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Sample records for atlast characterizing habitable

  1. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, M; Krist, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Brown, R; Oegerle, W; Lo, A; Clampin, M; Soummer, R; Wiseman, J; Mountain, M

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation UV-Optical-Near Infrared space telescope with an aperture size of 8 to 16 meters. ATLAST, using an internal coronagraph or an external occulter, can characterize the atmosphere and surface of an Earth-sized exoplanet in the Habitable Zone of long-lived stars at distances up to ~45 pc, including its rotation rate, climate, and habitability. ATLAST will also allow us to glean information on the nature of the dominant surface features, changes in cloud cover and climate, and, potentially, seasonal variations in surface vegetation. ATLAST will be able to visit up to 200 stars in 5 years, at least three times each, depending on the technique used for starlight suppression and the telescope aperture. More frequent visits can be made for interesting systems.

  2. Characterizing Habitable Exo-Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of screening the atmosphere of exomoons for habitability. We concentrate on Earth-like satellites of extrasolar giant planets (EGP) which orbit in the Habitable Zone of their host stars. The detectability of exomoons for EGP in the Habitable Zone has recently been shown to be feasible with the Kepler Mission or equivalent photometry using transit duration observations. Using the Earth itself as a proxy we show the potential and limits of spectroscopy to detect biomarkers on an Earth-like exomoon and discuss effects of tidal locking for such potential habitats. Transmission spectroscopy of exomoons is a unique potential tool to screen them for habitability in the near future.

  3. Terrestrial exoplanets: diversity, habitability and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selsis, Franck [CRAL: Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CNRS), Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Kaltenegger, Lisa [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Paillet, Jimmy [ESTEC SCI-SA, Keplerlaan 1, PO Box 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: franck.selsis@ens-lyon.fr, E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jpaillet@rssd.esa.int

    2008-08-15

    After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the sensitivity to gain information on the physical structure and chemical content of some of the detected planets and also to find planets of less than 10 M{sub +}. The detection and characterization of Earth-like planets is approaching rapidly and dedicated space observatories are already in operation (CoRoT) or in the development phase (Kepler, Darwin and TPF-I/C). In this paper, we explore the domain of terrestrial planets, emphasizing habitable worlds. We discuss the possibility of performing a spectral characterization of their properties using the next generation of astronomical instruments.

  4. Characterizing Habitable Extrasolar Planets using Spectral Fingerprints

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly thanks to radial velocity surveys (HARPS), transit searches (Corot, Kepler) and space observatories dedicated to their characterization are already in development phase (James Webb Space Telescope), large ground based telescopes (ELT, TNT, GMT), and dedicated space-based missions like Darwin, Terrestrial Planet Finder, New World Observer). In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. Identifying signs of life implies understanding how the observed atmosphere physically and chemically works and thus to gather information on the planet in addition to the observing its spectral fingerprint.

  5. The First Atmospheric Characterization of a Habitable-Zone Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan; Irwin, Jonathan; Kreidberg, Laura; Line, Michael; Montet, Ben; Morley, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Exoplanet surveys have recently revealed nearby planets orbiting within stellar habitable zones. This highly-anticipated breakthrough brings us one step closer in our quest to identify cosmic biosignatures, the indicators of extrasolar life. To achieve our goal, we must first study the atmospheres of these temperate worlds to measure their compositions and determine the prevalence of obscuring clouds. Using observations from the K2 mission, Co-I Montet recently announced the discovery of a 2.2 Earth-radii planet within the habitable zone of its relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star, K2-18. This temperate world is currently the best habitable-zone target for atmospheric characterization. Congruent with currently planned HST observations, we propose a Spitzer program to measure the transmission spectrum of the first habitable-zone exoplanet. Both telescopes are essential to revealing K2-18b's chemical composition. In a cloud-free, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere, the precision achieved by these measurements will be sufficient to detect methane, ammonia, and water vapor, which are the dominant C, N, and O bearing species at these temperatures. In turn, elemental abundance constraints from a primordial atmosphere can tell us about the composition of a protoplanetary disk in which Earth-like planets could have formed. Conversely, if the atmosphere contains thick clouds then the multi-wavelength observations from K2, HST, and Spitzer will constrain the clouds' properties. Because temperature plays a key role in the formation of clouds, their detection within the atmosphere of this habitable-zone exoplanet would be an important signpost that serves as a guide to future investigations of smaller, rocky exoplanets. As K2 continues discovering more habitable-zone planets, it is imperative that we perform spectral reconnaissance with Spitzer to determine their physical characteristics and begin understanding the prevalence of potentially-obscuring clouds prior to the

  6. Direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable planets with ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien

    2015-12-01

    While the ~1e10 reflected light contrast between Earth-like planets and Sun-like stars is extremely challenging to overcome for ground-based telescopes, habitable planets around lower-mass stars can be "only" a 10 million times fainter than their host stars. Thanks to the small angular resolution offered by upcoming extremely large telescopes (ELTs) and recent advances in wavefront control and coronagraphic techniques, direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable planets will be possible around nearby M-type stars. Deep (~1e-8) contrast can be achieved by combining (1) sensitive fast visible light wavefront sensing (extreme-AO) with (2) kHz speckle control in the near-IR and (3) high efficiency coronagraphy. Spectroscopy will measure abundances of water, oxygen and methane, measure the planet rotation period, orbit, and identify main surface features through time-domain spectrophotometry.The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system is a technology precursor to such a habitable planet imager for ELTs, and is currently under active development. By combining small inner working angle coronagraphy, visible-WFS based extreme-AO and fast speckle control, it will include the key elements of a future ELT system able to image and characterize habitable planets. We describe a technical plan to evolve SCExAO into a habitable planet imager for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), which is aimed at providing such scientific capability during the 2020 decade, and inform the design, deployment and scientific operation of a more capable Extreme-AO instrument.

  7. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  8. Thermal analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8-meter primary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The objective is to maintain the primary mirror at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop®1. A detailed model of the primary mirror was required in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew and a 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the solar environment that influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model is used to predict gradients across and through the primary mirror using an idealized boundary temperature on the back and sides of the mirror of 280 K.

  9. Water worlds: characterization, thermal evolution and habitability limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Hoening, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim; Lammer, Helmut; Hendrik Bredehoeft, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life like we know it. In the search for life-friendly worlds, water-rich planets therefore seem to be obvious candidates and have attracted increasing attention in the past years. The water layer on such planets could be hundreds of kilometers deep depending on the water content and the evolution of the proto-atmosphere. A deep water layer will likely form high-pressure ice from a specific depth on. We study possible constraints for the habitability of deep water layers and introduce a new habitability classification to be applied to water-rich planets (from about Mars-size to almost Neptune-size planets). A new ocean model has been developed coupled with an interior structure model to infer the depth-dependent thermodynamic properties of high-pressure water and the possible formation of high-pressure ice. We find that the ice layer can be molten from beneath by heat flowing out of the silicate mantle [Noack et al., in review, "Water worlds: how life-friendly is an ocean deeper than on Earth?"], depending amongst others on the thickness of the ocean-ice shell and the mass of the planet. From our results we conclude that water-rich planets with a deep ocean, a large planet mass, a high average density or a small surface temperature are less habitable than a planet with an Earth-like ocean and might not be suitable candidates for the origin of life. Ocean planets, that can be clearly detected as such, contain a large amount of water (to significantly reduce the average density of the planet) and are likely to have a thick high-pressure ice layer which cannot be molten from beneath - these planets might therefore not be habitable.

  10. ATLAST ULE mirror segment performance analytical predictions based on thermally induced distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Michael J.; Cohen, Lester M.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Matthews, Gary W.; Nissen, Joel A.; Park, Sang C.; Peabody, Hume L.

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for a 9.2 m aperture space-borne observatory operating across the UV/Optical/NIR spectra. The primary mirror for ATLAST is a segmented architecture with pico-meter class wavefront stability. Due to its extraordinarily low coefficient of thermal expansion, a leading candidate for the primary mirror substrate is Corning's ULE® titania-silicate glass. The ATLAST ULE® mirror substrates will be maintained at `room temperature' during on orbit flight operations minimizing the need for compensation of mirror deformation between the manufacturing temperature and the operational temperatures. This approach requires active thermal management to maintain operational temperature while on orbit. Furthermore, the active thermal control must be sufficiently stable to prevent time-varying thermally induced distortions in the mirror substrates. This paper describes a conceptual thermal management system for the ATLAST 9.2 m segmented mirror architecture that maintains the wavefront stability to less than 10 pico-meters/10 minutes RMS. Thermal and finite element models, analytical techniques, accuracies involved in solving the mirror figure errors, and early findings from the thermal and thermal-distortion analyses are presented.

  11. Extension of ATLAST/LUVOIR's Capabilities to 5 Microns, or Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Michael; Vasisht, Gautam; Wang, Xu; Macenka, Steven; Mandell, Avi; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Green, Joel; Stark, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ATLAST is a particular realization of LUVOIR, the Large Ultraviolet Optical Infrared telescope, a ~10 m diameter space telescope being defined for consideration in the 2020 Decadal Review of astronomy and astrophysics. ATLAST/LUVOIR is generally thought of as an ambient temperature (~300 K) system, and little consideration has been given to using it at infrared wavelengths longward of ~2 {\\mu}m. We assess the scientific and technical benefits of operating such a telescope further into the infrared, with particular emphasis on the study of exoplanets, which is a major science theme for ATLAST/LUVOIR. For the study of exoplanet atmospheres, the capability to work at least out to 5.0 {\\mu}m is highly desirable. Such an extension of the long wavelength limit of ATLAST would greatly increase its capabilities for studies of exoplanet atmospheres and provide powerful capabilities for the study of a wide range of astrophysical questions. We present a concept for a fiber-fed grating spectrometer which would enable R =...

  12. The Path to a UV/optical/IR Flagship: ATLAST and Its Predecessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Oegerle, William; Postman, Marc; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The recently completed study for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) was the culmination of three years of work that built upon earlier engineering designs, science objectives, and sustained recommendations for technology investments. Since the mid-1980s, multiple teams of astronomers, technologists, and engineers have developed concepts for a large-aperture UV/optical/IR space observatory to follow the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Especially over the past decade, technology advances and exciting scientific results has led to growing support for development in the 2020s of a large UVOIR space observatory. Here we summarize the history of major mission designs, scientific goals, key technology recommendations, community workshops and conferences, and recommendations to NASA for a major UV/optical/IR observatory to follow HST. We conclude with a capsule summary of the ATLAST reference design developed over the past three years.

  13. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): A Technology Roadmap for the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation of UVOIR space observatory with a primary aperture diameter in the 8-m to 16-m range that will allow us to perform some of the most challenging observations to answer some of our most compelling questions, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We have identified two different telescope architectures, but with similar optical designs, that span the range in viable technologies. The architectures are a telescope with a monolithic primary mirror and two variations of a telescope with a large segmented primary mirror. This approach provides us with several pathways to realizing the mission, which will be narrowed to one as our technology development progresses. The concepts invoke heritage from HST and JWST design, but also take significant departures from these designs to minimize complexity, mass, or both. Our report provides details on the mission concepts, shows the extraordinary s...

  14. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, M.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is 1.315m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  15. Microbial Characterization During the Early Habitation of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V. A.; Thrasher, A. N.; Healy, M.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the microbiota from air, water, and surface samples provided a baseline of microbial characterization onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to gain insight into bacterial and fungal contamination during the initial stages of construction and habitation. Using 16S genetic sequencing and rep-PCR, 63 bacterial strains were isolated for identification and fingerprinted for microbial tracking. Of the bacterial strains that were isolated and fingerprinted, 19 displayed similarity to each other. The use of these molecular tools allowed for the identification of bacteria not previously identified using automated biochemical analysis and provided a clear indication of the source of several ISS contaminants. Strains of Bradyrhizobium and Sphingomonas unable to be identified using sequencing were identified by comparison of rep-PCR DNA fingerprints. Distinct DNA fingerprints for several strains of Methylobacterium provided a clear indication of the source of an ISS water supply contaminant. Fungal and bacterial data acquired during monitoring do not suggest there is a current microbial hazard to the spacecraft, nor does any trend indicate a potential health risk. Previous spacecraft environmental analysis indicated that microbial contamination will increase with time and will require continued surveillance. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Spectroscopic characterization of the atmospheres of potentially habitable planets: GL 581 d as a model case study

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Grenfell, J Lee; Hedelt, Pascal; Rauer, Heike; Schreier, Franz; Stracke, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) The Super-Earth candidate GL 581 d is the first potentially habitable extrasolar planet. Therefore, GL 581 d is used to illustrate a hypothetical detailed spectroscopic characterization of such planets. Atmospheric profiles from 1D radiative-convective model scenarios of GL 581 d were used to calculate high-resolution synthetic spectra. From the spectra, signal-to-noise ratios were calculated for a telescope such as the planned James Webb Space Telescope. The presence of the model atmospheres could be clearly inferred from the calculated synthetic spectra due to strong water and carbon dioxide absorption bands. Surface temperatures could be inferred for model scenarios with optically thin spectral windows. Dense, CO2-rich scenarios did not allow for the characterization of surface temperatures and to assess habitability. Degeneracies between CO2 concentration and surface pressure further complicated the interpretation of the calculated spectra, hence the determination of atmospheric conditions. Sti...

  17. The most common habitable planets - atmospheric characterization of the subgroup of fast rotators

    CERN Document Server

    Pinotti, R

    2012-01-01

    The current search for habitable planets has focused on Earth-like conditions of mass, volatile content and orbit. However, rocky planets following eccentric orbits, and drier than the Earth, may be a more common phenomenon in the Universe. For the subgroup of fast rotators, it is suggested that their atmospheric thermal capacitance, subject to the radiative forcing of their parent stars, may provide researchers in the near future with a simple method for the determination of a robust lower limit of atmospheric thickness. This technique, together with the spectroscopic analysis of resolved planets from their stars, both allowed by planned space and ground-based observatories with thermal IR capabilities, would enable us with a better understanding of the habitability of this class of planets. The technique works better for smaller orbital periods, but since the tidal lock radius of M dwarfs encompasses their HZ, the optimum targets would be planets around K dwarf stars. The atmospheric thermal capacitance cou...

  18. Spitzer Observations Confirm and Rescue the Habitable-Zone Super-Earth K2-18b for Future Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Benneke, Björn; Petigura, Erik; Knutson, Heather; Dressing, Courtney; Crossfield, Ian J M; Schlieder, Joshua E; Livingston, John; Beichman, Charles; Christiansen, Jessie; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Howard, Andrew W; Sinukoff, Evan; Ciardi, David R; Akeson, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    The recent detections of two transit events attributed to the super-Earth candidate K2-18b have provided the unprecedented prospect of spectroscopically studying a habitable-zone planet outside the Solar System. Orbiting a nearby M2.5 dwarf and receiving virtually the same stellar insolation as Earth, K2-18b would be a prime candidate for the first detailed atmospheric characterization of a habitable-zone exoplanet using HST and JWST. Here, we report the detection of a third transit of K2-18b near the predicted transit time using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Spitzer detection demonstrates the periodic nature of the two transit events discovered by K2, confirming that K2-18 is indeed orbited by a super-Earth in a 33-day orbit and ruling out the alternative scenario of two similarly-sized, long-period planets transiting only once within the 75-day K2 observation. We also find, however, that the transit event detected by Spitzer occurred 1.85 hours (7-sigma) before the predicted transit time. Our joint analy...

  19. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas;

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  20. Habit formation in an interdependent world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Shinsuke; Gombi, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    Economic interdependence of heterogeneous habit forming consumers is examined by using a two-country model. Due to endogenous interest rate adjustments, consumption-habit dynamics in one country are affected by the other country's habits and preferences. To characterize the interactive dynamics, we construct an aggregate world felicity function from individual countries' felicity functions and introduce a global aggregate habit capital, defined as the sum of individual countries' habit capita...

  1. Habitable Trinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. Dohm; Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients) accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  2. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  3. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further, the......, the state variable of the model - the surplus consumption ratio - explains counter-cyclical time-varying expected returns on stocks. The model also produces plausible low real risk-free rates despite high relative risk aversion....

  4. Characterizing of a Mid-Latitude Ice-Rich Landing Site on Mars to Enable in Situ Habitability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J.; Schurmeier, L. R.; Wilhelm, M.; Stoker, C.; McKay, C.; Davila, A.; Marinova, M.; Karcz, J.; Smith, H.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest an ice-rich landing site at 188.5E 46.16N within Amazonis Planitia as a candidate location to support a Mars lander mission equipped to study past habitability and regions capable of preserving the physical and chemical signs of life and organic matter. Studies of the ice-rich subsurface on Mars are critical for several reasons. The subsurface environment provides protection from radiation to shield organic and biologic compounds from destruction. The ice-rich substrate is also ideal for preserving organic and biologic molecules and provides a source of H2O for biologic activity. Examination of martian ground ice can test several hypotheses such as: 1) whether ground ice supports habitable conditions, 2) that ground ice can preserve and accumulate organic compounds, and 3) that ice contains biomolecules evident of past or present biological activity on Mars. This Amazonis site, located near the successful Viking Lander 2, shows indirect evidence of subsurface ice (ubiquitous defined polygonal ground, gamma ray spectrometer hydrogen signature, and numerical modeling of ice stability) and direct evidence of exposed subsurface ice. This site also provides surface conditions favorable to a safe landing including no boulders, low rock density, minimal rough topography, and few craters.

  5. Characterizing the Habitable Zones of Exoplanetary Systems with a Large Ultraviolet/Visible/Near-IR Space Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey; Roberge, Aki; Ayres, Thomas; Barman, Travis; Brown, Alexander; Davenport, James; Desert, Jean-Michel; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Fleming, Brian; Fontenla, Juan; Fossati, Luca; Froning, Cynthia; Hallinan, Gregg; Hawley, Suzanne; Hu, Renyu; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kasting, James; Kowlaski, Adam; Loyd, Parke; Mauas, Pablo; Miguel, Yamila; Osten, Rachel; Redfield, Seth; Rugheimer, Sarah; Schneider, Christian; Segura, Antigona; Stocke, John; Tian, Feng; Tumlinson, Jason; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Wood, Brian; Youngblood, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the surface and atmospheric conditions of Earth-size, rocky planets in the habitable zones (HZs) of low-mass stars is currently one of the greatest astronomical endeavors. Knowledge of the planetary effective surface temperature alone is insufficient to accurately interpret biosignature gases when they are observed in the coming decades. The UV stellar spectrum drives and regulates the upper atmospheric heating and chemistry on Earth-like planets, is critical to the definition and interpretation of biosignature gases, and may even produce false-positives in our search for biologic activity. This white paper briefly describes the scientific motivation for panchromatic observations of exoplanetary systems as a whole (star and planet), argues that a future NASA UV/Vis/near-IR space observatory is well-suited to carry out this work, and describes technology development goals that can be achieved in the next decade to support the development of a UV/Vis/near-IR flagship mission in the 2020s.

  6. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors can have a major impact ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center. Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  7. Food habits of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Filomena; Mata, Maria Augusta; Pimentel, Maria Helena; Anes, Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate the prevelance of obesity and get acquaintance with the food habits of adolescents in 2 secondary schools of Bragança, and to analyse the differences in food habits between obese and non obese..

  8. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  9. Food habits of blue grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  10. Habitability: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies. PMID:26741054

  11. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets in order to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4 × 1010M⊙. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way-type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expect that ~1.4 ×109 planets similar to present-day Earth have existed so far in our galaxy.

  12. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions. PMID:15982113

  13. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  14. Characterization of the energetic consumption habits in communities in the countryside area of Amazon State concerning energetic planning; Perfil dos habitos de consumo de energeticos em comunidades do interior do Estado do Amazonas para fins de planejamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem C.R.; Santos Conserva, Auricelia dos; Muniz, Marcos W.C. [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    To outline an energetic politic to Amazons State is a difficult task considering the enormous peculiarities of the region. In order to do so it is necessary to elaborate an energy balance of the state. This paper aims to help in this procedure by performing the characterization of the energetic consumption habits of small communities in the countryside area of the above named state. Four different representative cities were studied in concerning of its socio-economical and energetic characteristics. It was concluded that parameters such as demographic density, familiar income, energy sources, etc. are to be considered during the elaboration of the state energy balance 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Damaging oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  16. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  17. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  18. Age aspects of habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  19. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... on a survey undertaken in the Copenhagen area. The study reveals that a relatively low percentage of drivers (10-20%) consider commuting by public transportation in the near future, which is hardly a surprise. A hierarchical analysis, where reported use of public transportation is regressed on intentions...

  20. FIRST HABITABLE PLANET DISCOVEREO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    20 light years away from our solar system, there is a planet called "Gliese 581d" which has conditions that could support Earth-like life, including possible oceans and rainfall. On May. 19, 20l 1, the planet has been the first to be officially declared habitable by French scientists.

  1. Deciphering Spectral Fingerprints of Habitable Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L; Fridlund, M; Lammer, H; Beichman, Ch; Danchi, W; Eiroa, C; Henning, T; Herbst, T; Léger, A; Liseau, R; Lunine, J; Paresce, F; Penny, A; Quirrenbach, A; Roettgering, H; Schneider, J; Stam, D; Tinetti, G; White, G J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 MEarth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? The new field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. The results of a first generation mission will most likely result in an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution as well as our planet in an overall context.

  2. High precision astrometry mission for the detection and characterization of nearby habitable planetary systems with the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Brown, Anthony G A; Cara, Christophe; Durand, Gilles; Eiroa, Carlos; Feautrier, Philippe; Jakobsson, Björn; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Labadie, Lucas; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Laskar, Jacques; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Maldonado, Jesús; Mercier, Manuel; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Traub, Wesley; Absil, Olivier; Alibert, Yann; Andrei, Alexandre Humberto; Beichman, Charles; Chelli, Alain; Cockell, Charles S; Duvert, Gilles; Forveille, Thierry; Garcia, Paulo J V; Hobbs, David; Krone-Martins, Alberto; Lammer, Helmut; Meunier, Nadège; Minardi, Stefano; de Almeida, André Moitinho; Rambaux, Nicolas; Raymond, Sean; Röttgering, Huub J A; Sahlmann, Johannes; Schuller, Peter A; Ségransan, Damien; Selsis, Franck; Surdej, Jean; Villaver, Eva; White, Glenn J; Zinnecker, Hans

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) A complete census of planetary systems around a volume-limited sample of solar-type stars (FGK dwarfs) in the Solar neighborhood with uniform sensitivity down to Earth-mass planets within their Habitable Zones out to several AUs would be a major milestone in extrasolar planets astrophysics. This fundamental goal can be achieved with a mission concept such as NEAT - the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope. NEAT is designed to carry out space-borne extremely-high-precision astrometric measurements sufficient to detect dynamical effects due to orbiting planets of mass even lower than Earth's around the nearest stars. Such a survey mission would provide the actual planetary masses and the full orbital geometry for all the components of the detected planetary systems down to the Earth-mass limit. The NEAT performance limits can be achieved by carrying out differential astrometry between the targets and a set of suitable reference stars in the field. The NEAT instrument design consists of an off-axis para...

  3. Legionella in habitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Louise Hjelmar

    Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease. The bacteria are widespread in nature and man-made water systems. In Denmark, approximately 120 cases are diagnosed each year, and the disease can be fatal. Legionella pneumophila is the species responsible for approximately 95% of cases....... The transmission pathway is through inhalation of contaminated water droplets mainly from technical systems such as hot water systems. Overall, the aim of this PhD thesis was to improve the background knowledge to accomplish risk assessment regarding Legionella in water systems. Based on a literature review...... and the results from the PhD work the following subjects were addressed: a) prevalence of Legionella in habitations, b) validation of the use of qPCR in risk assessment in hot water systems, c) clarifying risk factors mainly associated with Legionella in habitations, and d) discussion of interventions which could...

  4. Trajectories of Martian Habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points—an uninhabited or inhabited Mars—this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-sc...

  5. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  6. The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Javier eBernacer; Jose Ignacio eMurillo

    2014-01-01

    The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific rese...

  7. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  8. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  9. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs

  10. Circumbinary Habitability Niches

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Paul A; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A; Clark, Joni M

    2014-01-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the galaxy. Though counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favor of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM), that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operate...

  11. Planetary evolution and habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, T.

    2008-09-01

    Planetary habitability is usually thought to require water on (or near) the surface, a magnetic field to protect life against cosmic radiation, and transport mechanisms for nutrients. A magnetic field also serves to protect an existing atmosphere against erosion by the solar wind and thus helps to stabilize the presence of water and habitability. Magnetic fields are generated in the cores of the terrestrial planets and thus habitability is linked to the evolution of the interior. Moreover, the interior is a potential source and sink for water and CO2 and may interact with the surface and atmosphere reservoirs through volcanic activity and recycling. On the Earth, water is stabilized by complex interactions between the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the crust, and the deep interior. On geological timescales, the anorganic CO2 cycle is most important. The most efficient known mechanism for recycling is plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is known to operate, at present, only on the Earth, although Mars may have had a phase of plate tectonics as may have Venus. Single-plate tectonics associated with stagnant lid convection can transfer water and CO2 from the interior but a simple recycling mechanism is lacking for this tectonic style. Stagnant lid convection will evolve to thicken the lid and increasingly frustrate volcanic activity and degassing. (This can keep the interior from running completely dry.) Plate tectonics supports the generation of magnetic fields by effectively cooling the deep interior. In addition, plate tectonics rejuvenates nutrients on the surface and generates granitic cratons. For Venus it is likely that a present-day magnetic field would require plate tectonics to operate. The chemistry of the Martian core likely precludes the growth of an inner core and thus a present-day dynamo. An early field is possible for both planets even with stagnant lid convection but the dynamos will have operated less than about a billion years on Mars and a

  12. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... components consumed, location and presence of other persons are suitable for reliably capturing everyday food consumption behaviour in its natural habitat. For the purpose of this presentation, attention was directed to meal centred beverage consumption. Analysis of variance with main and interaction effects...

  13. The evolution of galaxy habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Gobat, R

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, as well as its evolution with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone ("habitability") depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expe...

  14. Factors Effecting on Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to find out the impact of Socio-economic Status as well as sex differences on study habits of class VII students (100) of Government Colleges of Amroha District. The effects of two independent variables on study habits of the aforementioned students were assessed by using two Psychological tests…

  15. Portfolio Optimization under Habit Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Naryshkin, Roman

    2008-01-01

    The "standard" Merton formulation of optimal investment and consumption involves optimizing the integrated lifetime utility of consumption, suitably discounted, together with the discounted future bequest. In this formulation the utility of consumption at any given time depends only on the amount consumed at that time. However, it is both theoretically and empirically reasonable that an individuals utility of consumption would depend on past consumption history. Economists term this "Habit Formation". We introduce a new formulation of habit formation which allows non-addictive consumption patterns for a wide variety of utility specification. In this paper we construct a simple mathematical description of this habit formation and present numerical solutions. We compare the results with the standard ones and draw insights obtained from the habit formation. The consumption path tends to increase with time and be less sensitive to the market fluctuations, which perfectly reflects the existence of habit persistenc...

  16. Astrophysical Conditions for Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Guedel, M; Erkaev, N; Kasting, J; Khodachenko, M; Lammer, H; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Rauer, H; Ribas, I; Wood, B E

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets and a potentially huge number of Earth-like planets waiting to be discovered, the conditions for their habitability have become a focal point in exoplanetary research. The classical picture of habitable zones primarily relies on the stellar flux allowing liquid water to exist on the surface of an Earth-like planet with a suitable atmosphere. However, numerous further stellar and planetary properties constrain habitability. Apart from "geophysical" processes depending on the internal structure and composition of a planet, a complex array of astrophysical factors additionally determine habitability. Among these, variable stellar UV, EUV, and X-ray radiation, stellar and interplanetary magnetic fields, ionized winds, and energetic particles control the constitution of upper planetary atmospheres and their physical and chemical evolution. Short- and long-term stellar variability necessitates full time-dependent studies to understand planetary habitability at any point ...

  17. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet's semi-major axis to the location of its host star's "habitable zone," the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an "eccentricity-albedo degeneracy" for the habitability of transiti...

  18. Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the c...

  19. Dieting Habits of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  20. Hypothetical habitability of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid

    Hypothetical habitability of some of extrasolar planets is a fundamental question of science. Some of exoplanets possess physical conditions close to those of Venus. Therefore, the planet Venus, with its dense and hot (735 K) oxygen-free atmosphere of CO2, having a high pressure of 9.2 MPa at the surface, can be a natural laboratory for this kind of studies. The only existing data on the planet’s surface are still the results obtained by the Soviet VENERA landers in the 1970s and 1980s. The TV experiments of Venera-9 and 10 (October, 1975) and Venera-13 and 14 (March, 1982) delivered 41 panoramas of Venus surface (or their fragments). There have not been any similar missions to Venus in the subsequent 39 and 32 years. In the absence of new landing missions to Venus, the VENERA panoramas have been re-processed. The results of these missions are studied anew. A dozen of relatively large objects, from a decimeter to half a meter in size, with an unusual morphology have been found which moved very slowly or changed slightly their shape. Their emergence by chance could hardly be explained by noise. Certain unusual findings that have similar structure were found in different areas of the planet. This paper presents the last results obtained of a search for hypothetical flora and fauna of Venus.

  1. [Oral habits. Etiology and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou-Kouvelas, K; Kouvelas, N

    1988-01-01

    Oral habits have been described by psychologists and psychyatrists as psychodynamic phenomena. Dentists are concerned with oral habits because of the detrimental consequences they have in the oral facial system. The dentist who is in a position to confront a child with an oral habit in order to treat his dentinofacial problems is required to be aware of the psychological background of his patient as well as of the conditions under which the children do the habit in order to overcome emotional difficulties. The dentist should also search into the child's family to find out what the causes of the child's oral habit maybe. For the treatment of an oral habit the dentist should ensure both the child's and the family's cooperation and he should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of every available method for treatment. Methods of treatment are: Use of orthodontic appliances: This method has the disadvantage that disturbs the child's psychological need for the habit, it can be interpreted as a punishment, it is visible and it causes speaking difficulties. It should be applied only in cooperation with the child. Behavioristic technique: This method aims to reinforce the child's positive behavior according to the Skinnerian principle: stimulus-response-reward. It has fast results but it is a conditioned treatment. Psychoanalytic method: It could solve the problem of the child's primary need for the oral habit in a radical manner. However it is practically impossible to be applied in Dentistry. Behavior modification according to ego psychology. With this method we attempt to analyse and understand the psychological cause of an oral habit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Study Habits on English Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China gradual y focuses on the development of local English education in order to expand its influence to the world. The essay wil analyze the situation of English education in China and explain the importance of study habits to English education. Meanwhile, some advices for Chinese education changes wil be given. According to the essay, it can be found that study habit is essential for further English education. China cannot be stick to its English education strategy al the time because Chinese students rely too much on the teaching strategies instead of their own study habits.

  3. Delegation: developing the habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duehring, G L

    2001-01-01

    Often, individuals take personal delegation skills for granted and assume the presence of expertise with the practice of delegation, which may not be the case. Those assumptions can be found at both ends of the process, with the manager and the employee. Every time a manager places an employee in a job and gives him or her a job description or a set of instructions, the manager has delegated. The manager has placed someone in a position to perform operations for which ultimately the manager is responsible. Delegation is both a process and a condition. The process is the act of assigning work to an employee; the condition of delegating a job is a thorough and mutual understanding between the supervisor and the employee of specific results and methods by which these results can be achieved. The condition goes far beyond the simple process of assigning a job. The point at which many managers fail in delegating is in neglecting to move past the process and take the required steps to establish a true condition of delegation. Failure to delegate is the leading cause of managers retarding their professional growth. In the case of a workaholic--someone who fails to learn the value of delegation--the job soon becomes too much, and the effectiveness of the department may suffer. By reducing the burden of technical duties and busy work, managers will find that it is possible to be more effective and actually spend more time managing. A number of the reasons why managers fail to delegate are complex and subconscious, such as insecurity, fear of competition and even fear of not being recognized for accomplishments achieved. Other reasons for failing to delegate are habit and shortages of staff members or time. Delegation is an investment in time. The eventual gain from such an investment, which may temporarily cause the department to fall further behind during a training period, outweighs the costs. The manager is the final authority in such duties as approval, recommendations

  4. El dispositivo habitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Roche, P. M.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the main concepts supporting the project "Habitar el Dispositivo" which was awarded a prize in the International Competition "25 Bioclimatical Houses" promoted by the "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables of Tenerife " and organized by the "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" and sponsored by the "International Union of Architects". As opposed to bioclimatical houses which are the result of adding bioclimatical devices to an architectural project, the integration of bioclimatical and architectural concepts in a livable device is proposed. A digital model of the project was built to analyze sunlight and shadow behavior and computer simulations permitted to determine thermal performance. Average thermal satisfaction was 89.75 % during typical summer and winter 24 hour periods.

    Se presentan los conceptos fundamentales que respaldan la propuesta "Habitar el Dispositivo", premiada en el Concurso Internacional "25 Viviendas Bioclimáticas" promovido por el "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables del Cabildo de Tenerife", organizado por el "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" y homologado por la "Unión Internacional de Arquitectos". Al contrario de la solución de añadir dispositivos a un proyecto de arquitectura, la propuesta integra conceptos bioclimáticos y arquitectónicos en un dispositivo habitable. Un modelo digital de la edificación permitió estudiar su volumetría y soleamiento en diferentes períodos del año, mientras que su comportamiento térmico se analizó con un programa de simulación en régimen dinámico. El promedio de personas satisfechas en días típicos de verano e invierno fue del 89,75 %.

  5. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  6. Growth habit of polar crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using coordination polyhedron rule, growth habit of polar crystals such as ZnO, ZnS and SiO2 is investigated. It shows that the growth rates in the positive and negative polar axis directions are different. The theoretical growth habit of ZnO crystal is hexagonal prism and the growth rates of its various faces are:V{0001}>V{0111}-->V{0110}->V{0111}->V{0001}-. The growth habit of ZnS crystal is tetrahedron and its growth rates of different crystal faces are: V{111}>V{001}>V{001} =V{100} =. The growth rate relationship between positive and negative polar axis directions of SiO2 crystal V[1120]-->V[1120]-.is These results are in agreement with the growth habits observed under hydrothermal conditions. The different growth rates between positive and negative polar axis directions cannot be explained by PBC theory.

  7. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  8. Cosmological aspects of planetary habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J

    2014-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is defined as the region around a star where a planet can support liquid water on its surface, which, together with an oxygen atmosphere, is presumed to be necessary (and sufficient) to develop and sustain life on the planet. Currently, about twenty potentially habitable planets are listed. The most intriguing question driving all these studies is whether planets within habitable zones host extraterrestrial life. It is implicitly assumed that a planet in the habitable zone bears biota. However along with the two usual indicators of habitability, an oxygen atmosphere and liquid water on the surface, an additional one -- the age --- has to be taken into account when the question of the existence of life (or even a simple biota) on a planet is addressed. The importance of planetary age for the existence of life as we know it follows from the fact that the primary process, the photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones. Therefore on...

  9. Where to Look for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    One of the main goals of exoplanet surveys like the Kepler mission is to find potentially habitable planets orbiting other stars. Finding planets in a stars habitable zone, however, is easier when we know in advance where to look! A recent study has provided us with a starting point.Defining the ZoneA habitable zone is defined as the range of distances from a star where liquid water could exist on an orbiting planet, given a dense enough planetary atmosphere. The habitable zone can be calculated from the stars parameters, and the inner and outer edges of a habitable zone are set considering hypothetical planetary atmospheres of different composition.Knowing the parameters of the habitable zones around nearby stars is important for current and future exoplanet surveys, as this information allows them to identify stars with habitable zones that can be probed, given the surveys sensitivity. To provide this target selection tool, a team of scientists led by Colin Chandler (San Francisco State University) has created a catalog of the habitable zones of roughly 37,000 nearby, main-sequence stars.Distribution of habitable-zone widths found in CELESTA, for conservative and optimistic measurements. [Chandler et al. 2016]Selecting for Sun-Like StarsThe Catalog of Earth-Like Exoplanet Survey Targets, or CELESTA, was built starting with the Revised Hipparcos Catalog, a high-precision catalog of photometry and parallax measurements (which provides the stars distance) for 117,955 bright, nearby stars. Chandler and collaborators combined these measurements with stellar models to determine parameters such as effective temperature, radius, and mass of the stars.The authors exclude giant stars and cool dwarfs, choosing to focus on main-sequence stars within the temperature range 26007200K, more similar to the Sun. They test their derived stellar parameters by comparing to observational data from the Exoplanet Data Explorer (EDE), where available, and confirm that their

  10. Meat Demand under Rational Habit Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Chen; Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the theoretical implications of a meat demand model with rational habits. To introduce consumption dynamics, habit persistence is used to motivate intertemporally related preferences. The impact of food safety information on meat consumption is systematically analyzed. Important differences between myopic habits and rational habits are outlined.

  11. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  12. Contribution of oral habits to dental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, J; Hochman, N; Yaffe, A

    1992-04-01

    Oral habits or parafunction may contribute to dental, periodontal, or neuromuscular damage. Such habits, of which the patient is often unaware, may cause considerable damage. Habits may be occlusal or non-occlusal, and may affect the dentition and/or the oral soft tissues. Drawing a patient's attention to the damage caused by some habits of which he or she is unaware often leads to cessation, whereas with certain conscious habits, such as nail or finger biting, success is much more limited.

  13. The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eBernacer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, its philosophical inspiration and the problems that arise from it, mostly centered on the sharp distinction between goal-directed actions and habitual behavior. We then introduce the Aristotelian view and we compare it with that of William James. For Aristotle, a habit is an acquired disposition to perform certain types of action. If this disposition involves an enhanced cognitive control of actions, it can be considered a habit-as-learning. The current view of habit in neuroscience, which lacks cognitive control and we term habit-as-routine, is also covered by the Aristotelian conception. He classifies habits into three categories: 1 theoretical, or the retention of learning understood as knowing that x is so; 2 behavioral, through which the agent achieves a rational control of emotion-permeated behavior (knowing how to behave; and 3 technical or learned skills (knowing how to make or to do. Finally, we propose new areas of research where this novel conception of habit could serve as a framework concept, from the cognitive enrichment of actions to the role of habits in pathological conditions. In all, this contribution may shed light on the understanding of habits as an important feature of human action. Habits, viewed as cognitively controlled behaviors that in turn improve cognitive control of behavior, are a crucial resource for enhancing human learning and behavioral plasticity.

  14. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  15. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T. R.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  16. Mapping the Nearest Stars for Exotic Habitable Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Exoplanets are planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Thousands of exoplanets are known and thousands of more planet candidates have been found. Until now, the dominant focus on habitable worlds has been on Earth-like planets, because Earth is the only known planet with life. Yet exoplanets are astonishingly diverse—in terms of their masses, densities, orbits, and host star types—and this diversity motivates a radical extension of what conventionally constitutes a habitable planet. The race to find habitable exoplanets has accelerated with the realization that “big Earths” transiting small stars can be both discovered and characterized with current technology. Moreover, technology for space-based direct imaging of Earth analogs has been rapidly maturing. The ambitious goal of inferring signs of life via biosignature gases in an exoplanet atmosphere, once only a futuristic thought, is now within reach.

  17. The rules of coherence and other habits

    CERN Document Server

    Solis, M R C

    2003-01-01

    Physics and mathematics are difficult enough without the aditional burden of bad habits. In this article, we examine some helpful habits that tend to be underemphasized by many physics teachers (mainly because they seem so obvious!).

  18. Habitable sphere and fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlovskii, Miroslaw P; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Marciak-Kozlowska, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Future space missions, TPF and Darwin will focus on searches of signatures of life on extrasolar planets. In this paper we look for model independ definition of the habitable zone. It will be shown that the radius of the habitable sphere depends only on the constants of the Nature. Key words: Habitable sphere, fine structure constant.

  19. Journal Reading Habits of Internists

    OpenAIRE

    Saint, Sanjay; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Saha, Somnath; Elmore, Joann G.; Welsh, Deborah E.; Baker, Paul; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2000-01-01

    We assessed the reading habits of internists with and without epidemiological training because such information may help guide medical journals as they make changes in how articles are edited and formatted. In a 1998 national self-administered mailed survey of 143 internists with fellowship training in epidemiology and study design and a random sample of 121 internists from the American Medical Association physician master file, we asked about the number of hours spent reading medical journal...

  20. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...

  1. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  2. THESIS: terrestrial and habitable zone infrared spectroscopy spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, G.; Swain, M. R.; Akeson, R. L.; Burrows, A.; Deming, D.; Grillmair, C. J.; Greene, T. P.

    2008-07-01

    THESIS is a concept for a medium class mission designed for spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar planets between 2-14 microns. The concept leverages off the recent first-steps made by Spitzer and Hubble in characterizing the atmospheres of alien gas giants. Under favourable circumstances, THESIS is capable of identifying biogenic molecules in habitable-zone planets, thereby determining conditions on worlds where life might exist. By systematically characterizing many worlds, from rocky planets to gas-giants, THESIS would deliver transformational science of profound interest to astronomers and the general public.

  3. Promoting healthy habits in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, William F; Phelan, Sharon T

    2008-09-01

    Most women have an appreciation of what are generally considered healthy habits including more exercise; eating a healthy diet; avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs; using seatbelts; and being current on preventive care, such as good dental status. Being pregnant can be a strong motivator to change or modify behavioral choices. This is an optimal time for a provider to build on this potential motivator to effect change. Frequent follow-up visits allow re-enforcement of attempted change. This constant encouragement and support helps to impress on the woman and her family the importance of change. PMID:18760226

  4. The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, B.; Stone, N.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED) is a central, high quality, long-term searchable repository for archiving and collaborative sharing of astrobiologically relevant data, including, morphological, textural and contextural images, chemical, biochemical, isotopic, sequencing, and mineralogical information. The aim of AHED is to foster long-term innovative research by supporting integration and analysis of diverse datasets in order to: 1) help understand and interpret planetary geology; 2) identify and characterize habitable environments and pre-biotic/biotic processes; 3) interpret returned data from present and past missions; 4) provide a citable database of NASA-funded published and unpublished data (after an agreed-upon embargo period). AHED uses the online open-source software "The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher" (ODR - http://www.opendatarepository.org) [1], which provides a user-friendly interface that research teams or individual scientists can use to design, populate and manage their own database according to the characteristics of their data and the need to share data with collaborators or the broader scientific community. This platform can be also used as a laboratory notebook. The database will have the capability to import and export in a variety of standard formats. Advanced graphics will be implemented including 3D graphing, multi-axis graphs, error bars, and similar scientific data functions together with advanced online tools for data analysis (e. g. the statistical package, R). A permissions system will be put in place so that as data are being actively collected and interpreted, they will remain proprietary. A citation system will allow research data to be used and appropriately referenced by other researchers after the data are made public. This project is supported by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA) and NASA NNX11AP82A, Mars Science Laboratory Investigations. [1] Nate et al. (2015) AGU, submitted.

  5. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, V.; Derbyshire, K.; Rück, C.; Irvine, M. A.; Worbe, Y.; Enander, J.; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C.; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, Neil; et al,

    2014-01-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natu...

  6. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-04-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  7. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    CERN Document Server

    Cockell, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in studies of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided) and planets with life, where the concentration of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pi...

  8. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  9. The Habitability of Planets Orbiting M-dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shields, Aomawa L; Johnson, John A

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for the habitability of M-dwarf planets have long been debated, due to key differences between the unique stellar and planetary environments around these low-mass stars, as compared to hotter, more luminous Sun-like stars. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made by both space- and ground-based observatories to measure the likelihood of small planets to orbit in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We now know that most M dwarfs are hosts to closely-packed planetary systems characterized by a paucity of Jupiter-mass planets and the presence of multiple rocky planets, with roughly a third of these rocky M-dwarf planets orbiting within the habitable zone, where they have the potential to support liquid water on their surfaces. Theoretical studies have also quantified the effect on climate and habitability of the interaction between the spectral energy distribution of M-dwarf stars and the atmospheres and surfaces of their planets. These and other recent results fill in knowledge g...

  10. TIDAL LIMITS TO PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The habitable zones (HZs) of main-sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurfaces the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with the range of the traditional HZ for main-sequence, low-mass stars. We propose a revised HZ that incorporates both stellar insolation and tidal heating. We apply these criteria to GJ 581 d and find that it is in the traditional HZ, but its tidal heating alone may be insufficient for plate tectonics.

  11. Tidal Limits to Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N

    2009-01-01

    The habitable zones of main sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurface the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO_2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with th...

  12. Defining habitable: a performance-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    D B Lantrip

    1997-01-01

    The term 'habitable' generally refers to how suitable an environment is for human occupation and use. However, there is no specific list of criteria that an environment must satisfy to be considered habitable. Recent theories of the environment - behavior relationship have provided numerous potential criteria for assessing the habitability of built environments but there is no overarching theory or framework that explains their relationship. In this paper I propose a framework for selecting a...

  13. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eggl, Siegfried; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting mul...

  14. Habit Formation, Dynastic Altruism, and Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Andreas; Valente, Simone

    2007-01-01

    We study the general equilibrium properties of two growth models with overlapping generations, habit formation and endogenous fertility. In the neoclassical model, habits modify the economy's growth rate and generate transitional dynamics in fertility; station- ary income per capita is associated with either increasing or decreasing population and output, depending on the strength of habits. In the AK specification, growing population and increasing consumption per capita require that the hab...

  15. Dynamical Habitability of Known Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Menou, Kristen; Tabachnik, Serge

    2002-01-01

    Habitability is usually defined as the requirement for a terrestrial planet's atmosphere to sustain liquid water. This definition can be complemented by the dynamical requirement that other planets in the system do not gravitationally perturb terrestrial planets outside of their habitable zone, the orbital region allowing the existence of liquid water. We quantify the dynamical habitability of 85 known extrasolar planetary systems via simulations of their orbital dynamics in the presence of p...

  16. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  17. Habitability constraints on water-rich exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Journaux, Baptiste; Lammer, Helmut; Van Hoolst, Tim; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan

    2016-04-01

    This research addresses the characterization, modelling, thermal evolution and possible habitability of water-rich exoplanets. Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for habitable worlds, water-rich planets therefore seem obvious candidates. The water layer on such planets could be hundreds of kilometers deep. Depending on the temperature profile and the pressure gradient, it is likely that at great depths a significant part of the water layer is solid high pressure ice. Whether the solid ice layer extends to the bottom of the water layer, or if a shallow lower ocean forms above the silicate mantle, depends amongst others on the thermal state of the planet. We therefore model the thermal evolution of water-rich planets with a 1D parameterized model. Depth-dependent profiles for thermodynamic properties as well as pressure and gravity are obtained by solving the Poisson equation for the gravity and the hydrostatic pressure equation for pre-defined mass and composition (in terms of iron, silicates and water) [1]. For density, equations of state are applied. For the simulation of the thermal evolution of water-rich planets, several parameters (as initial temperatures or layer thicknesses) are unknown. We therefore employ a quantitatve study with more than 20'000 simulations, where we investigated which parameters have the largest influence on the appearance of a lower ocean, i.e. the possible melting of high-pressure ice by heat flowing out of the silicate mantle [2]. We find that the surface temperature has the largest influence on the thickness of water layers, for which a lower ocean can still form between the high-pressure ice layer and the silicate mantle. For higher surface temperatures, not only entirely liquid oceans are possible for deeper water shells, also a liquid ocean can form under high-pressure ice layers of hundreds of kilometer thickness (for a 1 Earth-mass planet). Deeper down, the lower ocean can still

  18. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

  19. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in ab

  20. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  1. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  2. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  3. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM procedure to estimate and test the Campbell and Cochrane (1999, By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior. Journal of Political Economy 107, 205–251.) habit formation model with a time...

  4. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  5. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.

  6. Real Business-cycle Model with Habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    but more persistent habit in consumption. Intratemporal nonseparabilities in consumption and leisure play an important role in driving the response of real variables to a productivity shock. Adding capital adjustment costs to the model with nonseparabilities in consumption and leisure and external habits...... both in consumption and leisure changes the responses of real variables to a productivity shock, however, in a way similar to that documented for the models with capital adjustment costs and habit formation in consumption. The estimated persistence of the productivity shock is quite modest, which may......This paper empirically investigates the ability of a real business-cycle model with nonseparabilities in consumption and leisure and external habits both in consumption and leisure to fit the postwar US data. The results indicate a strong but fast-dying habit in leisure, and a somewhat weaker...

  7. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  8. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion.

  9. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. PMID:26585633

  10. Habit versus planned behaviour: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A

    1998-03-01

    A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:9554090

  11. Habitability from a microbial point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s μm to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s μm - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

  12. Oral hygiene and smoking habit as risk factors of periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Seijo Machado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peridontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting human beings, and these are more frequent after the age of 35. Smoking habit is one of the risk factors usually linked with the development of these diseases. Objective: To characterize the relation between periodontal condition and buccal hygiene in patients with smoking habit. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study including 95 smokers from Palmira municipality; January-November, 2007. Peridontal treatment index was used in the community, as well as the simplified buccal hygiene index. Results: There was high prevalence of periodontal disease (85, 2%; buccal hygiene was directly related with smoking habit. Conclusions: The study shows an important relation between the periodontal disease in smokers, buccal hygiene and smoking habit intensity.

  13. Developing Ecospheres on Transiently Habitable Planets: The Genesis Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost ro...

  14. Probing the Compositions of Two Habitable Zone Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Crossfield, Ian; Deck, Katherine; Greene, Tom; Rogers, Leslie; Vanderburg, Andrew; Barman, Travis; Morley, Caroline; Lothringer, Josh; Werner, Michael; Beichman, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The recent discovery of two super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby M stars have provided us with an unprecedented new opportunity to characterize the properties of small and potentially habitable planets outside of the solar system. Here, we propose to probe their atmospheric compositions, search for escaping hydrogen, and obtain the first bulk mass and densities estimate of a habitable zone super-Earth. The proposed observations will complement our approved HST WFC3 observations of K2-18b (15-orbits, GO13665, PI Benneke) as well as the approved HST STIS/MAMA observations of K2-18b by PI Ehrenreich. These observations will determine whether or not these two planets have primarily rocky or volatile-rich compositions, and in the volatile-rich case would enable the first studies of atmospheric chemistry in this regime. Mass loss also plays a critical role in the evolution of hydrogen-rich atmospheres on small planets, and our obsevations will provide the first constraints on the stability of these atmospheres.

  15. Developing ecospheres on transiently habitable planets: the genesis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Claudius

    2016-10-01

    It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost robotic microcraft equipped with a on-board gene laboratory for the in situ synthesis of the microbes.

  16. Setting the stage for habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

  17. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  18. On the Habitability of Our Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We consider the habitability of the Universe throughout cosmic history, and conservatively restrict our attention to the context of "life as we know it" and the standard cosmological model, LCDM. The habitable cosmic epoch started shortly after the first stars formed, about 30 Myr after the Big Bang, and will end about 10 Tyr from now, when all stars will die. We review the formation history of habitable planets and find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near 0.1 solar mass stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  19. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  20. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  1. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  2. Users' reading habits in online news portals

    OpenAIRE

    Esiyok, Cagdas; Kille, Benjamin; Jain, Brijnesh Johannes; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to survey reading habits of users of an online news portal. The assumption motivating this study is that insight into the reading habits of users can be helpful to design better news recommendation systems. We estimated the transition probabilities that users who read an article of one news category will move to read an article of another (not necessarily distinct) news category. For this, we analyzed the users' click behavior within plista data set. Key findings are ...

  3. Habit Formation, Parents' Education Spending, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Nakata

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of habits on economic growth in an overlapping generations (OLG) economy with physical and human capital in which altruistic parents finance the education of their children. Habit formation interacts with the role of human capital as an engine of growth by reducing education spending in the short run and by increasing the wage rate and decreasing the interest rate in the long run. When relative risk aversion (RRA) lies around unity, or when the RRA is no les...

  4. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A.; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  5. New electronic habit reminder for the management of thumb-sucking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnappa, Srinath; Rani, M S; Aariz, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Methods for intervention of nonnutritive sucking habits include counseling, positive reinforcement, calendar with rewards, adhesive bandage, bitter nail polish, long sleeves, and appliance therapy. All these methods have been reported in the literature with variable success rates. We present a case of an 8-year-old child with thumb-sucking habit successfully managed in a short period of 5 months by a new electronic habit reminder, an extraoral appliance which was designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with intraoral appliances.

  6. A Habitable Planet around HD 85512?

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L; Pepe, F

    2011-01-01

    Aims: In this study we assess the habitability of HD85512b, a 3.6M_Earth planet orbiting a K5V star. The radial velocity data and orbital parameters for HD 85512 b have just been published, based on data from the dedicated HARPS-upgrade GTO program. Methods: This paper outlines a simple approach to evaluate habitability of rocky planets from radial velocity (RV) searches by using atmospheric models of rocky planets with H2O/CO2/N2 atmospheres, like Earth. We focus our analysis on HD 85512 b. To first order the limits of the Habitable Zone depend on the effective stellar flux distribution in wavelength and time, the planet's Bond albedo, and greenhouse gas effects in this approach. We also discuss the dependence of habitability on the measurement accuracies. Results: We provide a simple set of parameters which can be used for evaluating current and future planet candidates from RV searches for their potential habitability. We find that HD 85512 b could be potentially habitable if the planet exhibits more than ...

  7. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  8. THESIS: the terrestrial habitable-zone exoplanet spectroscopy infrared spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Mark R.; Vasisht, Gautam; Henning, Thomas; Tinetti, Giovanna; Beaulieu, Jean-Phillippe

    2010-07-01

    THESIS, the Transiting Habitable-zone Exoplanet Spectroscopy Infrared Spacecraft, is a concept for a medium/Probe class exoplanet mission. Building on the recent Spitzer successes in exoplanet characterization, THESIS would extend these types of measurements to super-Earth-like planets. A strength of the THESIS concept is simplicity, low technical risk, and modest cost. The mission concept has the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of conditions on extrasolar worlds and could serve as a stepping stone to more ambitious future missions. We envision this mission as a joint US-European effort with science objectives that resonate with both the traditional astronomy and planetary science communities.

  9. Make the High School Library a "Habit" for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    How long does it take to form a habit? Recent research done at the University College London by Phillippa Lally and colleagues suggest it takes an average of sixty-six days to form a new habit. Other research indicates that rewards make habits easier to form, but it takes repetition to form a habit. A literature review conducted for Pearson…

  10. Domain morphology controlled crystal habits in PbTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudhe, C.M., E-mail: chandraguptadudhe@gmail.com; Khambadkar, S.J.

    2015-11-05

    Various crystal habits and associated domain structures in PbTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals synthesized by a modified sol–gel method have been studied. Structural and morphological characterizations of synthesized nanoparticles have been done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found from the -z coordinates of O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} that the Ti–O{sub 6} octahedra were distorted slightly, favorable for the ferroelectric nature. TEM images show butterfly like, plate like, irregular sphere like and oval-shaped habits of the nanocrystals. 90° and 180° domain structures in these crystal habits were explored from their morphologies and appearance in the field of views. The mutual association between the crystal habit and the direction spontaneous polarization P{sub s} due to domain structures was explored. Domain wall energies of 90° and 180° domains were also estimated from the kinetic process of domain nucleation. - Highlights: • Various crystal habits of PbTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles were examined by TEM. • 90° and 180° domains were explored in the nanocrystal. • Crystal habits and domain structures were correlated. • Domain wall energies were estimated.

  11. Pricing to Habits and the Law of One Price

    OpenAIRE

    RAVN, Morten O.; Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie; Uribe, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel international transmission mechanism based on the assumption of deep habits. The term deep habits stands for a preference specification according to which consumers form habits on a good-by-good basis. Under deep habits, firms face more elastic demand functions in markets where nonhabitual demand is high relative to habitual demand, creating an incentive to price discriminate. We refer to this type of price discrimination as pricing to habits. In the...

  12. The power of habits: Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; De Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snackin

  13. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Dressing, Courtney D; Scharf, Caleb A; Raymond, Sean N

    2010-01-01

    Radiative equilibrium studies that place Earth-like exoplanets on different circular orbits from the parent star do not fully sample the range of plausible habitability conditions in planetary systems. In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen "snowball" state poses a threat to the habitability. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. Since, for constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1-e^2)^(-1/2), one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis to scale as (1-e^2)^(-1/4). We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity...

  14. A Catalog of Stellar Evolution Profiles and the Effects of Variable Composition on Habitable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Truitt, Amanda; Spacek, Alexander; Probst, Luke; Dietrich, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We present stellar evolution models for 0.5 - 1.2 \\Msol at scaled metallicities of 0.1 - 1.5 Z\\sol and O/Fe values of 0.44 - 2.28 O/Fe\\sol. The time dependent evolution of habitable zone boundaries are calculated for each stellar evolution track based on stellar mass, effective temperature, and luminosity parameterizations. The rate of change of stellar surface quantities and the surrounding habitable zone position are strong functions of all three quantities explored. The range of orbits that remain continuously habitable, or habitable for at least 2 Gyr, are provided. The results show that the detailed chemical characterization of exoplanet host stars and a consideration of their evolutionary history are necessary to assess the likelihood that a planet found in the instantaneous habitable zone has had sufficient time to develop a biosphere capable of producing detectable biosignatures. This model grid is designed for use by the astrobiology and exoplanet communities to efficiently characterize the time evol...

  15. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    in Denmark, 1995. Subjects: Random sample from the civil registration system. A total of 852 men and 870 women aged 18-80y participated, a response rate of 58%. Interventions: A 7 day estimated dietary record was used to obtain information about the diet. Information about social background was gained...... significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  16. Smoking habits of the medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Narang, R K; Chandra, S; Chaturvedi, P K; Dubey, A L

    1989-01-01

    Smoking habits of the medical students, both undergraduates and postgraduates, were evaluated by self-administering a predesigned proforma. 854 (66.05%) of the 1293 students responded, of whom, 30.7% of them were smokers. The number of smokers and the intensity of smoking increased with the advancement of their career at college. There were more smokers amongst the married and those with a history of smoking in their family. There was no systematic correlation between the socio-economic or rural/urban background and the smoking habit. PMID:2606551

  17. Monetary and Fiscal Policy under Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Leith, Campbell; Moldovan, Ioana; Rossi, Raffaele

    2009-01-01

    Allowing habits to be formed at the level of individual goods - deep habits - can radically alter the fiscal policy transmission mechanism as the counter-cyclicality of mark-ups this implies can result in government spending crowding-in rather than crowding-out private consumption in the short run. We explore the robustness of this mechanism to the existence of price discrimination in the supply of goods to the public and private sectors. We then describe optimal monetary and fiscal policy in...

  18. Family eating habits, family support and subjective well-being in university students in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesly; Orellana, Ligia;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To characterize typologies of university students according to the perception of their families’ eating habits. Material and method: A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 372 students of both genders at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instrument incl...

  19. An Energetic Concept of Habitability for the Deep Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2006-01-01

    Universally, life must be characterized by a characteristic level of order and complexity. In the most general sense, habitability could then be defined as the set of factors required to allow the creation and maintenance of molecular complexity. These factors are: chemical raw materials; energy with which to assemble those materials into complex molecules and sustain the resultant state of complexity; a solvent that allows the interaction of complex molecules, promotes tertiary structure, and permits compartmentalization; and environmental conditions that permit the assembly and maintenance of complex molecules. On Earth, these general requirements correspond to the major biogenic elements C, H, O, N, P, S; chemical or light energy; the solvent water; and specific ranges of temperature, pH, radiation, ionic strength, and so forth, which have thus far been determined on and exclusively empirical basis. Importantly, while the complete absence of any of these factors ensures uninhabitable conditions, the mere presence of all four does not guarantee habitability. In each case - even that of water - it is a question of degree. This question can be couched in quantitative terms by considering the impact of each of these factors on cellular energy balance. More "extreme" conditions (e.g., high temperature, high or low pH, etc.), lower water activity, and low concentrations of nutrients incur or have potential to be addressed by increased investment of energy on the part of the cell. This must be balanced by energy conservation in the cell, noting that biochemical, mass transport, and abiotic chemical limitations intervene between environmental energy availability and biological energy capture. Similarly, lower boundary conditions are emplaced on useful environmental energy yields by the "quantized" nature of biological energy conservation, and upper boundary conditions are emplaced by energy levels or fluxes that are destructive with respect to complexity. This energetic

  20. Seven Habits of Highly Effective Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    Effective camps share seven habits that are essential elements of success: internal leadership development, explicit expectations for staff, ample camper preparation, personal relationships, supervisors-in-residence, two-way communication flow, and commitment to self-improvement. Three key outcomes for directors, staff, and campers resulting from…

  1. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  2. Tidal obliquity evolution of potentially habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Stellar insolation has been used as the main constraint on a planet's habitability. However, as more Earth-like planets are discovered around low-mass stars (LMSs), a re-examination of the role of tides on the habitability of exoplanets has begun. Those studies have yet to consider the misalignment between a planet's rotational axis and the orbital plane normal, i.e. the planetary obliquity. We apply two equilibrium tide theories to compute the obliquity evolution of terrestrial planets orbiting in the habitable zones around LMSs. The time for the obliquity to decrease from an Earth-like obliquity of 23.5 deg to 5 deg, the 'tilt erosion time', is compared to the traditional insolation habitable zone (IHZ) as a function of semi-major axis, eccentricity, and stellar mass. We also compute tidal heating and equilibrium rotation caused by obliquity tides. The Super-Earth Gl581d and the planet candidate Gl581g are studied as examples for tidal processes. Earth-like obliquities of terrestrial planets in the IHZ arou...

  3. Habitable planets around the star Gl 581?

    CERN Document Server

    Selsis, Franck; Levrard, B; Paillet, J; Ribas, I; Delfosse, X

    2007-01-01

    Radial velocity surveys are now able to detect terrestrial planets at habitable distance from M-type stars. Recently, two planets with minimum masses below 10 Earth masses were reported in a triple system around the M-type star Gliese 581. Using results from atmospheric models and constraints from the evolution of Venus and Mars, we assess the habitability of planets Gl 581c and Gl 581d and we discuss the uncertainties affecting the habitable zone (HZ) boundaries determination. We provide simplified formulae to estimate the HZ limits that may be used to evaluate the astrobiological potential of terrestrial exoplanets that will hopefully be discovered in the near future. Planets Gl 581c and 'd' are near, but outside, what can be considered as the conservative HZ. Planet 'c' receives 30% more energy from its star than Venus from the Sun, with an increased radiative forcing caused by the spectral energy distribution of Gl 581. Its habitability cannot however be positively ruled out by theoretical models due to u...

  4. Improving Children's Habits in Recreational Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kris; Papp, Stacy; Richmond, Barbara

    An action research project described a program for improving elementary children's recreational reading habits through a combination of modeling by the teacher plus incentives to enhance students' intrinsic motivation to read for enjoyment. The targeted population consisted of three suburban public schools, grades 2 and 4. Analysis of probable…

  5. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  6. Stability of habitable exomoons of circumbinary planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Suman; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy

    2015-12-01

    Among the currently known Kepler circumbinary planets, three, namely Kepler-453b, Kepler-16b, and Kepler-47c are in the binary habitable zone (HZ). Given the large sizes of these planets, it is unlikely that they would be habitable. However, similar to the giant planets in our solar system, these planets may have large moons, which orbit their host planets while in the HZ. These exomoons, if exist, present viable candidates for habitability. As a condition for habitability, the planet-moon system has to maintain its orbital stability for long time. Usually, the empirical formula by Holeman & Wiegert (1999) is used as a measure of orbital stability in circumbinary systems. However, this formula was obtained by assuming planets to be test particles and therefore does not include possible perturbation of the planet on the binary. In this work, we present results of more realistic calculations of stability of circumbinary planets where the interactions between planets and their central binaries are taken into account. We map the region of stability, which in this case will be specific to each system, and determine the range of the orbital parameters of the moons for which their orbits will be long-term stable.

  7. Stable isotope ratios and uric acid preservation in termites belonging to three feeding habits in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayasu, I; Hyodo, F; Takematsu, Y; Sugimoto, A; Inoue, T; Kirtibutr, N; Abe, T

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios and uric acid concentrations in termites sampled from a dry evergreen forest in Thailand, were determined across three kinds of feeding habits. Feeding habits of Microcerotermes crassus, which is an abundant wood-feeder, and Dicuspiditermes makhamensis, a common soil-feeding termite, were confirmed by isotopic signatures. Lichen feeding termites (Hospitalitermes birmanicus, H. bicolor and H. ataramensis) were characterized by low delta15N values, suggesting that they assimilated nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere. There was also a significant difference in uric acid concentrations between termites representing different feeding habits. No significant relationships were found between uric acid concentrations and delta15N or delta13C in Hospitalitermes. However, delta15N values were correlated with C/N ratios in H. birmanicus, except in one colony of H. ataramensis. delta13C values in both species were negatively correlated with C/N ratios.

  8. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  9. Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Habits for TV, Video ... negative effects that violent video games can have. Internet Safety Become computer literate. Learn how to block ...

  10. Integrating the Science of Habit: Opportunities for Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heather; Cutchin, Malcolm P

    2016-04-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of early morbidity and mortality in the United States. Because personal behaviors are the primary risk factors for developing chronic diseases, developing effective strategies to modify personal behaviors remains a national imperative. Occupational therapy can help address this problematic situation through interventions based on an understanding of habit and principles of habit modification. The objective of this paper is to provide an evidence-based argument for occupational therapy research and practice targeting health-promoting lifestyle behaviors as habits. We discuss empirical research conducted over the previous decade with a focus on the role of habit in daily behavior, key evidence-based strategies for changing existing habits and developing new habits, and recent advances in habit measurement in relation to issues of intervention design. Understanding habit development, function, and change offers a novel orientation for occupational therapy toward practice and research on many complex health problems. PMID:27504882

  11. TRANSIT SURVEYS FOR EARTHS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs and show that it extends from ∼0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4 to 0.9 Msun, temperatures less than ∼104 K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white dwarfs may be deeply eclipsed by terrestrial planets that orbit edge-on, which can easily be detected with ground-based telescopes. If planets can migrate inward or reform near white dwarfs, I show that a global robotic telescope network could carry out a transit survey of nearby white dwarfs placing interesting constraints on the presence of habitable Earths. If planets were detected, I show that the survey would favor detection of planets similar to Earth: similar size, temperature, and rotation period, and host star temperatures similar to the Sun. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could place even tighter constraints on the frequency of habitable Earths around white dwarfs. The confirmation and characterization of these planets might be carried out with large ground and space telescopes.

  12. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  13. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  14. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

  15. Habitability of Exomoons at the Hill or Tidal Locking Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkel, Natalie R

    2013-01-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets mu Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at it's furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves it's largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar ...

  16. The Effect of Giant Planets on Habitable Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a large role in shaping the properties of the Earth during its formation. To explore their effects, we numerically model the growth of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars with and without Jupiter and Saturn analog companions. Employing state-of-the-art dynamical formation models that allow both accretion and collisional fragmentation, we perform hundreds of simulations and quantify the specific impact energies of all collisions that lead to the formation of an Earth-analog. Our model tracks the bulk compositions and water abundances in the cores and mantles of the growing protoplanets to constrain the types of giant planet configurations that allow the formation of habitable planets. We find significant differences in the collisional histories and bulk compositions of the final planets formed in the presence of different giant planet configurations. Exoplanet surveys like Kepler hint at a paucity of Jupiter analogs, thus these analyses have important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets and also support target selection for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  17. Solvent screening and crystal habit of metformin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Bouhelassa, Mohamed; Nouar, Abderrahim; Veesler, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    A multi-well setup with video-microscopy was used to study the influence of solvent on solubility, nucleation, and crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API): metformin hydrochloride (MET.HCl). Starting with 13 solvents covering a wide variety of polarity and proticity, we found 63 crystallization medium for MET.HCl solid generation: good solvents, good co-solvents and anti-solvent systems. For toxicological reasons, we limited the number of crystallization medium to 18: 3 good solvents (class 3), 3 good co-solvent systems and 12 anti-solvent systems. In order to study the influence of crystallization medium on nucleation temperature, crystal habit and polymorphism of MET.HCl, crystallization was studied by a cooling temperature method. Different crystal habits were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies, and solid phase were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, indicating that all the crystals correspond to the thermodynamic stable polymorphic form A of MET.HCl. Finally, the enthalpy of fusion and the melting temperature of MET.HCl were determined by DSC and confirmed the X-ray powder diffraction results.

  18. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Daniel; Davies, Melvyn B.; Johansen, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces these scatterings may also cause habitable planets in interior orbits to become ejected, destroyed, or be transported out of the habitable zone. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Equal-mass planetary systems are far more destructive than systems with giant planets of unequal masses. We also establish a link with observation; we find that giant planets with present-day eccentricities higher than 0.4 almost never have a habitable interior planet. For a giant planet with an present-day eccentricity of 0.2 and semimajor axis of 5 AU orbiting a Sun-like star, 50% of the orbits in the habitable zone are resilient to the instability. As semimajor axis increases and eccentricity decreases, a higher fraction of habitable planets survive and remain habitable. However, if the habitable planet has rocky siblings, there is a significant risk of rocky planet collisions that would sterilize the planet.

  19. Teaching Healthy Habits to Young Children: Handwashing, Toileting and Toothbrushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikanlu, Seyi

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children habits is a routine part of many early childhood program curricula, with teachers never really stopping to think about what or how teaching is affecting their students. Habits are formed with consistent practice. Habits can be taught to children easily when teachers have some creativity to the actions. In this article, the author…

  20. Augmenting simplified habit reversal in the treatment of oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Long, E S; Miltenberger, R G; Ellingson, S A; Ott, S M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether a simplified habit reversal treatment eliminates fingernail biting and related oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation. Although simplified habit reversal did little to decrease the target behaviors for 3 of 4 participants, simplified habit reversal plus additional treatment procedures decreased the behavior to near-zero levels for all participants. These procedures included remote prompting, remote contingencies involving ...

  1. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-01-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? A planet is in the Habitable Zone (HZ) if it harbors liquid water on its surface. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around stars because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties. Such an approach is limiting because the planets' atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the presence of liquid water on the surface, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse. A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not favor one planet type. Instead the stellar and planet properties are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid...

  2. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  3. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Per

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional

  4. Food Habits and Future Time: An Exploratory Study of Age-Appropriate Food Habits Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Peggy A.; McIntosh, William A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined future time perspective and its association with change in food habits among elderly persons (N=805). Findings suggest that the elderly change food habits and that there is an association of positive or negative food habit changes with a positive or negative future time perspective. (Author/NB)

  5. Endogenous labour supply, habits and aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences, this paper investigates the implications of the introduction of habit and aspiration formation when labour supply is endogenous, in an OLG small open economy. In contrast with models with exogenous labour supply where aspirations always reduce economic performance, we show that in a model with endogenous labour supply greater aspirations lead to a higher long run savings and economic performance, through their impact on the lab...

  6. Romanian Consumers Habits regarding Dental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Cetinã Iuliana; Gârdan Daniel Adrian; Geangu Iuliana Petronela

    2011-01-01

    In the actual context, marketing in the dental care services field is confronting with more and more challenging demands. Among them one of the most important one is refering to the need to integrate consumers motivation in the field of marketing strategy. The present research aims to investigate the content and the different corelations of consumer habits regarding dental hygiene. The results are intended to be used in developing new promotional campaigns build on motivational techniques for...

  7. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  8. Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

  9. SLEEP HABITS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Neera; Varun; Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is part of the rhythm of life; without a good sleep the mind is less adaptive, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep-wake cycle of medical students is quite different and sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, occurrence of napping episodes during the day. This study was designed to assess sleep habits in first year medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants of this study were healthy medical students of first year MBBS course of S...

  10. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

  11. NRC study of control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has held several meetings with the NRC staff to discuss the subject of control room habitability. Several meetings between the ACRS and the staff have resulted in ACRS letters that express specific concerns, and the staff has provided responses in reports and meetings. In June of 1983, the NRC Executive Director for Operations directed the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Inspection and Enforcement to develop a plan to handle the issues raised by the ACRS and to report to him specific proposed courses of action to respond to the ACRS's concerns. The NRC control room habitability working group has reviewed the subject in such areas as NRR review process, transformation of control room habitability designs to as-built systems, and determination of testing protocol. The group has determined that many of the ACRS concerns and recommendations are well founded, and has recommended actions to be taken to address these as well as other concerns which were raised independent of the ACRS. The review has revealed significant areas where the approach presently utilized in reviews should be altered

  12. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808

  13. Habitability Concept Models for Living in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrino, M.

    2002-01-01

    As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.

  14. A Statistical Analysis of Exoplanets in Their Habitable Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arthur; Kane, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected a wealth of planets through planetary transits since its launch in 2009. An important step in the continued study of exoplanets is to characterize planets based on their orbital properties and compositions. As the Kepler mission has progressed the data sensitivity to planetary transits at longer orbital periods has increased. This allows for an enhanced probability of detecting planets which lie in the Habitable Zones (HZs) of their host stars. We present the results of statistical analyses of Kepler planetary candidates to study the percentage of orbital time spent in the HZ as a function of planetary parameters, including planetary mass, radius, and orbital eccentricity. We compare these results to the confirmed exoplanet population.

  15. Everyday life and habits in connection to technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jørgensen, Anna Neerup; Majchrzak, Izabela; Lauridsen, Line Hoffmeyer; Arabi, Sara Albu; Joensen, Saskia Van Dam; Nielsen, Simone Barnekow

    2015-01-01

    Our project concerns the topics everyday life and habits in connection to technology. With the focal point on everyday life and habits, we branch out to subjects concerning a modern life with technology and what that entails for our everyday life and habits. In our project we will delve into a thorough explanation on what everyday life is and how it is connected to habits, how a habit becomes an addiction and how those subjects are related to way we use technology in the Western society i...

  16. Prospects for Habitable World Detections Using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    2010-01-01

    Doppler and transit surveys are finding extrasolar planets of ever smaller mass and radius, and are now sampling the domain of superEarths. Recent results from the Doppler surveys suggest that discovery of a transiting superEarth in the habitable zone of a lower main sequence star may be possible. We evaluate the prospects for an all-sky transit survey targeted to the brightest stars I that would find the most favorable cases for photometric and spectroscopic characterization using the James Webb Space Telescope. We use the proposed Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) as representative of an all-sky survey. We couple the simulated TESS yield to a sensitivity model for the MIRI and NIRSpec instruments on JWST. Our sensitivity model includes all currently known and anticipated sources of random and systematic error for these instruments. We focus on the TESS planets with radii between Earth and Neptune. Our simulations consider secondary eclipse filter photometry using JWST/MIRI, comparing the 11- and 15- micron bands to measure carbon dioxide absorption in superEarths, as well as JWST!NIRSpec spectroscopy of water absorption from 1.7-3.0 microns, and carbon dioxide absorption at 4.3 microns. We find that JWST will be capable of characterizing dozens of TESS superEarths with temperatures above the habitable range, using both MIRI and NIRspec. We project that TESS will discover about eight nearby habitable transiting superEarths, all orbiting lower main sequence stars. The principal sources of uncertainty in the prospects for JWST characterization of habitable superEarths are superEarth frequency and the nature of superEarth atmospheres. Based on our estimates of these uncertainties, we project that JWST will be able to measure the temperature, and identify molecular absorptions (water, carbon dioxide) in one to four nearby habitable TESS superEarths orbiting lower main sequence stars.

  17. The Force of Habit: Creating and Sustaining a Wellness Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patricia B; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Merlo, David M

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of an individual's mental health status, habits are difficult to establish and/or eliminate. Given the importance of good habits to overall health and wellness, nurses and other mental health service providers need to understand the force of habits (positive and negative), factors that make habit change difficult, and approaches that are likely to facilitate building and maintaining good habits. The current article provides a cursory overview of several factors (i.e., motivation, will-power, and rewards) that impact habit formation. Relevant theories and research are presented. Habit formation can be fostered through a careful analysis of current behaviors, specific and measurable short-term goals or objectives, and a detailed action plan. PMID:26325170

  18. Augmenting simplified habit reversal in the treatment of oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E S; Miltenberger, R G; Ellingson, S A; Ott, S M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether a simplified habit reversal treatment eliminates fingernail biting and related oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation. Although simplified habit reversal did little to decrease the target behaviors for 3 of 4 participants, simplified habit reversal plus additional treatment procedures decreased the behavior to near-zero levels for all participants. These procedures included remote prompting, remote contingencies involving differential reinforcement plus response cost, and differential reinforcement of nail growth. Limitations of habit reversal for individuals with mental retardation along with directions for future research involving therapist-mediated treatment procedures, particularly those involving remote prompting and remote contingencies, are discussed.

  19. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen Janette Más García; Raúl López Fernández; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 childre...

  20. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  1. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  2. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-08-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α‑1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  3. Cosmic Initial Condition for a Habitable Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of chaotic inflationary scenario, a natural question regarding the eternal bubble production is that what is the essential condition to have a universe being habitable ? In this work we investigate the minimum amount of e-folding for the inflationary area that results in the large scale structure formation at least in the linear regime. We extended this question to the sufficient condition of having enough initial baryonic asymmetry for the formation of the stars, planets and consequently life in the universe.

  4. Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

  5. New Moon water, exploration, and future habitation

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-01-01

    Explore Earth's closest neighbor, the Moon, in this fascinating and timely book and discover what we should expect from this seemingly familiar but strange, new frontier. What startling discoveries are being uncovered on the Moon? What will these tell us about our place in the Universe? How can exploring the Moon benefit development on Earth? Discover the role of the Moon in Earth's past and present; read about the lunar environment and how it could be made more habitable for humans; consider whether continued exploration of the Moon is justified; and view rare Apollo-era photos and film still

  6. Polar Growth Habit of KABO Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The polar growth habit of KABO crystal was discussed by the growth-units model of anionic coordination-polyhedra (ACP), and the relationship between stabilities of incorporation of those growth-units into various group faces and their corresponding morphologies was studied. It is put forward that the growth interface of crystal will be concave when negative plane is used as growth interface. Concave growth interface is very unfavorable for the quality of the crystal, because it is unsuitable for the transfer of the latent heat and impurities released during the deposition.

  7. Sport habits in North-Eastern Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Kith, Nikoletta; Csernoch, László; Balatoni, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    Kith Nikoletta, Csernoch László, Balatoni Ildikó. Sport habits in North-Eastern Hungary. Journal of Health Sciences. 2014;4(13):46-59. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/article/view/2014%3B4%2811%29%3A46-59 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2014%3B4%2811%29%3A46-59 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/491472 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.13135 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.13135   The former journal has...

  8. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  9. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-08-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  10. Tic disorders: when habit forming neural systems form habits of their own?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman, J F; Yeh, C B; Cohen, D J

    2001-12-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related conditions are prevalent disorders affecting as many as 0.3-3% of the population. They are frequently chronic and can be associated with marked impairment and disability. Although clinical care has improved over the past decade, a significant number of patients fail to respond adequately or experience intolerable side effects. The etiology of these disorders is unknown. Compelling evidence suggests that the vulnerability to develop TS and OCD is mediated by both genetic and environmental factors, and that neural systems located in the basal ganglia and functionally related brain structures are involved in their pathogenesis. Based on explicit models of pathogenesis for TS and OCD and building on work accomplished over the past two decades, an array of clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, neuroimaging, epidemiological neurobiological, and treatment studies have been completed or are underway at the Child Study Center at Yale University. A multidisciplinary team of investigators has joined forces to test specific hypotheses through the integration and translation of basic and clinical neuroscience research. All subjects have been studied using identical clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, neurobiological, and pharmacological techniques. Current conceptualizations of TS have been shaped by advances in clinical phenomenology, genetics, systems neuroscience and the emerging understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in implicit learning and habit formation, neuroimmunology and psychopharmacology. An appreciation of the premonitory urges that precede tics and temporal dynamics of tics have provided useful viewpoints from which to regard the natural history of TS. While the long-term outcome of TS can be relatively benign, the presence of comorbid conditions such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), OCD or a major affective disorder can have lasting untoward consequences. The

  11. Critical Dietary Habits in Early Childhood: Principles and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute; Schürmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The adequacy of a diet is usually evaluated based on nutrient intake. As people eat foods but not nutrients, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are needed. To evaluate dietary habits in infants and young children, the following stepwise approach is suggested: (1) develop country-specific FBDG to identify the potential of common nonfortified foods to ensure adequate nutrient intake and (2) examine potential 'critical' dietary patterns if main food groups are excluded, such as in vegetarian diets or if a family's precarious social status leads to food constraints. The German FBDG for infant and child nutrition demonstrate that a well-designed mixture of common foods results in an adequate supply of nutrients, except for vitamin D, iodine and iron. The following solutions are feasible to address deficiencies in these critical nutrients: routine supplementation (vitamin D), fortified complementary food consumption or supplementation for infants as well as inclusion of table salt in the family diet for children (iodine), and individual pediatric care for infants at risk (iron). In the exclusion of food groups of animal origin from vegetarian diets, several nutrients are at risk of becoming deficient if not substituted. Existing studies characterizing vegetarian children are rare. These were mainly published in the 1980s and 1990s and were biased towards a high social status. Thus, firm conclusions on today's dietary practices and health statuses of European vegetarian children cannot be drawn. A social gradient exists for food patterns and dietary quality in children, but energy intake need not necessarily be affected. Scenarios in Germany suggest that families on unemployment assistance can afford to eat a diet compliant with German FBDG only if they restrict food selection to basic food. Yet, the question of how families cope with financial constraints in everyday life remains. In conclusion, well-designed FBDG provide various opportunities to identify critical

  12. Critical Dietary Habits in Early Childhood: Principles and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute; Schürmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The adequacy of a diet is usually evaluated based on nutrient intake. As people eat foods but not nutrients, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are needed. To evaluate dietary habits in infants and young children, the following stepwise approach is suggested: (1) develop country-specific FBDG to identify the potential of common nonfortified foods to ensure adequate nutrient intake and (2) examine potential 'critical' dietary patterns if main food groups are excluded, such as in vegetarian diets or if a family's precarious social status leads to food constraints. The German FBDG for infant and child nutrition demonstrate that a well-designed mixture of common foods results in an adequate supply of nutrients, except for vitamin D, iodine and iron. The following solutions are feasible to address deficiencies in these critical nutrients: routine supplementation (vitamin D), fortified complementary food consumption or supplementation for infants as well as inclusion of table salt in the family diet for children (iodine), and individual pediatric care for infants at risk (iron). In the exclusion of food groups of animal origin from vegetarian diets, several nutrients are at risk of becoming deficient if not substituted. Existing studies characterizing vegetarian children are rare. These were mainly published in the 1980s and 1990s and were biased towards a high social status. Thus, firm conclusions on today's dietary practices and health statuses of European vegetarian children cannot be drawn. A social gradient exists for food patterns and dietary quality in children, but energy intake need not necessarily be affected. Scenarios in Germany suggest that families on unemployment assistance can afford to eat a diet compliant with German FBDG only if they restrict food selection to basic food. Yet, the question of how families cope with financial constraints in everyday life remains. In conclusion, well-designed FBDG provide various opportunities to identify critical

  13. Self-perceived halitosis and oral hygiene habits among undergraduate dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwath, Balachandran; Vijayalakshmi, Rajaram; Malini, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Halitosis or oral malodor is characterized by unpleasant odor arising from the oral cavity. The prevalence of halitosis however is not studied extensively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self perception of oral malodor and oral hygiene habits amongst dental students. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire consisting of ten questions was administered to 285 undergraduate students of Madha Dental College and Hospital. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate ...

  14. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  15. Don't do it again! Directed forgetting of habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-06-01

    Most daily routines are determined by habits. However, the experienced ease and automaticity of habit formation and execution come at a cost when habits that are no longer appropriate must be overcome. So far, proactive and reactive control strategies that prevent inappropriate habit execution either by preparation or "on the fly" have been identified. Here, we present evidence for a third, retroactive control strategy. In two experiments using the list method of directed forgetting, the accessibility of newly learned and practiced stimulus-response rules was significantly reduced when participants were cued to forget the rules rather than to remember them. The results thus show that directed forgetting, so far observed and investigated only for episodic memory traces, can also be applied to habits. The findings further emphasize the adaptive value of forgetting and can be taken as evidence of a retroactive strategy of habit control. PMID:24714574

  16. The Impact of Stellar Rotation on the Detectability of Habitable Planets Around M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Elisabeth R; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Dittmann, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Stellar activity and rotation frustrate the detection of exoplanets through the radial velocity technique. This effect is particularly of concern for M dwarfs, which can remain magnetically active for billions of years. We compile rotation periods for late-type stars and for the M dwarf planet-host sample in order to investigate the rotation periods of older field stars across the main sequence. We show that for stars with masses between 0.25 and 0.5 solar masses (M4V to M1V), the stellar rotation period typical of field stars coincides with the orbital periods of planets in the habitable zone. This will pose a fundamental challenge to the discovery and characterization of potentially habitable planets around early M dwarfs. Due to the longer rotation periods reached by mid M dwarfs and the shorter orbital period at which the planetary habitable zone is found, stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.25 solar masses (M6V to M4V) offer better opportunities for the detection of habitable planets via radial velocitie...

  17. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Arney, Giada; Meadows, Victoria S; Wolf, Eric T; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (tau ~ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-...

  18. SLEEP HABITS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is part of the rhythm of life; without a good sleep the mind is less adaptive, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep-wake cycle of medical students is quite different and sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, occurrence of napping episodes during the day. This study was designed to assess sleep habits in first year medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants of this study were healthy medical students of first year MBBS course of Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to students to assess age, sleep-wake schedule, naps, total sleep time at night, possible factors affecting bedtime and daytime sleepiness using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and quality of sleep by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. RESULT The final study included 65 students, total sleep time at night+ nap of the whole group was 5.5±1.6 hours. Seven students (10% were defined to have Excessive Day Time Sleepiness (EDS based on ESS score of >10. Also 70.2% students reported napping during the day time and 60% students have poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5. CONCLUSION Analysis of the sleep habit of medical students revealed that this group is sleep deprived, which in turn may affect their academic performance.

  19. Inflatable habitation for the lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.

    1992-01-01

    Inflatable structures have a number of advantages over rigid modules in providing habitation at a lunar base. Some of these advantages are packaging efficiency, convenience of expansion, flexibility, and psychological benefit to the inhabitants. The relatively small, rigid cylinders fitted to the payload compartment of a launch vehicle are not as efficient volumetrically as a collapsible structure that fits into the same space when packaged, but when deployed is much larger. Pressurized volume is a valuable resource. By providing that resource efficiently, in large units, labor intensive external expansion (such as adding additional modules to the existing base) can be minimized. The expansive interior in an inflatable would facilitate rearrangement of the interior to suite the evolving needs of the base. This large, continuous volume would also relieve claustrophobia, enhancing habitability and improving morale. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the aspects of inflatable habitat design, including structural, architectural, and environmental considerations. As a specific case, the conceptual design of an inflatable lunar habitat, developed for the Lunar Base Systems Study at the Johnson Space Center, is described.

  20. Good Study Habits-The key to learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language is slow and cumulative. No one can learn a language in 24 hours as many advertisements promise you. In fact, people work all their lives to learn languages. So it is important for all the people to develop study habits because de⁃veloping good habits in learning English will greatly increase studying efficiency and give twice the result with half the effort. In other words, good study habits are the keys to learning English.

  1. The Benefits of Developing Habits of Mind to English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2007-01-01

    In ordinary human life,something can be two different things at the same time. Habit can also be a theory and a solution. In this thesis I will introduce the reasons why we should develop habits of mind and the benefits to English learners. In this way English learners can master some better learning methods and scientific habits of mind to direct and improve their English learning.

  2. Habitability on Mars from a Microbial Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Betrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Extraterrestrial habitability is a complex notion. We briefly review what is known about the origin of life on Earth, that is, life based on carbon chemistry and water. We then discuss habitable conditions (past and present) for established life and for the survival of microorganisms. Based on these elements, we propose to use the term habitable only for conditions necessary for the origin of life, the proliferation of life, and the survival of life. Not covered by this term would be conditio...

  3. Problems of harmful habits and dependences of students.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there i...

  4. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera, Daniel; Davies, Melvyn B.; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces giant planet scatterings can also alter the orbits of terrestrial planets. For example, a habitable rocky planet in the system can be ejected or transported to an orbit outside the habitable zone. Therefore, there is a link between observed giant planets and the habitability of smaller planets in the system. We say th...

  5. Rotating Stars Can Help Planets Become Habitable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    What characteristics must a terrestrial planet exhibit to have the potential to host life? Orbiting within the habitable zone of its host star is certainly a good start, but theres another important aspect: the planet has to have the right atmosphere. A recent study has determined how host stars can help their planets to lose initial, enormous gaseous envelopes and become more Earth-like.Collecting An EnvelopeWhen a terrestrial planet forms inside a gaseous protoplanetary disk, it can accumulate a significant envelope of hydrogen gas causing the planet to bear more similarity to a mini-Neptune than to Earth. Before the planet can become habitable, it must shed this enormous, primordial hydrogen envelope, so that an appropriate secondary atmosphere can form.So what determines whether a planet can get rid of its protoatmosphere? The dominant process for shedding a hydrogen atmosphere is thermal mass loss: as the planets upper atmosphere is heated by X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from the host star, the envelope evaporates.A Critical DependenceIn a recent study led by Colin Johnstone (University of Vienna), a team of scientists has developed models of this evaporation process for hydrogen planetary atmospheres. In particular, Johnstone and collaborators examine how the host stars initial rotation rate which strongly impacts the stars level of XUV activity affects the degree to which the planets hydrogen atmosphere is evaporated, and the rate at which the evaporation occurs.The authors findings can be illustrated with the example of an Earth-mass planet located in the habitable zone of a solar-mass star. In this case, the authors find four interesting regimes (shown in the plot to the right):Evolution of the hydrogen protoatmosphere of an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a solar-mass star. The four lettered cases describe different initial atmospheric masses. The three curves for each case describe the stellar rotation rate: slow (red

  6. Exploring the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in the deciduous dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Freire, Gabriela Mesquita; Cárdenas, Abel Belizario Cahuana; Suarez de Deza, José Enrique Espasa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Boj Quesada JR, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in deciduous dentition. Methods A cross-sectional observational survey was carried out in 275 children aged 3 to 6 years and included clinical evaluations of malocclusions and structured interviews. Statistical significance for the association between feeding habits and the development of malocclusion was determined using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. In additi...

  7. Habitable Evaporated Cores: Transforming Mini-Neptunes into Super-Earths in the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory; Lopez, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Jackson, Brian; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    We show that photoevaporation of small gaseous exoplanets ("mini-Neptunes") in the habitable zones of M dwarfs can remove several Earth masses of hydrogen and helium from these planets and transform them into potentially habitable worlds. We couple X-ray/extreme ultraviolet (XUV)-driven escape, thermal evolution, tidal evolution and orbital migration to explore the types of systems that may harbor such "habitable evaporated cores" (HECs). We find that HECs are most likely to form from planets...

  8. Exoplanet Habitability: Effects of Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-05-01

    We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star's C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the 'habitable zone'. TVJ

  9. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  10. Postcranial morphology and the locomotor habits of living and extinct carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X; Meachen, Julie A; Sakai, Stacey A

    2013-02-01

    Members of the order Carnivora display a broad range of locomotor habits, including cursorial, scansorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, aquatic, and semifossorial species from multiple families. Ecomorphological analyses from osteological measurements have been used successfully in prior studies of carnivorans and rodents to accurately infer the locomotor habits of extinct species. This study uses 20 postcranial measurements that have been shown to be effective indicators of locomotor habits in rodents and incorporates an extensive sample of over 300 individuals from more than 100 living carnivoran species. We performed statistical analyses, including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise discriminant function analysis, using a set of 16 functional indices (ratios). Our ANOVA results reveal consistent differences in postcranial skeletal morphology among locomotor groups. Cursorial species display distal elongation of the limbs, gracile limb elements, and relatively narrow humeral and femoral epicondyles. Aquatic and semiaquatic species display relatively robust, shortened femora and elongate metatarsals. Semifossorial species display relatively short, robust limbs with enlarged muscular attachment sites and elongate claws. Both semiaquatic and semifossorial species have relatively elongate olecranon process of the ulna and enlarged humeral and femoral epicondyles. Terrestrial, scansorial, and arboreal species are characterized by having primarily intermediate features, but arboreal species do show relatively elongate manual digits. Morphological indices effectively discriminate locomotor groups, with cursorial and arboreal species more accurately classified than terrestrial, scansorial, or semiaquatic species. Both within and between families, species with similar locomotor habits converge toward similar postcranial morphology despite their independent evolutionary histories. The discriminant analysis worked particularly well to correctly classify members of the

  11. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Obliquity

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S; Scharf, Caleb A

    2008-01-01

    Without the stabilizing influence of the Moon, the Earth's obliquity could vary significantly. Extrasolar terrestrial planets with the potential to host life may therefore have large obliquities or be subject to strong obliquity variations. We revisit the habitability of oblique planets with an energy balance climate model (EBM) allowing for dynamical transitions to ice-covered snowball states as a result of ice-albedo feedback. Despite the great simplicity of our EBM, it captures reasonably well the seasonal cycle of global energetic fluxes at Earth's surface. It also performs satisfactorily against a full-physics climate model of a highly oblique Earth, in an unusual regime of circulation dominated by heat transport from the poles to the equator. Climates on oblique terrestrial planets can violate global radiative balance through much of their seasonal cycle, which limits the usefulness of simple radiative equilibrium arguments. High obliquity planets have severe climates, with large amplitude seasonal vari...

  12. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared...... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...... between 0.93 and 1.0 (sensitivity), 0.90 and 0.98 (specificity), and 0.79 and 0.98 (kappa). Spearman's correlation coefficients for number of cigarettes smoked/day varied between 0.87 and 0.97; mean differences were all close to zero. Accuracy of recall tended to diminish with increasing alcohol intake...

  13. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo; Poveda, German

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for ...

  14. Extrasolar Trojan Planets close to Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, R; Schwarz, R; Freistetter, F

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the stability regions of hypothetical terrestrial planets around the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5 in some specific extrasolar planetary systems. The problem of their stability can be treated in the framework of the restricted three body problem where the host star and a massive Jupiter-like planet are the primary bodies and the terrestrial planet is regarded as being massless. From these theoretical investigations one cannot determine the extension of the stable zones around the equilibrium points. Using numerical experiments we determined their largeness for three test systems chosen from the table of the know extrasolar planets, where a giant planet is moving close to the so-called habitable zone around the host star in low eccentric orbits. The results show the dependence of the size and structure of this region, which shrinks significantly with the eccentricity of the known gas giant.

  15. Habitable Zone Dependence on Stellar Parameter Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with a HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.

  16. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Zuluaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ, defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  17. Planetary deep interiors, geodesy, and habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, crust, and by interactions with possible ocean and atmosphere. This presentation puts in perspective the fundamental understanding of the relationships and interactions between those different planetary reservoirs and their evolution through time. It emphasizes on the deep interior part of terrestrial planets and moons. The core of a planet, when composed of liquid iron alloy, may provide magnetic field and further interaction with the magnetosphere, ingredients believed to be important for the evolution of an atmosphere and of a planet in general. The deep interior is believed to be of high importance for its habitability. Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its variations. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars, and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for Mercury and for some of the Galilean satellites from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as the InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) NASA mission will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution

  18. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p < .05) predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  19. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces giant planet scatterings can also alter the orbits of terrestrial planets. For example, a habitable rocky planet in the system can be ejected or transported to an orbit outside the habitable zone. Therefore, there is a link between observed giant planets and the habitability of smaller planets in the system. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Systems with three Jupite...

  20. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi;

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  1. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks. PMID:25851609

  2. For Parents Particularly: Learning Healthful Habits for a Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rita

    1997-01-01

    Provides several suggestions to parents willing to help their children understand the importance of developing and practicing healthful habits. Discusses advantages of washing hands regularly and thoroughly and developing good oral hygiene. Urges parents to practice and teach healthful habits and become models for their children. (AA)

  3. Primary School Teacher Candidates' Geometric Habits of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Nilu¨fer Y.; Tanisli, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Geometric habits of mind are productive ways of thinking that support learning and using geometric concepts. Identifying primary school teacher candidates' geometric habits of mind is important as they affect the development of their future students' geometric thinking. Therefore, this study attempts to determine primary school…

  4. Habit learning and memory in mammals: behavioral and neural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Antonella; Pompili, Assunta; Packard, Mark G; Tomaz, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Goal-direct behavior and habit learning represent two forms of instrumental learning; whereas the former is rapidly acquired and regulated by its outcome, the latter is reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Habit learning can be generally defined as the acquisition of associations between stimuli and responses. Habits are acquired via experience-dependent plasticity, occurring repeatedly over the course of days or years and becoming remarkably fixed. The distinction between habit learning, as a product of a procedural learning brain system, and a declarative learning system for encoding facts and episodes is based on the hypothesis that memory is composed of multiple systems that have distinct neuroanatomy and operating principles. Here we review recent research analyzing the main behavioral and neural characteristics of habit learning. In particular, we focus on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behavior, and describe the brain areas and neurotransmitters systems involved in habit learning. The emotional modulation of habit learning in rodents and primates is reviewed, and the implications of habit learning in psychopathology are briefly described. PMID:24981854

  5. Effects of impurities on growth habit of KDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of metaphosphate, boric acid and quaternary ammonium cations with different concentration on the growth habit of KDP crystal are reported. The results are analyzed and discussed, which show that the effects of different impurities on the growth habit of KDP are not the same. It is due to the different adsorption mechanism of the impurities.

  6. Exploring New Potentials in Preventing Unhealthy Computer Habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    Each day millions of computer users experience pains due to unhealthy computer habits. Research in this field mainly focuses on encouraging users to take breaks and correct their posture. This paper shows that unhealthy computer habits calls for new sensing solutions. Based on a design process in...

  7. MAGNETIC SHIELDING OF EXOMOONS BEYOND THE CIRCUMPLANETARY HABITABLE EDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, René [McMaster University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Zuluaga, Jorge I., E-mail: rheller@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: jzuluaga@fisica.udea.edu.co [FACom - Instituto de Física - FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-10-20

    With most planets and planetary candidates detected in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) being super-Earths and gas giants rather than Earth-like planets, we naturally wonder if their moons could be habitable. The first detection of such an exomoon has now become feasible, and due to observational biases it will be at least twice as massive as Mars. However, formation models predict that moons can hardly be as massive as Earth. Hence, a giant planet's magnetosphere could be the only possibility for such a moon to be shielded from cosmic and stellar high-energy radiation. Yet, the planetary radiation belt could also have detrimental effects on exomoon habitability. Here we synthesize models for the evolution of the magnetic environment of giant planets with thresholds from the runaway greenhouse (RG) effect to assess the habitability of exomoons. For modest eccentricities, we find that satellites around Neptune-sized planets in the center of the HZ around K dwarf stars will either be in an RG state and not be habitable, or they will be in wide orbits where they will not be affected by the planetary magnetosphere. Saturn-like planets have stronger fields, and Jupiter-like planets could coat close-in habitable moons soon after formation. Moons at distances between about 5 and 20 planetary radii from a giant planet can be habitable from an illumination and tidal heating point of view, but still the planetary magnetosphere would critically influence their habitability.

  8. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...

  9. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  10. Literacy Attitudes, Habits and Achievements of Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Tina; Stagg Peterson, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' reading habits and their literacy abilities affect their views toward teaching reading and writing and how they implement literacy instruction. This study explored the relationship between the past and current reading habits of pre-service teachers in relation to their reading and writing abilities. Participating teacher…

  11. On the habitability of exoplanets orbiting Proxima Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Madeleine; Rodriguez, Lien

    2014-01-01

    We apply a mathematical model for photosynthesis to quantitatively assess the habitability of a hypothetical planet orbiting Proxima Centauri, inside the so called habitability zone. Results suggest significant viability for primary biological productivity, provided living organisms have evolved to reach the ability of using infrared light for photosynthesis.

  12. Habitability of known exoplanetary systems based on measured stellar properties

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W; Underwood, D R; Jones, Barrie W; Underwood, David R

    2006-01-01

    We have used the measured properties of the stars in the known exoplanetary systems to estimate their present habitability, and compared the outcome with earlier work, where we used a stellar evolution model to determine habitability throughout the main-sequence phase. This is to see whether the results are sensitive to stellar properties. The stellar properties in both pieces of work have been used to determine the present location of the classical habitable zone (HZ). To establish habitability, we estimate the critical distances from the giant planet(s) within which an Earth-mass planet would suffer large orbital changes. We then evaluate the present habitability of each exoplanetary system by examining the penetration of these critical distances into the HZ. For the present population of exoplanetary systems the results are insensitive to whether the evolutionary stellar model is used or measured stellar properties.

  13. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. SPONSORSHIP: The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... household vs single household). The results also showed that gender difference in dietary habits is associated with other sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The selected food frequency questions proved sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and this method may...

  14. Exploring Mars for Evidence of Habitable Environments and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mars has been more similar to that of Earth than has the climate of any other planet in our Solar System. But Mars still provides a valuable alternative example of how planetary processes and environments can affect the potential presence of life elsewhere. For example, although Mars also differentiated very early into a core, mantle and crust, it then evolved mostly if not completely without plate tectonics and has lost most of its early atmosphere. The Martian crust has been more stable than that of Earth, thus it has probably preserved a more complete record of its earliest history. Orbital observations determined that near-surface water was once pervasive. Orbiters have identified the following diverse aqueous sedimentary deposits: layered phyllosilicates, phyllosilicates in intracrater fans, plains sediments potentially harboring evaporitic minerals, deep phyllosilicates, carbonate-bearing deposits, intracrater clay-sulfate deposits, Meridiani-type layered deposits, valles-type layered deposits, hydrated silica-bearing deposits, and gypsum plains. These features, together with evidence of more vigorous past geologic activity, indicate that early climates were wetter and perhaps also somewhat warmer. The denser atmosphere that was required for liquid water to be stable on the surface also provided more substantial protection from radiation. Whereas ancient climates might have favored habitable environments at least in some localities, clearly much of the Martian surface for most of its history has been markedly less favorable for life. The combination of dry conditions, oxidizing surface environments and typically low rates of sedimentation are not conducive to the preservation of evidence of ancient environments and any biota. Thus a strategy is required whereby candidate sites are first identified and then characterized for their potential to preserve evidence of past habitable environments. Rovers are then sent to explore the most promising

  15. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  16. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo; Bengenal; Bar; Bills; Blankenship; Connerney; Kurth; McGrath; Moore; Prockter; Senske; Smith; Garner; Magner; Hibbard; Cooke

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability, as an overarching science goal, will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes, The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (1EO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options, In its preliminary findings (May, 2011), the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives, An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing, This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources, More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, that is better situated to handle larger masses and higher data volumes, and which aims to limit radiation exposure, Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over mUltiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile, Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission

  17. Hydrothermal preparation and crystal habit of X-zeolite powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shao-hua; ZHANG Shu-gen; WANG Da-wei; FANG Ke-ming

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of X-zeolite powder was investigatedin hydrothermal system, the crystal growth process of X-zeolite in hydrothermal condition was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and infrared ray. The results show that X-zeolite powder with uniform granularity and intact crystal shape can be obtained in hydrothermal system of acid-treated stellerite-NaOH-NaAl(OH)4-H2O; the crystallite size is in the range of 2 - 3μm. The best reaction time of hydrothermal preparation is 6 h. The formation phases of X-zeolite crystal are as follows: dissolution of feedstocks → formation of [SiO4]4- and [AlO4]5- tetrahedron, many-membered ring,β cage → formation of crystal nucleus and nano-particle → aggregation growth of nano-particle → coalescence growth of crystallite. The crystal habits of X-zeolite are intimately related with crystallization orientation ofβ cage in crystal and with its coupling stability on every crystal face family.

  18. Hydrogen Greenhouse Planets Beyond the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas, and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H2-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the "classical" habitable zone defined for CO2 greenhouse atmospheres. Using a 1-D radiative-convective model we find that 40 bars of pure H2 on a 3 Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280K out to 1.5AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H2, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H2-He are possible, and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protect...

  19. Incentive or Habit Learning in Amphibians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Rubén N.; Pistone Creydt, Virginia; Iurman, Mariana; Rinaldi, Mauro A.; Sirani, Bruno; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2011-01-01

    Toads (Rhinella arenarum) received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain), to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss), and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss). In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization. PMID:22087217

  20. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  1. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  2. Sleep habits in native brazilian bororo children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep behavior patterns in childhood are influenced by familial, cultural and environmental factors. In understanding sleep in Native Brazilian Bororo children, one should consider the influence of their culture on the child's sleep. This research analyzes sleep habits of Native Bororo children from the Meruri village, located in an Indian Reservation in the state of Mato Grosso. Fourty four children ( 24 M; 20 F were evaluated; ages ranged from one month to 10 years, with a mean age of 4.9 years. Sleep characteristics were assessed by means of a standard questionnaire applied to the mothers. Cosleeping - sleeping together with family members - was a remarkable finding, in every child 0-2 year old and in 81.5% in the 2-10 years group. The second characteristic was sleeping with many people in the same room. There was an average of 5.1 people per room in the younger group and 3.9 people in the older group

  3. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  4. Formando planetas habitables en estrellas M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of stellar evolution allow us to infer that the low-mass stars are the most abundant in the galaxy. In the present investigation, we analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around M3-type stars, which have a mass of 0.29 M. In particular, we are interested in studying the terrestrial-like planet formation processes and water delivery in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of those systems. To develop this investigation, we assume massive protoplanetary disks for such stars, which have 5 of the mass of the central star. Once defined the working disk, we use a semi-analytical model, which is able to determine the distribution of planetary embryos and planetesimals at the end of the gaseous phase. Then, these distributions are used as initial conditions for running -body simulations. Due to the stochastic nature of the accretion process, we carry out ten -body simulations in order to analyze the evolution of the planetary systems after the gas dissipation. Our results suggest the efficient formation of terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide range of masses and water contents. The planets formed in the HZ of the system have masses between 0.07 M and 0.15 M and final water contents between 5.4 and 29 by mass. The physical properties of the terrestrial-like planets formed in the HZ of our simulations suggest that they should be able to retain a permanent and substantial atmosphere.

  5. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  6. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  7. Statistical analyses of extreme food habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the results of the project ''Statistical analyses of extreme food habits'', which was ordered from the National Office for Radiation Protection as a contribution to the amendment of the ''General Administrative Regulation to paragraph 45 of the Decree on Radiation Protection: determination of the radiation exposition by emission of radioactive substances from facilities of nuclear technology''. Its aim is to show if the calculation of the radiation ingested by 95% of the population by food intake, like it is planned in a provisional draft, overestimates the true exposure. If such an overestimation exists, the dimension of it should be determined. It was possible to prove the existence of this overestimation but its dimension could only roughly be estimated. To identify the real extent of it, it is necessary to include the specific activities of the nuclides, which were not available for this investigation. In addition to this the report shows how the amounts of food consumption of different groups of foods influence each other and which connections between these amounts should be taken into account, in order to estimate the radiation exposition as precise as possible. (orig.)

  8. Prospects for Extrasolar "Earths" in Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W; Sleep, P N

    2005-01-01

    We have shown that Earth-mass planets could survive in variously restricted regions of the habitable zones (HZs) of most of a sample of nine of the 102 main-sequence exoplanetary systems confirmed by 19 November 2003. In a preliminary extrapolation of our results to the other systems, we estimate that roughly a half of these systems could have had an Earth-mass planet confined to the HZ for at least the most recent 1000 Ma. The HZ migrates outwards during the main-sequence lifetime, and so this proportion varies with stellar age. About two thirds of the systems could have such a planet confined to the HZ for at least 1000 Ma at sometime during the main-sequence lifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list for exploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached this conclusion by launching putative Earth-mass planets in various orbits and following their fate with mixed-variable symplectic and hybrid integrators. Whether the Earth-mass planets could form in the HZs of the exoplanetary sy...

  9. CD-HPF: New habitability score via data analytic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, K.; Saha, S.; Agrawal, S.; Safonova, M.; Routh, S.; Narasimhamurthy, A.

    2016-10-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and Planetary Habitability Index (PHI), describe heuristic methods to score habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets (or exomoons). ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability, and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the potential habitability of any given planet, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: presence of a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which computes the habitability score by using measured and estimated planetary input parameters. As an initial set, we used radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of a planet. The values of the input parameters are normalized to the Earth Units (EU). The proposed metric, with exponents accounting for metric elasticity, is endowed with analytical properties that ensure global optima, and scales up to accommodate finitely many input parameters. The model is elastic, and, as we discovered, the standard PHI turns out to be a special case of the CDHS. Computed CDHS scores are fed to K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor) classification algorithm with probabilistic herding that facilitates the assignment of exoplanets to appropriate classes via supervised feature learning methods, producing granular clusters of habitability. The proposed work describes a decision-theoretical model using the power of convex optimization and

  10. Habitability issues for long-term habitation in space ship; Uchusen no kankyo to choki kyoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

    1999-04-05

    The International Space Station which will start its actual operation in 2004, provides a big step for human beings to expand their habitation territory into space, since it should play a role as a junction port for future shuttle missions between our Earth and the lunar base and also for manned exploration toward Mars. In the present paper, cuurent status of environmental conditions of the space ship and some risks and difficulty which onboard crews may face during their long stay are viewed from biomedical points. (author)

  11. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: preliminary science drivers and technical requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Gaudi, Scott; Seager, Sara; Cahoy, Kerri; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Feinberg, Lee; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, Jeremy; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Tamura, Motohide; Mouillet, David; Prusti, Timo; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Robinson, Tyler; Rogers, Leslie; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stern, Daniel; Still, Martin; Turnbull, Margaret; Booth, Jeffrey; Kiessling, Alina; Kuan, Gary; Warfield, Keith

    2016-07-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  12. TRAPPIST-UCDTS: A prototype search for habitable planets transiting ultra-cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magain P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ∼1000 nearest ultra-cool stars (spectral type M6 and latter represent a unique opportunity for the search for life outside solar system. Due to their small luminosity, their habitable zone is 30–100 times closer than for the Sun, the corresponding orbital periods ranging from one to a few days. Thanks to this proximity, the transits of a habitable planet are much more probable and frequent than for an Earth-Sun analog, while their tiny size (∼1 Jupiter radius leads to transits deep enough for a ground-based detection, even for sub-Earth size planets. Furthermore, a habitable planet transiting one of these nearby ultra-cool star would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the detection of possible biosignatures, notably with the near-to-come JWST. Motivated by these reasons, we have set up the concept of a ground-based survey optimized for detecting planets of Earth-size and below transiting the nearest Southern ultra-cool stars. To assess thoroughly the actual potential of this future survey, we are currently conducting a prototype mini-survey using the TRAPPIST robotic 60cm telescope located at La Silla ESO Observatory (Chile. We summarize here the preliminary results of this mini-survey that fully validate our concept.

  13. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bagnulo, S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Kowalski, P. M. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Sterzik, M. F., E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: M.R.Patel@open.ac.uk, E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de, E-mail: denis.shulyak@gmail.com, E-mail: msterzik@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-09-20

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  14. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  15. READING AND LEISURE TIMES ACTIVITY HABITS OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Gür

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading has an undeniable importance in human life. The reading habits of teachers who educate future generations are extremely important in their education as weel as in their professional lives. In this study, we aimed to determine preservice teachers' reading habits, leisure time activities and reading motivations. In this context, reading was taken in a broader sense that includes reading of new technological materials and environments besides traditional materials. According to the results of the research preservice teachers could be classified as –genrally- aliteratetype reader and they don’t have the habit of using libraries. Students read technological tools and environments every day, while the usage ofbooks and traditional reading materials is relatively small. Some suggestions proposed at the end; such as, the technological progress to be taken into consideration while developing the habit of reading and reading traditional materials should be handled with technology together not as contestant.

  16. Problems of harmful habits and dependences of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there is an increase of level of education of student young people on questions abandonment from harmful habits and dependences. The ways of decision of problem of addiction behavior of students are offered as an effective condition of improvement of the state of their health.

  17. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a one-year project to apply a GIS analysis tool to new orbital data for lunar resource assessment and martian habitability identification.  We used...

  18. School dietary habits and incidence of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo S??nchez, Celia; T??llez, Francisco; Heras Gonz??lez, Leticia; Ib????ez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal Arcas, Miguel; Olea Serrano, F??tima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material...

  19. READING AND LEISURE TIMES ACTIVITY HABITS OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Gür

    2014-01-01

    Reading has an undeniable importance in human life. The reading habits of teachers who educate future generations are extremely important in their education as weel as in their professional lives. In this study, we aimed to determine preservice teachers' reading habits, leisure time activities and reading motivations. In this context, reading was taken in a broader sense that includes reading of new technological materials and environments besides traditional materials. According to the...

  20. CD-HPF: New Habitability Score Via Data Analytic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Kakoli; Saha, Snehanshu; Agrawal, Surbhi; Safonova, Margarita; Routh, Swati; Narasimhamurthy, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, ESI and PHI, describe heuristic methods to score similarity/habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets or exomoons. ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the ...

  1. Thermique des enceintes habitables et énergies solaires

    OpenAIRE

    Bezian, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of the research that I have performed for nearly 30 years in the areas of thermal transfers in habitable enclosures and applications of solar energy. The thermal transfers in habitable enclosures (car cells, buildings...) have the main features of large volumes with complex forms, a strong coupling of the three modes of heat transfer and boundary conditions constantly changing. Here we present a method to build original numerical simulators of the thermal behaviour ...

  2. Nutritional Habits of Croatian Island Populations – Recent Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Missoni, Sasa

    2012-01-01

    Although Croatia is divided into continental and insular subpopulation which practice different dietary habits, a general shift in nutritional habits has been observed in the direction of globalization, including considerably higher intake of red meat, saturated fatty acids, milk, dairies etc. and accompanied by a decrease in physical activity. These relatively abrupt changes have had an especially significant impact on the insular populations, known for their traditional Mediterrane...

  3. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    OpenAIRE

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira; Maria do Rosário Ferreira Lima; Luciana Zappeloni Pizzolato

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics...

  4. Deep Habits, Rule-of-Thumb Consumers, and Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Daeha Cho; Kwang Hwan Kim

    2013-01-01

    Procyclical movements in private consumption and countercyclical markup are the most prominent feature to an increase in government spending. In this paper, we model deep habits and rule-of-thumb consumers to match this feature. We demonstrate that when ruleof-thumb consumers meet deep habits in consumption, our model improves the two models that are widely used in the literature to investigate the effect of government spending. First, it generates a more realistic markup response. Second, it...

  5. Experiments on Intertemporal Consumption with Habit Formation and Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhikang Chua; Camerer, Colin F.

    2006-01-01

    The standard approach to modeling intertemporal consumption is to assume that consumers are solving a dynamic optimization problem. Under realistic descriptions of utility and uncertainty—stochastic income and habit formation-- these intertemporal problems are very difficult to solve. Optimizing agents must build up precautionary savings to buffer bad income realizations, and must anticipate the negative “internality” of current consumption on future utility, through habits. Yet recent empiri...

  6. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Melani, Andrea S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  7. Amateur and professional football player to investigate of nutritional habits

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan Saygın; Kemal Göral; Ertugrul Gelen

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the nutritional habits level of footballers, considering the different league categories. From Turkey Super League, 2. League category A, 2.League category B, 3.League, 1.Amateur League, 2.Amateur League teams 360 active football players participated in the survey. To determine their the survey form developed by the researcher, benefiting previous scientific studies, consisting of 13 personal information questions, 20 nutritional habits quest...

  8. Assessment of healthy lifestyle habits among Mosul university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Younis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A healthy lifestyle leaves you fit, energetic and at reduced risk for disease, based on the choices you make about your daily habits. Good nutrition, daily exercise and adequate sleep are the foundations for continuing good health. Managing stress in positive ways, instead of through smoking or drinking alcohol, reduces wear and tear on your body at the hormonal level. For a longer and more comfortable life, put together your plan for a healthy lifestyle and live up to it. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess of Healthy lifestyle habits among Mosul University Students and to examine relationship between the university student's characteristics and healthy lifestyles habits. Method: Cross-sectional survey design is applied to assess healthy lifestyle habit among Mosul University Students. Random sample consist of (400 students (Male and Female were students in Mosul University from specialty difference (College of Medicine, College of Dentistry, College of Nursing, College of Pharmacy, College of Fine Arts, College of Education , College of Basic Education and College of Law,From end stage in University. Period of data collection first December 2013 extended from end February 2014. An interview technique method was used for data collection. Data were analyzed through the application of the descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis. Results: The results of the study indicated that Mosul university students have a low score in the total healthy lifestyle habits, demonstrating that female are higher than that of male(56%. Conclusion: The study concluded that the results are accepted concerning healthy lifestyle habit among Mosul University. After completing this survey, the researcher found that a lot of university students had a big problem of their healthy lifestyle habits, especially eating habits such as they skip breakfast, eat snacks and drink tea a lot.   Keywords: Health, Lifestyle, Students, University.

  9. A New Measure of Reading Habit: Going Beyond Behavioral Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian T. C.; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Reading habit is considered an important construct in reading research as it serves as a significant predictor of reading achievement. However, there is still no consensus on how to best measure reading habit. In recent research, it has mostly been measured as behavioral frequency; this approach neglects the fact that repeated behavior does not cover the broad content of habitual behavior—such as automaticity and the expression of one’s identity. In this study, we aimed to adapt a 10-item scale on the basis of the Self-Report Habit Index by Verplanken and Orbell (2003) that is comprehensive but still economical for measuring reading habit. It was tested by drawing on a sample of N = 1,418 upper secondary school students. The scale showed good psychometric properties and the internal and external validity was supported. Moreover, the scale predicted reading achievement and decoding speed over and above reading frequency. The implications of an elaborated but still economical way of measuring reading habit are discussed giving new impetus on research on reading habit, challenging conventional approaches of traditional measures. PMID:27660619

  10. Incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, Andrija; Vućićević-Boras, Vanja; Miletić, Ivana; Bozić, Darko; Vukelja, Milko

    2002-09-01

    Recognition and elimination of an oral habit is of utmost importance in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is not probable that the influence of such a factor can lead to the alteration of gingival dimension, but a cofactor role of oral habits in the development of gingival recession has been acclaimed. The purpose of this study was to present cross-sectional data from an epidemiological study performed in two urban settlements in Zagreb, Croatia. The study was performed in 1025 children, in an attempt to try and discover the incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 11 years. About 33.37% of the screened population exhibited oral habits, such as nail and object biting, non-nutritive sucking, simple tongue thrusting and lip or cheek biting. Chi-square test analysis showed no statistically significant differences between sex and age groups, a result that does not exclude the oral habits from aetiology of the periodontal pathology. We can conclude that oral habits are a frequent finding, although the cause relation to periodontitis has yet to be cleared completely.

  11. Frequency of parafunctional oral habits in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A O L; Guimarães, A S; Ciamponi, A L; Marie, S K N

    2007-05-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most frequent conditions encountered in the daily practice of dentists who treat special-needs patients and it seems that parafunctional oral habits are often present in such individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of parafunctional habits in individuals with CP. Sixty-five patients with CP were evaluated through a questionnaire and clinical observation, regarding the following habits: pacifier-sucking, finger-sucking, biting objects, tongue interposition, and bruxism. The results showed that nine (13.8%) patients presented with pacifier-sucking, four (6.1%) showed finger-sucking, 12 (18.4%) had the habit of biting objects, 27 (41.5%) presented with tongue interposition, and 24 (36.9%) had eccentric bruxism. The significance of the presence of oral parafunctional habits in individuals with CP, revealed in this study, justifies the need to establish protocols for adequate prevention and clinical intervention in order to minimize the deleterious consequences that may result from such habits.

  12. Dental arch diameters and relationships to oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, T; Galán, A F; Marín, I; Domínguez, A

    2006-05-01

    The objective was to analyze variations in dental arch width in relation to oral habits. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar distance were determined in relation to certain oral habits in 1297 children (ages 3 to 6 years). After an oral examination, the parents of each child completed a questionnaire about oral habits, including the use of a dummy or a bottle (or both), finger sucking, mouth breathing, breast- or bottle-feeding, and duration of these habits. Data were subjected to statistical analysis by the chi-square test for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables with homogeneous variances. Statistical significance was P oral habits, the maxillary intercanine distance was less in children who used a dummy, especially one of a round design (P = .003). The maxillary intercanine distance was also less in children who breathed through their mouth (P = .002). In most cases, dummy use and mouth breathing were associated with a reduction in the intercanine distance in the maxillary arch. A dummy habit leads to a reduction in maxillary arch width, and mouth breathing causes a reduction in the size of both arches.

  13. A New Measure of Reading Habit: Going Beyond Behavioral Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian T C; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Reading habit is considered an important construct in reading research as it serves as a significant predictor of reading achievement. However, there is still no consensus on how to best measure reading habit. In recent research, it has mostly been measured as behavioral frequency; this approach neglects the fact that repeated behavior does not cover the broad content of habitual behavior-such as automaticity and the expression of one's identity. In this study, we aimed to adapt a 10-item scale on the basis of the Self-Report Habit Index by Verplanken and Orbell (2003) that is comprehensive but still economical for measuring reading habit. It was tested by drawing on a sample of N = 1,418 upper secondary school students. The scale showed good psychometric properties and the internal and external validity was supported. Moreover, the scale predicted reading achievement and decoding speed over and above reading frequency. The implications of an elaborated but still economical way of measuring reading habit are discussed giving new impetus on research on reading habit, challenging conventional approaches of traditional measures. PMID:27660619

  14. Habitability of terrestrial-mass planets in the HZ of M Dwarfs - I. H/He-dominated atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James E.; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2016-07-01

    The ubiquity of M dwarfs, combined with the relative ease of detecting terrestrial-mass planets around them, has made them prime targets for finding and characterizing planets in the `habitable zone' (HZ). However, Kepler finds that terrestrial-mass exoplanets are often born with voluminous H/He envelopes, comprising mass-fractions (Menv/Mcore) ≳1 per cent. If these planets retain such envelopes over Gyr time-scales, they will not be `habitable' even within the HZ. Given the strong X-ray/UV fluxes of M dwarfs, we study whether sufficient envelope mass can be photoevaporated away for these planets to become habitable. We improve upon previous work by using hydrodynamic models that account for radiative cooling as well as the transition from hydrodynamic to ballistic escape. Adopting a template active M dwarf XUV spectrum, including stellar evolution, and considering both evaporation and thermal evolution, we show that: (1) the mass-loss is (considerably) lower than previous estimates that use an `energy-limited' formalism and ignore the transition to Jeans escape; (2) at the inner edge of the HZ, planets with core mass ≲ 0.9 M⊕ can lose enough H/He to become habitable if their initial envelope mass-fraction is ˜1 per cent; (3) at the outer edge of the HZ, evaporation cannot remove a ˜1 per cent H/He envelope even from cores down to 0.8 M⊕. Thus, if planets form with bulky H/He envelopes, only those with low-mass cores may eventually be habitable. Cores ≳1 M⊕, with ≳1 per cent natal H/He envelopes, will not be habitable in the HZ of M dwarfs.

  15. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Pivotto; Luciane Campos Gislon; Maria Mercês Aquino Gouveia Farias; Beatriz Helena Eger Schmitt; Silvana Marchiori de Araújo; Eliane Garcia da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of scho...

  16. Can we expect habitable niches for cyanobacteria on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Lorek, Andreas; Koncz, Alexander; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Leya, Thomas; Brown, Sarah; Cockell, Charles

    2013-04-01

    The most resistant cyanobacteria can be found in tropic deserts and in polar and alpine habitats. The reason for their resistance can be explained by their occurrence in intensely irradiated, very dry and/or cold environments which are supposed to be as close as possible similar to Martian surface conditions. A systematically approach comparing measurements on photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria in relation to measured environmental parameters obtained in Mars analog field sites with data collected from space exposed samples or during Mars simulation experiments will show differences and common results after analyzing the investigated organisms. Some of the investigated species are foreseen to be exposed during the next ESA-space-exposure experiment BIOMEX either directly to real space conditions on space exposure platforms like EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station or to Mars simulation conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. Some of the species were still exposed to both of the extreme environmental conditions and some of the results will be presented and might serve for future investigations as references. We will emphasize that in parallel monitoring of environmental parameters on Mars analog field sites was performed as well as partly in space and in the simulation chambers. This experimental combination might help to get a better impression about the influence of each of the tested parameters on metabolic activity of the tested cyanobacteria in complete different planetary environments comparing characterized habitats on our home planet Earth with those we might expect according to recently observed data on Mars. The outcome of this work could be relevant to classify e.g. Mars as a habitable planet by a new combination of different experimental and biological approaches and to evaluate and discuss the likelihood of terra forming Mars in the far future.

  17. Astrometric Detection of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zones of Nearby Stars with SIM PlanetQuest

    CERN Document Server

    Catanzarite, J; Tanner, A; Unwin, S; Yu, J; Catanzarite, Joseph; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    SIM PlanetQuest (Space Interferometry Mission) is a space-borne Michelson interferometer for precision stellar astrometry, with a nine meter baseline, currently slated for launch in 2015. One of the principal science goals is the astrometric detection and orbit characterization of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. Differential astrometry of the target star against a set of reference stars lying within a degree will allow measurement of the target star's reflex motion with astrometric accuracy of 1 micro-arcsecond in a single measurement. We assess SIM's capability for detection (as opposed to characterization by orbit determination) of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby solar-type stars. We compare SIM's performance on target lists optimized for the SIM and Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronograph (TPF-C) missions. Performance is quantified by three metrics: minimum detectable planet mass, number and mass distribution of detected planets, and completeness of detections...

  18. Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W.F.M.; Thiel, C S; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M.A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J.M.; Direito, S.O.L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R.D.; van Sluis, C A; Foing, B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the mineralogy, organic chemistry and microbiology of ten selected sample sites from the Utah desert in close vicinity to the Mars Desert Research ...

  19. Profiles of exercise motivation, physical activity, exercise habit, and academic performance in Malaysian adolescents: A cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined Malaysian adolescents’ profiles of exercise motivation, exercise habit strength, academic performance, and levels of physical activity (PA) using cluster analysis.Methods: The sample (n = 300) consisted of 65.6% males and 34.4% females with a mean age of 13.40 ± 0.49. Statistical analysis was performed using cluster analysis.Results: Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cluster groups. Cluster 1 is characterized by a moderate level of PA, relatively high in...

  20. Geophysical Limitations on the Habitable Zone: Volcanism and Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Planets are typically classified as potentially life-bearing planets (i.e. habitable planets) if they are rocky planets and if a liquid (e.g. water) could exist at the surface. The latter depends on several factors, like for example the amount of available solar energy, greenhouse effects in the atmosphere and an efficient CO2-cycle. However, the definition of the habitable zone should be updated to include possible geophysical constraints, that could potentially influence the CO2-cycle. Planets like Mars without plate tectonics and no or only limited volcanic events can only be considered to be habitable at the inner boundary of the habitable zone, since the greenhouse effect needed to ensure liquid surface water farther away from the sun is strongly reduced. We investigate if the planet mass as well as the interior structure can set constraints on the occurrence of plate tectonics and outgassing, and therefore affect the habitable zone, using both parameterized evolution models [1] and mantle convection simulations [1,2]. We find that plate tectonics, if it occurs, always leads to sufficient volcanic outgassing and therefore greenhouse effect needed for the outer boundary of the habitable zone (several tens of bar CO2), see also [3]. One-plate planets, however, may suffer strong volcanic limitations. The existence of a dense-enough CO2 atmosphere allowing for the carbon-silicate cycle and release of carbon at the outer boundary of the habitable zone may be strongly limited for planets: 1) without plate tectonics, 2) with a large planet mass, and/or 3) a high iron content. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office through the Planet Topers alliance, and results within the collaboration of the COST Action TD 1308. References Noack, L., Rivoldini, A., and Van Hoolst, T.: CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust, INFOCOMP 2015, ISSN 2308-3484, ISBN 978

  1. Habitability of exoplanetary systems with planets observed in transit

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Barrie W

    2010-01-01

    (Shortened) We have used the measured properties of the stars in the 79 exoplanetary systems with one or more planets that have been observed in transit, to estimate each system's present habitability. The measured stellar properties have been used to determine the present location of the classical habitable zone (HZ). To establish habitability we use the estimated distances from the giant planet(s) within which an Earth-like planet would be inside the gravitational reach of the giant. Of the 79 transiting systems known in April 2010, only 2 do not offer safe havens to Earth-like planets in the HZ, and thus could not support life today. We have also estimated whether habitability is possible for 1.7 Gyr into the past i.e. 0.7 Gyr for a heavy bombardment, plus 1.0 Gyr for life to emerge and thus be present today. We find that, for the best estimate of each stellar age, an additional 28 systems do not offer such sustained habitability. If we reduce 1.7 Gyr to 1.0 Gyr this number falls to 22. However, if giant p...

  2. Exploring exercise behavior, intention and habit strength relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, G J; Rhodes, R E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relevance of integrating exercise habit strength within the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Data were obtained from 538 undergraduate students [mean age=21.19 (SD=2.57); 28.4% males] using validated questionnaires and analyzed using regression analysis and discriminant function analysis. Findings indicated that exercise has both a cognitive and an automatic component and that stronger exercise habits make exercise less intentional, with the intention-exercise relationship nearly three times stronger at lower levels of exercise habit strength than at higher levels. Further, outcome expectancies regarding health and weight management resulting from sufficient exercise did not significantly differ between most profiles that were created from exercise behavior, motivation and habit strength. The results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of incorporating measures of exercise habit strength in order to further our understanding of relevant determinants of exercise behavior. Results also indicate that health outcomes of sufficient exercise are generally well known, implying that persuasive strategies should rather shift in emphasis toward instilling a sense of exercise confidence in various situations. This potentially valuable information may allow for a more thorough understanding of exercise determinants and the development of more effective interventions that target increased exercise levels. PMID:20136755

  3. Review on the Role of Planetary Factors on Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Noack, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work various factors on the habitability were considered, focusing on conditions irrespective of the central star's radiation, to see the role of specific planetary body related effects. These so called planetary factors were evaluated to identify those trans-domain issues where important information is missing but good chance exit to be filled by new knowledge that might be gained in the next decade(s). Among these strategic knowledge gaps, specific issues are listed, like occurrence of radioactive nucleides in star forming regions, models to estimate the existence of subsurface liquid water from bulk parameters plus evolutionary context of the given system, estimation on the existence of redox gradient depending on the environment type etc. These issues require substantial improvement of modelling and statistical handling of various cases, as "planetary environment types". Based on our current knowledge it is probable that subsurface habitability is at least as frequent, or more frequent than surface habitability. Unfortunately it is more difficult from observations to infer conditions for subsurface habitability, but specific argumentation might help with indirect ways, which might result in new methods to approach habitability in general.

  4. An investigation of habit learning in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, Lauren R; de Wit, Sanne; Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E; Greene, Ashley L; Scaife, Jessica; Gillan, Claire M; Walsh, B Timothy; Simpson, Helen-Blair; Park, Rebecca J

    2016-10-30

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterised by compulsive behaviour, such as self-starvation and excessive exercise, which develop in the pursuit of weight-loss. Recent theory suggests that once established, compulsive weight-loss behaviours in AN may become habitual. In two parallel studies, we measured whether individuals with AN showed a bias toward habits using two outcome-devaluation tasks. In Study 1, 23 women with AN (restrictive and binge/purge subtypes), and 18 healthy controls (HC) completed the slips-of-action paradigm, designed to assess reward-based habits. In Study 2, 13 women with restrictive AN, 14 women recovered from restrictive AN, and 17 female HC participants completed the slips-of-action paradigm, and an avoidance paradigm, designed to assess aversive habits. AN participants showed no deficit relative to HCs in the ability to use feedback to respond correctly to stimuli. Following devaluation of outcomes, all groups in both studies were equally able to withhold inappropriate responses, suggesting no deficit in the balance between goal-directed and habitual control of behaviour in these tasks in AN. These results suggest that individuals with AN do not show a generalised tendency to rely on habits in two outcome-devaluation tasks. Future research is needed to investigate the potential role of disorder-specific habits in the maintenance of behaviour in AN. PMID:27497292

  5. CD-HPF: New Habitability Score Via Data Analytic Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kakoli; Agrawal, Surbhi; Safonova, Margarita; Routh, Swati; Narasimhamurthy, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, ESI and PHI, describe heuristic methods to score similarity/habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets or exomoons. ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the probability that life in some form may exist on any given world, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which co...

  6. Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaei, S; Rafieian, M; Ghafari, R

    2005-01-01

    Any kind of stress has a negative effect on the mood of people and stress resulting from war is no exception. Stress from war has not only has effects on war veterans but also on the families. Children of these families have been more susceptible to abnormal oral habits. In this observational, analytical and historical research, attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans (martyrs, freed prisoners of war and war cripples) and compare them with a control group. In this study of 520 children aged between 7 and 11 years were (238 in the study group and 282 in the control group), information was gathered via a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the students. Analysis of the received information showed that the prevalence of para functional and abnormal oral habits was more in the study group (P = 0.005). The prevalence rate was highest in children, whose family members had been both crippled and freed prisoners of war, while the rate was lowest in children whose parents had been only prisoners of war without any lasting physical injury. Most of these children had acquired these habits at the age of seven and these abnormal habits were most prevalent in children aged eight and nine.

  7. Oral habits in children--a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, S R; Munshi, A K

    1998-06-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted upon 4,590 school children to find the prevalence of oral habits in Mangalore in relation to their age and sex and to find the correlation, if any, between the habits and the malocclusion status. We noted that 29.7% of the population had habits of which 3. 1% had digit sucking, 4.6% mouth breathing, 3.02% tongue thrusting, 6.2% bruxism, 6% lip/cheek biting, 12.7% nail biting, 9.8% pencil biting and 0. 09% masochistic habits respectively. Digit sucking, pencil biting and tongue thrust were highly prevalent among Group 1 (3-6 years) children. Mouth breathing and bruxism were significant in Group 2 (7-12 years) cases whereas lip/cheek biting and nail biting were more common in Group 3 (13-16 years) cases. Digit sucking, tongue thrust, mouth breathing and bruxism were more prevalent among the boys whereas lip/cheek biting, nail biting and pencil biting were more prevalent among the girls. 28.95% of the children in Group 2 and 3 with habits had malocclusion. There was a significant correlation between class I type 2, class II div 1 and tongue thrust and mouth breathing whereas children with digit sucking showed a high correlation with class I type 2 malocclusion.

  8. Magnetic shielding of exomoons beyond the circumplanetary habitable edge

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    With most planets and planetary candidates detected in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) being super-Earths and gas giants, rather than Earth-like planets, we naturally wonder if their moons could be habitable. The first detection of such an exomoon has now become feasible, and due to observational biases it will be at least twice as massive as Mars. But formation models predict moons can hardly be as massive as Earth. Hence, a giant planet's magnetosphere could be the only possibility for such a moon to be shielded from cosmic and stellar high-energy radiation. Yet, the planetary radiation belt could also have detrimental effects on exomoon habitability. We here synthesize models for the evolution of the magnetic environment of giant planets with thresholds from the runaway greenhouse (RG) effect to assess the habitability of exomoons. For modest eccentricities, we find that satellites around Neptune-sized planets in the center of the HZ around K dwarf stars will either be in an RG state and not be habitable, ...

  9. Review on the Role of Planetary Factors on Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Noack, L.

    2016-07-01

    In this work various factors on the habitability were considered, focusing on conditions irrespective of the central star's radiation, to see the role of specific planetary body related effects. These so called planetary factors were evaluated to identify those trans-domain issues where important information is missing but good chance exit to be filled by new knowledge that might be gained in the next decade(s). Among these strategic knowledge gaps, specific issues are listed, like occurrence of radioactive nucleides in star forming regions, models to estimate the existence of subsurface liquid water from bulk parameters plus evolutionary context of the given system, estimation on the existence of redox gradient depending on the environment type etc. These issues require substantial improvement of modelling and statistical handling of various cases, as "planetary environment types". Based on our current knowledge it is probable that subsurface habitability is at least as frequent, or more frequent than surface habitability. Unfortunately it is more difficult from observations to infer conditions for subsurface habitability, but specific argumentation might help with indirect ways, which might result in new methods to approach habitability in general.

  10. Planetary Dynamics and Habitable Planet Formation In Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Whether binaries can harbor potentially habitable planets depends on several factors including the physical properties and the orbital characteristics of the binary system. While the former determines the location of the habitable zone (HZ), the latter affects the dynamics of the material from which terrestrial planets are formed (i.e., planetesimals and planetary embryos), and drives the final architecture of the planets assembly. In order for a habitable planet to form in a binary star system, these two factors have to work in harmony. That is, the orbital dynamics of the two stars and their interactions with the planet-forming material have to allow terrestrial planet formation in the habitable zone, and ensure that the orbit of a potentially habitable planet will be stable for long times. We have organized this chapter with the same order in mind. We begin by presenting a general discussion on the motion of planets in binary stars and their stability. We then discuss the stability of terrestrial planets, ...

  11. On study habits on an introductory course on programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willman, Salla; Lindén, Rolf; Kaila, Erkki; Rajala, Teemu; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi; Salakoski, Tapio

    2015-07-01

    Computer aided assessment systems enable the collection of exact time and date information on students' activity on a course. These activity patterns reflect students' study habits and these study habits further predict students' likelihood to pass or fail a course. By identifying such patterns, those who design the courses can enforce positive study habits and to prevent or minimize habits that lead to poor student performance. Hypothetically, by identifying and adjusting the short-term patterns, the teachers might be able to do the same during the course. This publication examines students' short-term study habits on an introductory level programming course and presents multiple statistically significant connections between students' assignment submission patterns and their respective final grades. Students who receive the highest grade start and finish their work early, do not work on weekends, and do not work at night, whereas those who fail the course do not show similar behavior but exhibit significant enrichment among those who work large amounts during the night. Course's mandatory tutorial sessions that act both as assignment release events and as collaborative assignment solving sessions strongly increase assignment submission counts regardless of the students' final grades and ensure an early start to solving the assignments, possibly preventing those who would otherwise fail the course from starting their work near deadlines.

  12. On the habitability of a stagnant-lid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Nicola; Stracke, Barbara; Godolt, Mareike; Ruedas, Thomas; Grenfell, John Lee; Höning, Dennis; Nikolaou, Athanasia; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2016-04-01

    Whether plate tectonics is a recurrent feature of terrestrial bodies orbiting other stars or is unique to the Earth is unknown. The stagnant-lid may rather be the most common tectonic mode through which terrestrial bodies operate. Here we model the thermal history of the mantle, the outgassing evolution of H2O and CO2, and the resulting climate of a hypothetical planet with the same mass, radius, and composition as the Earth, but lacking plate tectonics. We employ a 1-D model of parameterized stagnant-lid convection to simulate the evolution of melt generation, crust production, and volatile extraction over a timespan of 4.5 Gyr, focusing on the effects of three key mantle parameters: the initial temperature, which controls the overall volume of partial melt produced; the initial water content, which affects the mantle rheology and solidus temperature; and the oxygen fugacity, which is employed in a model of redox melting to determine the amount of carbon stored in partial melts. We assume that the planet lost its primordial atmosphere and use the H2O and CO2 outgassed from the interior to build up a secondary atmosphere over time. Furthermore, we assume that the planet may possess an Earth-like ocean. We calculate the atmospheric pressure based on the solubility of H2O and CO2 in basaltic magmas at the evolving surface pressure conditions. We then employ a 1-D radiative-convective, cloud-free stationary atmospheric model to calculate the resulting atmospheric temperature, pressure and water content, and the corresponding boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) accounting for the evolution of the Sun's luminosity with time but neglecting escape processes. The interior evolution is characterized by a large initial production of partial melt accompanied by the formation of crust that rapidly grows until its thickness matches that of the stagnant lid so that the convecting sublithospheric mantle prevents further crustal growth. Even for initial water concentrations in

  13. The search for habitable worlds: 1. The viability of a starshade mission

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, Margaret C; Roberge, Aki; Cash, Webster; Noecker, Charley; Lo, Amy; Mason, Brian; Oakley, Phil; Bally, John

    2012-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission to explore habitable planets orbiting nearby stars, this paper explores the detection and characterization capabilities of a 4-m space telescope plus 50-m starshade located at the Earth-Sun L2 point, a.k.a. the New Worlds Observer (NWO). Our calculations include the true spectral types and distribution of stars on the sky, an iterative target selection protocol designed to maximize efficiency based on prior detections, and realistic mission constraints. We carry out both analytical calculations and simulated observing runs for a wide range in exozodiacal background levels ({\\epsilon} = 1 - 100 times the local zodi brightness) and overall prevalence of Earth-like terrestrial planets ({\\eta}\\oplus = 0.1 - 1). We find that even without any return visits, the NWO baseline architecture (IWA = 65 mas, limiting FPB = 4\\times10-11) can achieve a 95% probability of detecting and spectrally characterizing at least one habitable Earth-like planet, and an expectation value of ~3 planets found, w...

  14. Mineral decline due to modernization of food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Lau, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other micronutrients are essential for health and well-being. Dairy products are the main sources of calcium in western countries. In most regions of Asia, the consumption of these products is limited due to the lactose intolerance and costs. A major contributor to the micronutrients intake in this region is the consumption of small fish, such as anchovies. Traditionally, dried anchovies are consumed as a whole body. Recently, an increasingly popular method of eating anchovies has been to eat it in a cleaned, eviscerated form. This brief communication highlights how "modernization" of food habits may have unintentional nutritional consequences. A minor change in the dietary habits of eating cleaned anchovies may lead to a reduction in micronutrients intake. This reinforces the need for caution when we modernize our traditional eating habits. PMID:26212960

  15. Oscillations in the Habitable Zone around Alpha Centauri B

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    The Alpha Centauri AB system is an attractive one for radial velocity observations to detect potential exoplanets. The high metallicity of both Alpha Centauri A and B suggest that they could have possessed circumstellar discs capable of forming planets. As the closest star system to the Sun, with well over a century of accurate astrometric measurements (and Alpha Centauri B exhibiting low chromospheric activity) high precision surveys of Alpha Centauri B's potential exoplanetary system are possible with relatively cheap instrumentation. Authors studying habitability in this system typically adopt habitable zones (HZs) based on global radiative balance models that neglect the radiative perturbations of Alpha Centauri A. We investigate the habitability of planets around Alpha Centauri B using 1D latitudinal energy balance models (LEBMs), which fully incorporate the presence of Alpha Centauri A as a means of astronomically forcing terrestrial planet climates. We find that the extent of the HZ is relatively uncha...

  16. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. PMID:22256796

  17. Limit cycles can reduce the width of the habitable zone

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Batalha, Natasha E; Harman, Chester E; Kasting, James F

    2016-01-01

    The liquid water habitable zone (HZ) describes the orbital distance at which a terrestrial planet can maintain above-freezing conditions through regulation by the carbonate-silicate cycle. Recent calculations have suggested that planets in the outer regions of the habitable zone cannot maintain stable, warm climates, but rather should oscillate between long, globally glaciated states and shorter periods of climatic warmth. Such conditions, similar to 'Snowball Earth' episodes experienced on Earth, would be inimical to the development of complex land life, including intelligent life. Here, we build upon previous studies with an updated an energy balance climate model to calculate this 'limit cycle' region of the habitable zone where such cycling would occur. We argue that an abiotic Earth would have a greater CO$_2$ partial pressure than today because plants and other biota help to enhance the storage of CO$_2$ in soil. When we tune our abiotic model accordingly, we find that limit cycles can occur but that pr...

  18. The Differences between Chinese and Western Eating Habits and Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻达; 肖琦姝

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, the interactions between different cultures have been increasingly in⁃tensified. People of different culture background, word views and values may inevitably encounter diverse problems and conse⁃quently misunderstanding and conflict may arise in cross-cultural communication. This calls for our research into different cul⁃tures so that we can find our problem-solving methods and strategies. Diet that contains eating habits and etiquette is the necessi⁃ty in the life and also the development of human beings, which is a good way to know different country ’s culture. So the eating habits and etiquette are problems that are worth our attention. The author here will study the differences between Chinese and Western eating habits and etiquette through the conception, cooking methods, ingredients, order of serving dishes, sense of eat⁃ing, dining etiquette, historical and cultural reasons.

  19. Spacecraft Habitable Volume: Results of an Interdisciplinary Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Connolly, Janis; Howard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration Framework Team posed the question: "Is 80 cubic meters per person of habitable volume acceptable for a proposed Deep Space Habitat?" The goal of the workshop was to address the "net habitable volume" necessary for long-duration human spaceflight missions and identify design and psychological issues and mitigations. The objectives were: (1) Identify psychological factors -- i.e., "stressors" -- that impact volume and layout specifications for long duration missions (2) Identify mitigation strategies for stressors, especially those that can be written as volume design specifications (3) Identify a forward research roadmap -- i.e., what future work is needed to define and validate objective design metrics? (4) Provide advisories on the human factors consequences of poor net habitable volume allocation and layout design.

  20. Consumer satisfaction and confirmation of habits of comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Andersen, Christian; Andersen, Morten Purup

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: First, within a Peircean framework it shall be demonstrated how there is a relation between the compositional structure of certain types of print advertisements and their bringing about inductive comprehension, and how the consumer can be understood...... as a bundle of habits. It is the assumption that advertising that supports an inductive effect particularly appeals to the cognitive tendency of habit formation in the consumer. Second, it is asked whether advertisements that predominantly invite inductive processes of comprehension also influence...... the formation of consumer satisfaction; the perspective is that of the confirmation paradigm within advertisement research. Inductive advertisements support cognitive habit formation through confirmation, and the confirmation paradigm explains exactly consumer satisfaction with reference to confirmation. Hence...

  1. Ultraviolet Radiation Constraints around the Circumstellar Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, A P; Mauas, P J D; Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to inhibit photosynthesis, induce DNA destruction and cause damage to a wide variety of proteins and lipids. In particular, UV radiation between 200-300 nm becomes energetically very damaging to most of the terrestrial biological systems. On the other hand, UV radiation is usually considered one of the most important energy source on the primitive Earth for the synthesis of many biochemical compounds and, therefore, essential for several biogenesis processes. In this work, we use these properties of the UV radiation to define the bounderies of an ultraviolet habitable zone. We also analyze the evolution of the UV habitable zone during the main sequence stage of the star. We apply these criteria to study the UV habitable zone for those extrasolar planetary systems that were observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We analyze the possibility that extrasolar planets and moons could be suitable for life, according to the UV constrains presented in this work and othe...

  2. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution.

  3. Habitability potential of satellites around Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Encrenaz, Therese; Grasset, Olivier; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2016-07-01

    In looking for habitable conditions in the outer solar system recent research focuses on the natural satellites rather than the planets themselves. Indeed, the habitable zone as traditionally defined may be larger than originally conceived. The outer solar system satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the ground but also by the Voyager, Galileo and the Cassini spacecrafts revealed the potential of these satellites in this context, and our understanding of habitability in the solar system and beyond can be greatly enhanced by investigating several of these bodies together [1]. Their environments seem to satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and chemical compounds that can be used as nutrients over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). Indeed, several of the moons show promising conditions for habitability and the development and/or maintenance of life. The strong gravitational pull caused by the giant planets may produce enough energy to sufficiently heat the cores of orbiting icy moons. Europa and Ganymede may be hiding, under their icy crust, putative undersurface liquid water oceans [2] which, in the case of Europa [3], may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm by tidally generated heat [4]. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans. Titan's rigid crust and the probable existence of a subsurface ocean create an analogy with terrestrial-type plate tectonics, at least surficial [5], while Enceladus' plumes find an analogue in geysers. As revealed by Cassini the liquid hydrocarbon lakes [6] distributed mainly at polar latitudes on Titan are ideal isolated environments to look for

  4. Habitability on Mars from a microbial point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Betrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Extraterrestrial habitability is a complex notion. We briefly review what is known about the origin of life on Earth, that is, life based on carbon chemistry and water. We then discuss habitable conditions (past and present) for established life and for the survival of microorganisms. Based on these elements, we propose to use the term habitable only for conditions necessary for the origin of life, the proliferation of life, and the survival of life. Not covered by this term would be conditions necessary for prebiotic chemistry and conditions that would allow the recognition of extinct or hibernating life. Finally, we apply this concept to the potential emergence of life on Mars where suitable conditions for life to start, proliferate, and survive have been heterogeneous throughout its history. These considerations have a profound impact on the nature and distribution of eventual traces of martian life, or any precursor, and must therefore inform our search-for-life strategies. PMID:24015806

  5. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  6. Modeling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D; Barandiaran, Xabier E

    2014-01-01

    In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit has been reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we use a computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophical implications), where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that share properties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complex ecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanical automatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominating atomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness, embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex role in the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel "iterant deformable sensorimotor medium (IDSM)," designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increase the likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensors and motors of a simulated robot, and show that under certain conditions, the IDSM conditions, the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the robot's body, and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form in them. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor "meso-scale" between microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally, we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioral self-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporary representationalist frameworks. PMID:25152724

  7. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  8. Modelling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Deems Egbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit hasbeen reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we usea computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophicalimplications, where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that shareproperties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complexecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanicalautomatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominatingatomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness,embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex rolein the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel iterant deformable sensorimotormedium (IDSM, designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increasethe likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensorsand motors of a simulated body and environment and show that under certain conditions,the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the body,and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form inthem. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor meso-scalebetween microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally,we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioralself-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporaryrepresentationalist frameworks.

  9. Food habits of redheads at the Horicon marsh, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Rusch, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Food habits of Redheads (Aythya americana) investigated at the Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin, during 1983-1985. Prelaying females consumed plant material almost exclusively, primarily seeds of moist-soil plant species. The diet of laying and incubating females was dominated by seeds but also contained 16-17% animal matter. Consumption of animal matter during egg production was substantially lower than reported in other studies of food habits of Redheads. The diet of Juvenile Redheads changed with age. Animal foods were nearly half of the diet of ducklings food resources for Redheads on the Horicon Marsh.

  10. TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    OpenAIRE

    Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; de Wit, Julien; Stamenkovic, Vlada

    2013-01-01

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable Zone for hot desert worlds can be as close as 0.38 AU around a solar-like star, if the greenhouse effect is reduced (~1% relative humidity) and the surface albedo is increased. We consider a wide range of atmospheric and planetary parameters such as the mixing ratios of gree...

  11. Modeling of terrestrial extrasolar planetary atmospheres in view of habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Stracke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Die Habitable Zone (HZ) ist allgemein definiert als der Bereich um einen Stern, in der lebensfreundliche (habitable) Planeten existieren können. Mit flüssigem Wasser als Grundvoraussetzung für Leben wie wir es kennen, kann die HZ um einen Stern bestimmt werden durch die Einstrahlung des Sterns, die ausreichend stark sein muss, damit Wasser auf der Planetenoberfläche flüssig sein kann. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, zwei Schlüsselfragen bezüglich der inneren Grenze der HZ zu beantworten: Zum einen...

  12. Mengelola Keuangan Secara Syariah dalam Rangka Menumbuhkan Good Money Habit

    OpenAIRE

    Aini Masruroh

    2015-01-01

    The wealth owned by Muslims basically is a trust from Allah that must be spent or distributed responsibly. Good habit in spending money is reflected on how the person makes a financial decision of his own. The main aspect in conducting the financial plan is the ability to save and invest. A person is qualified as having good money habits if he is able to pay themselves first that other interest. Meaning that each earn he have, he is able to allocated it to charity, the primary consumption, an...

  13. MENGELOLA KEUANGAN SECARA SYARIAH DALAM RANGKA MENUMBUHKAN GOOD MONEY HABIT

    OpenAIRE

    Aini Masruroh

    2015-01-01

    The wealth owned by Muslim basically is a trust from Allah that must be spent or distributed responsibly. Good habit in spending money is reflected on how the person makes a financial decision of his own. The main aspect in conducting the financial plan is the ability to save and invest. A person is qualified as having good money habits if he is able to ‚pay themselves‛ first than other interests. Meaning that each earn he have, he is able to allocate it to charity, the primary consumption, a...

  14. Exoplanetary Atmospheres - Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Moses, Julianne I; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions. We review these developments in the present work. We review in detail the theory of atmospheric chemistry in all classes of exoplanets discovered to date, from highly irradiated gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths, to directly imaged giant planets at large orbital separations. We then review the observational detections of chemical species in exoplanetary atmospheres of these various types using different methods, incl...

  15. The Ancient Habitability of Gale Crater, Mars, after Four Years of Exploration by Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Mars Science Laboratory Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed in August 2012 with the goal of assessing the habitability of environments dating from the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, a time when Mars was undergoing a major climatic change from wetter to drier conditions. The stratified and mineralogically diverse foothills of Gale crater's central mound, Aeolis Mons, retain a record of this key period. Prior to reaching Aeolis Mons, ancient habitable environments were found on the surrounding plains. At Yellowknife Bay, geological, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses of the lacustrine Sheepbed mudstone indicated a near-neutral pH and low salinity environment with the key chemical elements required by life and potential sources of energy to fuel microbial metabolism. As the rover traversed across the plains, evidence for ancient fluvial and deltaic systems pointed toward the hypothesis that lower Aeolis Mons was built up from sediments deposited within a series of lakes that once filled the central basin of the crater. Upon reaching the mountain in September 2014, Curiosity found an array of fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian strata that also show a complex pattern of post-depositional alteration. The basal outcrops that form the lowest stratigraphic unit of Aeolis Mons, the Murray formation, are characterized predominantly by mudstones with minor intercalated sandstones. The mudstone facies show abundant fine-scale planar laminations throughout the Murray formation succession and are interpreted to record deposition in an ancient lacustrine system in Gale crater. Curiosity has explored 40 m of the ~ 200-m thick Murray formation. If the entire section is lacustrine, it would imply that lakes were stable in Gale crater over a period of at least millions of years, challenging present climate models that cannot account for the temperate and humid conditions needed to sustain long-lived open lakes on early Mars. This presentation will review how Curiosity's geological and

  16. Make Handwashing a Habit (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-13

    Regular handwashing helps prevent the spread of potentially harmful germs. This podcast discusses the importance of making proper handwashing (with soap and water) a regular habit.  Created: 10/13/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/13/2016.

  17. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    1997-01-01

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Ou

  18. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  19. An estimate of the prevalence of biocompatible and habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, M J

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computer model of extra-solar planetary formation and evolution, which includes the planetary geochemical carbon cycle, is presented. The results of a run of one million galactic disc stars are shown where the aim was to assess the possible abundance of both biocompatible and habitable planets. (Biocompatible planets are defined as worlds where the long-term presence of surface liquid water provides environmental conditions suitable for the origin and evolution of life. Habitable planets are those worlds with more specifically Earthlike conditions). The model gives an estimate of 1 biocompatible planet per 39 stars, with the subset of habitable planets being much rarer at 1 such planet per 413 stars. The nearest biocompatible planet may thus lie approximately 14 LY distant and the nearest habitable planet approximately 31 LY away. If planets form in multiple star systems then the above planet/star ratios may be more than doubled. By applying the results to stars in the solar neighbourhood, it is possible to identify 28 stars at distances of < 22 LY with a non-zero probability of possessing a biocompatible planet.

  20. Shape Your Family's Habits: Helping Kids Make Healthy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more, it isn’t always easy to do. Children aren’t likely to change their diet and activity habits on their own. It’s up to you to make it easier for your family to make healthy choices. “Parents are very important in terms of arranging ...

  1. Business Communication Students Learn to Hear a Bad Speech Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye

    2006-01-01

    Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…

  2. Saving and habit formation : evidence from Dutch panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Teppa, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of habit formation in individual preferences. In this study, the model of Alessie and Lusardi (Econ Lett 55:103-108, 1997) and its extension by Guariglia and Rossi (Oxf Econ Pap 54:1-19, 2002) are considered. Our empirical specifications are based on their closed-form

  3. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  4. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, an

  5. Cultivating Good Studying Habits of Students In English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小省

    2014-01-01

    <正>I’m very glad and excited that I have a chance like this to share my own experience of teaching with you.The topic is Better to Teach a Man Fishing Than to Give Him a Fish——Cultivating Good Studying Habits of Students In English Teaching.School education is very important and useful.The students

  6. The Role of Sports in Kindergarten Teachers' Recreational Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the sports in the recreational habits of kindergarten teachers. The survey population comprises kindergarten teachers who are employed in the province of Gaziantep. The sample constitutes a total of 378 kindergarten teachers determined by circumstantial method. The survey developed by Tunçel was…

  7. Coordination polyhedron growth mechanism model and growth habit of crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new growth mechanism model, coordination polyhedron growth mechanism model, is introduced from the angle of the coordination of anion and cation to each other at the interface. It is pointed out that the force driving the growth unit to enter the crystal lattice is the electrostatic attraction force between ions, whose relative size can be approximately measured by the electrostatic bond strength (EBS) that reaches a nearest neighbor anion (or cation) in the parent phase from a cation (or anion) at the interface. The growth habits of NaCl, ZnS, CaF2 and CsI crystals are discussed, and a new growth habit rule is proposed as follows. When the growth rate of a crystal is determined by the step generation rate, the growth habit of this crystal is related to the coordination number of the ion with the smallest coordination rate at the interface of various crystal faces. The smaller the coordination number of the ion at the interface, the faster the growth rate of corresponding crystal face. When the growth of a crystal depends on the step movement rate, the growth habit of this crystal is related to the density of the ion with the smallest coordination rate at the interface of various crystal faces. The smaller the densities of the ion at the interface is, the faster the growth rate of corresponding crystal face will be.

  8. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, J C; Domagal-Goldman, S; Breiner, J; Quinn, T R; Meadows, V S

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large amplitude, high frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restrict our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verify that these systems are stable for $10^8$ years with N-body simulations, and calculate the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We run a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculate differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculate the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: 1) the full evolu...

  9. Toward an Evaluation Habit of Mind: Mapping the Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Steven; Sutherland, Stephanie; Earl, Lorna

    2005-01-01

    In this article we chronicle a particular professional development initiative designed to promote the acquisition of an evaluation habit of mind within an educational context. After describing the rationale behind this initiative in some detail, we proceed to map the experiences of four of the participants--a principal, a vice principal, a…

  10. The importance of timing for breaking commuters’ car driving habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2012-01-01

    A large sample of Copenhagen car drivers were randomly assigned to either receive a free month travel card for public transportation or serve as a control group. As predicted, the free travel card neutralized the negative effect of car driving habits and made the use of public transportation more...... alternatives to car-driving....

  11. Rapid Water Loss Can Extend the Lifetime of Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takanori; Genda, Hidenori; Abe, Yutaka; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2015-10-01

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (Mml) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (Mcv) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans water and Mml = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and Mcv are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.

  12. Social Support for Exercise and Dietary Habits among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment inventory (the Friend/Peer Support-Health Eating Physical Activity Scale-FPS-HEPAS) was developed to measure social influence patterns of college student physical activity and food consumption habits. Principal components analysis of 50 items with two referent sets (friends and peers) produced two scales with common factors:…

  13. Chemical Evolution and the Galactic Habitable Zone of M31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carigi, Leticia; Garcia-Rojas, Jorge; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    We have computed the Galactic Habitable Zones (GHZs) of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) based on the probability of terrestrial planet formation, which depends on the metallicity (Z) of the interstellar medium, and the number of stars formed per unit surface area. The GHZ was obtained from a chemical evo

  14. Exploring exercise behavior, intention and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; R.E. Rhodes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relevance of integrating exercise habit strength within the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Data were obtained from 538 undergraduate students [mean age=21.19 (SD=2.57); 28.4% males] using validated questionnaires and analyzed using regressio

  15. THE HABITABLE ZONES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa [Institute for Pale Blue Dots, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We calculate the pre-main-sequence habitable zone (HZ) for stars of spectral classes F-M. The spatial distribution of liquid water and its change during the pre-main-sequence phase of protoplanetary systems is important for understanding how planets become habitable. Such worlds are interesting targets for future missions because the coolest stars could provide habitable conditions for up to 2.5 billion years post-accretion. Moreover, for a given star type, planetary systems are more easily resolved because of higher pre-main-sequence stellar luminosities, resulting in larger planet-star separation for cool stars than is the case for the traditional main-sequence (MS) HZ. We use one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate pre-main-sequence HZ distances for F1-M8 stellar types. We also show that accreting planets that are later located in the traditional MS HZ orbiting stars cooler than a K5 (including the full range of M stars) receive stellar fluxes that exceed the runaway greenhouse threshold, and thus may lose substantial amounts of water initially delivered to them. We predict that M-star planets need to initially accrete more water than Earth did, or, alternatively, have additional water delivered later during the long pre-MS phase to remain habitable. Our findings are also consistent with recent claims that Venus lost its water during accretion.

  16. Food habits of diving ducks in the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits analyses were conducted on 264 diving ducks (7 species) from North and South Carolina during the 1970'S. The Baltic clam (Macoma balthica) was the predominant food among canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from the Pamlico River area, whereas sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) predominated in birds from impoundments in North and South Carolina. Shoalgrass (Halodule beaudettei) formed 100% of the gullet food and 99% of the gizzard food in redheads (Aythya americana) from Pamlico Sound. Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) in North Carolina had fed predominantly on mollusks (Mulinia lateralis and Rangia cuneata), whereas widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) was the predominant food in birds from South Carolina. In North Carolina, ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) fed mainly on vegetation, and greater scaup (Aythya marila), bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) fed mainly on Mulinia lateralis. Food habits data from this study when compared with historical food habits of these species indicate that most diving duck species were feeding more on invertebrates and less on submerged aquatic vegetation than in the past. North and South Carolina have a diverse food supply and appear to offer waterfowl adequate wintering habitat based on these food habits studies. Present trends in wintering habitat, however, could adversely affect diving duck populations in the future.

  17. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  18. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: An Expanded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter, Jr., Jenkins, Steve M.; Soper, Barlow; Woller, Kevin; Johnson, Patrick; Faes, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This study represents an expansion of previous research investigating the prevalence of sleep difficulties in college students. Sleep quality and sleep habits were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Poor sleep quality was reported by 22.6% of participants, whereas 65.9% replied that they experienced occasional sleep problems. More than half…

  19. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C.; Brown, Franklin; Soper, Barlow

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their sleep habits, patterns, and problems. A large majority had at least occasional sleep problems, with women reporting more of some difficulties than men. The most common sleep difficulties were taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, trouble falling asleep more than three times per week, morning…

  20. Awareness and Habit: Important Factors in Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef P. J.; Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; de Meij, Judith S. B.; Jurg, Merlin E.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the extent to which Dutch children are aware of their own physical activity level, and to what extent children's physical activity is habitual. Special attention was paid to the potential moderating effect of "awareness" and "habit strength" on the association between psychosocial factors…

  1. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Abbass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P

  2. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage—such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another’s unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner’s health habits directly influence the other partners’ habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner’s unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another’s unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. PMID:22703888

  3. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. PMID:22703888

  4. A genealogical map of the concept of habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A

    2014-01-01

    The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain, and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviorism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike). This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism). Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and complexity research

  5. A genealogical map of the concept of habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier E Barandiaran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviourism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike. This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism. Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and

  6. Addiction history associates with the propensity to form habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Learned habitual responses to environmental stimuli allow efficient interaction with the environment, freeing cognitive resources for more demanding tasks. However, when the outcome of such actions is no longer a desired goal, established stimulus-response (S-R) associations, or habits, must be overcome. Among people with substance use disorders (SUDs), difficulty in overcoming habitual responses to stimuli associated with their addiction in favor of new, goal-directed behaviors, contributes to relapse. Animal models of habit learning demonstrate that chronic self-administration of drugs of abuse promotes habitual responding beyond the domain of compulsive drug seeking. However, whether a similar propensity toward domain-general habitual responding occurs in humans with SUDs has remained unclear. To address this question, we used a visuomotor S-R learning and re-learning task, the Hidden Association Between Images Task (HABIT), which employs abstract visual stimuli and manual responses. This task allows us to measure new S-R association learning, well-learned S-R association execution, and includes a response contingency change manipulation to quantify the degree to which responding is habit-based, rather than goal-directed. We find that people with SUDs learn new S-R associations as well as healthy control subjects do. Moreover, people with an SUD history slightly outperform controls in S-R execution. In contrast, people with SUDs are specifically impaired in overcoming well-learned S-R associations; those with SUDs make a significantly greater proportion of perseverative errors during well-learned S-R replacement, indicating the more habitual nature of their responses. Thus, with equivalent training and practice, people with SUDs appear to show enhanced domain-general habit formation. PMID:26967944

  7. A model of habitability within the Milky Way galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowanlock, M G; Patton, D R; McConnell, S M

    2011-11-01

    We present a model of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), described in terms of the spatial and temporal dimensions of the Galaxy that may favor the development of complex life. The Milky Way galaxy was modeled using a computational approach by populating stars and their planetary systems on an individual basis by employing Monte Carlo methods. We began with well-established properties of the disk of the Milky Way, such as the stellar number density distribution, the initial mass function, the star formation history, and the metallicity gradient as a function of radial position and time. We varied some of these properties and created four models to test the sensitivity of our assumptions. To assess habitability on the galactic scale, we modeled supernova rates, planet formation, and the time required for complex life to evolve. Our study has improved on other literature on the GHZ by populating stars on an individual basis and modeling Type II supernova (SNII) and Type Ia supernova (SNIa) sterilizations by selecting their progenitors from within this preexisting stellar population. Furthermore, we considered habitability on tidally locked and non-tidally locked planets separately and studied habitability as a function of height above and below the galactic midplane. In the model that most accurately reproduces the properties of the Galaxy, the results indicate that an individual SNIa is ∼5.6× more lethal than an individual SNII on average. In addition, we predict that ∼1.2% of all stars host a planet that may have been capable of supporting complex life at some point in the history of the Galaxy. Of those stars with a habitable planet, ∼75% of planets are predicted to be in a tidally locked configuration with their host star. The majority of these planets that may support complex life are found toward the inner Galaxy, distributed within, and significantly above and below, the galactic midplane.

  8. Habitable zone lifetimes of exoplanets around main sequence stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Andrew J; Claire, Mark W; Osborn, Hugh; Watson, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The potential habitability of newly discovered exoplanets is initially assessed by determining whether their orbits fall within the circumstellar habitable zone of their star. However, the habitable zone (HZ) is not static in time or space, and its boundaries migrate outward at a rate proportional to the increase in luminosity of a star undergoing stellar evolution, possibly including or excluding planets over the course of the star's main sequence lifetime. We describe the time that a planet spends within the HZ as its "habitable zone lifetime." The HZ lifetime of a planet has strong astrobiological implications and is especially important when considering the evolution of complex life, which is likely to require a longer residence time within the HZ. Here, we present results from a simple model built to investigate the evolution of the "classic" HZ over time, while also providing estimates for the evolution of stellar luminosity over time in order to develop a "hybrid" HZ model. These models return estimates for the HZ lifetimes of Earth and 7 confirmed HZ exoplanets and 27 unconfirmed Kepler candidates. The HZ lifetime for Earth ranges between 6.29 and 7.79×10⁹ years (Gyr). The 7 exoplanets fall in a range between ∼1 and 54.72 Gyr, while the 27 Kepler candidate planets' HZ lifetimes range between 0.43 and 18.8 Gyr. Our results show that exoplanet HD 85512b is no longer within the HZ, assuming it has an Earth analog atmosphere. The HZ lifetime should be considered in future models of planetary habitability as setting an upper limit on the lifetime of any potential exoplanetary biosphere, and also for identifying planets of high astrobiological potential for continued observational or modeling campaigns.

  9. THEO concept mission: Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Shannon M.; Caswell, Tess E.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Stavros, E. Natasha; Hofgartner, Jason D.; Sun, Vivian Z.; Powell, Kathryn E.; Steuer, Casey J.; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Petro, Elaine M.; Wynne, J. Judson; Phan, Samson; Crismani, Matteo; Krishnamurthy, Akshata; John, Kristen K.; DeBruin, Kevin; Budney, Charles J.; Mitchell, Karl L.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus offers a unique opportunity in the search for life and habitable environments beyond Earth, a key theme of the National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey. A plume of water vapor and ice spews from Enceladus's south polar region. Cassini data suggest that this plume, sourced by a liquid reservoir beneath the moon's icy crust, contain organics, salts, and water-rock interaction derivatives. Thus, the ingredients for life as we know it - liquid water, chemistry, and energy sources - are available in Enceladus's subsurface ocean. We have only to sample the plumes to investigate this hidden ocean environment. We present a New Frontiers class, solar-powered Enceladus orbiter that would take advantage of this opportunity, Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean (THEO). Developed by the 2015 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School student participants under the guidance of TeamX, this mission concept includes remote sensing and in situ analyses with a mass spectrometer, a sub-mm radiometer-spectrometer, a camera, and two magnetometers. These instruments were selected to address four key questions for ascertaining the habitability of Enceladus's ocean within the context of the moon's geological activity: (1) how are the plumes and ocean connected? (2) are the abiotic conditions of the ocean suitable for habitability? (3) how stable is the ocean environment? (4) is there evidence of biological processes? By taking advantage of the opportunity Enceladus's plumes offer, THEO represents a viable, solar-powered option for exploring a potentially habitable ocean world of the outer solar system.

  10. X-ray Multiple Diffraction Topographic Imaging Technique For Growth History Study of Habit Modifying Impurity Doped Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI X.; MA C.; K. J. Robert; M. C. Miller

    2004-01-01

    A novel crystal characterization instrument has been built up in which a combination of X-ray multiple diffraction and X-ray topography is applied to enabling the cross-correlation between micro-crystallographic symmetry and its spatial dependence in relation to lattice defects. This facility is used to examine, in a selfconsistent manner, growth sector-dependant changes to both the crystallographic structure and the lattice defects associated with the action of habit-modifying additives in a number of representative crystal growth systems. In addition, the new instrument can be used to probe micro-crystallographic aspects (such as distortion to crystal symmetry) and relate these in a spatially resolved manner to the crystal defect structure in crystals doped with known habit modifiers.

  11. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pivotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of schoolstudent’s oral hygiene. Results: The study evaluated 202 schoolstudent. Regarding daily toothbrushing, 121 (59.9% reported that an adult is responsible for carrying out this procedure for the child and 81 (40.1% reported the own child performs brushing. Brushing frequency for 128 (63.4% children was three times a day and floss was not used by 137 (68% of them. In 114 (56.4% of the schoolchildren was found an OHI-S classified as reasonable hygiene (1.3 to 2. Regarding how to deal with the oral hygiene of children, 140 (69% parents stated having already received such information and the source cited by 118 (58.4% was the dentist. Conclusion: Schoolchildren presented oral hygiene habits with deficiency in dental plaque removal and flossing, resulting in a reasonable OHI-S. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p455

  12. Food habits and risk of cardiovascular disease in schoolchildren from Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorene Gonçalves Coelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between food habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in schoolchildren of the city Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based sample of 738 schoolchildren aged 6-14 years. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting demographic, socioeconomic, biochemical, clinical, and anthropometric data. Food intake was determined by a food-frequency questionnaire. Food habits were evaluated according to the adapted Recommended Food Score. Multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess how food consumption was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: The schoolchildren presented a dietary pattern characterized by low consumption of healthy foods. Association of cardiovascular risk factors showed that the consumption of foods according to the adapted Recommended Food Score was negatively and significantly associated with tetrapolar percentage of body fat (p=0.030 and systolic blood pressure (p=0.049 in children aged 6-9 years. CONCLUSION: Children's dietary patterns proved to be an important determinant of some of the cardiovascular risk factors studied. Thus, food intake assessment is a primary tool for the prevention and early intervention on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood.

  13. Association between Diet and Lifestyle Habits and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yu-Bin; Zhuang, Kang-Min; Kuang, Lei; Zhan, Qiang; Wang, Xian-fei; Liu, Si-De

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Recent papers have highlighted the role of diet and lifestyle habits in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but very few population-based studies have evaluated this association in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between diet and lifestyle habits and IBS. Methods A food frequency and lifestyle habits questionnaire was used to record the diet and lifestyle habits of 78 IBS subjects and 79 healthy subjects. Cross-tabulation analysis and lo...

  14. Nutritional status and nutritional habits of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer - preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ageing in men, the most frequent pathologic lesions affecting the prostatic gland in this period are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PC, the course of which may be infl uenced by the improper nutritional status of patients and their nutritional habits. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the nutritional status and eating habits of men diagnosed and treated for one of the above diseases. Material and metods. The nutritional status of 30 male patients with clinically confi rmed and treated disease of the prostatic gland, including 15 men (aged 51-75 years with BPH and 15 men (aged 51-73 years with PC, was evaluated based on their BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR parameters. In turn, the energy and nutritive value of 90 daily food rations (DFRs was evaluated. Finally, calculations were made for the Key’s index of diet atherogenicity, resultant Glycemic Index (GI and Glycemic Load (GL. Results. Higher values of the BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR parameters were noted in the men with PC, they were also characterized by a higher incidence of peripheral subcutaneous obesity and visceral obesity. The DFRs of the men were characterized by a low energy value and by a low intake of available carbohydrates, dietary fi ber, K, Ca, Mg, vitamins D and C, and fl uids at a simultaneously high intake of total and animal protein, cholesterol, Na, P, Fe, Cu as well as vitamins B2 and PP. The contribution of energy derived from the basic nutrients diverged from the recommended values. In addition, the DFRs were characterized by high values of Key’s index and 24-h GL. Differences in meeting the RDA for selected nutrients between the analysed groups of men were statistically signifi cant. Conclusions. The improper nutritional status of the men may result from their incorrect nutritional habits which fail to improve their health status, and even predispose them to the development of some diet-dependent diseases. In view of that

  15. Deglaciation and the Evolution of Planetary Lake Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Haberle, C.; Moersch, J. E.; Jacobsen, R. E.; Sommaruga, R.; Fleming, E.; Detweiler, A. M.; Echeverria, A.; Parro, V.; Blanco, Y.; Rivas, L.; Demergasso, C.; Bebout, L.; Chong, G.; Rose, K.; Smith, T.; Pedersen, L.; Lee, S.; Fong, T.; Wettergreen, D.; Tambley, C.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the Planetary Lake Lander project (PLL) is to deploy an adaptive robotic lake lander in the Central Andes of Chile, where ice is melting at an accelerated rate. Deglaciation subjects lakes to interannual variability, raising questions about its impact on metabolic activity and biogeochemical cycles, lake habitat, ecosystem, and biodiversity. Documenting these questions contributes to a better understanding of the changes affecting Earth's glacial lake ecosystems, and may shed light on how life adapted during past deglaciations. From an astrobiological perspective, it brings new insights into the evolution of Mars habitability during comparable geological periods. Further, the robotic exploration of glacial lakes confronts us with challenges analogous to those that will be faced by future planetary missions to Titan's planetary seas. PLL, thus, bridges planets along an intertwined pathway where the study of one planet informs on the evolution of others and on the technological challenges associated with their exploration. During our field field campaign In November 2011, we characterized the physical, geological, and biological environment of Laguna Negra (33.65S -70.13W) a 6-km large, 300 m deep glacial lake, and generated an environmental database to baseline the adaptive system that will be used in the future by the lake lander to autonomously monitor the lake.Time series show changes in precipitation over the past decades, and in temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological stations and a stream gauge are tracking daily and seasonal changes at high resolution. Data are correlated to daily vertical profiles performed by the lake lander to monitor physico-chemical changes. Bathymetric maps reveal the bottom topography, and isolated habitats. Most dominant spectral units have been defined in ASTER near- and thermal infrared. They were sampled from spectra and hand specimens in the field and are now being characterized for mineralogic compositions

  16. Active commuting and habit strength: an interactive and discriminant analyses approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.-J. de Bruijn; B. Gardner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Habits may be a mechanism linking environmental variables with active commuting. This study investigated the role of habit strength in the explanation of active commuting across profiles based on current active commuting, motivation, and habit strength within the framework of the theory of

  17. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  18. Habit, identity, and repetitive action: a prospective study of binge-drinking in UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Gardner; G.-J. de Bruijn; P. Lally

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Repeated action can lead to the formation of habits and identification as ‘the kind of person’ that performs the behaviour. This has led to the suggestion that identity-relevance is a facet of habit. This study explores conceptual overlap between habit and identity, and examines where th

  19. Habit, information acquisition, and the prediction of travel mode choice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verplanken, B.

    1996-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of habit in travel mode choices. Habit was measured by using mental representations of activities that may include the target behavior. Using behavioral process-tracing paradigms, it was found that habit attenuates not only the elaborateness of information acquisition

  20. Uncovering Reading Habits of University Students in Uganda: Does ICT Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlay, Samali V.; Sabi, Humphrey M.; Tsuma, Clive K.; Langmia, Kehbuma

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can improve reading habits among university students. We also investigated the influence of home culture, school culture and disposable income on reading habit. Our main objective was to assess the effect of ICT on the reading habit of particularly university students in…

  1. Habits of Mind, Scholarship and Decision Making in Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2005-01-01

    Recent papers have drawn a contrast between habits of mind in science and religion and it has been argued that, because of the different nature of these habits of mind, science education and religious education are necessarily in conflict with each other. The present paper draws on research into habits of mind in science and their relationship…

  2. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.-J. de Bruijn; M. Keer; M. Conner; R. Rhodes

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit stren

  3. What determines video game use? The impact of users’ habits, addictive tendencies, and intentions to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Jung, Y.; Vorderer, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the role of intentions, habits, and addictive tendencies in people’s video game use. Although both habits and addictive tendencies may determine higher amounts of video game use, the present study examines whether the impact of habits and addictive tendencies on video game

  4. Scientific habits of mind: A reform of structure and relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Linda Beth

    This research was designed to broaden current elementary science reform efforts by including the voices of our young scientists. Ten high school students who were defined as possessing both coherent science knowledge and scientific habits of mind were selected for the study. Through a three-part series of in-depth, phenomenological interviews, these students revealed early childhood experiences from birth through age ten to which they attributed their development of science knowledge and scientific habits of mind. Educational connoisseurship and criticism provided the framework through which the experiences were analyzed. The research revealed the overwhelming role of scientific habits of mind in the current success of these young scientists. Scientific habits of mind were developed through the structures and relationships in the home. Parents of the participants provided a non-authoritarian, fun, playful, tolerant atmosphere in which messes and experimentation were the norm. Large blocks of uninterrupted, unstructured time and space that "belonged" to the child allowed these children to follow where curiosity led. Frequently, the parent modeled scientific habits of mind. Good discipline in the minds of these families had nothing to do with punishments, rewards, or rules. The parents gave the children responsibilities, "free rein," and their trust, and the children blossomed in that trust and mutual respect. Parents recognized and supported the uniqueness, autonomy, interests, and emotions of the child. Above all, the young scientists valued the time, freedom, patience, and emotional support provided by their parents. For girls, construction toys, hot wheels, sand boxes, and outdoor experiences were particularly important. Art classes, free access to art media, sewing, music, and physical activity facilitated observational skills and spatial relationship development. The girls knew that doing traditionally masculine and feminine activities were acceptable and

  5. Habit reversal vs negative practice treatment of self-destructive oral habits (biting, chewing or licking of the lips, cheeks, tongue or palate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, N H; Nunn, R G; Frantz-Renshaw, S E

    1982-03-01

    Ten patients with oral habits such as biting, chewing licking, or pushing of the cheeks, lips, teeth, or palate were randomly assigned to either habit reversal treatment or to negative practice treatment. Treatment was given in a single 2-hr session. The patients receiving negative practice treatment showed a mean reduction of about 65%, those receiving the habit reversal treatment showed a mean reduction of about 99% during the 22-months of follow-up.

  6. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption. Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’ was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  7. Was Venus the first Habitable World of our Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony; Kiang, Nancy; Sohl, Linda; Grinspoon, David; Aleinov, Igor; Kelley, Maxwell; Clune, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Recent simulations have been completed with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies 3-D General Circulation Model of paleo Venus for a range of early solar system ages from 3Gya to 0.7Gya when the sun was less luminous than today. We use this and Magellan topography to provide Venus an ocean of average depth 310m and an atmosphere similar to present day Earth. A combination of a less luminous Sun and a slow rotation rate reveal that Venus could have had conditions on its surface amenable to surface liquid water in its early history. It is possible that fewer assumptions have to be made to make Venus an early habitable world of our solar system than have to be made for Mars or Earth, even though Venus is a much tougher world on which to confirm this hypothesis. These results could have implications in the search for planets within the habitable zones of stars.

  8. On the inclination and habitability of the HD 10180 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Gelino, Dawn M., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD 10180 system, which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.

  9. Climate Stability of Habitable Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The carbon-silicate cycle regulates the atmospheric $CO_2$ content of terrestrial planets on geological timescales through a balance between the rates of $CO_2$ volcanic outgassing and planetary intake from rock weathering. It is thought to act as an efficient climatic thermostat on Earth and, by extension, on other habitable planets. If, however, the weathering rate increases with the atmospheric $CO_2$ content, as expected on planets lacking land vascular plants, the carbon-silicate cycle feedback can become severely limited. Here we show that Earth-like planets receiving less sunlight than current Earth may no longer possess a stable warm climate but instead repeatedly cycle between unstable glaciated and deglaciated climatic states. This has implications for the search for life on exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby stars.

  10. Climate stability of habitable Earth-like planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menou, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    The carbon-silicate cycle regulates the atmospheric CO2 content of terrestrial planets on geological timescales through a balance between the rates of CO2 volcanic outgassing and planetary intake from rock weathering. It is thought to act as an efficient climatic thermostat on Earth and, by extension, on other habitable planets. If, however, the weathering rate increases with the atmospheric CO2 content, as expected on planets lacking land vascular plants, the carbon-silicate cycle feedback can become severely limited. Here we show that Earth-like planets receiving less sunlight than current Earth may no longer possess a stable warm climate but instead repeatedly cycle between unstable glaciated and deglaciated climatic states. This has implications for the search for life on exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby stars.

  11. Analysis of the relationship between food habits and health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes nutrition of students, based on the assessment of frequency of consumption of basic food products. The study involved 50 students aged 21-22 years. Set that the nutrition of the majority of students is irrational, in the daily life of young people there is a number of risk factors associated with inadequate intake of healthy food products. Have far-reaching enough food habits due to the consumption of so-called "food waste". The analysis of the correlation relationship between nutrition, mental performance and lifestyle factors, confirmed that a violation of the rules of a healthy diet affects the performance efficiency, increases the likelihood of bad habits. Slow food culture, lack of knowledge of young people on healthy food cause the need for appropriate health education.

  12. Habitability of extrasolar planets and tidal spin evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Leconte, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    Stellar radiation has conservatively been used as the key constraint to planetary habitability. We review here the effects of tides, exerted by the host star on the planet, on the evolution of the planetary spin. Tides initially drive the rotation period and the orientation of the rotation axis into an equilibrium state but do not necessarily lead to synchronous rotation. As tides also circularize the orbit, eventually the rotation period does equal the orbital period and one hemisphere will be permanently irradiated by the star. Furthermore, the rotational axis will become perpendicular to the orbit, i.e. the planetary surface will not experience seasonal variations of the insolation. We illustrate here how tides alter the spins of planets in the traditional habitable zone. As an example, we show that, neglecting perturbations due to other companions, the Super-Earth Gl581d performs two rotations per orbit and that any primordial obliquity has been eroded.

  13. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Narita, Norio; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium(IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current ...

  14. THEO Concept Mission: Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Shannon M; Phillips-Lander, Charity M; Stavros, E Natasha; Hofgartner, Jason D; Sun, Vivian Z; Powell, Kathryn E; Steuer, Casey J; O'Rourke, Joesph G; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K; Leung, Cecilia W S; Petro, Elaine M; Wynne, J Judson; Phan, Samson; Crismani, Matteo; Krishnamurthy, Akshata; John, Kristen K; DeBruin, Kevin; Budney, Charles J; Mitchell, Karl L

    2016-01-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus offers a unique opportunity in the search for life and habitable environments beyond Earth, a key theme of the National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey. A plume of water vapor and ice spews from Enceladus's south polar region. Cassini data suggest that this plume, sourced by a liquid reservoir beneath the moon's icy crust, contain organics, salts, and water-rock interaction derivatives. Thus, the ingredients for life as we know it-- liquid water, chemistry, and energy sources-- are available in Enceladus's subsurface ocean. We have only to sample the plumes to investigate this hidden ocean environment. We present a New Frontiers class, solar-powered Enceladus orbiter that would take advantage of this opportunity, Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean (THEO). Developed by the 2015 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School student participants under the guidance of TeamX, this mission concept includes remote sensing and in situ analyses with a mass spe...

  15. Changes in smoking habits and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Lange, P; Prescott, E;

    2001-01-01

    , epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994. The study population involved the 10,200 subjects who provided information on self-reported asthma and smoking habits from the first two examinations (baseline and 5-yr follow-up), and the 6,814 subjects......A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal...... who also attended the third and last examination (10-yr follow-up). The point-prevalence of smoking cessation as well as the asthma incidence between examinations was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between changes in smoking habits...

  16. Assessing Circumbinary Habitable Zones using Latitudinal Energy Balance Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to describe circumbinary habitable zones have been concerned with the spatial extent of the zone, calculated analytically according to the combined radiation field of both stars. By contrast to these "spatial HZs", we present a numerical analysis of the "orbital HZ", a habitable zone defined as a function of planet orbital elements. This orbital HZ is better equipped to handle (for example) eccentric planet orbits, and is more directly connected to the data returned by exoplanet observations. Producing an orbital HZ requires a large number of climate simulations to be run to investigate the parameter space - we achieve this using Latitudinal Energy Balance Models (LEBMs), which handle the insolation of the planet by both stars (including mutual eclipses), as well as the planetary atmosphere's ability to absorb, transfer and lose heat. We present orbital HZs for several known circumbinary planetary systems: Kepler-16, Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-47 and PH-1. Generally, the orbital HZs at zer...

  17. Pleural plaques at autopsy, smoking habits, and asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrion, A.; Pira, E.; Mollo, F.

    1984-02-01

    An investigation was made to correlate post-mortem findings of pleural plaques (PP) with the smoking habits and occupational history of asbestos exposure of 898 adults from the general population. A significant association between PP and smoking was found in middle-aged and elderly men (p less than 0.001). When occupational history was considered, such an association was present in both exposed (p less than 0.01) and non-exposed (p less than 0.05) men aged over 50 years. No association was observed in non-exposed women, while in those exposed, the absolute number of cases was too small to evaluate any relationship. The number of cigarettes smoked did not correlate significantly with the frequency of PP. This autopsy study confirms the association between occurrence of PP and the smoking habits.

  18. Nutritional habits of Croatian Island populations--recent insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2012-12-01

    Although Croatia is divided into continental and insular subpopulation which practice different dietary habits, a general shift in nutritional habits has been observed in the direction of globalization, including considerably higher intake of red meat, saturated fatty acids, milk, dairies etc. and accompanied by a decrease in physical activity. These relatively abrupt changes have had an especially significant impact on the insular populations, known for their traditional Mediterranean diet and have led to the increased prevalence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart diseases etc. on Croatian islands. Since the expression of genes responsible for the occurrence of complex diseases can be enhanced in isolated populations due to the effect of evolutionary forces, genetic-epidemiological research in population isolates is of great importance, giving us insight into the interplay between intrinsic (genes) and extrinsic risk factors (diet) for disease development.

  19. Self-injurious behavior as a habit and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orian, C

    1989-10-01

    The definition of self-injurious behavior applies to persons who hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation. The different aspects of self-injurious behavior and the theories explaining them are reviewed. For 5 years a young, intelligent woman had inflicted injuries upon herself with sharp instruments while ostensibly caring for her face and legs. The short-term hypnobehavioral treatment included keeping daily reports of her self-inflicted injuries and of her thoughts while executing them, finding alternative activities to replace her habit, and practicing self-hypnosis once a day. Increasing the level of understanding of her inner conflict and accenting ways of breaking the habit by means of positive autosuggestion proved very effective. The treatment was successful after 13 sessions.

  20. Understanding the Reading Habits of Children in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Majid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Leisure reading contributes significantly to improving language competencies of children. This study investigates the reading habits and preferences of children, motivations behind reading, and their attitudes towards reading. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting data and 440 upper primary students participated in the study. The findings suggest that a majority of the participating students were motivated to read for academically-related reasons, such as to improve language skills and to obtain better grades in examinations. Reading was the third most preferred leisure activity after hobbies and playing on computer or the Internet. It was also found that girls were generally more avid readers than boys. This paper offers certain suggestions for promoting reading habits among children.

  1. Habit-based Asset Pricing with Limited Participation Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Møller, Stig Vinther

    We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard ...... enables the model to explain the equity premium puzzle and the risk-free rate puzzle simultaneously for a reasonable value of relative risk aversion.......We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard...

  2. Habit-based asset pricing with limited participation consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther; Bach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard ...... enables the model to explain the equity premium puzzle and the risk-free rate puzzle simultaneously for a reasonable value of relative risk aversion.......We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard...

  3. MENGELOLA KEUANGAN SECARA SYARIAH DALAM RANGKA MENUMBUHKAN GOOD MONEY HABIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Masruroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The wealth owned by Muslim basically is a trust from Allah that must be spent or distributed responsibly. Good habit in spending money is reflected on how the person makes a financial decision of his own. The main aspect in conducting the financial plan is the ability to save and invest. A person is qualified as having good money habits if he is able to ‚pay themselves‛ first than other interests. Meaning that each earn he have, he is able to allocate it to charity, the primary consumption, and plans for the future. Whereas the  ‚spontaneous‛ type might probably refuses to make a financial planning.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2557 

  4. On the Inclination and Habitability of the HD 10180 System

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD~10180 system which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100\\% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.

  5. Mengelola Keuangan Secara Syariah dalam Rangka Menumbuhkan Good Money Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Masruroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The wealth owned by Muslims basically is a trust from Allah that must be spent or distributed responsibly. Good habit in spending money is reflected on how the person makes a financial decision of his own. The main aspect in conducting the financial plan is the ability to save and invest. A person is qualified as having good money habits if he is able to pay themselves first that other interest. Meaning that each earn he have, he is able to allocated it to charity, the primary consumption, and plans for the future. Whereas the spontaneous type might probably refuses to make a financial planningDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2111

  6. Bonding Energy and Growth Habit of Lithium Niobate Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of crystallographic structure of lithium niobate (LN), the bonding energy was quantitatively calculated by the bond valence sum model, which was employed to investigate the crystal growth. A possible relationship between the crystal growth habit and chemical bonding energy of LN crystals are found. It is found that the higher the bond energy, the slower the growth rate, and the more important the plane. The analytical results indicate that (012) plane is the most influential face for the LN crystal growth, which consists well with the standard card (JCPDS Card: 20-0631) and our previous experimental observation. The current work shows that the chemical bond analysis of LN crystals allows us to predict its growth habit and thus to obtain the expected morphology during the spontaneous growth.

  7. Automatic Contextual Text Correction Using The Linguistic Habits Graph Lhg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gadamer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

  8. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  9. Fluid Expulsion, Habitability, and the Search for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitability assessments are critical for identifying settings in which potential biosignatures could exist in quantities large enough to be detected by rovers. Habitability depends on 1) the potential for long-lived liquid water, 2) conditions affording protection from surface processes destructive to organic biomolecules, and 3) a source of renewing nutrients and energy. Of these criteria, the latter is often overlooked. Here we present an analysis of a large "ghost" crater in northern Chryse Planitia [1] that appears to have satisfied each of these requirements, with several processes providing potential sources of nutrient/energy renewal [1-2]. This analysis can serve as a model for identifying other localities that could provide similarly favorable settings in which to seek evidence of life on Mars.

  10. M Star Astrosphere Size Fluctuations and Habitable Planet Descreening

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David S

    2009-01-01

    Stellar astrospheres--the plasma cocoons carved out of the interstellar medium by stellar winds--are continually influenced by their passage through the fluctuating interstellar medium (ISM). Inside dense interstellar regions, an astrosphere may be compressed to a size smaller than the liquid-water habitable zone distance. Habitable planets then enjoy no astrospheric buffering from the full flux of Galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust and gas, a situation we call ``descreening.'' Recent papers (Yeghikyan and Fahr, Pavlov et al.) have suggested such global consequences as severe ozone depletion and glaciation. Using a ram-pressure balance model that includes gravitational focusing of the interstellar flow, we compute the size of the astrosphere in the apex direction as a function of parent star mass. We derive a dependence on the parent-star mass M due to gravitational focusing for densities larger than about 100 (M/M_\\odot)^{-2} cm^{-3}. We calculate the interstellar densities required to descreen plane...

  11. Assessment of healthy lifestyle habits among Mosul university students

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Younis

    2014-01-01

    Background: A healthy lifestyle leaves you fit, energetic and at reduced risk for disease, based on the choices you make about your daily habits. Good nutrition, daily exercise and adequate sleep are the foundations for continuing good health. Managing stress in positive ways, instead of through smoking or drinking alcohol, reduces wear and tear on your body at the hormonal level. For a longer and more comfortable life, put together your plan for a healthy lifestyle and live up to it. Objec...

  12. Oral health knowledge and habits of senior elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M E; Coulby, W M

    1991-01-01

    Despite improvements in children's dental health, and significant resource allocation to health education programs, few recent studies have investigated the associations of oral health knowledge, behaviors, and status. This study of 11-year-old children (N = 6,329) in northeastern Ontario used a supervised self-complete questionnaire and a clinical examination to gather baseline data on, and test associations of, caries and periodontal knowledge, self-reported oral health behaviors and source of knowledge, and oral health status. Results show the children had poor knowledge of caries preventive measures such as water fluoridation, dental sealants, and choice of snack foods. Periodontal knowledge was better, but children confused plaque and calculus. Respondents claimed good oral health habits, with 73 percent claiming to brush at least twice daily, 88 percent claiming to use toothpaste, 42 percent claim to floss at least twice weekly, and 84 percent claiming an annual dental visit. Children with the best knowledge claimed dentist and school as the sources. High knowledge was associated with good oral health habits (P less than .001) and low DMFT score (P less than .001). Good habits were not related to DMFT score (P = .1095). Logistic regression showed high knowledge was associated with English cultural status, urban school area, good habits, having a dental sealant, and attending a fluoride-rinse school (P less than .05). Findings suggest a need to reinforce caries preventive teaching, to investigate the effect of cultural status, dental experience, and residence status on oral health knowledge, and to further test the efficacy of different oral health education programs delivered by different sources. PMID:1941772

  13. Categorization of the main descriptors of different ampicillin crystal habits

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Flórez-Acosta; Gloria Tobón-Zapata; Jaime Valencia-Velasquez

    2010-01-01

    With the purpose of enabling the analysis by digital methods of particles of multisource pharmaceutical raw materials, this study analyzed different crystal habits of ampicillin particles, by grouping the external shapes obtained from 3 different solvents (acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol), thereby reducing the number of descriptors necessary to adequately represent each shape. For this purpose, a selection of morphological descriptors was used including: circularity, roughness, roundness,...

  14. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah Abbass; Achkar Alice; Yahia Najat; Rizk Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their e...

  15. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  16. Addiction History Associates with the Propensity to Form Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H; Bauer, Daniel J; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-07-01

    Learned habitual responses to environmental stimuli allow efficient interaction with the environment, freeing cognitive resources for more demanding tasks. However, when the outcome of such actions is no longer a desired goal, established stimulus-response (S-R) associations or habits must be overcome. Among people with substance use disorders (SUDs), difficulty in overcoming habitual responses to stimuli associated with their addiction in favor of new, goal-directed behaviors contributes to relapse. Animal models of habit learning demonstrate that chronic self-administration of drugs of abuse promotes habitual responding beyond the domain of compulsive drug seeking. However, whether a similar propensity toward domain-general habitual responding occurs in humans with SUDs has remained unclear. To address this question, we used a visuomotor S-R learning and relearning task, the Hidden Association between Images Task, which employs abstract visual stimuli and manual responses. This task allows us to measure new S-R association learning and well-learned S-R association execution and includes a response contingency change manipulation to quantify the degree to which responding is habit-based, rather than goal-directed. We find that people with SUDs learn new S-R associations as well as healthy control participants do. Moreover, people with an SUD history slightly outperform controls in S-R execution. In contrast, people with SUDs are specifically impaired in overcoming well-learned S-R associations; those with SUDs make a significantly greater proportion of perseverative errors during well-learned S-R replacement, indicating the more habitual nature of their responses. Thus, with equivalent training and practice, people with SUDs appear to show enhanced domain-general habit formation. PMID:26967944

  17. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Al-Roomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are considered the main factors associated with several diet-related diseases in the Arab Gulf countries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst male and female secondary school students selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. A sample size of 735 subjects (339 males and 396 females, aged 15–18 years, was selected from government schools from all the governorates of Bahrain. Skipping breakfast was significantly greater in females (62.8% compared to males (37.2%, (P<0.01. About 88% of adolescents snacked during school break, 70.7% procuring food from the school canteen. Fruit was not consumed by about 27.7% of respondents (33.5% males, 66.5% females and the gender difference was statistically significant (P<0.01. Fish and lentils were less preferred, while chicken was more popular. There was no significant difference between gender and frequency of eating fast food. About 8.4% of respondents reported not eating burgers, with 68.8% preferring regular size burgers. Furthermore, 24.4% preferred large portions of potato chips (53.1% male, 46.9% female. About 29.8% watched TV for more than 5 hours a day (51.2% females, 48.8% males. About 69% of males practiced sports everyday as against 30.8% of females (P<0.01 and 81.6% of those who participated in sport activity outside school were males compared to 18.4% of females. It seems that the adolescents in Bahrain are moving toward unhealthy dietary habits and lifestyles, which in turn will affect their health status in the future. Promoting healthy lifestyle and eating habits should be given a priority in school health programs.

  18. The relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami, Susan; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Zahmatkesh, Monereh; Nematolahi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the important requirements for cultural, social and even economic development is having a book-loving nation. In order to achieve this, there is a need for purposeful and continuous programming. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression in Isfahan University of Medical Science. METHODS: This research was a kind of descriptive and correlation survey. Statistical population included all MSc and PhD ...

  19. Epidemiology of dysmenorrhea with dietary habits and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Molazem; Fateme Alhani; Monireh Anooshe; S. Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhoea has an important effect on women's quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of primary dysmenorrhea and its relationship with exercise and dietary habits among high-school girls.Material and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, a cluster sample of 200 high-school girls was selected. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire and a Visual Analogue Scale for measuring pain. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea ...

  20. Assessing the Nature, Distribution and Duration of Noachian Habitable Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Life as we know it indicates that habitable environments must simultaneously provide liquid water, conditions favorable for the assembly of complex organic molecules, nutrients for cellular constituents, and sources of energy that can sustain metabolism. These requirements must be met simultaneously and perhaps at least intermittently over geologically long periods. Recent missions indicate that liquid water probably persisted in the shallow subsurface during the Noachian. Surface waters occurred at least locally as indicated by geomorphologic features observed by orbiters and by analyses of Meridiani bedrock by MER Opportunity. Atmospheric precipitation and springs probably sustained surface waters at least intermittently during the Noachian. However whether lakes or a northern ocean persisted for long periods remains controversial. Theoretical models and surface geomorphology indicate that extensive groundwater probably persisted for geologically long times. Observations of spectral features of methane in the atmosphere indicate that groundwater might exist even today. Perhaps most challenging for achieving habitable conditions on Mars has been the requirement that liquid water and biologically useful sources of energy occur simultaneously. Because liquid water has been unstable at the martian surface for most of its history, both solar energy and liquid water have probably not been simultaneously available to sustain photosynthesis for most of Mars' history. Fortunately microorganisms also can obtain energy from iron and sulfur redox reactions in the absence of light. MER Spirit found evidence that iron oxidation might have occurred simultaneously with the aqueous alteration of rocks. MEX, MRO and MER documented extensive sulfates that might have derived at least in part from volcanic sulfur emissions oxidized under aqueous conditions. Perhaps most challenging for Mars exploration will be to visit sites where habitable environments once persisted and where their

  1. The role of consciousness in triggering intellectual habits

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cañizares, J.

    2014-01-01

    When must a specific cognitive habit be called upon to solve a problem? In the subject’s learning process, ‘knowing-to’ is connected with a conscious particular judgment of truth or ‘aha’ moment enacting a new behavioral schema. This paper comments on recent experiments supporting the view that a shift from automatic to controlled forms of inhibition, involving conscious attention, is crucial for detecting errors and activating a new strategy in complex cognitive situations. The part that con...

  2. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P performance (each with P studies of school performance and dietary habits that find a positive association with eating breakfast and consuming fruits and milk and a negative relation with soft drinks, instant noodles, fast foods, and confections.

  3. Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    Key innovations are traits that are associated with the particular evolutionary 'success' of some taxonomic groups. Climbing plants depend on the availability of physical support to reach the canopy and thereby prevent shading by neighbouring plants. The present article shows that the evolution of a climbing habit in flowering plants constitutes a key innovation. A literature survey identified 48 pairs of sister groups from 45 families of flowering plants for which information on phylogenetic...

  4. Literature Circles: An Effective Method to Develop Reading Habit

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Süleyman; Yüksel, Arzu; AKINCI, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to inform teachers -who want to develop reading habit in their students and to turn them into efficient readers- on theoretical basis of literature circles method and its application within the classroom. A literature circles is a teaching method in which students select specific books to read, then are classified into discussion groups based on their selections, and finally discuss the parts of these books they individually in their discussion group. The literatu...

  5. An extended assessment of bowel habits in a general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Massimo Bellini; Filippo Pucciani; Renato Bocchini; Antonio Bove; Pietro Alduini; Edda Battaglia; Paolo Bruzzi; Italian Constipation Study Group

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bowel habits are difficult to study, and most data on defecatory behaviour in the general population have been obtained on the basis of recalled interview. The objective assessment of this physiological function and its pathological aspects continues to pose a difficult challenge. The aim of this prospective study was to objectively assess the bowel habits and related aspects in a large sample drawn from the general population.METHODS: Over a two-month period 488 subjects were prospectively recruited from the general population and asked to compile a daily diary on their bowel habits and associated signs and symptoms (the latter according to Rome II criteria). A total of 298 (61%) participants returned a correctly compiled record, so that data for more than 8 000 patient-days were available for statistical analysis.RESULTS: The average defecatory frequency was once per day (range of 0.25-3.25) and was similar between males and females. However, higher frequencies of straining at stool (P=0.001), a feeling of incomplete emptying and/or difficult evacuation (P=0.0001), and manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation (P=0.046) were reported by females as compared to males.CONCLUSION: This study represents one of the first attempts to objectively and prospectively assess bowel habits in a sample of the general population over a relatively long period of time. The variables we analyzed are coherent with the criteria commonly used for the clinical assessment of functional constipation, and can provide a useful adjunt for a better evaluation of constipated patients.

  6. Dietary habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Jin; Ha, Eun Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the relationship between dietary habits and childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in preschool children. Methods We performed a questionnaire study to analyze the relationship between dietary habits and GERD in 85 preschool children with GERD and 117 healthy children of the same age. Results Irregular and picky eating were more p–revalent in the GERD group than in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 4.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–12.54 and OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.88–13.14, respectively). The snack preferences and the late night eating habits were significantly more prevalent in the GERD group than in the control group (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.23–11.87 and OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 2.55–35.49, respectively). A preference for liquid foods was significantly more prevalent in the GERD group (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 2.548–35.485). The dinner-to-bedtime interval was significantly shorter in the GERD group than in the control group (157.06±48.47 vs. 174.62±55.10, P=0.020). In addition, the time between dinner and bedtime was shorter than 3 hours in 47 children (55.3%) of the GERD group and 44 (37.6%) of the control group. This difference was statistical significance (P=0.015). Conclusion Dietary habits such as picky and irregular eating, snack preference, a preference of liquid foods, late night eating, and a shorter dinner-to-bedtime interval had a significant correlation with GERD. Further large-scale studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  7. Ethnic identity and dietary habits among Hispanic immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Romo Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Gil Roig, José María

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Focussing on Latin American immigrants in Barcelona, the objective of this paper is twofold: to measure their degree of ethnical identity; and to analyse the relationship between food habits and their ethnical identity. Design/methodology/approach – Face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of Latin American immigrants in the Metropolitan area of Barcelona are undertaken. Ethnic identity is measured using the MEIM scale, which combines aspects from the social identity...

  8. Studies on the food habits of three species of Mastacembelidae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M. S.; Rahman, M.M.; Hossain, L.; Mollah, M.F.A

    2003-01-01

    To identify the food habits of three species of Mastacembelidae namely Mastacembelus armatus, Mastacembelus pancalus and Macrognathus aculeatus, the gut content analysis was performed by three methods i.e. occurrence method, points method and index of fullness method. All three species were found to consume prawn, molluscs, insects, earth warm, debris and plant materials. M. armatus and M. pan cal us were found to feed mainly on animal food items and 84.68% of different types of animal food w...

  9. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information vital to the evaluation and planning of child nutrition programmes. A discussion on foods used by the Kikuyu in the rural areas is accompanied by a list of food names in the vernacular

  10. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Filiz; Ayse Sevim UNAL; Hamide GULER; Kadriye KARDAS

    2006-01-01

    Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken...

  11. Lifestyle and eating habits in a business community.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study verified, using a validated questionnaire, the presence of unhealthy aspects of lifestyle and chronic degenerative conditions in a working community. METHODS: A cohort from a working community in Italy was investigated using of the INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e Nutrizione) questionnaire dedicated to the eating habits and Physical Activity Stages of Change. RESULTS: Most of the 93 subjects (56 females and 37 males, aged 42.0±0.7) recruite...

  12. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  13. Traditional Food in Western Balkan Countries Consumers’ Perceptions and Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Barjolle, Dominique; Brecic, Ruzica; Cerjak, Marija; Giraud, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Te aim of this paper is to explore consumers' perceptions and habits regarding traditional food in the Western Balkan Countries. In each Western Balkan country, two focus groups were carried-out (total twelve focus groups; eight to ten participants per each – total sample of 104 participants). Results of this study show that consumer motives for the choice of traditional products pertain to higher health, safety, sensory and increasingly also sustainability beliefs and expectation. Results of...

  14. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Haslan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Methods of Efficient Study Habits and Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2010-02-01

    We want to discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with the most efficient techniques needed to help students improve their study skills. We focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the students who conscientiously use the methods of efficient study habits achieve higher results than those students who do not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the students, but the efficiency and quality of actions so that the student can function at peak efficiency. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. )

  16. The Habitable Zones of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, Ramses M

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the pre-main-sequence HZ for stars of spectral classes F to M. The spatial distribution of liquid water and its change during the pre-main-sequence phase of protoplanetary systems is important in understanding how planets become habitable. Such worlds are interesting targets for future missions because the coolest stars could provide habitable conditions for up to 2.5 billion years post-accretion. Moreover, for a given star type, planetary systems are more easily resolved because of higher pre-main-sequence stellar luminosities, resulting in larger planet to star separation for cool stars than is the case for the traditional main-sequence (MS) habitable zone (HZ). We use 1D radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate pre-main-sequence HZ distances for F1 to M8 stellar types. We also show that accreting planets that are later located in the traditional MS HZ orbiting stars cooler than a K5 (including the full range of M-stars) receive stellar fluxes that exceed the ru...

  17. Towards the Minimum Inner Edge Distance of the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras; de Wit, Julien

    2013-01-01

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star for an exoplanet to be potentially habitable, in order to maximize future chances of finding other habitable worlds. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable Zone (HZ) for hot desert worlds is at 0.5 AU around a solar-like star (well within the orbit of Venus). The relative humidity is the key controlling factor in determining the inner edge distance because water vapor has a strong impact on the greenhouse warming of the atmosphere, yet too little water vapor will deactivate precipitation and enable CO2 to accumulate. We estimate that a relative humidity as low as 1% can be sufficient to maintain a liquid water cycle and wash out CO2 from the atmosphere. If the surface pressure is too low (~0.1 bar), the water loss timescale of the planet is too short to support life. If the surface pressure is too high (~100 bars), we show using atmospheric circulation arguments, that the day-night side temperature difference on slow rotators and tidally locked planets is...

  18. The Case for a Gaian Bottleneck: The Biology of Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Aditya; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    The prerequisites and ingredients for life seem to be abundantly available in the Universe. However, the Universe does not seem to be teeming with life. The most common explanation for this is a low probability for the emergence of life (an emergence bottleneck), notionally due to the intricacies of the molecular recipe. Here, we present an alternative Gaian bottleneck explanation: If life emerges on a planet, it only rarely evolves quickly enough to regulate greenhouse gases and albedo, thereby maintaining surface temperatures compatible with liquid water and habitability. Such a Gaian bottleneck suggests that (i) extinction is the cosmic default for most life that has ever emerged on the surfaces of wet rocky planets in the Universe and (ii) rocky planets need to be inhabited to remain habitable. In the Gaian bottleneck model, the maintenance of planetary habitability is a property more associated with an unusually rapid evolution of biological regulation of surface volatiles than with the luminosity and distance to the host star.

  19. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets.Reference:Narita N. et al.,Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13977 (2015)http://www.nature.com/articles/srep13977

  20. Interactions between sleep habits and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Morris, Drew M; Donnelly, Janet; Feigl, Hayley B

    2015-01-01

    Good sleep habits and effective self-control are important components of successful functioning. Unfortunately chronic sleep loss and impaired self-control are common occurrences for many individuals which can lead to difficulty with daily self-control issues such as resisting impulses and maintaining attentive behavior. Understanding how self-control is depleted and how good sleep habits may help replenish and maintain the capacity for self-control is an important issue. A sleep-deprived individual who has expended the necessary resources for self-control is at an increased risk for succumbing to impulsive desires, poor attentional capacity, and compromised decision making. To date, few studies have investigated how sleep and self-control are inter-related. The goal of this mini-review is to explore the intersection between sleep habits and self-control and encourage researchers to focus on a new area of research that integrates what are at present largely separate areas in psychology and human neurosciences.

  1. Temporomandibular disorders and parafunctional oral habits: an anamnestic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Oliveira Melchior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD, the frequency of parafunctional oral habits and the correlation between the variables by means of the patients' perception regarding their problem. METHODS: One hundred patients diagnosed with TMD, through a clinical examination of their masticatory system, answered the questions of a previously published protocol concerning the signs and symptoms most frequently reported in the literature. RESULTS: According to the results from the non parametric statistical analysis, the frequency for the following signs and symptoms was significant: Fatigue and muscle pain, joint sounds, tinnitus, ear fullness, headache, chewing impairment and difficulty to yawn (p<0.01 and otalgia (p<0.05. As to the parafunctional oral habits, there was a significant presence of teeth clenching during the day and night (p<0.01 and teeth grinding at night (p<0.05. The variable correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between symptom frequency and severity; age was correlated with the presence of otalgia, cervical pain and teeth sensitivity, besides being correlated with muscle and joint pain severity. Habit frequency was negatively correlated with age. TMD duration was also positively correlated with the symptoms of tinnitus, ear fullness, muscle and joint pain. CONCLUSION: The study results showed that the anamnestic assessment using ProDTMMulti can predict the severity of the TMD case.

  2. Oral habits of temporomandibular disorder patients with malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukie; Motegi, Etsuko; Nomura, Mayumi; Kawamura, Sakura; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hideharu

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between oral habits and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder in patients who had sought orthodontic treatment by analyzing their present and past history. The subjects were 57 female patients (average age: 23 years and 6 months old) who had visited the "Temporomandibular Disorder Section" in our orthodontic department. Their chief complaints were the symptom of TMJ and the abnormalities of occlusion such as maxillary protrusion, open bite, crowding, mandibular protrusion, cross bite, deep bite, edge-to-edge bite, and spacing. Their present conditions and past histories were examined and evaluated. The most typical primary symptom was joint sound (23 patients, 40.0%). The second was joint sound and pain (15 patients, 26.3%). Of the symptoms present at the time of examination, the most prevalent were joint sound and pain (20 patients, 35.1%). The 48 patients (82.8%) had significant oral habits. Unilateral chewing was seen in 35 patients (72.9%), bruxism in 27 (56.3%), abnormality of posture in 14 (29.2%), habitual crunching in 10 (20.8%) and resting the check on the hand in 4 (8.3%), respectively. When comparing the primary symptoms to those at the time of examination, the patients with unilateral chewing and bruxism tended to have more complicated symptoms. In conclusion, the TMD symptoms of the patients with notable oral habits did not change or become worse during a period of about 5 years.

  3. Exomoon habitability constrained by energy flux and orbital stability

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2012-01-01

    Detecting massive satellites of extrasolar planets has now become feasible, which led naturally to questions about their habitability. In a previous study we presented constraints on the habitability of moons from stellar and planetary illumination as well as from tidal heating. Here I refine our model by including the effect of eclipses on the orbit-averaged illumination. Moons in low-mass stellar systems must orbit their planet very closely to remain bound, which puts them at risk of strong tidal heating. I first describe the effect of eclipses on stellar illumination of satellites. Then I calculate the orbit-averaged energy flux including illumination from the planet and tidal heating. Habitability is defined by a scaling relation at which a moon loses its water by the runaway greenhouse process. As a working hypothesis, orbital stability is assumed if the moon's orbital period is less than 1/9 of the planet's orbital period. Due to eclipses, a satellite in a close orbit can experience a reduction in orbit...

  4. Habitability potential of satellites around Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Encrenaz, Therese; Grasset, Olivier; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2016-07-01

    In looking for habitable conditions in the outer solar system recent research focuses on the natural satellites rather than the planets themselves. Indeed, the habitable zone as traditionally defined may be larger than originally conceived. The outer solar system satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the ground but also by the Voyager, Galileo and the Cassini spacecrafts revealed the potential of these satellites in this context, and our understanding of habitability in the solar system and beyond can be greatly enhanced by investigating several of these bodies together [1]. Their environments seem to satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and chemical compounds that can be used as nutrients over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). Indeed, several of the moons show promising conditions for habitability and the development and/or maintenance of life. The strong gravitational pull caused by the giant planets may produce enough energy to sufficiently heat the cores of orbiting icy moons. Europa and Ganymede may be hiding, under their icy crust, putative undersurface liquid water oceans [2] which, in the case of Europa [3], may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm by tidally generated heat [4]. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans. Titan's rigid crust and the probable existence of a subsurface ocean create an analogy with terrestrial-type plate tectonics, at least surficial [5], while Enceladus' plumes find an analogue in geysers. As revealed by Cassini the liquid hydrocarbon lakes [6] distributed mainly at polar latitudes on Titan are ideal isolated environments to look for

  5. The Galactic Habitable Zone I. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    González, G; Ward, P; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Brownlee, Donald; Ward, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose the concept of a "Galactic Habitable Zone" (GHZ). Analogous to the Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ), the GHZ is that region in the Milky Way where an Earth-like planet can retain liquid water on its surface and provide a long-term habitat for animal-like aerobic life. In this paper we examine the dependence of the GHZ on Galactic chemical evolution. The single most important factor is likely the dependence of terrestrial planet mass on the metallicity of its birth cloud. We estimate, very approximately, that a metallicity at least half that of the Sun is required to build a habitable terrestrial planet. The mass of a terrestrial planet has important consequences for interior heat loss, volatile inventory, and loss of atmosphere. A key issue is the production of planets that sustain plate tectonics, a critical recycling process that provides feedback to stabilize atmospheric temperatures on planets with oceans and atmospheres. Due to the more recent decline from the early intense star formation ac...

  6. The inhabitance paradox: how habitability and inhabitancy are inseparable

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The dominant paradigm in assigning "habitability"' to terrestrial planets is to define a circumstellar habitable zone: the locus of orbital radii in which the planet is neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. One dimensional climate models have identified theoretically impressive boundaries for this zone: a runaway greenhouse or water loss at the inner edge (Venus), and low-latitude glaciation followed by formation of CO2 clouds at the outer edge. A cottage industry now exists to "refine" the definition of these boundaries each year to the third decimal place of an AU. Using the same class of climate model, I show that the different climate states can overlap very substantially and that "snowball Earth", moist temperate climate, hot moist climate and a post-runaway dry climate can all be stable under the same solar flux. The radial extent of the temperate climate band is very narrow for pure water atmospheres, but can be widened with di-nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The width of the habitable zone...

  7. The Case for a Gaian Bottleneck: The Biology of Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Aditya; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    The prerequisites and ingredients for life seem to be abundantly available in the Universe. However, the Universe does not seem to be teeming with life. The most common explanation for this is a low probability for the emergence of life (an emergence bottleneck), notionally due to the intricacies of the molecular recipe. Here, we present an alternative Gaian bottleneck explanation: If life emerges on a planet, it only rarely evolves quickly enough to regulate greenhouse gases and albedo, thereby maintaining surface temperatures compatible with liquid water and habitability. Such a Gaian bottleneck suggests that (i) extinction is the cosmic default for most life that has ever emerged on the surfaces of wet rocky planets in the Universe and (ii) rocky planets need to be inhabited to remain habitable. In the Gaian bottleneck model, the maintenance of planetary habitability is a property more associated with an unusually rapid evolution of biological regulation of surface volatiles than with the luminosity and distance to the host star. PMID:26789354

  8. Lifestyle and eating habits in a business community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, L; Francini, L; Petri, C; Mascherini, G; Scacciati, I; Maffulli, N; Galanti, G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study verified, using a validated questionnaire, the presence of unhealthy aspects of lifestyle and chronic degenerative conditions in a working community. METHODS: A cohort from a working community in Italy was investigated using of the INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e Nutrizione) questionnaire dedicated to the eating habits and Physical Activity Stages of Change. RESULTS: Most of the 93 subjects (56 females and 37 males, aged 42.0±0.7) recruited reported low levels of physical activity (70 subjects). Slightly more than 50% of the subjects undertook physical activity more than once a week, while 13% did it only once. Food intolerances were reported by 7 subjects (8%), with a high consumption of fruits, cereals and dairy products, low consumption of fish and alcohol, and meat consumption in the normal range. There was a high satisfaction in general quality of life. CONCLUSION: Questionnaire investigations play a role to identify the presence of degenerative chronic conditions in working communities. The self-reported perception of quality of life does not necessarily agree with the lifestyle habits found. Awareness of this aspect could be helpful to plan lifestyle interventions and promote healthy living habits. PMID:25147766

  9. Habitability in Different Milky Way Stellar Environments: a Stellar Interaction Dynamical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Torres, Juan J; Lake, George; Segura, Antígona

    2013-01-01

    Every Galactic environment is characterized by a stellar density and a velocity dispersion. With this information from literature, we simulated flyby encounters for several Galactic regions, numerically calculating stellar trajectories as well as orbits for particles in disks; our aim was to understand the effect of typical stellar flybys on planetary (debris) disks in the Milky Way Galaxy. For the Solar neighborhood, we examined nearby stars with known distance, proper motions, and radial velocities. We found occurrence of a disturbing impact to the Solar planetary disk within the next 8 Myr to be highly unlikely; perturbations to the Oort cloud seem unlikely as well. Current knowledge of the full phase space of stars in the Solar neighborhood, however, is rather poor, and thus we cannot rule out the existence of a star that is more likely to approach than those for which we have complete kinematic information. We studied the effect of stellar encounters on planetary orbits within the habitable zones of star...

  10. THE SEMIOTICS OF THE FEMININE IN FREUD: A CHANGE OF HABIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Freudian theory offers an understanding about genital children’s organization as a phallic development, meaning that during the first years of life, both boy and girl have a male development. This condition last until the Oedipus Complex when, conscious of sexual differentiation, most of the boys would confirm their masculinity, and the girls, mostly, would be forced to fit as females through the acceptance of castration. This implies to consider that the sex life of the woman - or men identified with the position of castrated - would be characterized by two distinct moments: the initial, male, and a subsequent, only the latter specifically female. In this paper, the transition between these phases will be explored semiotically, by reference to peircean notion of habit

  11. The Search for Habitable Worlds. 1. The Viability of a Starshade Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Margaret C.; Glassman, Tiffany; Roberge, Aki; Cash, Webster; Noecker, Charley; Lo, Amy; Mason, Brian; Oakley, Phil; Bally, John

    2012-05-01

    As part of NASA's mission to explore habitable planets orbiting nearby stars, this article explores the detection and characterization capabilities of a 4 m space telescope plus 50 m starshade located at the Earth-Sun L2 point, known as the New Worlds Observer (NWO). Our calculations include the true spectral types and distribution of stars on the sky, an iterative target selection protocol designed to maximize efficiency based on prior detections, and realistic mission constraints. We conduct simulated observing runs for a wide range in exozodiacal background levels (ε = 1-100 times the local zodi brightness) and overall prevalence of Earth-like terrestrial planets (η⊕ = 0.1-1). We find that even without any return visits, the NWO baseline architecture (IWA = 65 mas, limiting FPB = 4 × 10-11) can achieve a 95% probability of detecting and spectrally characterizing at least one habitable Earth-like planet and an expectation value of ~3 planets found, within the mission lifetime and ΔV budgets, even in the worst-case scenario (η⊕ = 0.1 and ε = 100 zodis for every target). This achievement requires about 1 yr of integration time spread over the 5 yr mission, leaving the remainder of the telescope time for UV-NIR general astrophysics. Cost and technical feasibility considerations point to a "sweet spot" in starshade design near a 50 m starshade effective diameter, with 12 or 16 petals, at a distance of 70,000-100,000 km from the telescope.

  12. The Search for Habitable Worlds. 1. The Viability of a Starshade Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Margaret C.; Glassman, Tiffany; Roberge, Aki; Cash, Webster; Noecker, Charley; Lo, Amy; Mason, Brian; Oakley, Phil; Bally, John

    2012-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission to explore habitable planets orbiting nearby stars, this article explores the detection and characterization capabilities of a 4 m space telescope plus 50 m starshade located at the Earth-Sun L2 point, known as the New Worlds Observer (NWO). Our calculations include the true spectral types and distribution of stars on the sky, an iterative target selection protocol designed to maximize efficiency based on prior detections, and realistic mission constraints. We conduct simulated observing runs for a wide range in exozodiacal background levels (epsilon = 1-100 times the local zodi brightness) and overall prevalence of Earth-like terrestrial planets (eta(sub solar halo))0.1-1). We find that even without any return visits, the NWO baseline architecture (IWA = 65 mas, limiting FPB = 4 x 10(exp -11) can achieve a 95% probability of detecting and spectrally characterizing at least one habitable Earth-like planet and an expectation value of approximately 3 planets found, within the mission lifetime and delta V budgets, even in the worst-case scenario (eta(sub solar halo) = 0.1 and = epsilon = 100 zodis for every target). This achievement requires about 1 yr of integration time spread over the 5 yr mission, leaving the remainder of the telescope time for UV-NIR general astrophysics. Cost and technical feasibility considerations point to a "sweet spot" in starshade design near a 50 m starshade effective diameter. with 12 or 16 petals, at a distance of 70,000-100,000 km from the telescope.

  13. Prevalence of Oral Habits in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Caroline Barsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of oral habits in children with clefts aged three to six years, compared to a control group of children without clefts in the same age range, and compared the oral habits between children with clefts with and without palatal fistulae. The sample was composed of 110 children aged 3 to 6 years with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 110 children without alterations. The prevalence of oral habits and the correlation between habits and presence of fistulae (for children with clefts were analyzed by questionnaires applied to the children caretakers. The cleft influenced the prevalence of oral habits, with lower prevalence of pacifier sucking for children with cleft lip and palate and higher prevalence for all other habits, with significant association (. There was no significant association between oral habits and presence of fistulae (. The lower prevalence of pacifier sucking and higher prevalence of other oral habits agreed with the postoperative counseling to remove the pacifier sucking habit when the child is submitted to palatoplasty, possibly representing a substitution of habits. There was no causal relationship between habits and presence of palatal fistulae.

  14. Prevalence of oral habits in children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Paula Caroline; Ribeiro da Silva, Thaieny; Costa, Beatriz; da Silva Dalben, Gisele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of oral habits in children with clefts aged three to six years, compared to a control group of children without clefts in the same age range, and compared the oral habits between children with clefts with and without palatal fistulae. The sample was composed of 110 children aged 3 to 6 years with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 110 children without alterations. The prevalence of oral habits and the correlation between habits and presence of fistulae (for children with clefts) were analyzed by questionnaires applied to the children caretakers. The cleft influenced the prevalence of oral habits, with lower prevalence of pacifier sucking for children with cleft lip and palate and higher prevalence for all other habits, with significant association (P oral habits and presence of fistulae (P > 0.05). The lower prevalence of pacifier sucking and higher prevalence of other oral habits agreed with the postoperative counseling to remove the pacifier sucking habit when the child is submitted to palatoplasty, possibly representing a substitution of habits. There was no causal relationship between habits and presence of palatal fistulae.

  15. Habitable Evaporated Cores: Transforming Mini-Neptunes into Super-Earths in the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Luger, Rodrigo; Lopez, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Jackson, Brian; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    We show that photoevaporation of small gaseous exoplanets ("mini-Neptunes") in the habitable zones of M dwarfs can remove several Earth masses of hydrogen and helium from these planets and transform them into potentially habitable worlds. We couple X-ray/extreme ultraviolet (XUV)-driven escape, thermal evolution, tidal evolution and orbital migration to explore the types of systems that may harbor such "habitable evaporated cores" (HECs). We find that HECs are most likely to form from planets with $\\sim 1 M_\\oplus$ solid cores with up to about 50% H/He by mass, though whether or not a given mini-Neptune forms a HEC is highly dependent on the early XUV evolution of the host star. As terrestrial planet formation around M dwarfs by accumulation of local material is likely to form planets that are small and dry, evaporation of small migrating mini-Neptunes could be one of the dominant formation mechanisms for volatile-rich Earths around these stars.

  16. Habitable evaporated cores: transforming mini-Neptunes into super-Earths in the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, R; Barnes, R; Lopez, E; Fortney, J; Jackson, B; Meadows, V

    2015-01-01

    We show that photoevaporation of small gaseous exoplanets ("mini-Neptunes") in the habitable zones of M dwarfs can remove several Earth masses of hydrogen and helium from these planets and transform them into potentially habitable worlds. We couple X-ray/extreme ultraviolet (XUV)-driven escape, thermal evolution, tidal evolution, and orbital migration to explore the types of systems that may harbor such "habitable evaporated cores" (HECs). We find that HECs are most likely to form from planets with ∼1 M⊕ solid cores with up to about 50% H/He by mass, though whether or not a given mini-Neptune forms a HEC is highly dependent on the early XUV evolution of the host star. As terrestrial planet formation around M dwarfs by accumulation of local material is likely to form planets that are small and dry, evaporation of small migrating mini-Neptunes could be one of the dominant formation mechanisms for volatile-rich Earths around these stars. PMID:25590532

  17. A Prototype Integral Field Spectrograph for High Contrast Visible-Light Imaging Spectroscopy of Jovian and Terrestrial Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the design and status of PISCES, a visible light (0.4-1 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) being developed for NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. PISCES, the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies, is a lenslet-based IFS with diffraction limited spatial sampling and a spectral resolution of ~70. It will be a laboratory prototype for future space instruments intended for exoplanet characterization via high contrast imaging, for instance imaging of Jovian and Neptunian class planets with the AFTA Coronagraph and eventually terrestrial planets with a future TPF/ATLAST/NWO type mission. PISCES will demonstrate visible light imaging spectroscopy at the challenging contrast levels required for direct detection and characterization of habitable exoplanets, and is compatible with both coronagraph and starshade mission concepts.

  18. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  19. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  20. Relationship among oral habits, orofacial function and oral health-related quality of life in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Marina Severi; Souza Barbosa, Taís de; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship among oral habits, oral function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children. Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects (8-14 years old) were assessed for orofacial function using the Brazilian version of the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S). OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaires (Brazilian versions) for the 8-10 (CPQ(8-10)) and 11-14 (CPQ(11-14)) year age groups. The subjects were distributed into a Habit group and a Habit-free group according to domain III (Habits) of the NOT-S. Oral habits were present in 71.3% of the sample (p = .0001), with a higher prevalence in females (62.8%, p = .001). The NOT-S, CPQ(8-10) and CPQ(11-14) scores were higher in the Habit group (P = .0001, P = .009 and p = .001, respectively). Domain I (Sensory Function) was significantly more affected in Habit group subjects (p = .001). The NOT-S scores were positively correlated with the CPQ(8-10) and CPQ(11-14) scores only in the Habit group (r = .32, p = .0003 and r = .30, p = .001, respectively). These results indicate that oral habits can impact OHRQoL. Moreover, orofacial dysfunctions were associated with worse OHRQoL in subjects with oral habits.

  1. Relationship among oral habits, orofacial function and oral health-related quality of life in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Severi Leme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the relationship among oral habits, oral function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children. Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects (8–14 years old were assessed for orofacial function using the Brazilian version of the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaires (Brazilian versions for the 8–10 (CPQ8-10 and 11–14 (CPQ11-14 year age groups. The subjects were distributed into a Habit group and a Habit-free group according to domain III (Habits of the NOT-S. Oral habits were present in 71.3% of the sample (p = .0001, with a higher prevalence in females (62.8%, p = .001. The NOT-S, CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 scores were higher in the Habit group (P = .0001, P = .009 and p = .001, respectively. Domain I (Sensory Function was significantly more affected in Habit group subjects (p = .001. The NOT-S scores were positively correlated with the CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 scores only in the Habit group (r = .32, p = .0003 and r = .30, p = .001, respectively. These results indicate that oral habits can impact OHRQoL. Moreover, orofacial dysfunctions were associated with worse OHRQoL in subjects with oral habits.

  2. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  3. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  4. Study habits and technology use in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Students' ability of learning is influenced by study habits. Among these, the use of technologies has assumed a controversial role. The aim of this paper is to analyse studying approach, the use of technologies and how they affect study habits in a population of university students addressed by the "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" questionnaire. METHODS: 16 questions referred to the approach to studying and the use of technologies (number 77-93 were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Stratification for sex, age and socio-economic status were performed and Chi square test was used to test the difference between sex, age class and socio-economic groups. RESULTS: 99.7% of students declared to have at least one mobile phone and 68.7% to use smartphones, i-phones and i-pads. Males (20.9% vs 14.9% female, p < 0.05, older students (31.7% among 25-30 years old students vs 21.3% among 18-21 years old, p < 0.05 and students with the highest socio-economic level (87.8% vs 54.2% of the lowest seem more likely to use digital technologies/Internet for educational purposes. CONCLUSION: Our survey revealed that most college students still prefer approach the study using books instead of digital tools, but this attitude is conflicting with how many hours they use computers and surf Internet per weeks. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand better technology influence on study habits and its implication on health.

  5. Toward the minimum inner edge distance of the habitable zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; De Wit, Julien; Stamenković, Vlada, E-mail: zsom@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable Zone for hot desert worlds can be as close as 0.38 AU around a solar-like star, if the greenhouse effect is reduced (∼1% relative humidity) and the surface albedo is increased. We consider a wide range of atmospheric and planetary parameters such as the mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (water vapor and CO{sub 2}), surface albedo, pressure, and gravity. Intermediate surface pressure (∼1-10 bars) is necessary to limit water loss and to simultaneously sustain an active water cycle. We additionally find that the water loss timescale is influenced by the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level, because it indirectly influences the stratospheric water mixing ratio. If the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio of dry planets at the inner edge is smaller than 10{sup –4}, the water loss timescale is ∼1 billion years, which is considered here too short for life to evolve. We also show that the expected transmission spectra of hot desert worlds are similar to an Earth-like planet. Therefore, an instrument designed to identify biosignature gases in an Earth-like atmosphere can also identify similarly abundant gases in the atmospheres of dry planets. Our inner edge limit is closer to the host star than previous estimates. As a consequence, the occurrence rate of potentially habitable planets is larger than previously thought.

  6. Cooperation of patient as key factor to overcome oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lesmana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orthodontic treatments have developed rapidly on the last decade even though; the sophisticated treatment has been limited by patient’s behavior. Orthodontist should acknowledge that the success of treatment not only depends on the knowledge and skill of the operator, but on the patient’s behavior as well, which is very critical to overcome the oral habit, including anterior tongue thrust swallow (ATTS. Patient’s cooperation is the key factor to set prognosis of oral habit correction and have to be proven through analysis of questioners. Methods: Patient cooperation scale (PCS was made for this research involving 68 orthodontic patients for correction of ATTS from Faculty of Dentistry Indonesia University and Ladokgi as respondents. PCS assessment was based on data sets of: Patient awareness of ATTS (PAw, Patient Acceptance to receive treatment (PAc, and Patient Comfortable for using appliances (PC. The evaluation was obtained by calculation the total score of 10 items from each component, which gave 0–30 range of scale and would be 0–90 range of cooperation scale as the final result. Result: PCS assessment can be based on data sets of PAw, PAc, and PC. It is valid and reliable. The score for the cooperative patients range between 0–25. The higher the score from this questionnaire shows less cooperation from respondent. On the other hand, the lower the score showed better cooperation. Conclusion: PCS can be used for the prognosis of the successful oral habits correction and has a significant relation with the length of successful treatment.

  7. Sleep habits and sleep problems among Palestinian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyoud Sa'ed H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates in Palestine. Association between self-reported sleep quality and self-reported academic achievement was also investigated. Methods Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from An-Najah National University, Palestine. The study was carried out during spring semester, 2009. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Results 400 students with a mean age of 20.2 ± 1.3 were studied. Reported mean duration of night sleep in the study sample was 6.4 ± 1.1 hours. The majority (58.3% of students went to bed before midnight and 18% of the total sample woke up before 6 am. Sleep latency of more than one hour was present in 19.3% of the students. Two thirds (64.8% of the students reported having at least one nocturnal awakening per night. Nightmares were the most common parasomnia reported by students. Daytime naps were common and reported in 74.5% of the study sample. Sleep quality was reported as "poor" in only 9.8% and was significantly associated with sleep latency, frequency of nocturnal awakenings, time of going to bed, nightmares but not with academic achievement. Conclusion Sleep habits among Palestinian undergraduates were comparable to those reported in European studies. Sleep problems were common and there was no significant association between sleep quality and academic achievement.

  8. BREAKFAST HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Widyanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Academic performance is affected by a numbers of factors. Age, gender, nutritional status, and breakfast habits are some factors that have relation with academic performance. Nutritional statues among school children still to be concerned. Breakfast habit is important thing to do before school to maintain enough calories to study and work well. The aim of this study was to determine the association of breakfast habits and academic performance especially in suburban elementary school children. An analytic cross sectional study conducted in children aged 6-12 years who studied at SD 1 Taro, Gianyar regency, Bali. There were 178 students participated in this study. We found 3 factors associated with academic performance i.e. breakfast, gender, and age with OR=2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.66, P=0.02; OR=0.32 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.70, P=0.04; OR=6.52 (95% CI 2.73 to 15.53, P<0.0001, respectively. We conclude there was an association between breakfast habits and academic performance. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. The Vegetarian Habit in Italy: Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Elisa; Mazzarini, Giorgia; Gasperi, Gaia; Bottoni, Maria Chiara; Vallorani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals around the world follow vegetarian diet. The aim of this study was to examine the variables associated to a vegetarian diet. Data were drawn from the national cross-sectional survey "Health and use of health care in Italy". Vegetarian habit was prevalent in 0.79% of sample, mainly females. Multivariate model has confirmed the association between vegetarianism and females, age, level of education, marital status separated/divorced/single, diabetes, bad state of perceived health. Little to no research has been conducted in this area until now. As for all types of diet, the vegetarian one should be controlled. PMID:25706105

  10. Food Habits of the Japanese Giant Flying Squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Motokazu; Shiraishi, Satoshi; Uchida, Teruaki

    1985-01-01

    Field observations on the food habits of Petaurista leucogenys were made, together with the measurement of feeding rates in captivity. The animal depended for its food entirely on plant material available on big trees, and got a greater part of the food from a limited number of tree species. A given particular tree species was utilized for a long period of the year although food parts varied according to seasons. The animal fed extensively on young leaves and fruits of deciduous broad-leaved ...

  11. Americans with Bad Habits Claim “Excellent”Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠梅

    2005-01-01

    N early one in five U.S.workers claim s to be in excellent health——despite being overw eight,sm oking,drinking too m uch or never exercising,according to a newly published survey.In the nationwide study of1,450em ployed adults released by O xford H ealth Plans Inc.,17percentdescribedtheir health as excellent but displayed not-so-excellent habits.O f thosepeople,55percentsaid they were atleast25pounds(11kg)overw eight,choolardenfgh31percent sm oked,21percent drank at least three glasses of alcohol aday,29per...

  12. Information Search Habits of First Year College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Mora, Higinio; Signes Pont, María Teresa; de Miguel Casado, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    New technologies have transformed teaching processes and enabled new ways of study and learning. In these activities, it is suspected that the students don't make good use of new available technologies or, in the best case, they are underused. The analysis of this issue with the design of strategies to correct any defects found is the motivation that supports the development of this work and the main purpose of it. Evaluate information search habits used by the student and analyse their deduc...

  13. Sociodemographic factors associated with oral hygiene habits in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, MDCM; Sheiham, A.; Bino, Y. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the oral hygiene habits of Brazilian adolescents and their relation with gender and socioeconomic status. Methods: Secondary data analyzed were from a cross-sectional study using self-completion questionnaires among 664 15-year-old schoolchildren randomly selected from public and private schools and their mothers, in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Results: 51.8% of the sample comprised girls and 48.2% boys; 48.9% were from a high social class and 51.1% from a low social class. ...

  14. Optimal Portfolio Rules with Habit Formation and Preference for Wealth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zheng-yan; Xu Xu-song

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a model in which a representative investor's preference depends on both the consumption history consumption and his wealth. Thus, the investor accumulates wealth not only for the sake of consumption history but also for wealth. We examine the implication for consumption, portfolio choice. We solve the consumption portfolio choice problem and provide the optimal policy. The optimal solution to the problem shows that the preference for wealth and consumption formation will affect the investor's optimal portfolio policy. For the purpose of further research, we also calculate the steady-state distribution of habit-consumption ratio.

  15. Optimal Portfolio Rules with Habit Formation and Preference for Wealth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoZheng-yan; XuXu-song

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a model in which a representative investor''s preference depends on both the consumption history consumption and his wealth. Thus, the investor accumulates wealth not only for the sake of consumption history but also for wealth. We examine the implication for consumption, portfolio choice. We solve the consumption portfolio choice problem and provide the optimal policy. The optimal solution to the problem shows that the preference for wealth and consumption formation will affect the investor''s optimal portfolio policy. For the purpose of further research,we also calculate the steady-state distribution of habit-consumption ratio.

  16. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...

  17. Induced mutations for a determinate habit in rice bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation techniques were used to create polygenic variability in rice bean (Vigna umbellata). Dry seeds of the genotype (sel. I) were irradiated with 40-80 kR of gamma rays at 10 kR intervals. A wide variation in quantitative characters was induced in both the M2 and M3 generations. Some mutants were isolated that showed a determinate growth habit, earliness, a high yield and photoinsensitivity. These mutants were found to be breeding true. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  18. Sleeping Habits of 0-72 Months Old Turkish Children

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Zeynep; ARTAN, İsmihan; Acar Şengül, Esra; Aydın, Çiğdem; Yükselen, Arzu; Doğan, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to analyze children’s sleeping habits. The sample included randomly selected mothers of 543 girls and 557 boys between the ages of 0-72 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Data collected by means of interviews with mothers and a short questionnaire was used during the interviews. RESULTS:It was found out that there is a significant relationship between the mother’s working condition and children’s having a specific sleeping time and the lighting in the child’...

  19. Using the 7 Habits programme to develop effective leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, David; Millar, Mark

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses a short leadership programme for nurse and allied health professional leaders working in a community or community hospital environment in England. It describes the adoption, adaption, implementation, delivery and interim evaluation of the programme. The article sets out the background that led to adoption of the 7 Habits for Healthcare programme and discusses the concepts outlined. It also reflects on feedback from delegates between three and nine months after they completed the programme, to explore how it has influenced them professionally and personally.

  20. From Habits to Self-Regulation: How Do We Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Gianessi, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    The Yale Cognitive Science department hosted the conference “From Habits to Self-Regulation: How Do We Change?” on November 4 and 5, 2011, to showcase current research on self-control in cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience. The conference included a panel discussion by four philosophers who gave context for the scope and limitations of research on self-control. The common theme concerning the best method to attain lasting change included becoming aware of what one wants to change,...

  1. The quest for cradles of life: using the fundamental metallicity relation to hunt for the most habitable type of galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Dayal, P.; Cockell, C.; K. Rice; Mazumdar, A.

    2015-01-01

    The field of astrobiology has made huge strides in understanding the habitable zones around stars (Stellar Habitable Zones) where life can begin, sustain its existence and evolve into complex forms. A few studies have extended this idea by modelling galactic-scale habitable zones (Galactic Habitable Zones) for our Milky Way and specific elliptical galaxies. However, estimating the habitability for galaxies spanning a wide range of physical properties has so far remained an outstanding issue. ...

  2. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Food habits of grizzly bears were studied for 11 years in the Yellowstone area of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho by analyzing scats. Ungulate remains constituted a major portion of early-season scats, graminoids of May and June scats, and whitebark pine seeds of late-season scats. Berries composed a minor portion of scats during all months. The diet varied most among years during May, September, and October, and was most diverse during August. Defecation rates peaked in July and were low in April through June. Among-years differences in scat content were substantial; estimates of average scat composition took 4-6 years to stabilize. Major trends in diet were evident and reflected long-term variation. We suggest that long-term studies are necessary to adequately document bears' food habits in variable environments; the Yellowstone grizzly bears' diet varied with seasonal and yearly availability of high-quality foods, lack of berries and large fluctuations in the size of pine seed crops were major factors limiting bear density in the Yellowstone area, and the availability of edible human refuse buffered the limitations imposed by inadequate berry and pine seed crops prior to the 1970s.

  3. Food habits of pumas in northwestern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.

  4. A Catalog of Kepler Habitable Zone Exoplanet Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R; Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Quintana, Elisa V; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Ciardi, David R; Haghighipour, Nader; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Franck; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission has discovered thousands of new planetary candidates, many of which have been confirmed through follow-up observations. A primary goal of the mission is to determine the occurrance rate of terrestrial-size planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their host stars. Here we provide a list of HZ exoplanet candidates from the Kepler Data Release 24 Q1-Q17 data vetting process. This work was undertaken as part of the Kepler Habitable Zone Working Group. We use a variety of criteria regarding HZ boundaries and planetary sizes to produce complete lists of HZ candidates, including a catalog of 104 candidates within the optimistic HZ and 20 candidates with radii less than two Earth radii within the conservative HZ. We cross-match our HZ candidates with the Data Release 25 stellar properties and confirmed planet properties to provide robust stellar parameters and candidate dispositions. We also include false positive probabilities recently calculated by Morton et al. (2016) for each of the cand...

  5. The Habitability of Proxima Centauri b I: Evolutionary Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Luger, Rodrigo; Driscoll, Peter E; Quinn, Thomas R; Fleming, David P; Guyer, Benjamin; McDonald, Diego V; Meadows, Victoria S; Arney, Giada; Crisp, David; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Lincowski, Andrew; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Schwieterman, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of the potentially habitable planet Proxima Centauri b to identify environmental factors that affect its long-term habitability. We consider physical processes acting on size scales ranging between the galactic scale, the scale of the stellar system, and the scale of the planet's core. We find that there is a significant probability that Proxima Centauri has had encounters with its companion stars, Alpha Centauri A and B, that are close enough to destabilize Proxima Centauri's planetary system. If the system has an additional planet, as suggested by the discovery data, then it may perturb planet b's eccentricity and inclination, possibly driving those parameters to non-zero values, even in the presence of strong tidal damping. We also model the internal evolution of the planet, evaluating the roles of different radiogenic abundances and tidal heating and find that a planet with chondritic abundance may not generate a magnetic field, but all other models do maintain a magnetic field. W...

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  7. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  8. Oral hygiene practices and habits among dental professionals in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives : The present study was carried out to assess the oral hygiene practices and habits among practicing general dentists. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out in four dental schools with the help of a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered dentists′ oral self care, smoking habits, professional reading and oral health concepts. A total of 700 dentists responded, of which 457 were males. Recommended oral self care (ROSC included tooth brushing one per day, eating sugary snacks daily or rarely and regularly using fluoride tooth paste. Results : The data obtained was then subjected to statistical analyses and evaluated using chi-square tests and logistic regressions.It was found that 55.9% of all respondents brushed twice a day, 59.4% consumed sugar containing snacks less than once daily and 55.1% of them used fluoride containing paste regularly while brushing. 81.1% of the 700 dentists never used tobacco products. In all, 19.6% 0f the practicing general dentists followed recommended oral self care. Conclusion : From the present study, it can be concluded that only 19.6% of south Indian dentists follow recommended oral self care and hence awareness programs and continuous dental education programs among dentists is essential to improve the present scenario and to increase the number of dental professionals following ROSC.

  9. Habitable Zones of Post-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, Ramses

    2016-01-01

    Once a star leaves the main sequence and becomes a red giant, its Habitable Zone (HZ) moves outward, promoting detectable habitable conditions at larger orbital distances. We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate post-MS HZ distances for a grid of stars from 3,700K to 10,000K (~M1 to A5 stellar types) for different stellar metallicities. The post-MS HZ limits are comparable to the distances of known directly imaged planets. We model the stellar as well as planetary atmospheric mass loss during the Red Giant Branch (RGB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phases for super-Moons to super-Earths. A planet can stay between 200 million years up to 9 Gyr in the post-MS HZ for our hottest and coldest grid stars, respectively, assuming solar metallicity. These numbers increase for increased stellar metallicity. Total atmospheric erosion only occurs for planets in close-in orbits. The post-MS HZ orbital distances are within detection capabilities of direct imagi...

  10. Obliquity Variations of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy L.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2016-06-01

    Planetary obliquity (axis tilt) and its variations can have strong effects on climate. Earth's glacial cycles, for instance, are driven in part by variations in Earth's obliquity of order ±1.5o. Direct observations of the obliquity of habitable zone rocky exoplanets is likely a long way off. Therefore we investigate the long-term obliquity variations expected for Venus as it might have existed in the early Solar System. Although Venus presently rotates slowly owing to tidal despinning, it must have had a different rotation state early in Solar System history. At the same time, Venus was the Solar System's habitable zone under a Faint Young Sun. Because of our extensive knowledge of the Solar System's constituents, we therefore use Venus' obliquity variations as a proxy for what we might find in exoplanetary systems. We find that the obliquity variation structure is simpler for early Venus than it would be for a Moonless Earth, but that large, chaotic variability can occur for high initial obliquity values. Interestingly retrograde-rotating Venuses show higher variability than do retrograde Moonless Earths.

  11. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND THE GALACTIC HABITABLE ZONE OF M31

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    Leticia Carigi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have computed the Galactic Habitable Zones (GHZs of the Andromeda galaxy (M31 based on the probability of terrestrial planet formation, which depends on the metallicity (Z of the interstellar medium, and the number of stars formed per unit surface area. The GHZ was obtained from a chemical evolution model built to reproduce a metallicity gradient in the galactic disk, [O/H](r=−0.015 dex kpc−1 × r(kpc + 0.44 dex. If we assume that Earth-like planets form with a probability law that follows the Z distribution shown by stars with detected planets, the most probable GHZ per pc2 is located between 3 and 7 kpc for planets with ages between 6 and 7 Gyr. However, the highest number of stars with habitable planets is located in a ring between 12 and 14 kpc with a mean age of 7 Gyr. 11% and 6.5% of the all formed stars in M31 may have planets capable of hosting basic and complex life, respectively.

  12. Amateur and professional football player to investigate of nutritional habits

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    Ozcan Saygın

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the nutritional habits level of footballers, considering the different league categories. From Turkey Super League, 2. League category A, 2.League category B, 3.League, 1.Amateur League, 2.Amateur League teams 360 active football players participated in the survey. To determine their the survey form developed by the researcher, benefiting previous scientific studies, consisting of 13 personal information questions, 20 nutritional habits questions; in all 33 questions was applied during the resting time of the athletes after giving explanation by the pollster.In statistical calculations SPSS (version 14.0 was applied. Data frequency and the percent values were calculated and chi-square test was applied to find out the differences among the teams in different categories. When P value was lower than 0.05, differences among the groups were accepted as significant.When the questions were asked about their educational background, levels of income, experts preparing their nutrition programs, the relations between nutrition and achievment, CHO loading, meal-skip, smoking and drinking alcohol, fluid intake before the match, the food consumed before the match, taking supplements regularly, the food containing carbohydrate, last meal preferences before the match; among the groups there were siginificant differences at level of p

  13. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. objective. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. materials and method. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15–18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. results. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. conclusion. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  14. School feeding programs' role in forming eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato-Mancuso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify teaching managers' perceptions regarding the relationship of school feeding and the promotion of healthy eating habits among students. METHODS A descriptive study with a qualitative approach was developed in the city of Guarulhos (Southeast Brazil. Key informants from municipal public schools were interviewed. Public schools were selected (n=13 and classified as to the level of social exclusion, size and economic activity of the region where the school was located. Pedagogic coordinators and school principals were individually interviewed with semi-structured questions. RESULTS From school principals and pedagogical coordinators' perceptions, three categories were identified: Food in the school context; School feeding program's role and the Concept of food and nutrition security, which indicate that they considered meals as part of school routine in order to attain physiological needs of energy and nutrients. Their answers also indicated that they did not consider school meals as a pedagogical action related to their specific responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between the school feeding and the formation of eating habits is not a topic usually discussed between the different professionals involved with health and education. The implementation of health promoting policies will only be possible after a debate about how schools and their pedagogical team adopt the program guidelines and how the professionals decode these strategies in daily activities.

  15. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

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    Luisa Gilardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods: Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Results: Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p Conclusions: The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  16. The Role of Carbon in Extrasolar Planetary Geodynamics and Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Unterborn, Cayman T; Pigott, Jeffrey S; Reaman, Daniel R; Panero, Wendy R

    2013-01-01

    The proportions of oxygen, carbon and major rock-forming elements (e.g. Mg, Fe, Si) determine a planet's dominant mineralogy. Variation in a planet's mineralogy subsequently affects planetary mantle dynamics as well as any deep water or carbon cycle. Through thermodynamic models and high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, we demonstrate the oxidation potential of C is above that of Fe at all pressures and temperatures indicative of 0.1 - 2 Earth-mass planets. This means that for a planet with (Mg+2Si+Fe+2C)/O > 1, excess C in the mantle will in the form of diamond. We model the general dynamic state of planets as a function of interior temperature, carbon composition, and size, showing that above a critical threshold of $\\sim$3 atom% C, limited to no mantle convection will be present assuming an Earth-like geotherm. We assert then that in the C-(Mg+2Si+Fe)-O system, only a very small compositional range produce habitable planets. Planets outside of this habitable range will be dynamically sluggish or st...

  17. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures. PMID:17613739

  18. Design and content validation of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Idalia Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dental plaque is associated with deterioration of oral health, tooth decay, gingivitis and periodontal disease. The study of content validity of a new instrument aims to determine whether the items included in the measuring instrument are representative of the assessed construct. The objective of this research was to design and validate the content of an oral hygiene habits scale. A Likert-like scale, named Oral Hygiene Habits Scale (OHHS, containing 10 items and five response options on frequency of behavior, was developed to assess the dimensions of toothbrushing and flossing. Six experts were recruited for the study. They were asked to conduct their evaluations individually. Four characteristics (adequacy, clarity, consistency and relevance were evaluated for each item, using an assessment scale of four ordinal values (from 1="does not meet the criteria" to 4="high level of compliance". Data were analyzed using the binomial test, Kendall’s W and Fleiss’s Kappa coefficient. The judges mostly indicated a high level of compliance with the characteristics evaluated for each item and their judgments were consistent with one another. It is concluded that the OHHS composed of 10 items showed content validity. Further studies are suggested to determine its reliability and construct validity.

  19. Microbial Habitability and Pleistocene Aridification of the Asian Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiuyi; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Fang, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped in ancient halite can contain a community of halophilic prokaryotes and eukaryotes that inhabited the surface brines from which the halite formed. Long-term survival of bacteria and archaea and preservation of DNA have been reported from halite, but little is known about the distribution of microbes in buried evaporites. Here we report the discovery of prokaryotes and single-celled algae in fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite, up to 2.26 Ma in age, from the Qaidam Basin, China. We show that water activity (aw), a measure of water availability and an environmental control on biological habitability in surface brines, is also related to microbe entrapment in fluid inclusions. The aw of Qaidam Basin brines progressively decreased over the last ˜1 million years, driven by aridification of the Asian interior, which led to decreased precipitation and water inflow and heightened evaporation rates. These changes in water balance produced highly concentrated brines, which reduced the habitability of surface lakes and decreased the number of microbes trapped in halite. By 0.13 Ma, the aw of surface brines approached the limits tolerated by halophilic prokaryotes and algae. These results show the response of microbial ecosystems to climate change in an extreme environment, which will guide future studies exploring deep life on Earth and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  20. What determines video game use? The impact of users’ habits, addictive tendencies, and intentions to play

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, T.; Jung, Y; Vorderer, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the role of intentions, habits, and addictive tendencies in people’s video game use. Although both habits and addictive tendencies may determine higher amounts of video game use, the present study examines whether the impact of habits and addictive tendencies on video game use may also be lower the less users intend to play (indicating a moderating role of intention). To test these assumptions, survey data were collected in two waves (N = 351), measuring causal fact...

  1. Eating habits of young men in military service. An epidemiological and intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Clarissa

    2012-01-01

    Men at the age of military service are in a transition phase between childhood home and independent adulthood. They are starting to make own decisions about their future and ways of life including also eating habits. In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a majority (nearly 80%) complete service. The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity also among soldiers has raised concerns about conscripts eating habits. This doctoral dissertation studied eating habits of y...

  2. Are nonclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms associated with bias toward habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorrason, Ivar; Lee, Han Joo; de Wit, Sanne; Woods, Douglas W

    2016-07-30

    In a sample of student volunteers (N=93), we found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms (although not hoarding) were associated with overreliance on stimulus-response habits at the expense of goal-directed control during instrumental responding. Only checking symptoms were associated with bias toward habits after negative affect was controlled for. Further research is warranted to examine if overreliance on habits represents an aberrant learning process that confers risk for obsessive-compulsive psychopathology. PMID:27183107

  3. Fluid intake and voiding; habits and health knowledge in a young, healthy population

    OpenAIRE

    Das RN; Grimmer-Somers KA

    2012-01-01

    Rebekah N Das, Karen A Grimmer-SomersSchool of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, City East Campus, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, AustraliaObjectives: Health professionals commonly advise patients with incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms about modifiable contributing factors such as drinking and voiding habits. Poor drinking and voiding habits may begin early in life, before symptoms emerge. However, little is known about the habits and knowledge young people ...

  4. Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Bolívar, Hilario; Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of el­derly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength ...

  5. Convergent and parallel evolution in life habit of the scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Puslednik Louise; Alejandrino Alvin; Serb Jeanne M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We employed a phylogenetic framework to identify patterns of life habit evolution in the marine bivalve family Pectinidae. Specifically, we examined the number of independent origins of each life habit and distinguished between convergent and parallel trajectories of life habit evolution using ancestral state estimation. We also investigated whether ancestral character states influence the frequency or type of evolutionary trajectories. Results We determined that temporary...

  6. Are certain life style habits associated with lower Alzheimer disease risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Arab, Lana; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of patients with Alzheimer disease is expected to grow, finding ways to prevent and lower the risk of Alzheimer disease becomes a crucial matter. Risk factors for developing AD have been identified including health conditions, dietary habits, genetics and heredity, gender, education, age, and lifestyle. Interventions targeted at some of these risk factors may offer opportunities for development of an optimal preventive strategy. Life style habits which include dietary habits and...

  7. Energizing the Discussion of Ice-Ocean World Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    2014-04-01

    The outer solar system boasts a wide range of worlds with oceans - moons orbiting the gas giants as well as putative ocean worlds in the Kuiper Belt. These objects span sizes from a few hundred kilometers to larger than Mercury. How do we understand these bodies as a class as well as evaluate the habitability of individual environments? Recognizing that there is more to habitability than a set of ingredients, "Follow the Energy' has become an important mantra. Earth's biosphere is strongly coupled to its geologic activity that maintains a sort of stable chemical disequilibria that is employed by life. From this perspective, we can think of geologic activity as a planetary proxy for energy, setting up redox environments of which life can take advantage. With this as a backdrop, we will explore two of the most intriguing bodies: Europa and Enceladus. With an icy outer shell hiding a global ocean, Europa (r=1565 km) exists in a dynamic environment, where immense tides from Jupiter potentially power an active deeper interior. Intense irradiation and impacts bathe the top of the ice shell. These processes are sources of energy that could sustain a biosphere. In the past few decades the debate about habitability of Europa has been focused strongly on the thickness of its ice shell. However an arguably more critical question is: how does the ice shell really work? Galileo data indicated that Europa has undergone recent resurfacing, and implied that near-surface water was likely involved. Now the detection of potential water ice plumes, subduction-like behavior as well as shallow subsurface "lakes" within the past few years implies that rapid ice shell recycling could create a conveyor belt between the ice and ocean. Mediated by processes at the ice-ocean interface, exchange between Europa's surface and subsurface could allow ocean material to one day be detected or sampled by spacecraft. At least at this level, Europa passes the energy test. But the question remains: is

  8. Application of growth habit features in the taxonomy of plain species from aggr. Poa pratensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Olonova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to typical meadow species, Poa pratensis, 4 other species are recognized within this aggregate. Only the leaf width is used often for their identification. These species are known to be satisfactorily distinguished in their growth habits, but detailed studies showed that growth habit is not a reliable discriminator and it seems to be only a reflection of general trends. Neither width of leaves, nor characters of growth habit are successful features in their identification. To avoid wrong identifications, which could lead undesirable consequences, all morphological characters and growth habit should be simultaneously taken into consideration.

  9. Hybrid Windows and Mosaic Video: Reducing Complexity of Space Habitable Modules Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Windows in habitable modules represent significant design and operations impacts to future spacecraft, yet viewing requirements, both electronic and passive,...

  10. Comparison of eating habits of academic and administrative personnel in Gaziantep University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Evren Sentürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the eating habits and the level of knowledge of academic and administrative personnel and compare those habits considering socio-economical variablesThe sample consisted of 118 employees in Gaziantep University. The data collected from the survey that used for the general purpose of the study was analyzed in SPSS 17 package program. Frequency and percentage values were given and analysis of nutrition habits considering to socio-economical condition was done by chi square test.As a result; academic personnel are more knowledgeable when compared with administrative ones. But, because of work intensity they have more irregular eating habits.

  11. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood--developing dentition and oral habits: a current opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    As most of the etiologic factors of malocclusion are of genetic origin and thus cannot be prevented, environmental causative factors have become the focus for correction. Early interception of oral habits may be an important step in order to prevent occlusal disturbances in children. The identification of an abnormal habit and the assessment of its potential immediate and long-term effects on the dentition and potentially on the craniofacial complex should be made at an early stage. This paper focuses on the most common oral habits influencing dentofacial growth in childhood and management of these habits in the developing dentition.

  12. Disparities in dietary habits and physical activity in Denmark and trends from 1995 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2014-01-01

    In all analyses, both diet quality and physical inactivity differed systematically with educational group and with healthier habits for the group with long education. Only for alcohol habits was an opposite social gradient seen. Disparities persisted over all time periods. The analyses using "The...... Concentration Index" did not change any of the conclusions. Gender also influenced diet quality. Men had dietary and alcohol habits furthest away from the guidelines. A trend of healthier habits was also found over the time period. CONCLUSIONS SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN DIET QUALITY AND LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL...

  13. Profiles of exercise motivation, physical activity, exercise habit, and academic performance in Malaysian adolescents: A cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Anuar Hashim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined Malaysian adolescents’ profiles of exercise motivation, exercise habit strength, academic performance, and levels of physical activity (PA using cluster analysis.Methods: The sample (n = 300 consisted of 65.6% males and 34.4% females with a mean age of 13.40 ± 0.49. Statistical analysis was performed using cluster analysis.Results: Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cluster groups. Cluster 1 is characterized by a moderate level of PA, relatively high in motivational indices and relative autonomy index (RAI, low in exercise habit, and moderate level of academic achievement. Cluster 2 has superior academic performance but is low in PA and all other measured variables. Cluster 3 is characterized by high levels of PA and all other variables but is lowest in academic performance. One way ANOVA revealed significant differences between cluster groups in total weekly MET, total minutes of weekly PA, academic performance, introjected regulation, and identified regulation.Conclusion: PA promotion with emphasis on external factors may be effective in instilling exercise habituation among adolescents in the present sample.

  14. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar.

  15. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38-0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school performance (each with P

  16. C/O: Effects on Habitability of Stellar Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence V.; Sevin Peckmezci, Gül; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2015-11-01

    We assess how differences in the composition of exoplanet host stars might affect the availability of water in their systems, particularly the role of carbon and oxygen abundances. Water, one of the key chemical ingredients for habitability, may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the ‘habitable zone’. For the solar system, C/O = 0.55 is particularly important in determining the refractory (silicate and metal) to volatile ice ratio expected in material condensed beyond the snow line (Gaidos E. J. Icarus 145, 637, 2000; Wong M. H. et al. in Oxygen in the Solar System, G.J. MacPherson, Ed., 2008). Our analysis of published compositions for a set of exoplanet host stars (Johnson T. V. et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012) showed that the amount of condensed water ice in those systems might range from as much as 50% by mass for sub-solar C/O = 0.35 to less than a few percent for super-solar C/O = 0.7. A recent analysis using similar techniques (Pekmezci G. S., Dottorato di Ricerca in Astronomia, Università Degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, 2014) of a much larger stellar composition data set for 974 FGK stars (Petigura E. and Marcy G. Journal of Astrophysics 735, 2011), allows us to assess the possible range of water ice abundance in the circumstellar accretion disks of these ‘solar-type’ stars (of which 72 were known to have one or more planets as of 2011). Stellar C/O in a subset (457 stars) of this stellar database with reported C, O, Ni, and Fe abundances ranges from 0.3 to 1.4. The resulting computed water ice fractions and refractory (silicate + metal) fractions range from ~0 to 0.6 and 0.3 to 0.9 respectively. These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host stars’ C/O in the circumstellar nebula. TVJ acknowledges government support at JPL

  17. Effects of Exoplanet Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry on Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Madhusudhan, N.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star's C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the ';habitable zone'. TVJ

  18. Superflares on Sun-Like Stars: Bane of Habitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T.

    2014-04-01

    A key aspect of planetary habitability is the existence of rare, but catastrophic events. One Earthly example is the attribution of several geological mass extinctions to asteroid collisions. Indeed, the Late Heavy Bombardment, during which the 600 Myr old Earth was pummeled persistently by impactors over a period of perhaps a hundred Myr, likely significantly delayed the permanent foothold of life on our planet. Another, less well known, example is the proposed existence of "superflares" on Sun-like stars. Although the quantity of energy in a superflare is negligible compared with the time-integrated X-ray dose from the quiescent multi-MK corona, the quality of the radiation (i.e., composition dominated by gamma rays) released from the transient, but extreme, outburst is what could be of concern to the survival of primitive lifeforms struggling for existence on a semi-habitable world. However, existing reports of superflares mainly involve interpretations of historical materials, such as long-term astronomical plate collections; there are very few concrete examples of such events observed by modern techniques at the most relevant wavelengths, namely ultraviolet or X-rays. The lack of good examples is mostly because these rare events are, well, rare. However, a recent HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph program to record the ultraviolet spectrum of young (~50 Myr) solar analog EK Draconis, fortuitously captured a giant, hour-long FUV transient, in hot lines like the C IV 155 nm doublet (T~100,000 K), and very toasty Fe XXI 124 nm coronal forbidden line (~10 MK). If translated into the equivalent GOES 0.1-0.8 nm X-ray fluence, the event would correspond to an X25000-class flare (most extreme observed on the Sun might reach as high as a mere X50). The EK Dra giant flare, as viewed with the excellent wavelength resolution, broad coverage, and high sensitivity of COS, provides the opportunity to deduce properties of such events to help inform possible impacts on planetary

  19. Food habits of mute swans in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a year long resident and therefore has raised concerns among research managers over reports of conflicts with nesting native water birds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food-habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Analyses of the gullet and gizzard of mute swans indicate that widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) and eelgrass (Zostera marina) were the most important food items to mute swans during the winter and spring. Other organisms were eaten by mute swans, but represent small percentages of food. Corn (Zea mays) fed to the swans by Bay residents in late winter probably supplements their limited vegetative food resources at that time of year.

  20. Abiotic oxygen-dominated atmospheres on terrestrial habitable zone planets

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Detection of life on other planets requires identification of biosignatures, i.e., observable planetary properties that robustly indicate the presence of a biosphere. One of the most widely accepted biosignatures for an Earth-like planet is an atmosphere where oxygen is a major constituent. Here we show that lifeless habitable zone terrestrial planets around any star type may develop oxygen-dominated atmospheres as a result of water photolysis, because the cold trap mechanism that protects H2O on Earth is ineffective when the atmospheric inventory of non-condensing gases (e.g., N2, Ar) is low. Hence the spectral features of O2 and O3 alone cannot be regarded as robust signs of extraterrestrial life.