the need to efficiently deal with multiple objectives as part of the trajectory optimisation algorithm. This article provides a comprehensive review of Multi-Objective Trajectory Optimisation (MOTO) techniques for transport aircraft flight operations, with a special focus on the recent advances introduced in the CNS+A research context. In the first section, a brief introduction is given, together with an overview of the main international research initiatives where this topic has been studied, and the problem statement is provided. The second section introduces the mathematical formulation and the third section reviews the numerical solution techniques, including discretisation and optimisation methods for the specific problem formulated. The fourth section summarises the strategies to articulate the preferences and to select optimal trajectories when multiple conflicting objectives are introduced. The fifth section introduces a number of models defining the optimality criteria and constraints typically adopted in MOTO studies, including fuel consumption, air pollutant and noise emissions, operational costs, condensation trails, airspace and airport operations

  16. Berberine, a genotoxic alkaloid, induces ATM-Chk1 mediated G2 arrest in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yu; Liu Qiao; Liu Zhaojian; Li Boxuan; Sun Zhaoliang; Zhou Haibin; Zhang Xiyu; Gong Yaoqin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology and Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan (China); Shao Changshun, E-mail: changshun.shao@gmail.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology and Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Berberine has been shown to possess anti-tumor activity against a wide spectrum of cancer cells. It inhibits cancer cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest, at G1 and/or G2/M, and apoptosis. While it has been documented that berberine induces G1 arrest by activating the p53-p21 cascade, it remains unclear what mechanism underlies the berberine-induced G2/M arrest, which is p53-independent. In this study, we tested the anti-proliferative effect of berberine on murine prostate cancer cell line RM-1 and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Berberine dose-dependently induced DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis. At low concentrations, berberine was observed to induce G1 arrest, concomitant with the activation of p53-p21 cascade. Upon exposure to berberine at a higher concentration (50 {mu}M) for 24 h, cells exhibited G2/M arrest. Pharmacological inhibition of ATM by KU55933, or Chk1 by UCN-01, could efficiently abrogate the G2/M arrest in berberine-treated cells. Downregulation of Chk1 by RNA interference also abolished the G2/M arrest caused by berberine, confirming the role of Chk1 in the pathway leading to G2/M arrest. Abrogation of G2/M arrest by ATM inhibition forced more cells to undergo apoptosis in response to berberine treatment. Chk1 inhibition by UCN-01, on the other hand, rendered cells more sensitive to berberine only when p53 was inhibited. Our results suggest that combined administration of berberine and caffeine, or other ATM inhibitor, may accelerate the killing of cancer cells.

  17. Comparison of the Radiosensitizing Effect of ATR, ATM and DNA-PK Kinase Inhibitors on Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vávrová, J; Zárybnická, L; Jošt, P; Tichý, A; Řezáčová, M; Šinkorová, Z; Pejchal, J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compared the effects of inhibitors of three phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related kinases, ATM, ATR a DNA-PK, on radiosensitization of cervical carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441 enhanced phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases 2 h after irradiation of HeLa cells at a dose of 8 Gy in contrast to ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, which completely blocked the Chk2 kinase phosphorylation on threonine 68, and ATR kinase inhibitor VE-821, which blocked the Chk1 kinase phosphorylation on serine 345. Most HeLa cells were accumulated in G2 phase of the cell cycle 24 h after irradiation at a high dose of 15 Gy, which was even potentiated after adding the inhibitors NU7441 and KU55933. Compared to all other irradiated groups, inhibitor VE-821 increased the number of cells in S phase and reduced the number of cells in G2 phase 24 h after irradiation at the high dose of 15 Gy. HeLa cells entered the mitotic cycle with unrepaired DNA, which resulted in cell death and the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821. Short-term application of the inhibitors (2 h before and 30 min after the irradiation by the dose of 8 Gy) significantly decreased the colony-forming ability of HeLa cells. Using real-time monitoring of cell proliferation by the xCELLigence system we demonstrated that while the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821 (ATR inhibitor) is manifested early after the irradiation, the radiosensitizing effect of KU55933 (ATM inhibitor) and NU7441 (DNA-PK inhibitor) is only observed as late as 72 h after the irradiation. PMID:27643582

  18. Kaempferol induces ATM/p53-mediated death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiu-Fang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Chun; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-05-01

    Kaempferol is a member of the flavonoid compounds found in vegetables and fruits. It is shown to exhibit biological impact and anticancer activity, but no report exists on the angiogenic effect of kaempferol and induction of cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we investigated the role of kaempferol on anti-angiogenic property and the apoptotic mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that kaempferol decreased HUVEC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol also induced morphological changes and sub-G1 phase cell population (apoptotic cells). Kaempferol triggered apoptosis of HUVECs as detecting by DNA fragmentation, comet assay and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3. The caspase signals, including caspase-8, -9 and -3, were time-dependently activated in HUVECs after kaempferol exposure. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-FMK) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3, indicating that extrinsic pathway is a major signaling pathway in kaempferol-treated HUVECs. Importantly, kaempferol promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated using flow cytometric assay in HUVECs. We further investigated the upstream extrinsic pathway and showed that kaempferol stimulated death receptor signals [Fas/CD95, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] through increasing the levels of phosphorylated p53 and phosphorylated ATM pathways in HUVECs, which can be individually confirmed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ATM specific inhibitor (caffeine) and p53 siRNA. Based on these results, kaempferol-induced HUVEC apoptosis was involved in an ROS-mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. Kaempferol might possess therapeutic effects on cancer treatment in anti-vascular targeting. PMID:26984266

  19. Regiospecificities and Prenylation Mode Specificities of the Fungal Indole Diterpene Prenyltransferases AtmD and PaxD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwei; Minami, Atsushi; Noike, Motoyoshi; Toshima, Hiroaki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the function of paxD, which is involved in the paxilline (compound 1) biosynthetic gene cluster in Penicillium paxilli. Recombinant PaxD catalyzed a stepwise regular-type diprenylation at the 21 and 22 positions of compound 1 with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) as the prenyl donor. In this study, atmD, which is located in the aflatrem (compound 2) biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus flavus and encodes an enzyme with 32% amino acid identity to PaxD, was characterized using recombinant enzyme. When compound 1 and DMAPP were used as substrates, two major products and a trace of minor product were formed. The structures of the two major products were determined to be reversely monoprenylated compound 1 at either the 20 or 21 position. Because compound 2 and β-aflatrem (compound 3), both of which are compound 1-related compounds produced by A. flavus, have the same prenyl moiety at the 20 and 21 position, respectively, AtmD should catalyze the prenylation in compound 2 and 3 biosynthesis. More importantly and surprisingly, AtmD accepted paspaline (compound 4), which is an intermediate of compound 1 biosynthesis that has a structure similar to that of compound 1, and catalyzed a regular monoprenylation of compound 4 at either the 21 or 22 position, though the reverse prenylation was observed with compound 1. This suggests that fungal indole diterpene prenyltransferases have the potential to alter their position and regular/reverse specificities for prenylation and could be applicable for the synthesis of industrially useful compounds. PMID:24038699

  20. ATM与肿瘤的关系研究进展%The research progress of the relevance of ATM with tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小群

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM gene), being a kind of DNA-repair gene, is mapped to the chromosomal region 1 lq22-23. The ATM genetic germline mutation or polymorphism results in individual susceptibility to some tumors, including lymphoid tumors and solid tumors. The ATM protein encoded by the ATM gene possesses a kind of autophosphorating character allowing it to play a critical role in the signal transduction of cell cycle checkpoint and the repair of DNA damage and the apoptosis. In vitro, the expression of the ATM protein or the abnormality of its activation is implicated in oncogenesis and oncotherapy, thus the ATM gene would be a novel potential target in cancer treatment.%共济失调毛细血管扩张征突变基因(ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene,ATM gene)属于一种DNA修复基因,定位于染色体llq22-q23.ATM基因的胚系突变或基因多态性导致个体对多种肿瘤易感,包括淋巴样肿瘤和实体瘤.ATM基因编码产物——ATM蛋白属于一种自动磷酸化蛋白激酶,在DNA损伤修复、细胞周期阻滞和细胞凋亡过程中发挥着关键的调控作用.体外实验发现,许多肿瘤的发生和治疗过程涉及了ATM蛋白表达或活性的改变,提示ATM基因或许能成为肿瘤治疗过程中一个新的潜在作用靶点.

  1. Low doses of X-rays induce prolonged and ATM-independent persistence of γH2AX foci in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Andreyan N; Pustovalova, Margarita; Grekhova, Anna; Eremin, Petr; Vorobyova, Natalia; Pulin, Andrey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Klokov, Dmitry Y; Eremin, Ilya

    2015-09-29

    Diagnostic imaging delivering low doses of radiation often accompany human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapies. However, effects of low dose radiation on MSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examine patterns of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and phospho-S1981 ATM (pATM) foci formation in human gingiva-derived MSCs exposed to X-rays in time-course and dose-response experiments. Both γH2AX and pATM foci accumulated linearly with dose early after irradiation (5-60 min), with a maximum induction observed at 30-60 min (37 ± 3 and 32 ± 3 foci/cell/Gy for γH2AX and pATM, respectively). The number of γH2AX foci produced by intermediate doses (160 and 250 mGy) significantly decreased (40-60%) between 60 and 240 min post-irradiation, indicating rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, γH2AX foci produced by low doses (20-80 mGy) did not change after 60 min. The number of pATM foci between 60 and 240 min decreased down to control values in a dose-independent manner. Similar kinetics was observed for pATM foci co-localized with γH2AX foci. Collectively, our results suggest differential DNA double-strand break signaling and processing in response to low vs. intermediate doses of X-rays in human MSCs. Furthermore, mechanisms governing the prolonged persistence of γH2AX foci in these cells appear to be ATM-independent.

  2. ATM and Artemis promote homologous recombination of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in G2

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher, Andrea; Birraux, Julie; Tchouandong, Leopoldine; Barton, Olivia; Shibata, Atsushi; Conrad, Sandro; Goodarzi, Aaron A.; KREMPLER, ANDREA; Jeggo, Penny; Lo¨brich, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) represent distinct pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Previous work implicated Artemis and ATM in an NHEJ-dependent process, which repairs a defined subset of radiation-induced DSBs in G1-phase. Here, we show that in G2, as in G1, NHEJ represents the major DSB-repair pathway whereas HR is only essential for repair of ∼15% of X- or γ-ray-induced DSBs. In addition to requiring the known HR proteins, Brca2, ...

  3. Experimental investigation of the structure and the dynamics of nanosecond laser-induced plasma in 1-atm argon ambient gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Bai, Xueshi; Yu, Jin

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the structure and the dynamics of the plasma induced on a metallic target in 1-atm argon ambient by a nanosecond laser pulse with irradiance in the range of 10 GW/cm2. The structure is revealed to be sensitively dependent on the laser wavelength. A layered structure of different species characterizes the plasma induced by ultraviolet 355 nm pulse, while an effective mixing between the ablation vapor and the shocked ambient gas is observed with infrared 1064 nm pulse. The absorption property of the shocked gas is found to be crucial for determining the structure of the plasma.

  4. DNA Damage-Induced Transcription of Transposable Elements and Long Non-coding RNAs in Arabidopsis Is Rare and ATM-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Schwacke, Rainer; Kunze, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Induction and mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) following DNA damage or other stresses has been reported in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently it was discovered that eukaryotic TEs are frequently associated with long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which are also upregulated by stress. Yet, it is unknown whether DNA damage-induced transcriptional activation of TEs and lncRNAs occurs sporadically or is a synchronized, genome-wide response. Here we investigated the transcriptome of Arabidopsis wild-type (WT) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (atm) mutant plants 3 h after induction of DNA damage. In WT, expression of 5.2% of the protein-coding genes is ≥2-fold changed, whereas in atm plants, only 2.6% of these genes are regulated, and the response of genes associated with DNA repair, replication, and cell cycle is largely lost. In contrast, only less than 0.6% of TEs and lncRNAs respond to DNA damage in WT plants, and the regulation of ≥95% of them is ATM-dependent. The ATM-downstream factors BRCA1, DRM1, JMJ30, AGO2, and the ATM-independent AGO4 participate in the regulation of individual TEs and lncRNAs. Remarkably, protein-coding genes located adjacent to DNA damage-responsive TEs and lncRNAs are frequently coexpressed, which is consistent with the hypothesis that TEs and lncRNAs located close to genes commonly function as controlling elements. PMID:27150037

  5. Mapas de España de corrosividad del zinc en atmósferas rurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosivity maps provide useful information on the extent of atmospheric corrosion phenomena in a given geographic scope. The preparation of such maps helps designers to select the most suitable metallic material in terms of corrosion resistance and economy and to define the right type of protection for a given durability. This is a difficult task, due to the numerous climate-related factors upon which atmospheric corrosion depends. This work summarizes a funded project by BP Solar to develop atmospheric corrosivity maps of Spain for zinc considering both annual corrosion and long term (15 years corrosion, which will determine the protection required for the metal structures used in photovoltaic systems, for practically pollution-free rural atmospheres. The method used has been to apply dose/response equations (damage functions to estimate the corrosion rate as a function of meteorological variables. These variables have been obtained from information of meteorological stations placed in mainland Spain.

    El interés en la elaboración de mapas de corrosividad atmosférica radica en su utilidad para disponer de información sobre el alcance del fenómeno de corrosión atmosférica en un determinado punto geográfico. Con ello se facilitaría la selección del material metálico más adecuado, tanto desde el punto de vista de resistencia a la corrosión como económicamente, y definir, asimismo, el tipo de protección idónea para una durabilidad determinada. En la práctica se trata de una tarea difícil, debido a los numerosos factores climáticos de los que depende la corrosión atmosférica. Este trabajo resume un proyecto financiado por BP Solar para el desarrollo de mapas de España para la corrosividad atmosférica del zinc, tanto de corrosión anual como de corrosión a largo plazo (15 años, que determinará el tipo de protección requerido en las estructuras metálicas utilizadas en sistemas fotovoltaicos para atm

  6. Assessing the potential number of ATMs in banks, financial and credit institutions using Analytic Network Process (ANP and Gray Clustering Analysis (GCA Case study: between Enghelab Sq and Ferdowsi Sq- Enghelab Street of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Faraji Sabokbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstracts1- IntroductionMost organizations and financial institutions are facing with spatial decision makings. Optimum decision making affects the institutes’ success, achievement to their objectives and attracting customers. Modern banking services have evolved by the development of modern technologies. The most sensible aspect of banking services evolution is based on using the modern technologies of ATMs. The rapid growth in application of these devices could have been caused by the increasing acceptance of them among customers (Foukerdi, 2005: 2. Because of the same reason, in spite of the high costs of purchase, initiation and maintenance, banks, financial and credit institutions are still interested in the development of ATMs. On the other hand, inattention and mismanagement in site selection and the number of such devices could be effective in failure of these systems. Selecting the optimum and most proper location to install the ATMs takes into account with respect to various factors that have different impact factors. Economical zoning of the cities for selecting potential and capable locations of such activities is assumed as the success agent of institutions and is a powerful method for future decisions. Therefore, the overall purpose of this research is to provide a model for economic zoning to install the services and facilities of banking system (ATMs. The research type is developmental- applied and the research method is descriptive-analytical. In the first step, effective economic factors in banking system were specified throughout library studies (previous studies with respect to research purposes, then it was supplemented by expert’s viewpoints, also, spatial data were obtained from area by surveying with respect to relevant criteria. Weight of each criterion was specified with Analytic Network Process (ANP after supplement of couple comparison circular by experts and it was used in Gray cluster analysis for

  7. Factors Affecting the Decisions of Tabung Haji Customers in Malaysia to Use ATM Banking: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanudin Amin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a preliminary investigation of the factors that determine whether Malaysia’s Tabung Haji customers in Eastern Malaysia will use or not a new facility introduced by the institution, namely Automated Teller Machine or ATM banking. As such, this study introduces the concept Tabung Haji ATM Banking (TAB. In order to explain the factors, this paper extends the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM to TAB and includes “ perceived credibility (PC”, and “perceived religiosity (PR”, in addition to “perceived usefulness (PU” and “perceived ease of use (PEOU”. The results indicate that PU, PEOU, PC and PR are the key determinants to predicting the intentions to use TAB. In addition, PEOU is significantly associated with PU, which, in turn, affecting usage intention among Tabung Haji customers on TAB. This study suffers from two limitations, first is on its location of study and, second is on its limited number of measures suggested in the modified model for the study. Nevertheless, these limitations provide directions for the future study and also provide new information in a new introduced financial innovation at Tabung Haji. The results will be primarily of benefit to Tabung Ha ji since this study offers insights on the intentions of its customers to use TAB

  8. Galiellalactone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the ATM/ATR pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; Lara-Chica, Maribel; Cantarero, Irene; Sterner, Olov; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-26

    Galiellalactone (GL) is a fungal metabolite that presents antitumor activities on prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. In this study we show that GL induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, caspase-dependent apoptosis and also affected the microtubule organization and migration ability in DU145 cells. GL did not induce double strand DNA break but activated the ATR and ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) inducing CHK1, H2AX phosphorylation (fH2AX) and CDC25C downregulation. Inhibition of the ATM/ATR activation with caffeine reverted GL-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage measured by fH2AX. In contrast, UCN-01, a CHK1 inhibitor, prevented GL-induced cell cycle arrest but enhanced apoptosis in DU145 cells. Furthermore, we found that GL did not increase the levels of intracellular ROS, but the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely prevented the effects of GL on fH2AX, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In contrast to NAC, other antioxidants such as ambroxol and EGCG did not interfere with the activity of GL on cell cycle. GL significantly suppressed DU145 xenograft growth in vivo and induced the expression of fH2AX in the tumors. These findings identify for the first time that GL activates DDR in prostate cancer.

  9. Comportamiento del aluminio desnudo y anodizado en atmósferas con grados de contaminación muy diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista, A.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the responses of unprotected and anodized aluminium specimens are compared after they have been exposed to 12 different atmospheres. The significance of the anodizing and the sealing on the atmospheric corrosion behaviour is analysed. The results show that the anodizing and sealing of aluminium exclude the risk of pitting corrosion in marine atmospheres and that the oxide thickness is not determining, at least during the first year of exposure.

    En la presente investigación, comparando las respuestas de muestras de aluminio desnudas y anodizadas, expuestas a 12 atmósferas diferentes, se analiza la repercusión del anodizado y sellado del aluminio en el comportamiento frente a la corrosión atmosférica. Se demuestra que la anodización y sellado del aluminio elimina el riesgo de corrosión por picaduras que afecta a estos materiales en atmósferas marinas, sin que el espesor del recubrimiento resulte determinante, al menos, en el primer año de exposición.

  10. Hyperactivation of ATM upon DNA-PKcs inhibition modulates p53 dynamics and cell fate in response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, Ana; Grybowski, Andrea; Strasen, Jette; Cristiano, Elena; Loewer, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    A functional DNA damage response is essential for maintaining genome integrity in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks. It is mainly coordinated by the kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs, which control the repair of broken DNA strands and relay the damage signal to the tumor suppressor p53 to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or senescence. Although many functions of the individual kinases have been identified, it remains unclear how they act in concert to ensure faithful processing of the damage signal. Using specific inhibitors and quantitative analysis at the single-cell level, we systematically characterize the contribution of each kinase for regulating p53 activity. Our results reveal a new regulatory interplay in which loss of DNA-PKcs function leads to hyperactivation of ATM and amplification of the p53 response, sensitizing cells for damage-induced senescence. This interplay determines the outcome of treatment regimens combining irradiation with DNA-PKcs inhibitors in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:27280387

  11. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Spaceborne microwave cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for temperature and humidity sounding, have shown great capabilities to provide a significant contribution in precipitation monitoring both in terms of measurement quality and spatial/temporal coverage. The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Microwave Humidity Sounder (AMSU-A/MHS) radiometers (on board the European MetOp and U.S. NOAA satellites), was recently newly designed to exploit the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi-NPP satellite and the future JPSS satellites. The PNPR algorithm is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. The main PNPR-ATMS algorithm changes with respect to PNPR-AMSU/MHS are the design and implementation of a new ANN able to manage the information derived from the additional ATMS channels (respect to the AMSU-A/MHS radiometer) and a new screening procedure for not-precipitating pixels. In order to achieve maximum consistency of the retrieved surface precipitation, both PNPR algorithms are based on the same physical foundation. The PNPR is optimized for the European and the African area. The neural network was trained using a cloud-radiation database built upon 94 cloud-resolving simulations over Europe and the Mediterranean and over the African area and radiative transfer model simulations of TB vectors consistent with the AMSU-A/MHS and ATMS channel frequencies, viewing angles, and view-angle dependent IFOV sizes along the scan projections. As opposed to other ANN precipitation retrieval algorithms, PNPR uses a unique ANN that retrieves the surface precipitation rate for all types of surface backgrounds represented in the training database, i.e., land (vegetated or arid), ocean, snow/ice or coast. This approach prevents different precipitation estimates from being inconsistent with one

  12. Phase equilibria in the system Zr O2 - FeO - Fe2O3 at Po2 = 2.10 -3 atm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system ZrO2 - FeO - Fe2O3 was analysed by thermogravimetry under reduced oxygen pressure (Po2 = 2.10-3 atm) and temperatures up to 13800C. It was show that at Po2 = 2.10-3 atm the oxidation reactions are faster than at Po2 = 0,21 atm (1). It was concluded that about 2 mol% Fe2O3 are soluble in Fe2O3 bringing up a sharp increase in the dissociation temperature of the 3Fe2O3 → 2Fe3O4 + 1/202 reaction four 12650C to 13000C and that about 8 Mol% Fe2O3 are soluble in Z four 12650C to 13000C and that about 8 Mol% Fe2O3 are soluble in ZrO2 under these conditions. (author)

  13. Functional intersection of ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in coding end joining during V(D)J recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Baeck-Seung; Gapud, Eric J; Zhang, Shichuan;

    2013-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA......-PKcs deficiency leads to a nearly complete block in coding join formation, as DNA-PKcs is required to activate Artemis, the endonuclease that opens hairpin-sealed coding ends. In contrast to loss of DNA-PKcs protein, here we show that inhibition of DNA-PKcs kinase activity has no effect on coding join formation......-PKcs) are serine-threonine kinases that orchestrate the cellular responses to DNA DSBs. During V(D)J recombination, ATM and DNA-PKcs have unique functions in the repair of coding DNA ends. ATM deficiency leads to instability of postcleavage complexes and the loss of coding ends from these complexes. DNA...

  14. Assessment of targeted and non-targeted responses in cells deficient in ATM function following exposure to low and high dose X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Anne; Kämäräinen, Meerit; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Pylkäs, Katri; Chapman, Kim; Koivistoinen, Armi; Parviainen, Teuvo; Winqvist, Robert; Kadhim, Munira; Launonen, Virpi; Lindholm, Carita

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation) lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of radiation hypersensitivity was observed at doses of 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy for the ATM mutation carrier LCL. The A-T patient cells also did not show low-dose response. There was significant increase in unstable CA yields for both ATM mutation carrier and A-T LCLs at 1 and 2 Gy, the A-T cells displaying more distinct dose dependency. Both chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were induced at an increased rate in the irradiated A-T cells, whereas for ATM carrier cells, only unstable chromosomal aberrations were increased above the level observed in the wild type cell line. No bystander effect could be demonstrated in any of the cell lines or doses applied. Characteristics typical for the A-T cell line were detected, i.e., high baseline frequency of CA that increased with dose. In addition, dose-dependent loss of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, CA analysis did not demonstrate low-dose (≤100 mGy) radiosensitivity in ATM mutation carrier cells or A-T patient cells. However, both cell lines showed increased radiosensitivity at high dose exposure.

  15. Assessment of targeted and non-targeted responses in cells deficient in ATM function following exposure to low and high dose X-rays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kiuru

    Full Text Available Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of radiation hypersensitivity was observed at doses of 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy for the ATM mutation carrier LCL. The A-T patient cells also did not show low-dose response. There was significant increase in unstable CA yields for both ATM mutation carrier and A-T LCLs at 1 and 2 Gy, the A-T cells displaying more distinct dose dependency. Both chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were induced at an increased rate in the irradiated A-T cells, whereas for ATM carrier cells, only unstable chromosomal aberrations were increased above the level observed in the wild type cell line. No bystander effect could be demonstrated in any of the cell lines or doses applied. Characteristics typical for the A-T cell line were detected, i.e., high baseline frequency of CA that increased with dose. In addition, dose-dependent loss of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, CA analysis did not demonstrate low-dose (≤100 mGy radiosensitivity in ATM mutation carrier cells or A-T patient cells. However, both cell lines showed increased radiosensitivity at high dose exposure.

  16. Functional switching of ATM: sensor of DNA damage in proliferating cells and mediator of Akt survival signal in post-mitotic human neuron-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Hua Xiong; Da-Qing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and oculocutaneous telangiectasias.The gene mutated in this disease,ATM (A-T,mutated),encodes a 370-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase.ATM not only mediates cellular response to DNA damage but also acts as an activator of Akt in response to insulin.However,despite intensive studies,the mechanism underlying the neuronal degeneration symptoms of human A-T is still poorly understood.We found that the topoisomerase inhibitors etoposide and camptothecin readily induced apoptosis in undifferentiated proliferating SH-SY5Y cells but could not induce apoptosis in neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.In addition,etoposide induced p53 phosphorylation and H2AX foci formation in proliferating SH-SY5Y cells but failed to do so in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.Moreover,while inhibition of ATM in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells partially protected them from etoposide-induced apoptosis,the same treatment had no effect on cell viability in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.These results suggest that DNA damage or defective response to DNA damage is not the cause of neuronal cell death in human A-T.In contrast,we discovered that Akt phosphorylation was inhibited when ATM activity was suppressed in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.Furthermore,inhibition of ATM induced apoptosis following serum starvation in neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but could not trigger apoptosis under the same conditions in undifferentiated proliferating SH-SY5Y cells.These results demonstrate that ATM mediates the Akt signaling and promotes cell survival in neuron-like human SH-SY5Y cells,suggesting that impaired activation of Akt is the reason for neuronal degeneration in human A-T.

  17. Hallazgos artroscópicos en un caso de disco articular adherido de la ATM Arthroscopic findings in a fixed disc case of the TMJ

    OpenAIRE

    R. Martín-Granizo López; J. Giner Díaz; J.J. Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2005-01-01

    El síndrome de disco adherido (SDA) o stuck syndrome de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) es un fenómeno que ha sido descrito recientemente y cuya fisiopatogenia es una alteración bioquímica que se produce en algunas ATMs con disfunción temporomandibular. En el presente artículo describimos un caso clínico y especialmente los interesantes hallazgos artroscópicos encontrados, que ayudarían a corroborar el mecanismo fisiopatogénico propuesto. Son de especial relevancia la correcta posició...

  18. Contribución al modelado y caracterización de nodos en redes de banda ancha. Aplicación al multiplexor inverso ATM.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2000-01-01

    El acceso a las redes ATM y el dimensionado de sus recursos son cuestiones clave ya que cada vez hay una mayor demanda de ancho de banda por parte de los usuarios. Sin embargo, se necesitan alternativas económicamente viables. La multiplexación inversa ATM es una técnica con la que se combinan varios enlaces T1/E1 resultando en un único canal lógico de datos con tasa igual al agregado de los anchos de banda T1/E1 menos una pequeña cantidad debida a overhead de control. Resulta de gran interés...

  19. La media y alta atmósfera: Inversión e interpretación de las medidas del instrumento SABER

    OpenAIRE

    García Comas, Maia

    2004-01-01

    La media y alta atmósfera terrestre es una región poco explorada hasta la fecha. Comprender los procesos que en ella tienen lugar es importante no sólo por la ampliación de nuestro conocimiento sino porque es la interfaz entre el espacio y la baja atmósfera. Hasta el lanzamiento del instrumento SABER a bordo del satélite TIMED de NASA en el año 2001, muy pocas misiones espaciales habían estado totalmente didicadas a realizar medidas en esta región. Este instrumento mide las emisiones infrarr...

  20. Bearer channel control protocol for the dynamic VB5.2 interface in ATM access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.; Mavrommatis, K. I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    1996-12-01

    In the multi-vendor systems, a customer connected to an Access network (AN) must be capable of selecting a specific Service Node (SN) according to the services the SN provides. The multiplicity of technologically varying AN calls for the definition of a standard reference point between the AN and the SN widely known as the VB interface. Two versions are currently offered. The VB5.1 is simpler to implement but is not as flexible as the VB5.2, which supports switched connections. The VB5.2 functionality is closely coupled to the Broadband Bearer Channel Connection Protocol (B-BCCP). The B-BCCP is used for conveying the necessary information for dynamic resource allocation, traffic policing and routing in the AN as well as for information exchange concerning the status of the AN before a new call is established by the SN. By relying on such a protocol for the exchange of information instead of intercepting and interpreting signalling messages in the AN, the architecture of the AN is simplified because the functionality related to processing is not duplicated. In this paper a prominent B- BCCP candidate is defined, called the Service node Access network Interaction Protocol.

  1. Teleradiology for Veterans Integrated Service Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Kenagy, John J.; Grant, Edward G.

    1997-05-01

    Veterans Affairs Health Care has become more decentralized with the creation of local Veteran Integrated Service Networks (VISN). The purpose of this study was to analyze the design and cost of a wide-area-network (WAN) for teleradiology in a local VISN. The Southern California VISN includes 4 large and 3 small medical centers. Only one of the 7 medical centers has an operational PACS. Data were collected on the radiologist workloads and patient and image flow within and between the 7 medical centers. This was used to estimate the size and cost of local PACS at each medical center and the need for teleradiology services. A simplified cost-analysis model was used to estimate potential cost- savings by gong filmless. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology was selected for the WAN between the medical centers. A realistic cost-savings model was developed. Cost- effectiveness of a PACS/Teleradiology system was established. Based on this model, a PACS/Teleradiology configuration for the VISN was successfully designed and partially implemented. The ATM-based WAN provides instantaneous access to PACS at each centers. Cost-analysis of the design and implementation of a PACS/teleradiology network in a VISN is possible and important when planning such system. The experience gained will serve a model for future similar projects nationwide.

  2. Measurement of attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of oxides of lanthanides by using simplified ATM-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Measurement of linear attenuation coefficient by simplified ATM method for the oxides of Lanthanides. • Atomic parameters are calculated from linear attenuation coefficients. • Geometrical setup has been validated with metallic targets of uniform thickness. • Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results within error limits. - Abstract: The linear and mass attenuation coefficient of non-uniform thick samples of oxides of lanthanide (Pr6O11, Nd2O3, Gd2O3, Tb4O7, Ho2O3 and Er2O3) has been measured by gamma ray photons of energy 59.54 keV obtained from 100 mCi radioactive source of 241Am. Advanced Two Media (ATM) methods Gupta et al. (2013) is simplified by considering air as first medium and metallic foil as second medium. In the present measurements this consideration simplifies the mathematical complexities and laboratory work to find the attenuation coefficients of non-uniform thick samples. The values of attenuation coefficient were then used to calculate effective atomic numbers (Zeff), interaction cross-section (σ) and effective electron densities (Neff) of lanthanide oxides. The method is validated by measuring linear/mass attenuation coefficient and other parameters for Mo, Ag, Sn, W and Pb of uniform thickness. The measured results are compared with the theoretical values from WinXcom Gerward et al. (2001). It is found that measured values are in agreement within 2% of theoretical results. The measurement of linear attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers (Zeff), interaction cross-section and effective electron densities (Neff) enhances the understanding of material characteristics. Presently studied materials i.e. oxides of Lanthanide are widely used as glass colouring agent and in electronic sensing devices

  3. Measurement of attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of oxides of lanthanides by using simplified ATM-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurinderjeet; Gupta, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkgupta.sliet@gmail.com; Dhaliwal, A.S.; Kahlon, K.S.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Measurement of linear attenuation coefficient by simplified ATM method for the oxides of Lanthanides. • Atomic parameters are calculated from linear attenuation coefficients. • Geometrical setup has been validated with metallic targets of uniform thickness. • Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results within error limits. - Abstract: The linear and mass attenuation coefficient of non-uniform thick samples of oxides of lanthanide (Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been measured by gamma ray photons of energy 59.54 keV obtained from 100 mCi radioactive source of {sup 241}Am. Advanced Two Media (ATM) methods Gupta et al. (2013) is simplified by considering air as first medium and metallic foil as second medium. In the present measurements this consideration simplifies the mathematical complexities and laboratory work to find the attenuation coefficients of non-uniform thick samples. The values of attenuation coefficient were then used to calculate effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}), interaction cross-section (σ) and effective electron densities (N{sub eff}) of lanthanide oxides. The method is validated by measuring linear/mass attenuation coefficient and other parameters for Mo, Ag, Sn, W and Pb of uniform thickness. The measured results are compared with the theoretical values from WinXcom Gerward et al. (2001). It is found that measured values are in agreement within 2% of theoretical results. The measurement of linear attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}), interaction cross-section and effective electron densities (N{sub eff}) enhances the understanding of material characteristics. Presently studied materials i.e. oxides of Lanthanide are widely used as glass colouring agent and in electronic sensing devices.

  4. FUZZY REQUIREMENT BASED STRATEGY OF QoS SERVICE FOR BROADBAND TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fuzzy requirement based strategy for QoS service in broadband networks was presented. With the analysis of QoS service in ATM networks and broadband IP networks, it gave a requirement-based strategy for QoS service application with Fuzzy language evaluation principles. The requirement parameters are chosen according to the WANT/COST rule, and a fuzzy set is constructed to realize the fuzzy determinant. The simulation results show that it is useful to evaluate the QoS service in broadband networks, and to effectively simplify the access protocols and solve the billing issues in broadband networks.

  5. G(2)-M phase-correlative bystander effects are co-mediated by DNA-PKcs and ATM after carbon ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Konishi, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Alisa; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Uchihori, Yukio; Xie, Yuexia; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Wenjian; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) may have significant implications to the efficiency of radiotherapy. Although cellular radiosensitivity relies on cell cycle status, it is largely unknown how about the relationship between RIBE and cell cycle distribution, much less the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the lung cancer A549 cells were synchronized into different cell cycle phases of G1, S and G2/M and irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ions. By treating nonirradiated cells with the conditioned medium from these irradiated cells, it was found that the G2-M phase cells had the largest contribution to RIBE. Meanwhile, the activity of DNA-PKcs but not ATM was increased in the synchronized G2-M phase cells in spite of both of them were activated in the asynchronous cells after carbon ion irradiation. When the G2-M phased cells were transferred with DNA-PKcs siRNA and ATM siRNA individually or treated with an inhibitor of either DNA-PKcs or ATM before carbon ion irradiation, the RIBE was effectively diminished. These results provide new evidence linking cell cycle to bystander responses and demonstrate that DNA-PKcs and ATM are two associated factors in co-regulating G2-M phase-related bystander effects. PMID:26774662

  6. Early-stage apoptosis is associated with DNA-damage-independent ATM phosphorylation and chromatin decondensation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren Tvorup;

    2008-01-01

    Chromatin condensation and degradation of DNA into internucleosomal DNA fragments are key hallmarks of apoptosis. The phosphorylation of protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and histone H2A.X was recently shown to occur concurrently with apoptotic DNA fragmentation. We have used...... independently of DNA damage signaling pathways during the very early stages of apoptosis....

  7. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 p30 interacts with REGgamma and modulates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to promote cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Datta, Antara; Kesic, Matthew; Green-Church, Kari; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Lairmore, Michael D

    2011-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and a variety of inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 encodes a nuclear localizing protein, p30, that selectively alters viral and cellular gene expression, activates G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoints, and is essential for viral spread. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and affinity pulldown of ectopically expressed p30 coupled with mass spectrometry to identify cellular binding partners of p30. Our data indicate that p30 specifically binds to cellular ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and REGγ (a nuclear 20 S proteasome activator). Under conditions of genotoxic stress, p30 expression was associated with reduced levels of ATM and increased cell survival. Knockdown or overexpression of REGγ paralleled p30 expression, suggesting an unexpected enhancement of p30 expression in the presence of REGγ. Finally, size exclusion chromatography revealed the presence of p30 in a high molecular mass complex along with ATM and REGγ. On the basis of our findings, we propose that HTLV-1 p30 interacts with ATM and REGγ to increase viral spread by facilitating cell survival. PMID:21216954

  8. TGF beta-1 dependent fast stimulation of ATM and p53 phosphorylation following exposure to ionizing radiation does not involve TGF beta-receptor I signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Blaese, Marcet A.; Loeffler, Heidi; Coppes, Rob P.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been proposed that radiation induced stimulation of ATM and downstream components involves activation of TGF beta-1 and that this may be due to TGF beta-1-receptor I-Smad signalling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the distinct role of TGF beta-1-recept

  9. Método Propuesto para Estimar la Altura de Capa de Mezcla en la Atmósfera, con ayuda de la Aviación

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Trejo Vázquez; Leticia Villagómez Parra

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta un procedimiento, basado en un desarrollo matemático propio, el cual es aplicado al método de Holzworth, para estimar altura de capa de mezcla en la atmósfera utilizando datos proporcionados por aviones comerciales.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium pattern of the ATM gene in breast cancer patients and controls; association of SNPs and haplotypes to radio-sensitivity and post-lumpectomy local recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fosså Sophie D

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ATM protein is activated as a result of ionizing radiation, and genetic variants of the ATM gene may therefore affect the level of radiation-induced damage. Individuals heterozygous for ATM mutations have been reported to have an increased risk of malignancy, especially breast cancer. Materials and methods Norwegian breast cancer patients (272 treated with radiation (252 of which were evaluated for radiation-induced adverse side effects, 95 Norwegian women with no known history of cancer and 95 American breast cancer patients treated with radiation (44 of which developed ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence, IBTR were screened for sequence variations in all exons of the ATM gene as well as known intronic variants by denaturating high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC followed by sequencing to determine the nature of the variant. Results and Conclusion A total of 56 variants were identified in the three materials combined. A borderline significant association with breast cancer risk was found for the 1229 T>C (Val>Ala substitution in exon 11 (P-value 0.055 between the Norwegian controls and breast cancer patients as well as a borderline significant difference in haplotype distribution (P-value 0.06. Adverse side effects, such as: development of costal fractures and telangiectasias, subcutaneous and lung fibrosis, pleural thickening and atrophy were evaluated in the Norwegian patients. Significant associations were found for several of the identified variants such as rs1800058 (Leu > Phe where a decrease in minor allele frequency was found with increasing level of adverse side effects for the clinical end-points pleural thickening and lung fibrosis, thus giving a protective effect. Overall our results indicate a role for variation in the ATM gene both for risk of developing breast cancer, and in radiation induced adverse side effects. No association could be found between risk of developing ipsilateral breast tumour

  11. Peripheral blood complete remission after splenic irradiation in Mantle-Cell Lymphoma with 11q22-23 deletion and ATM inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) is a well-known histological and clinical subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas. It is usually characterized by an aggressive disease course, presenting with advanced stage disease at diagnosis and with low response rates to therapy. However few cases of indolent course MCL have been described. We herein report a case of MCL with splenomegaly and peripheral blood involvement as main clinical features. The patient underwent moderate dose splenic radiation therapy and achieved spleen downsizing and peripheral blood complete remission. Splenic irradiation has been extensively used in the past as palliative treatment in several lymphoproliferative disorders and a systemic effect and sometimes peripheral blood complete remissions have been observed. Mainly advocated mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are considered direct radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, immune modulation via proportional changes of lymphocyte subsets due to known differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity and a radiation-induced cytokine release. The peculiar intrinsic radiosensitivity pattern of lymphoid cells could probably be explained by well-defined individual genetic and molecular features. In this context, among NHLs, MCL subtype has the highest rate of ATM (Ataxia Teleangiectasia Mutated) inactivation. While the ATM gene is thought to play a key-role in detecting radiation-induced DNA damage (expecially Double Strand Breaks), recent in vitro data support the hypothesis that ATM loss may actually contribute to the radiosensitivity of MCL cells. ATM status was retrospectively investigated in our patient, with the tool of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, showing a complete inactivation of a single ATM allele secondary to the deletion of chromosomal region 11q22-23. The presence of this kind of cytogenetic aberration may be regarded in the future as a potential predictive marker of radiation response

  12. Principales características de calidad de las pitahayas (hylocereus undatus haworth, frigoconservadas en atmósferas controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilberth Magaña B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutas de pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus haworth cosechadas en el municipio de Umán, del estado de Yucatán, México, se trasladaron al Laboratorio de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos del Instituto Tecnológico de Mérida. Se evaluó el efecto de la temperatura de frigoconservación, composición de la atmósfera (AC y el tiempo de almacenamiento, sobre algunas características de calidad de la fruta. El diseño experimental fue un factorial aleatorizado en arreglo 2 x 3 x 2; donde los factores, fueron: a temperatura de frigoconservación (4 y 8 °C, b composición de la atmósfera ( 3-5: 3 % O2 + 5 % CO2 + 92 % N2, 5-5: 5 % O2 + 5 % CO2 + 90 % N2 y Aire: sin AC y c el tiempo de frigoconservación (21 y 28 días; con 4 repeticiones (5 frutas cada una, para tener 48 unidades experimentales. La evaluación se realizó tres días después de exponer la fruta a la temperatura ambiente (26 ± 2 °C. Se obtuvo la media de cuatro frutas por tratamiento, para evaluar el efecto de los factores estudiados en la pérdida de peso, daños externos de la fruta, contenido de acetaldehído y etanol en pulpa y, respiración de la fruta. En general se concluye que la temperatura y niveles de O2, en dependencia del tiempo de frigoconservación, influyen en los procesos fisiológicos de las pitahayas, cuando son transferidas a las condiciones naturales de temperatura, aumentando su condición de vida útil. También se encontró que, de las temperaturas estudiadas, la de 8 °C resultó la que conservó mejor los atributos de calidad de las frutas de pitahaya

  13. Ikaite solubility in seawater-derived brines at 1 atm and sub-zero temperatures to 265 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Thomas, David N.

    2013-05-01

    The concentration-based (stoichiometric) equilibrium solubility product of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in seawater and cryogenic seawater-derived brines was determined at 1 atm total pressure over the temperature range from -1.1 to -7.5 °C and the salinity range from 34 to 124 in temperature-salinity pairs representative of sea ice brines. The solubility measurements were obtained in solutions that were undersaturated and supersaturated with respect to ikaite by equilibration with CO2/N2 gas mixtures of known pCO2 (20-400 μatm). The solutions were then equilibrated with synthetic ikaite (seed) for up to 3 months in a closed system. Arrival of the solid-solution system at a long-term chemical equilibrium was indicated by attainment of constant chemical solution composition with respect to total dissolved calcium, total dissolved inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity. Using these measurements, the stoichiometric equilibrium solubility product of ikaite (Ksp,ikaite∗=[Ca][CO32-], in molkgsolution-2) was determined, with the carbonate ion concentration computed from the measured total alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. The computed carbonate ion concentration and, by extension, the Ksp,ikaite∗ are both contingent on solving the system of equations that describe the parameters of the CO2 system in seawater by extrapolation to the experimental salinity and temperature conditions. The results show that the pKsp,ikaite∗=-logKsp,ikaite∗ in seawater of salinity 34 at -1.1 °C was 5.362 ± 0.004 and that the pKsp,ikaite∗ in sea ice at the freezing point of brines of salinity greater than 34 can be described as a function of temperature (T, in K) by the equation, pKsp,ikaite∗=-15489.09608+623443.70216T-1+2355.14596lnT, in the temperature range of 265.15 K 1 month) approach to chemical equilibrium when incubated without seeding ikaite crystals. Simple modeling indicated that ikaite should not precipitate from sea ice brines evolving under

  14. Service Gateway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guozhong; HOU Gang; HUANG Zeqing

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the service gateway which implements the Open Service gateway Initiative (OSGI), it manages voice, data, Internet, and multimedia communications to and from the home, office and other locations. This service gateway can also function as an application server for a range of high value services such as energy management and control, safety and security services, health care monitoring services, device control and maintenance, electronic commerce services and more.

  15. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  16. The research progress of the ATM-dependent signaling pathways%ATM蛋白激酶依赖性信号转导通路研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小群; 陈伟; 袁素娟

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM gene) lead to the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The ATM protein kinase, which is the product of the ATM gene, is mainly distributed in the nucleus of proliferating cells. Here we clarify the ATM-dependent signaling pathways according to phosphorylating various targets that include checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) , Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (Nbs1) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) at different stages of the cell cycle. Recent studies reveal that the ATM-dependent signaling pathways involve in regulating multiple cell cycle checkpoints and play vital roles in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cell cycle, suggesting that the ATM kinase perhaps is a new target for radiosensitization in the radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms.%毛细血管扩张共济失调突变基因(ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene,ATM基因)变异导致遗传性毛细血管扩张共济失调症(ataxia-telangiectasia,A-T).ATM基因编码产物——ATM蛋白激酶主要分布于增殖细胞核中.根据ATM蛋白激酶在细胞周期中作用底物如检测点激酶2(checkpoint kinase 2,Chk2)、奈梅亨断裂综合症蛋白1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1,Nbs1)和p38丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(p38 mitogen activated protein kinase,p38MAPK)等不同,形成了不同的ATM蛋白激酶依赖性信号转导通路.最近研究发现,ATM蛋白激酶依赖性信号转导通路参与细胞周期多个检测点的调控,在DNA双链断裂(DNA double-strand break,DSB)损伤修复过程中发挥着至关重要的作用,暗示了ATM蛋白激酶或将成为恶性肿瘤放射治疗增敏新靶点.

  17. 听性脑干反应与听觉稳态反应对233例听力复筛未通过婴幼儿早期听力测试结果分析%Analysis of ABR and ASSR test in early hearing diagnostic of 233 infants failed in second hearing screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东红; 王玉璟; 马秀岚

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To discuss the effect of ABR and ASSR test in early hearing diagnostic of infants failed in second hearing screening. Methods: ABR and ASSR were tested in 233 (466 ears) in first and second hearing diagnostic, the results were analyzed. Results;Of 233 infants, 64 infants were normal in first diagnostic tested in 1 to 3 months, 169 infants were with one or two cars hearing loss, among them 88 with milder hearing loss, 60 with moderate hearing loss 12 of the 60 infants with severe hearing loss, 9 with very severe hearing loss. 106 infants accepted second diagnostic test, among them 60 infants with normal hearing, 46 infants with hearing loss 12 of the 46 infants with milder hearing loss, 15 with moderate hearing loss, 10 with severe hearing loss, 9 with very severe hearing loss. Conclusion; Hearing loss infants can de early founded by ABR and ASSR test. ABR and ASSR also provide accurate diagnostic test for early hearing intervention.%目的:探讨听性脑干反应(ABR)与听觉稳态反应(ASSR)在听力复筛未通过婴幼儿早期听力评估中的作用.方法:对233例(466耳)听力复筛未通过的婴幼儿使用ABR、ASSR测试,进行听力学初诊及复诊.分析ABR与ASSR的临床应用情况.结果:233例婴幼儿,在1~3个月时初诊听力正常64例,单耳或双耳听力损失169例,其中轻度88例,中度60例,重度12例,极重度9例.6个月时复诊106例,听力正常60例,听力损失46例,其中轻度12例,中度15例,重度10例,极重度9例.失访63例.结论:ABR与ASSR联合应用可早期发现听力损失,为听力障碍的早期干预提供可靠的依据.

  18. ABR Changes in a Rat Model of CUMS Induced Depression%慢性不可预见性温和刺激大鼠模型的听性脑干反应的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈抗松; 廖华; 杨希林; 陈建新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study changes of auditory brainstem response (ABR) in a rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a mod-el group (n=8). The model group was randomly treated with CUMS every day to keep animals in a depressive state for 28 days. Animal behaviors were recorded using an automatic tracking system at 1 day before experiment and on Days 14 and 28. In the present study, ABRs were tested using a TDT system on Day 28 for all animals. Results Compared with the control group, the basic indices of animal behavior of the model group were markedly different from the control group on Days 14 and 28 (p0.05). The latencies of waves I and V in the model group were significantly longer than the control group (P<0.05) and the amplitudes of waves II and V were markedly decreased compared to the control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Con-clusion Abnormal neuroelectric activities along the auditory pathway from the peripheral auditory organ to the brainstem may exist in rats with CUMS induced depression .%  目的探讨单纯抑郁症大鼠模型的听性脑干反应(ABR)的改变。方法16只大鼠随机分为对照组(8只):正常喂养;模型组(8只):每天随机给予多种低强度刺激,造成动物的抑郁状态,持续28天。记录各组大鼠实验前1天、第14、28天的行为学,并在造模完成后对两组大鼠行ABR检测。结果造模第14、28天,与对照组比较,模型组大鼠的旷场行为学、体重及摄食量的改变、糖水偏爱均有显著性差异(p<0.01);第28天,在声强90dB SPL条件下,与对照组比较,模型组大鼠的Ⅰ波潜伏期明显延长(P<0.05),Ⅱ波的波幅显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论抑郁症模型大鼠可能存在外周听觉神经至脑干通路存在神经电活动的异常。

  19. Scheduling Non-stationary Bursts of Real-time and Non-real-time Traffic in ATM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The problem of scheduling real-time and non-real-time traffic in an ATM switch multiplexor when bursts of either type of traffic occur is studied. The scheduling algorithms studied are: Queue Length Threshold (QLT) and Minimum Laxity Threshold (MLT). Analytic results based on Markov Chains are used. In addition the results are compared with an optimal (but impractical) scheduling determined via dynamic programming. Dynamic programming is used in this paper to show that MLT gives a near optimal performance trade-off between real-time and non-real-time traffic for constant arrival rates. The trade-off QLT allows is not close to optimal. For non-real-time bursts MLT still gives a close to optimal trade-off. For real-time bursts the trade-off MLT allows between real-time and non-real-time traffic is not as close to optimal, but even where the MLT trade-off is not near optimal, the QLT trade-off is much worse than the MLT trade-off.

  20. Contenido polínico de la atmósfera de Málaga: años 1992 y 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, María del Mar; Recio, Marta; Toro, F. Javier; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    1994-01-01

    Análisis polínico del contenido de la atmósfera de Málaga: año 1992-1 993. En el presente trabajo se hace un estudio de la incidencia que tuvo el polen en la atmósfera de Málaga durante los años 1992 y 1993, analizándose la evolución estacional de la cantidad y calidad del contenido de la misma. Igualmente, se hace un balance de la importancia relativa de los distintos pólenes a lo largo del año, a la vez que se indican cuáles fueron los días y las semanas de máxima concentración durante los ...

  1. Calibración de la agresividad de la atmósfera del suroeste de la Ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Genesca; Carlos Rodríguez

    1992-01-01

    Se presentan diferentes metodologías para calibrar la agresividad de una determinada atmósfera desde el punto de vista de la corrosividad. Las técnicas empleadas, ensayo CLIMAT (alambre sobre tornillo), relación entre la corrosión del acero y la del zinc, velocidad de corrosión de probetas metálicas planas de Fe, Zn, Al y Cu después de un año de exposición y datos climatológicos y de contaminación, se han aplicado al caso concreto de la atmósfera de Ciudad Universitaria, en el suroeste de la ...

  2. Regiones de formación de la línea de He II λ 1640 en una atmósfera en expansión

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero, R.; Cidale, L.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calculan perfiles de la línea del He II λ1640 empleando un modelo de atmósfera en expansión con una estructura cromosférica para determinar la región de formación de la línea. El problema se trata en geometría esférica, fuera de equilibrio termodinámico. La ecuación de transporte radiativo se resuelve rigurosamente en el marco de referencia del fluído para distintas leyes de velocidad, monótonamente crecientes, y diferentes leyes de temperatura. Se buscan relaciones globales entre las características del perfil y los parámetros físicos atribuídos a la atmósfera estelar, con la finalidad de definir una herramienta de diagnóstico de las propiedades del medio.

  3. Services and Services Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Gallouj, FaÏz; Windrum, Paul

    2009-01-01

    International audience We have witnessed a dramatic transformation of the US and western European economies in just twenty years. Built on manufacturing, today these are indubitably services-based economies. The transformation raises a number of important issues for economists, and for evolutionary economists in particular for they have long highlighted the importance of innovation and structural change in their treatment of industrial organisation, employment creation, welfare, economic g...

  4. Implementation of levels of services on broadband networks with cable modem access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Luis A.; Yu, Che-Fn

    1997-10-01

    Residential broadband access networks using technologies such as ADSL and cable modems have enabled the provisioning of emerging Internet applications such as Internet telephony, video conferencing and interactive games. These applications have specific end-to-end performance requirements from the network in order to have an acceptable performance. Currently the Internet is a best effort network which doesn't provide levels of service. There are many elements of an end-to-end network which are currently suitable to provide quality-of- service guaranties such as ATM links. Nevertheless, only with recent deployments of broadband access technologies and the introduction of Internet protocols such as RSVP, providing levels of service becomes feasible without the use expensive links to the customer site. This paper examines several network implementation options for introducing levels of service using cable modem access. Limitations imposed by the applications on the network as well as the contribution of the different network elements to level of service parameters such as end-to-end delay, throughput and jitter are examined. Concentration network architectures as well as proposed backbone configuration options for end-to-end level of service provisioning are presented. At the access network, provisioning of level of service using bandwidth control through packet throttling and through access network design providing excess bandwidth to customers are presented. HFC protocol dependent means to provide level of services including reservation and ATM based protocols are examined as well.

  5. Experimento de grande escala biósfera-atmósfera en la Amazonía (LBA); plan experimental conciso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LBAScience Planning Group (Cachoeira Paulista),

    1996-01-01

    El experimento de gran escala biósfera atmósfera en la Amazonia (LBA) va dirigido a aumentar los conocimientos sobre el funcionamiento climatológico, ecológico, biogeoquímico e hidrológico de la Amazonia. Estudiará los efectos de los cambios en el usodel suelo y el clima según estas funciones, inclu

  6. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  7. Multiple Defects of Cell Cycle Checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, an U937 Cell Mutant Stably Expressing Anti-Sense ATM Gene cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) functions in control of cell cycle checkpoints in responding to DNA damage and protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Knock-out within tumor cells of endogenous ATM will achieve therapeutic benefits and nable a better understanding of the decisive mechanisms of cell death or survival in response to DNA damaging agents. ) In present paper, we sought to characterize the cell cycle checkpoint profiles in U937-ASPI3K, a U937 cell mutant that was previously established with endogenous ATM knock-out phenotype. Synchronized U937-ASPI3K was exposed to 137Cs irradiation, G1, S, G2/M cell cycle checkpoint profiles were evaluated by determining cell cycle kinetics, p53/p21 protein, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and p34CDC2 kinase activity in response to irradiation. U937-ASPI3K exhibited multiple defects in cell cycle checkpoints as defined by failing to arrest cells upon irradiation. The accumulation of cellular p53/p21 protein and inhibition of CDK kinase was also abolished in U937-ASPI3K. It was concluded that the stable expression of anti-sense PI3K cDNA fragment completely abolished multiple cell cycle checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, and hence U937-ASPI3K with an AT-like phenotype could serves as a valuable model system for investigating the signal transduction pathway in responding to DNA damaging-based cancer therapy.

  8. The relative biological effectiveness of densely ionizing heavy-ion radiation for inducing ocular cataracts in wild type versus mice heterozygous for the ATM gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric J; Worgul, Basil V; Smilenov, Lubomir; Elliston, Carl D; Brenner, David J

    2006-07-01

    The accelerated appearance of ocular cataracts at younger ages has been recorded in both astronauts and airline pilots, and is usually attributed to high-energy heavy ions in galactic cosmic ray radiation. We have previously shown that high-LET 1-GeV/nucleon (56)Fe ions are significantly more effective than X-rays in producing cataracts in mice. We have also shown that mice haploinsufficient for ATM develop cataracts earlier than wild-type animals, when exposed to either low-LET X-rays or high-LET (56)Fe ions. In this paper we derive quantitative estimates for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high energy (56)Fe ions compared with X-rays, both for wild type and for mice haploinsufficient for ATM. There is a clear trend toward higher RBE's in haploinsufficient animals, both for low- and high-grade cataracts. Haploinsufficiency for ATM results in an enhanced sensitivity to X-rays compared with the wild type, and this enhancement appears even larger after exposure to high-LET heavy ions. PMID:16799786

  9. Alteración funcional de la ATM: Otitis externa de presentación atípica Functional Alteration of the temporomandibular joint: Infrequent clinical Presentation for external otitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Cebrián Carretero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Patología infecciosa del oído externo es relativamente frecuente en niños pequeños y en algunas ocasiones presentándose como una alteración de la articulación temporomandibular. Sin embargo, la patología aguda de esta articulación es muy poco frecuente en esta edad de la vida. Si existe, habitualmente es precedida por un episodio de traumatismo. Una adecuada anamnesis y exploración física suele resultar en un diagnostico acertado sin realizar pruebas complementarias adicionales. Materiales y métodos: Presentamos tres casos clínicos derivados al Servicio Pediátrico de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario La Paz con el diagnóstico de patología ATM aguda. El diagnóstico final en los tres casos fue otitis externa aguda (OEA. Discusión: La OEA es la segunda causa mas frecuente de otalgia después de la otitis media aguda. La humedad, los traumas repetidos y la obstrucción glandular pueden promover la infección. Los síntomas incluyen dolor, prurito, supuración y en ocasiones pérdida auditiva. En ocasiones el movimiento mandibular sin maloclusión es doloroso. Este síntoma puede causar confusión e inducir a un diagnóstico erróneo de patología articular, lo cual es muy poco frecuente en niños. La patología de ATM en niños se caracteriza por dolor durante la apertura oral asociando disoclusión. Una correcta otoscopia permitirá realizar el diagnostico diferencial entre ambas entidades y evitar exploraciones radiológicas innecesarias. Conclusión: Debido a la poco frecuente presentación de patología ATM en niños pequeños, la OEA debe ser descartada antes de someter al paciente a exámenes radiológicos complementarios.Introduction: Infectious pathology of the external ear is quite frequent in small children and sometimes appears as an alteration of the temporomandibular joint function. However, acute pathology of this joint is quite rare in this age group and is nearly always

  10. Liste des abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    APPP Archives de la préfecture de Police de Paris Arch. nat. Archives nationales BDIC Bibliothèque de documentation de l’institut d’Histoire contemporaine BHVP Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris BNF Bibliothèque Nationale de France Ca. circa Cat. expo catalogue d’exposition cm. centimètre(s) coll. collection(s) éd. éditeur / éditions Est. Cabinet des Estampes (BNF) fds fonds (d’arch., d’œuvres, de musée...) H. hauteur Impr. Département des Imprimés (BNF) Inv. Inventaire [suivi de la...

  11. Sigles et abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Les sigles sont développés dans le texte, lors de leur première occurrence, mais la courte liste qui suite permet de retrouver les plus fréquents AFF Archives de la FFMJC AD Archives départementales AG Assemblée générale AM Archives municipales AUN Archives de l’UNIREG CA Conseil d’administration CAC Cité des archives contemporaines de Fontainebleau Dos. pers. Dossier de personnel (directeur ou délégué) DECEP Diplôme d’État de conseiller d’éducation populaire DBMEPAC Dictionnaire biographique...

  12. Liste des abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ACP Analyse en composantes principales AFD Agence française de développement AMI Assistance médicale indigène ASC Agents de santé communautaire BAD Banque africaine de développement BEP Brevet d’enseignement professionnel BEPC Brevet d’études de premier cycle BT Brevet de technicien CAMEG Centrale d’achat des médicaments essentiels génériques CAP Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle CDR Comité de défense de la Révolution CEP Certificat d’études primaires CHR Centre hospitalier régional CHU C...

  13. Table des abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    AC American Cases ADI/ILA Association de Droit International All. Er. All England Reports AMC American Maritime Cases AFDI Annuaire français de droit international Bull. civ. Bulletin du droit civil Bull. trasp. Bulletin des transports C.A. Cour d’appel C.C. Code civil C.E. Conseil d’Etat C. nav. Code de la navigation C.p.c. Code de la procédure civile Cass. Cour de cassation Cass. civ. Cour de cassation, chambre civil Cass. com. Cour de cassation, chambre commerciale Cass. it. Cour de cassat...

  14. The Strategy of Quality of Service in IPv6 Protocol%IPv6服务质量控制机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占军; 韩承德; 杨学良

    2001-01-01

    该文详细给出了ISO OSI、CCITT和ATM服务质量(Quality of Service,QoS)的概念,介绍了Internet IPv6对QoS的控制机制。%This paper discusses the quality of service,QoS,defined by ISO OSI,CCITT and ATM in detail.The QoS strategy of IPv6 protocol in Internet is presented in this paper.

  15. Pch2 acts through Xrs2 and Tel1/ATM to modulate interhomolog bias and checkpoint function during meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires the formation and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs to form crossovers. Repair is biased toward using the homolog as a substrate rather than the sister chromatid. Pch2 is a conserved member of the AAA(+-ATPase family of proteins and is implicated in a wide range of meiosis-specific processes including the recombination checkpoint, maturation of the chromosome axis, crossover control, and synapsis. We demonstrate a role for Pch2 in promoting and regulating interhomolog bias and the meiotic recombination checkpoint in response to unprocessed DSBs through the activation of axial proteins Hop1 and Mek1 in budding yeast. We show that Pch2 physically interacts with the putative BRCT repeats in the N-terminal region of Xrs2, a member of the MRX complex that acts at sites of unprocessed DSBs. Pch2, Xrs2, and the ATM ortholog Tel1 function in the same pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Hop1, independent of Rad17 and the ATR ortholog Mec1, which respond to the presence of single-stranded DNA. An N-terminal deletion of Xrs2 recapitulates the pch2Δ phenotypes for signaling unresected breaks. We propose that interaction with Xrs2 may enable Pch2 to remodel chromosome structure adjacent to the site of a DSB and thereby promote accessibility of Hop1 to the Tel1 kinase. In addition, Xrs2, like Pch2, is required for checkpoint-mediated delay conferred by the failure to synapse chromosomes.

  16. Development of a Service Quality Scale for Multiple Technology Interfaces in Commercial Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYA SANGEETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a service quality scale by identifying the dimensions affecting the service quality across various technology interfaces in retail banking. The paper examines the literature involving the various technology interfaces and aims to propose a conceptual model involving dimensions that affect the perceptions of service quality of the technology interfaces used in banks. The paper also seeks to establish the psychometric properties of the scale thus arrived. The literature review reveals that the models currently available to measure the service quality of the technology interfaces are limited in their focus, encompassing mostly one electronic channel – the internet – and few others studying the ATM and telephone banking cha nnels. However, there is a gap with regard to the study of other technology interfaces like call centers and queue systems used in the branches. In this study, an attempt is being made to explore the influence of the various technology interfaces on banks’ service quality like the ATM, telephone banking, call center services, queue systems in the branches etc. which the customers use in combination and thereby to develop a scale to measure technology interface service quality (TISQ.

  17. Flaubert libre lecteur. À propos de l’Abrégé du catéchisme de persévérance de l’abbé Gaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Dord-Crouslé

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En partant d’un exemple précis, on s’interroge ici sur la manière dont Flaubert gère ses lectures documentaires : quels sont les éléments qui guident son choix ? quel est le degré d’exactitude des notes qu’il prend ? quel est leur mode de projection ultérieure dans la fiction ? Les notes que le romancier a prises sur l’Abrégé du catéchisme de persévérance de l’abbé Gaume, conservées dans les dossiers de la bibliothèque municipale de Rouen (ms g 226 (6 f° 227 à 229, se révèlent particulièrement intéressantes : leur analyse met au jour différents mécanismes à l’œuvre tant dans la pratique de la documentation primaire que dans l’élaboration rédactionnelle secondaire du roman (en l’occurrence ici le chapitre IX de Bouvard et Pécuchet. On verra ainsi que ce n’est pas toujours là où l’œuvre est citée le plus explicitement qu’il faut aller chercher la plus forte concentration en termes de références documentaires. Est jointe la transcription diplomatique intégrale des pages manuscrites commentées.By analyzing a precise example, this article focuses on the way Flaubert deals with his documentary readings. What are the principles that guide his choices? Are the notes he takes accurate? What happens to them once they are inserted into fiction? Preserved in the files of the public library in Rouen (ms g 226 (6 f° 227 to 229, the notes that the novelist took from the abridged version of a catechism by the abbé Gaume are particularly revealing: their analysis brings to light various mechanisms at work in his practice of primary documentation as well as in the secondary writing process of the novel (in fact here chapter IX of Bouvard and Pécuchet. As it appears, it is not always where a work is most explicitly quoted that one can find the strongest concentration of documentary references. The integral « diplomatic » transcriptions of the analyzed manuscripts are included.

  18. THE EFFECT OF IMPLEMENTING CORE BANKING SERVICES ON PROFITABILITY. CASE STUDY: ALL BRANCHES OF A PRIVATE BANK IN MASHHAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Dehghan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the growth of information technology and increasing competition among banks has considerably affected attracting customers. Banking industry has made great changes to transform into the core banking. The present study aims to assess the effect of the implementation of core banking services on profitability. These services, as different branches of electronic banking, are consisting of internet banking, mobile banking, telephone banking, point of sale (POS, ATM, and electronic money which are all tested in the current study. In order to test research hypotheses and the existing relationship between variables, needed data has been collected and analyzed through the application of stepwise regression model. The achieved findings indicate a significant relationship between the application of internet banking and ATM and the variable of profitability, while there is no significant relationship between the application of telephone banking, mobile banking, POS, and electronic money and profitability.

  19. 0~3岁先天性外耳道闭锁小儿气、骨导ABR结果分析%Analysis of ABR Results in the 0~3 Years Old Children with Congenital Atresia of the External Auditory Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁美玲; 徐洁; 李年琼; 姚红兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析先天性外耳道闭锁小儿气、骨导短音诱发的听性脑干反应(click auditory brain stem response,click-ABR)结果,评估外耳道闭锁小儿气、骨导阈值及与年龄的关系。方法选取我院2013年1月~12月的年龄为0~3岁外耳道闭锁小儿46例60耳(其中单耳32例,双耳14例),将其按年龄分三组(0~岁,1~岁,2~3岁)进行短声气、骨导ABR检测,对检测结果进行统计学分析。结果0~岁组气、骨导ABR反应阈值分别为(80.52依8.3)dBnHL和(9.87依3.23)dBnHL,30 dBnHL刺激强度下骨导ABR波V潜伏期(7.85依0.33)ms,100 dBnHL刺激强度下气导ABR波V潜伏期(6.87依0.23)ms;1~岁组气、骨导ABR反应阈值分别为(78.3依9.32)dBnHL和(9.63依2.35)dBnHL,30 dBnHL刺激强度下骨导ABR潜伏期(7.53依0.32)ms,100 dBnHL刺激强度下气导ABR波V潜伏期(6.34依0.3)ms;2~3岁组气、骨导ABR反应阈值分别为(72.35依7.65)dBnHL和(9.67依2.4)dBnHL,30dBnHL刺激强度下骨导ABR潜伏期(7.23依0.25)ms,100 dBnHL刺激强度下气导ABR波V潜伏期(5.58依0.25)ms。三组小儿气导ABR在随着年龄增长阈值上升,骨导ABR反应阈值无显著变化。结论骨导ABR阈值与先天性外耳道闭锁患儿年龄无关,可以用于评估先天性外耳道闭锁小儿听力情况。%Objective Analyze the result of air-and bone-conduction evoked click-ABR in children with congenital external auditory canal atresia;Assess the relationship between age and threshold of air-and bone-conduction evoked click-ABR.Methods Step 1 Sample 46 children with congenital malformation of external ear (,aged 0~3 years old from January 2013 to December 2013.Step 2 Split the cases into three groups by age (0,1,2~3).Exam respectively with air-and bone conduction ABR.Step 3 Analyze the result statistical y.Results The data of the air-conduction reaction threshold is (80.52±3.23)dBnHL of the children aged 0~1;(78.3±9.32)dBnHL of the children aged1-2;(72.35±7.65)dBnHL of the children aged 2

  20. Human monocytes undergo excessive apoptosis following temozolomide activating the ATM/ATR pathway while dendritic cells and macrophages are resistant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bauer

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency is a severe therapy-limiting side effect of anticancer chemotherapy resulting from sensitivity of immunocompetent cells to DNA damaging agents. A central role in the immune system is played by monocytes that differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. In this study we compared human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood and cytokine matured macrophages and DCs derived from them and assessed the mechanism of toxicity of the DNA methylating anticancer drug temozolomide (TMZ in these cell populations. We observed that monocytes, but not DCs and macrophages, were highly sensitive to the killing effect of TMZ. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed that the initial DNA incision was efficient in monocytes while the re-ligation step of base excision repair (BER can not be accomplished, resulting in an accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs. Furthermore, monocytes accumulated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs following TMZ treatment, while DCs and macrophages were able to repair DSBs. Monocytes lack the DNA repair proteins XRCC1, ligase IIIα and PARP-1 whose expression is restored during differentiation into macrophages and DCs following treatment with GM-CSF and GM-CSF plus IL-4, respectively. These proteins play a key role both in BER and DSB repair by B-NHEJ, which explains the accumulation of DNA breaks in monocytes following TMZ treatment. Although TMZ provoked an upregulation of XRCC1 and ligase IIIα, BER was not enhanced likely because PARP-1 was not upregulated. Accordingly, inhibition of PARP-1 did not sensitize monocytes, but monocyte-derived DCs in which strong PARP activation was observed. TMZ induced in monocytes the DNA damage response pathways ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 resulting in p53 activation. Finally, upon activation of the Fas-receptor and the mitochondrial pathway apoptosis was executed in a caspase-dependent manner. The downregulation of DNA repair in monocytes, resulting in their selective

  1. Durabilidad del aluminio desnudo y anodizado en atmósferas de muy diferentes corrosividades. I. Aluminio desnudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, J. A.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of bare aluminium is studied in atmospheric exposure at 11 natural testing stations with salinity levels ranging between 2.1 and 684 mg Cl-1m-2d-1. In atmospheres of low or moderate aggressivity aluminium behaves as a passive material, though the insignificant corrosion that is produced is sufficient to spoil its appearance. In contrast, at salinity levels of 50 mg Cl-1m-2d-1 or above, aluminium is susceptible to pitting corrosion even in the first year of atmospheric exposure, or in the second year at salinities of s: 10 mg Cl-1m-2d-1 . For comparative purposes, results are included for aluminium protected with an anodic film of 28 μm thickness exposed at the same testing stations. A 28 μm anodic film, correctly sealed, prevents the risk of localised corrosion even in the most unfavourable situations.

    Se estudia el comportamiento del aluminio desnudo durante la exposición atmosférica en 11 estaciones de ensayos naturales, con salinidades que oscilan entre 2,1 y 684 mg Cl-1m-2d-1. En atmósferas de agresividades bajas y moderadas, el aluminio se comporta como un material pasivo, pero la insignificante corrosión que se produce es suficiente para perjudicar el aspecto. Sin embargo, el aluminio es susceptible a la corrosión por picaduras, ya durante el primer año de exposición atmosférica, para salinidades de 50 mg Cl-1m-2d-1 o superiores y, durante el segundo año, para salinidades > 10 mg Cl-1m-2d-1. A efectos comparativos se incluyen resultados de aluminio protegido con un anodizado de 28 μm de espesor, expuesto en las mismas estaciones de ensayo. Un anodizado de 28 μm, correctamente sellado, evita el riesgo de corrosión localizada, incluso en las situaciones más desfavorables.

  2. Durabilidad del aluminio desnudo y anodizado en atmósferas de muy diferentes corrosividades. II. Aluminio anodizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, V.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of three anodic films with thicknesses of approximately 7,17 and 28 μm is studied in atmospheric exposure at 11 natural testing stations with salinity levels ranging between 2.1 and 684 mg Cl-1m-2d-1 To evaluate the results, use was made of gravimetric techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, EDX microanalysis, standard quality control tests, optical microscopy and, occasionally, electron microscopy. It is shown that anodising with correct sealing is an appropriate solution for preventing localised corrosion of aluminium and conserving its appearance, even in atmospheres of high corrosivity, provided that an ill-defined minimum thickness threshold is passed. The 7 μm anodic films suffer corrosion after the second annual cycle in the most aggressive environments. Corrosion, when it occurs, is localised in the form of pitting or filiform corrosion.

    Se estudia el comportamiento de tres anodizados, de 7, 17 y 28 μm, aproximadamente, durante la exposición en 11 estaciones de corrosión atmosférica, con salinidades que oscilan entre 2,1 y 684 mg Cl-1m-2d-1 En la valoración de resultados se utilizaron técnicas gravimétricas, de espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica (EIE, microanálisis por EDX, ensayos normalizados de control de calidad, microscopía óptica y, ocasionalmente, microscopía electrónica. Se demuestra que la anodización, con un sellado correcto y siempre que supere un umbral mínimo de espesor, no bien definido, es una solución adecuada para prevenir la corrosión localizada del aluminio y conservar el aspecto, incluso, en atmósferas de elevada corrosividad. Los anodizados de 7 μm sufren corrosión, en los ambientes más agresivos, a partir del segundo ciclo anual. La corrosión, cuando se presenta, es localizada, en forma de picaduras o de corrosión filiforme. Palabras clave

  3. Virtual Ethernet ring architecture for reliable Ethernet service delivery over SDH/SONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Anand

    2002-09-01

    With its low cost, ubiquity, and scale, Ethernet is the technology most widely envisioned to change the economics of packet service delivery for both carriers and their customers. This paper discusses a new architecture that simplifies and lowers the cost to deliver data services. By fully integrating Ethernet with existing SONET/SDH networks in a "Virtual Ethernet Ring," carriers can now provide a multipoint Ethernet service that can span long distances across multiple metro areas. This architecture leverages the plug-and-play advantages of Ethernet - auto-provisioning, broadcast and discovery, etc. - across a distributed wide area network. It provides the advantage of granular, software-provisioned bandwidth to the customer. It also provides SONET/SDH quality resilience with security and bandwidth guarantee. By incorporating protocol mediation technology, this architecture enables the migration from today's frame relay, ATM and IP services to a new generation of granular, readily scalable Ethernet services such as Ethernet Private Line, Ethernet Virtual Private Lines and Internet/Frame Relay/ATM/Access Services.

  4. Service Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges in relation to an ongoing project named converged advanced mobile media platform (CAMMP), where all the different stakeholders need to have a saying in the service development for the upcoming rich, mobile broadcasting services.......This article discusses the challenges in relation to an ongoing project named converged advanced mobile media platform (CAMMP), where all the different stakeholders need to have a saying in the service development for the upcoming rich, mobile broadcasting services....

  5. Algunas observaciones sobre la sinterización del acero austenítico 316L en atmósfera de argón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, F.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available PM high speed steels are prone to higher corrosion rates due to residual porosity as well as chromium depletion of the matrix during sintering AISI 316L powders have been cold compacted (100-1,000 MPa and sintered (1,000-1,250°C, 15-240 min under several argon containing or vacuum atmospheres. Better densification rates can be achieved as sintering time or temperature increase in the presence of argon. No surface oxidation has been observed with the use of low pressure argon atmospheres, as long as samples are protected in a stainless steel partially sealed container.

    La utilización de acero inoxidable pulvimetalúrgico está limitada, entre otras razones, por la presencia de porosidad que pueda favorecer procesos corrosivos, así como a posibles pérdidas de cromo en la matriz durante los procesos de sinterización. Se han realizado experiencias de procesado de polvos de acero 316L con distintas presiones de compactación (100-1.000 MPa, temperaturas de sinterización (1.100-1.250°C, tiempos de sinterización (15-240 min y en distintas atmósferas de sinterización, de argón y vacío. Se obtiene una mejor densificación con elevada temperatura y tiempos de sinterización en atmósferas de argón a baja presión. En dicha atmósfera, no se produce oxidación superficial aislando parcialmente las muestras del flujo directo del argón.

  6. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  7. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2 was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA. These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.

  8. Análisis espectroscópico de fragmentos cometarios y asteroidales a su entrada en la atmósfera terrestre.

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo Rodriguez, Josep Maria

    2002-01-01

    RESUMEN En la presente tesis se analiza el origen y composición de la materia interplanetaria a partir de una perspectiva nueva basada en el estudio de los fenómenos luminosos que producen estas partículas a su entrada a la atmósfera terrestre, llamados meteoros. Estas partículas, procedentes mayoritariamente de la degradación de las superficies de cometas y asteroides, cuando se hayan en órbita solar se denominan genéricamente meteoroides. Dependiendo de la geometría del encuentro con la ...

  9. Estabilidad en el almacenamiento congelado de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. empacadas en atmósfera modificada con CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Luisa Medina Bracamonte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad atún rojo fresco, entero y rebanado, como todo producto pesquero fresco está restringida para los consumidores en zonas distantes a los centros de producción por su estabilidad limitada en el almacenamiento. Por ello la industria pesquera en general, en la época de mayor producción, recurre a la congelación para conservar el excedente de producción, y al empacado para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y “quemaduras por frío”. El surgimiento del Empacado en Atmósfera Modificada como alternativa para incrementar la vida útil de productos alimenticios despertó la inquietud de evaluar la estabilidad de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. fresco, congeladas y empacadas con 100 % de CO2 durante su almacenamiento a las temperaturas convencionales para su distribución y venta, -10 y -18 ºC, evaluando la estabilidad química, física, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo durante ≈ 4 meses de almacenamiento congelado. El 50 % de las rebanadas se congeló a -10 ºC (Tratamiento 1 y el 50 % restante a -18 ºC (Tratamiento 2. Las rebanadas congeladas se empacaron individualmente, el 50 % en atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 conservando la proporción 1:2 (rebanada:gas y el 50 % restante en atmósfera de aire. Se almacenaron a la temperatura correspondiente: Tratamiento 1 a -10 ºC y Tratamiento 2 a -18 ºC durante 111 días. Al final del almacenamiento el tratamiento P2 (100 % CO2 ofreció mejor barrera a la pérdida de humedad, favoreció la estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles en solución salina. Las muestras P2 tuvieron mayor aceptación sensorial, fueron las más oscuras y rojas, con menor recuento microbiológico, coincidiendo con el menor contenido en bases volátiles totales. A -10 ºC la atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 no evitó la “quemadura por frío” y los panelistas percibieron el “olor a pescado”.

  10. O BERA como instrumento de avaliação funcional do tronco cerebral em cirurgias com hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória total The ABR as a tool in the evaluation of brainstem function in surgeries with deep hypothermia and total cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Alves de Sousa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Monitoramento do tronco cerebral através da análise dos traçados do BERA em cirurgia cardíaca com hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória total (PCT, registrando a recuperação funcional (eletrofisiológica do tronco cerebral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte Longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados o comportamento do traçado do BERA de 8 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com hipotermia profunda e PCT para correção de aneurisma de aorta torácica. Etapas: resfriamento corporal até 18ºC C; PCT por até 60 minutos; reaquecimento. Registros do BERA: 35ºC, 32ºC, 26ºC, 18ºC, 27ºC, 35ºC. RESULTADOS: Os traçados iniciais (35ºC se apresentavam normais. Aos 26ºC há o desaparecimento de todas as ondas. Aos 18ºC o traçado do BERA mostrava um padrão isoelétrico. Aos 27ºC, recuperação das ondas I, III e V. A partir de 35ºC as latências das ondas retornam ao normal. CONCLUSÃO: O BERA constitui-se em competente instrumento de monitoramento da integridade funcional do tronco cerebral em cirurgia cardíaca com hipotermia profunda e PCT. As ondas desaparecem no período de resfriamento corporal, atingem um padrão isoelétrico a 18ºC, e reaparecem durante o reaquecimento. No final do procedimento, os médicos anestesistas não dispõem de exame clínico fidedigno para acessar a integridade funcional do tronco cerebral, devido ao uso de drogas depressoras do SNC. O reaparecimento das ondas do BERA é o parâmetro proposto para este fim. A manutenção do padrão isoelétrico após o reaquecimento corporal sugere grave comprometimento funcional do tronco cerebral.AIM: The authors propose the use of ABR as an instrument for the detection of brainstem dysfunction in the trans- and post-operatory period of surgeries with total circulatory arrest (TCA and deep hypothermia for correction of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal Cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eight adult patients that underwent

  11. An Empirical Study on Antecedents of Perceived Service Recovery Quality in E-banking Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejikumar G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The wide usage of IT enabled options for service delivery has increased the occurrence of irrepressible service failures in the contemporary banking landscape. The enhanced service quality levels exhibited by the dedicated employees suffer badly due to ever-increasing number of tech-driven service failures. The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages among constructs such as perceived service quality, perceived organizational service orientation, perceived automation quality, perceived employee proficiency and perceived service recovery quality to recovery satisfaction in the E-banking context. This investigation examined the moderating role of perceived initial negative feelings of the customer due to service failures, on recovery satisfaction. Data collected from 248 banking customers were analyzed by structural equation modeling approach using, Smart PLS 2.0 M 3, software to identify significant linkages among variables under study. Apart from perceived employee proficiency, all other variables significantly developed perceived service recovery quality leading to recovery satisfaction. Initial negative feelings from a service failure failed to cause significant moderating effect on post recovery satisfaction. The most disturbing service failures in the automated service delivery environment was identified as technical failures such as delay in online transactions, issues related to ATMs and interrupted connectivity. The study could establish that excellent service recovery quality develops service recovery satisfaction and customers gain more confidence in the bank and perceive higher value in their association with the bank.

  12. Hallazgos artroscópicos en un caso de disco articular adherido de la ATM Arthroscopic findings in a fixed disc case of the TMJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martín-Granizo López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de disco adherido (SDA o stuck syndrome de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM es un fenómeno que ha sido descrito recientemente y cuya fisiopatogenia es una alteración bioquímica que se produce en algunas ATMs con disfunción temporomandibular. En el presente artículo describimos un caso clínico y especialmente los interesantes hallazgos artroscópicos encontrados, que ayudarían a corroborar el mecanismo fisiopatogénico propuesto. Son de especial relevancia la correcta posición discal dentro de la articulación y una zona eritematosa encontrada en la sinovial que recubre la fosa-eminencia glenoidea de la articulación.The anchored disc phenomenon (ADP or ‘stuck syndrome’ of the TMJ is a phenomenon that has only recently been described, with a physiopathogeny of biochemical disturbances that are produced in some TMJs with temporomandibular dysfunction. In this article we describe a clinical case and, in particular, the interesting arthroscopic findings that help to corroborate the physiopathogenic mechanisms proposed. Of special relevance is the correct position of the disc within the joint and an erythematous area found in the synovial membrane covering the glenoid fossa-eminence of the joint.

  13. Oxidative DNA damage induces the ATM-mediated transcriptional suppression of the Wnt inhibitor WIF-1 in systemic sclerosis and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svegliati, Silvia; Marrone, Giusi; Pezone, Antonio; Spadoni, Tatiana; Grieco, Antonella; Moroncini, Gianluca; Grieco, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Maria; Agnese, Savina; Jüngel, Astrid; Distler, Oliver; Musti, Anna Maria; Gabrielli, Armando; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2014-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by extensive visceral organ and skin fibrosis. SSc patients have increased production of autoreactive antibodies and Wnt signaling activity. We found that expression of the gene encoding Wnt inhibitor factor 1 (WIF-1) was decreased in fibroblasts from SSc patient biopsies. WIF-1 deficiency in SSc patient cells correlated with increased abundance of the Wnt effector β-catenin and the production of collagen. Knocking down WIF-1 in normal fibroblasts increased Wnt signaling and collagen production. WIF-1 loss and DNA damage were induced in normal fibroblasts by either SSc patient immunoglobulins or oxidative DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet light, hydrogen peroxide, or bleomycin. The DNA damage checkpoint kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) mediated WIF-1 silencing through the phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun, which in turn activated the expression of the gene encoding activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). ATF3 and c-Jun were recruited together with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) to the WIF-1 promoter and inhibited WIF-1 expression. Preventing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species or inhibiting the activation of ATM, c-Jun, or HDACs restored WIF-1 expression in cultured SSc patient cells. Trichostatin A, an HDAC inhibitor, prevented WIF-1 loss, β-catenin induction, and collagen accumulation in an experimental fibrosis model. Our findings suggest that oxidative DNA damage induced by SSc autoreactive antibodies enables Wnt activation that contributes to fibrosis. PMID:25185156

  14. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  15. PACS-2 mediates the ATM and NF-κB-dependent induction of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-González, J; Auclair, S; Luan, S; Thomas, L; Atkins, K M; Aslan, J E; Thomas, L L; Zhao, J; Zhao, Y; Thomas, G

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) promotes cell survival in response to genotoxic stress by inducing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-xL, which protects mitochondria from stress-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Here we show that the multifunctional sorting protein Pacs-2 (phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2) is required for Bcl-xL induction following DNA damage in primary mouse thymocytes. Consequently, in response to DNA damage, Pacs-2(-/-) thymocytes exhibit a blunted induction of Bcl-xL, increased MOMP and accelerated apoptosis. Biochemical studies show that cytoplasmic PACS-2 promotes this DNA damage-induced anti-apoptotic pathway by interacting with ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to drive NF-κB activation and induction of Bcl-xL. However, Pacs-2 was not required for tumor necrosis factor-α-induced NF-κB activation, suggesting a role for PACS-2 selectively in NF-κB activation in response to DNA damage. These findings identify PACS-2 as an in vivo mediator of the ATM and NF-κB-dependent induction of Bcl-xL that promotes cell survival in response to DNA damage. PMID:26943323

  16. Pathway Model of the Kinetics of the TGFbeta Antagonist Smad7 and Cross-Talk with the ATM and WNT Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Claudio; Wang, Minli; Huff, Janice L.; Hada, Megumi; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction controls cellular and tissue responses to radiation. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is an important regulator of cell growth and differentiation and tissue homeostasis, and is often dis-regulated in tumor formation. Mathematical models of signal transduction pathways can be used to elucidate how signal transduction varies with radiation quality, and dose and dose-rate. Furthermore, modeling of tissue specific responses can be considered through mechanistic based modeling. We developed a mathematical model of the negative feedback regulation by Smad7 in TGFbeta-Smad signaling and are exploring possible connections to the WNT/beta -catenin, and ATM/ATF2 signaling pathways. A pathway model of TGFbeta-Smad signaling that includes Smad7 kinetics based on data in the scientific literature is described. Kinetic terms included are TGFbeta/Smad transcriptional regulation of Smad7 through the Smad3-Smad4 complex, Smad7-Smurf1 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm, and Smad7 negative feedback regulation of the TGFO receptor through direct binding to the TGFO receptor complex. The negative feedback controls operating in this pathway suggests non-linear responses in signal transduction, which are described mathematically. We then explored possibilities for cross-talk mediated by Smad7 between DNA damage responses mediated by ATM, and with the WNT pathway and consider the design of experiments to test model driven hypothesis. Numerical comparisons of the mathematical model to experiments and representative predictions are described.

  17. Detección y estudio de las perturbaciones generadas en la atmósfera por los eventos "El Niño Benguela"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Osvaldo Canziani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los Niños Benguela son eventos cálidos, intermitentes y extremos que afectan la costa oeste de África. A diferencia de su homónimo del océano Pacífico (ENSO, la información disponible sobre las modificaciones introducidas en la atmósfera por estos eventos es muy limitada. El presente trabajo muestra perturbaciones abruptas generadas en la atmósfera por los eventos el Niño Benguela ocurridos en los últimos 30 años, detectadas mediante la aplicación del método de Yamamoto a series de promedios mensuales de anomalías de geopotencial para los océanos. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de este análisis permiten relacionar las fechas en que ocurrieron anomalías de la temperatura superficial del mar debidas a Niños Benguela con los meses en que se observan perturbaciones abruptas sobre el Atlántico tropical tanto en la tropósfera como en la baja estratósfera. La detección de perturbaciones sobre el Pacífico tropical demuestra la existencia de teleconexiones, las cuales no se observaron sobre el océano Índico.

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Management services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Management Services Section provides coordinated professional administrative services to the Fusion Energy Division (FED), allowing the work of technical professionals to be more fully concentrated in their areas of specialty. Services are provided in general administration, personnel, financial management, communications (including text and graphics generation), management information, library, safety, quality assurance, and nonprogrammatic engineering services. Highlights of the past year included adoption of the Procurement Module in the FED Management Information System (MIS) for use by the entire Laboratory, completion of the Personnel Module of the MIS, greatly increased personnel recruiting activity, and increased industrial subcontracting activity

  20. 基于BFC模型的ATM网络拥塞控制器的设计%Controller Design for Congestion Control in ATM Network Based on BFC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪; 方建安

    2003-01-01

    为充分提高ATM网络性能,设计一个高效的拥塞控制系统是关键.自适应比特(ABR)业务的流量控制正是ATM网络中一种有效的拥塞控制机制和流量管理手段.在二进制ABR流反馈控制方案中.信元速率和队列的大幅度振荡降低了链路利用率,但它的简洁性对设计高性能交换机又极具吸引力.为此,该文基于流体理论给出了二进制反馈控制的分析模型,并基于该模型,提出了传统PID和智能拥塞控制器的设计方案.然后,该文在相同条件下对两类控制方法进行了仿真,并比较分析了他们的优缺点.最后,该文提出了拥塞控制器的改进方法及下一步研究的课题和思路.

  1. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling,...

  2. Registration Service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Following a reorganization in Building 55, please note that the Registration Service is now organised as follows :  Ground floor: access cards (76903). 1st floor : registration of external firms’ personnel (76611 / 76622); car access stickers (76633); biometric registration (79710). Opening hours: 07-30 to 16-00 non-stop. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  3. Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    Reviewed are the goals and activities of the therapy services in the Austin Early Childhood Special Education Program. Specific sections detail activities for speech therapy (such as diagnostic assessment, habilitation, consultation, and reporting procedures), occupational therapy (including identification and assessment, and services to children,…

  4. Telephone Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN exchange switches will be updated on Thursday 2 June between 7.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be affected and possibly even disrupted during this operation. 

  5. Metodología de análisis sobre la protección de los riesgos derivados de atmósferas explosivas. Caso práctico

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Torres, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    La evaluación de riesgos derivados de atmósferas explosivas es un requisito legal que debe cumplir cualquier empresario que sea titular de instalaciones en las que se utilicen sustancias susceptibles de originar atmósferas explosivas. En estos casos, también es de obligada realización el Documento de Protección contra Explosiones (en adelante DPCE), que debe configurar un informe completo del proceso de evaluación del riesgo y reflejar aquellas medidas técnicas y organizativas que se aplican ...

  6. Comparative Study of Two Flow Control Mechanisms in High Speed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiailin; DU Haimng; WU Jieyi; ZHANG Sabing

    2001-01-01

    Considerable protocol development efforts in recent ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Forum activities have been focused on the traffic management of available bit rate (ABR) service. It has been shown that ABR service enables persistent, greedy data sources to efficiently utilize ATM network resources with the help of a rate-based flow control mechanism. ATM Forum Traffic Management Specification Version 4.0 doctunent gives a complete description of the end system behavior of the flow control mechanism, but it leaves the details of the switch behavior to be vendor-implementation dependent. For the sake of compatibility and interoperation among flow control mechanisms implemented by vendors, two rate-based mechanisms EPRCA (Enhanced Proportional Rate Control Algorithm) and ERICA (Explicit Rate Indication for Congestion Avoidance) have been recommended in the specification. In this paper, the mechanisms are studied and their performance is analyzed and compared with a material network. Simulation shows that ERICA is significantly better than EPRCA in the performance of steady state and instantaneous state of source end system ACR (Allowed Cell Rate) and buffer queue of bottleneck switch.

  7. Common variants at 9q22.33, 14q13.3, and ATM loci, and risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in the French Polynesian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Maillard

    Full Text Available French Polynesia has one of the highest incidence rates of thyroid cancer worldwide. Relationships with the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and other environmental, biological, or behavioral factors have already been reported, but genetic susceptibility has yet to be investigated. We assessed the contribution of polymorphisms at the 9q22.33 and 14q13.3 loci identified by GWAS, and within the DNA repair gene ATM, to the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in 177 cases and 275 matched controls from the native population.For the GWAS SNP rs965513 near FOXE1, an association was found between genotypes G/A and A/A, and risk of DTC. A multiplicative effect of allele A was even noted. An excess risk was also observed in individuals carrying two long alleles of the poly-alanine tract expansion in FOXE1, while no association was observed with rs1867277 falling in the promoter region of the gene. In contrast, the GWAS SNP rs944289 (NKX2-1 did not show any significant association. Although the missense substitution D1853N (rs1801516 in ATM was rare in the population, carriers of the minor allele (A also showed an excess risk. The relationships between these five polymorphisms and the risk of DTC were not contingent on the body surface area, body mass index, ethnicity or dietary iodine intake. However, an interaction was evidenced between the thyroid radiation dose and rs944289.A clear link could not be established between the high incidence in French Polynesia and the studied polymorphisms, involved in susceptibility to DTC in other populations. Important variation in allele frequencies was observed in the Polynesian population as compared to the European populations. For FOXE1 rs965513, the direction of association and the effect size was similar to that observed in other populations, whereas for ATM rs1801516, the minor allele was associated to an increased risk in the Polynesian population and with a decreased risk in the European population.

  8. IT Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks. The term 'service' is...

  9. Serviced Living

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ As recently as ten years ago,the term serviced apartment made no sense to most people living in Beijing and residing in hotels was the only options for foreign visitors. But since then, serviced apartments have begun to appear in big cities all around China. In Beijing alone, it is estimated that there are more than 30,000service apartments spread across dozens of properties occupying a space of more than I million square meters. Concentrating in the Financial Street, the Central Business District and Zhongguancun, also known as China's Silicon Valley, the explosion in service apartments in the city continues to be fueled by the influx of overseas and domestic business people.

  10. Service modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.W.A.; Iacob, M.E.; Lankhorst, M.M.; Jonkers, H.; Zoet, M.; et al., et al.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of enterprise services involves making design decisions at different levels, ranging from strategic to infrastructural choices, and concerning many different aspects, ranging from customer interaction to information registration concerns. In order to support an agile development proc

  11. Solubility relations in the ternary system NaCl-CsCl-H2O at 1 atm. 1. Solubilities of halite from 20 to 100 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lee, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Solubilities of halite in the ternary system NaCl-CsCl-H2O have been determined by the visual polythermal method at 1 atm from 20 to 100??C along five constant CsCl/(CsCl + H2O) weight ratio lines. These five constant weight ratios are 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The maximum uncertainties in these measurements are ??0.02 wt % NaCl and ??0.15??C. The data along each constant CsCl/(CsCl + H2O) weight ratio line were regressed to a smooth curve. The maximum deviation of the measured solubilities from the smooth curves is 0.06 wt % NaCl. Isothermal solubilities of halite were calculated from smoothed curves at 25, 50, and 75??C.

  12. Nonthermal metabolic response of rats to He-O2, N2-O2, and Ar-O2 at 1 atm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C. L.; Jordan, J. P.; Phillips, R. W.; Clarkson, D. P.; Simmons, J. B., II

    1973-01-01

    Experiments were performed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively the nonthermal metabolic response of rats to normoxic mixtures of helium, nitrogen, or argon at 1 atm ambient pressure. Hypoxic mixtures were similarly tested to determine any differences in hypoxic response as a function of the diluent gas. Rats exposed to argon for 5 days had a reduced metabolic rate relative to nitrogen, as evidenced by oxygen and food consumption, CO2 production, and the catabolism of radiosubstrates. While some parameters indicated that helium increased metabolic rate, oxygen consumption did not significantly differ from that in nitrogen. The physiologic and metabolic response to an imposed hypoxia varied among the different environments. Certain indices suggested that the hypoxic effects were less severe in helium and more pronounced in argon than in nitrogen. The mechanisms by which the diluent gases produced the observed changes could not be identified, but some possibilities are discussed.

  13. 放射治疗增敏的新靶点ATM的研究进展%Advances in research on ATM as a target for novel radiosensitizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨劲松; 陆雪官; 冯炎

    2004-01-01

    临床发现患遗传性共济失调-毛细血管扩张(ataxia-telangiectasia,A-T)综合征的患者对电离辐射具有高敏感性.通过研究表明其高放射敏感性可能归因于ATM(ataxia-telangiectasia mutated)基因,其中起关键作用的部分是ATM蛋白激酶.为此,人们开发了ATM激酶的阻滞剂,如咖啡因、己酮可可碱、甲基黄嘌呤和uCN-01(7-hydroxystaurosporine)等,并在基础和临床研究中获得了一些可喜的结果.

  14. Almacenamiento de Trozos de Ñame (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) en Atmósferas Modificadas Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Chunks Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo D Andrade; Juan C Palacio; Waldir A Pacheco; Robert A Betin

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan las condiciones de conservación de trozos de ñame en empaques de películas poliméricas, bajo condiciones de atmósfera modificada. Se determina la tasa de respiración de trozos de ñame a temperatura de refrigeración (5 ± 1°C) y temperatura ambiente (27 ± 1°C) y se evalúan diferentes películas plásticas con atmosfera modificada. La tasa de respiración a temperatura de refrigeración fue de 2.9 ± 0.9 mlCO2/Kg-h (gráficamente) y 3.2 ± 1.0 mlC0(2)/Kg-h (analíticamente), ...

  15. Presença de microfonismo coclear no peate-clique: diagnóstico diferencial entre espectro da neuropatia auditiva e perdas auditivas cocleares descendentes em crianças Presence of cochlear microphonics in click-ABR: differential diagnosis between auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and steeply sloping cochlear hearing loss in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Ivo Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: diagnóstico diferencial entre espectro da neuropatia auditiva e perdas auditivas cocleares descendentes em crianças com presença de microfonismo coclear no PEATE-clique. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso descreve os resultados da avaliação audiológica de duas crianças atendidas no Centro "Audição na Criança" da Divisão de Educação e Reabilitação dos Distúrbios da Comunicação da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (CeAC/DERDIC/PUCSP que apresentaram microfonismo coclear no registro do PEATE-clique. As crianças foram submetidas às avaliações utilizando-se o PEATE-clique, o registro das emissões otoacústicas e a avaliação audiológica tonal, com a técnica da Audiometria de Reforço Visual. RESULTADOS: as avaliações comportamental, eletroacústica e eletrofisiológica revelaram que as crianças apresentam perda auditiva sensorioneural (coclear com configuração descendente, de modo que a presença do microfonismo coclear no registro do PEATE-clique era provavelmente gerada pela preservação da cóclea nas frequências baixas. CONCLUSÃO: os casos apresentados mostram que na ausência das emissões otoacústicas e presença do microfonismo coclear, não se deve interpretar isoladamente cada exame, para que não ocorram equívocos no diagnóstico, que pode ser confundido com o Espectro da Neuropatia Auditiva. O microfonismo coclear pode aparecer em outras condições, tais como em perdas auditivas cocleares descendentes.BACKGROUND: differential diagnosis between auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder andsteeply sloping cochlear hearing loss in children with presence of cochlear microphonics for click-ABR. PROCEDURES: this case report describes the results of the audiological evaluation for two children assisted at Centro "Audição na Criança" of Divisão de Educação e Reabilitação dos Distúrbios da Comunicação of Pontifícia Universidade Católica of São Paulo (CeAC/DERDIC/PUCSP with presence

  16. Desempenho de processo anaeróbio em dois estágios (reator compartimentado seguido de reator UASB) para tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Performance of two-stage anaerobic process (baffled reactor (ABR) followed by an upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB)) treating swine wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Gracie F. R. Fernandes; Roberto A. de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito das águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações de sólidos suspensos totais em torno de 6.000 mg L-1 (DQOtotal variando de 7.557 a 11.640 mg L-1) no desempenho de processo anaeróbio em dois estágios compostos por reator compartimentado (ABR) e reator de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB), instalados em série, em escala-piloto (volumes de 530 e 120 L, respectivamente), submetidos a tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH) de 56 a 18 h no primeiro reator e de 13 a ...

  17. Perceived quality of self services: study in the brazilian bank retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Nogueira Biscola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The last years were characterized by great number of mergers and acquisitions in the banking industry that led to a necessity of operational modernization. This transition resulted in changes in the service offered to the customer, who came to do financial operations in Automated Teller Machines (ATMs. The work’s goal was to examine customers expectative and perceptions related to service quality of self-service in retail banks. A unique descriptive transversal study was conducted along with a sample of 138 agency customers of three banking institutions. The conceptual model of service quality, formulated by Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml (1990, constituted the theoretical background to this work. The data reveled that: (a customers expectations are high and their perceptions are low, varying its intensity from one dimension to another; and (b the customers perceived that they weren't having their complaints solved properly, although they trust the agency employees.

  18. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  19. Reconstrucción de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM: prótesis aloplástica Reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ: alloplastic prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goizueta Adame

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available La incapacidad de desarrollar sistemas inertes eficaces para la sustitución completa de la articulación temporo-mandibular durante décadas ha generado una variedad de soluciones biológicas para un problema biomecánico. Los injertos autólogos no ofrecen garantías en funcionalidad, simetría, o estabilidad oclusal; resultan técnicamente más complejos y tienen mayor potencial morbilidad. El paciente candidato a reconstrucción completa de la ATM debe contar con la posibilidad de una prótesis si otras opciones fracasan. La reconstrucción aloplástica garantiza estabilidad oclusal, técnica sencilla y reproducible, estancia hospitalaria predecible y baja tasa de complicaciones con los sistemas protésicos actuales. Siempre van a existir pacientes en los que ésta sea la única opción, por lo tanto es primordial la medición de la magnitud de las fuerzas implicadas en la mecánica de la ATM para poder diseñar prótesis en base a modelos fiables como en otras articulaciones en las que ya han resuelto el problema.Incapabability to develop effective inert systems to total temporomandibular joint substitution during decades has genered several biologic solutions for a biomecanic question. Autologous grafts don´t offer security in functioning, simmetry, or oclusal estability; its have more coplex technique and more potencial morbility. Alloplastic reconstruction guarantees oclusal stability, single and reproducible technique, predictable time in hospital, and low morbility with actual prosthetic systems. Patients whos prostheses is only one option are going to exist always, so that it is primordial measures of magnitude of implicated strenghts in TMJ mecanic to can design prosthesis based on reliable models like others articulations which have just resolved the question.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings