WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlas transition radiation

  1. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  2. Last ATLAS transition radiation tracker module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. In the last image the team responsible for assembly are shown from left to right: Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  3. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF4/CO2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation

  4. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Bondarenko, V; Capéans-Garrido, M; Catinaccio, A; Cwetanski, Peter; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gavrilenko, I; Grichkevitch, Y; Gagnon, P; Hajduk, Z; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Konovalov, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Luehring, F C; Markina, I; Manara, A; McFarlane, K; Mitsou, V; Muraviev, S; Newcomer, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Peshekhonov, V D; Rembser, C; Romaniouk, A; Rhone, O; Rust, D R; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Smirnova, L N; Sosnovtsev, V V; Sutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF//4/CO//2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation.

  5. Recent aging studies for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Anghinolfi, F; Arik, E; Baker, O K; Baron, S; Benjamin, D; Bertelsen, H; Bondarenko, V; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Catinaccio, A; Cetin, S A; Cwetanski, Peter; Dam, M; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dologshein, B; Dressnandt, N; Driouichi, C; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gagnon, P; Grichkevitch, Y; Grigalashvili, N S; Hajduk, Z; Hansen, P; Kayumov, F; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Khristatchev, A; Konovalov, S; Koudine, L; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Krüger, K; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Luehring, F C; Lundberg, B; Maleev, V; Markina, I; McFarlane, K W; Mialkovski, V; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Morozov, S; Munar, A; Muraviev, S; Nadtochy, A; Newcorner, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Passmore, S; Patritchev, S; Peshekhonov, V D; Petti, R; Price, M; Rembser, C; Rohne, O; Romaniouk, A; Rust, D R; Ryabov, Yu; Ryzhov, V; Shchegelskii, V; Seliverstov, D M; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Sosnovtsev, V V; Soutchkov, V; Spiridenkov, E; Szczygiel, R; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H; Zalite, A

    2004-01-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is one of the three subsystems of the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment. It is designed to operate for 10 yr at the LHC, with integrated charges of similar to 10 C/cm of wire and radiation doses of about 10 Mrad and 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 neutrons/cm**2. These doses translate into unprecedented ionization currents and integrated charges for a large-scale gaseous detector. This paper describes studies leading to the adoption of a new ionization gas regime for the ATLAS TRT. In this new regime, the primary gas mixture is 70%Xe-27%CO**2-3%O**2. It is planned to occasionally flush and operate the TRT detector with an Ar-based ternary mixture, containing a small percentage of CF**4, to remove, if needed, silicon pollution from the anode wires. This procedure has been validated in realistic conditions and would require a few days of dedicated operation. This paper covers both performance and aging studies with the new TRT gas mixture. 12 Refs.

  6. Simulation of transition radiation and electron identification ability of the ATLAS TRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outer most tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment. In addition as functioning as atracking detector, it is capable of providing particle identification information through the emission and subsequent absorption and detection of transition radiation....... Below the effort of simulating transition radiation production and detector response is discussed, with emphasis on the data/simulation agreement and tuning. © 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. A Novel Highly Ionizing Particle Trigger using the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Penwell, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is an important part of the experiment’s charged particle tracking system. It also provides the ability to discriminate electrons from pions efficiently using large signal amplitudes induced in the TRT straw tubes by transition radiation. This amplitude information can also be used to identify heavily ionizing particles, such as monopoles, or Q-balls, that traverse the straws. Because of their large ionization losses, these particles can range out before they reach the ATLAS calorimeter, making them difficult to identify by the experiment’s first level trigger. Much of this inefficiency could be regained by making use of a feature of the TRT electronics that allows fast access to information on whether large-amplitude signals were produced in regions of the detector. A modest upgrade to existing electronics could allow triggers sensitive to heavily ionizing particles at level-1 to be constructed by counting such large-amplitude signals in roads corresponding to...

  8. Simulation of the transition radiation detection conditions in the ATLAS TRT detector filled with argon and krypton gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) at the ATLAS experiment with argon and krypton gas mixtures was simulated. The efficiency of transition radiation registration, which is necessary for electron identification, was estimated along with the electron identification capabilities under such conditions

  9. Simulation of the transition radiation detection conditions in the ATLAS TRT detector filled with argon and krypton gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, A. S., E-mail: Alexey.Boldyrev@cern.ch [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Maevskiy, A. S., E-mail: Artem.Maevskiy@cern.ch [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Performance of the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) at the ATLAS experiment with argon and krypton gas mixtures was simulated. The efficiency of transition radiation registration, which is necessary for electron identification, was estimated along with the electron identification capabilities under such conditions.

  10. Detector control system for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker: architecture and development techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, ElŻbieta; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta

    2012-05-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With ~300000 drift tube proportional counters (straws) filled with stable gas mixture and high voltage biased it provides precise quasi-continuous tracking and particles identification. Safe, coherent and efficient operation of the TRT is fulfilled with the help of the Detector Control System (DCS) running on 11 computers as PVSS (industrial SCADA) projects. Standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading hardware parameters. Higher level control system layers based on the CERN JCOP framework allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different data bases are used to store the detector online parameters, the configuration parameters and replicate a subset of them used to flag data quality for physics reconstruction. The TRT DCS is fully integrated with the ATLAS Detector Control System.

  11. Straw Performance Studies and Quality Assurance for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cwetanski, Peter; Orava, Risto

    2006-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is part of the Inner Detector. It is designed as a robust and powerful gaseous detector that provides tracking through individual drift-tubes (straws) as well as particle identification via transition radiation (TR) detection. The straw tubes are operated with Xe-CO2-O2 70/27/3, a gas that combines the advantages of efficient TR absorption, a short electron drift time and minimum ageing effects. The modules of the barrel part of the TRT were built in the United States while the end-cap wheels are assembled at two Russian institutes. Acceptance tests of barrel modules and end-cap wheels are performed at CERN before assembly and integration with the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector. This thesis first describes simulations the TRT straw tube. The argon-based acceptance gas mixture as well as two xenon-based operating gases are examined for its properties. Drift velocities and Townsend coefficients are computed with the he...

  12. Aging and Gas Filtration Studies in the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sprachmann, Gerald; Störi, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of three particle tracking detectors of the ATLAS Inner Detector whose goal is to exploit the highly exciting new physics potential at CERN's next accelerator, the so-called Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TRT consists of 370000 straw proportional tubes of 4 mm diameter with a 30 micron anode wire, which will be operated with a Xe/CO2/O2 gas mixture at a high voltage of approximately 1.5 kV. This detector enters a new area that requires it to operate at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of the detector over the lifetime (10 years) of the experiment is demanded. Aging of gaseous detectors is a term for the degradation of detector performance during exposure to ionizing radiation. This phenomenon involves very complex physical and chemical processes that are induced by pollution originating from very small amounts of silicon-based substances in some components of the gas system. This work presents a review of previous aging...

  13. An amplifier-shaper-discriminator with baseline restoration for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASDBLR is a bipolar integrated circuit that provides eight channels of amplifier, shaper, discriminator and baseline restorer on a 6.17 by 4.78 mm silicon substrate. It is designed for use in the straw-based Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Competing requirements for short measurement time (∼8ns), good double pulse resolution (∼40ns), low power (<30mW/ch), and low operational threshold (∼1.5fC) led to the choice of a largely differential circuit which includes detector tail compensation. A capacitively-coupled baseline restorer eliminates effective threshold shifts that would otherwise occur at the high per-wire hit rates (up to 20MHz). A full-scale dynamic range of 200fC and two discriminators will separate threshold adjusts allow the ASDBLR to function both as a tracker and a TR photon detector. Selectable ion-tail compensation makes the circuit compatible with both CF4 and Xe-based gases

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mashinistov, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 μm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| &lt; 2 and pT &gt; 0.5 GeV. The TRT is immersed in a 2 T magnetic field generated by the central solenoid, significantly contributing together with the other two Inner Detector sub-systems to the particle momentum reconstruction. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the first collision results show the increase in the number of detected TR-photons for particles with a gamma-factor abo...

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, S Yu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 μm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV. The TRT is immersed in a 2 T magnetic field generated by the central solenoid, significantly contributing together with the other two Inner Detector sub-systems to the particle momentum reconstruction. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the first collision results show the increase in the number of detected TR-photons for particles with a gamma-factor above 1000, thus e...

  16. Aging and gas filtration studies in the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of three particle tracking detectors of the ATLAS Inner Detector whose goal is to exploit the highly exciting new physics potential at CERN's next accelerator, the so-called Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TRT consists of 370000 straw proportional tubes of 4 mm diameter with a 30 micron anode wire, which will be operated with a Xe/CO2/O2 gas mixture at a high voltage of approximately 1.5 kV. This detector enters a new area that requires it to operate at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of the detector over the lifetime (10 years) of the experiment is demanded. Aging of gaseous detectors is a term for the degradation of detector performance during exposure to ionizing radiation. This phenomenon involves very complex physical and chemical processes that are induced by pollution originating from very small amounts of silicon-based substances in some components of the gas system. This work presents a review of previous aging studies and manifestations as well as a short introduction to wire chamber operations. The origin of the aging causing impurities is diverse and includes outgassing from assembly materials, contamination of the detector during the assembly process and the gas system itself. Systematic studies on this topic have been carried out. Techniques for wire deposit and gas analyzes, which allow the identification of the origin and the composition of hazardous impurities, are specified. Aging test results from laboratory experiments and from the systematic component validation procedure are summarized and the dependence of wire aging on certain chamber operation parameters discussed. The specific wire deposition mechanisms are extremely complex but a qualitative approach can be obtained from similarities with processes in plasma chemical vapor deposition. Accordingly, the plasma chemical processes and deposition mechanism of organosilicon compounds in an ionizing

  17. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede, U.

    1998-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H{yields}WW{yields}lvjj, H{yields}ZZ{yields}llvv and H{yields}ZZ{yields}lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated. 82 refs, figs, tabs.

  18. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H→WW→lvjj, H→ZZ→llvv and H→ZZ→lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated

  19. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tubes for Tracking and Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mindur, Bartosz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of 300000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides 30 space points with 130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c. The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in a Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher center of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. We will present TRT modifications made for Run 2 for in areas: to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Radiation-induced gain changes in ...

  20. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tubes for Tracking and Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mindur, Bartosz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of $\\sim$300000 thin-walled drift tubes (``straw tubes'') that are 4~mm in diameter. The TRT system provides $\\sim$30 space points with $\\sim$130 micron resolution for charged tracks with $|\\eta| $ 0.5 GeV/c. The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in an Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher centre of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. Significant modifications of the TRT detector have been made for LHC Run 2 mainly to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time ...

  1. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, SA; Voronov, YA; Onishchenko, EM; Simakov, AB; Sosnovtsev, VV; Suchkov, SI; Sugrobova, TA

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas-filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blow-out ti

  2. Expected performance of the ATLAS transition radiation tracking detector with ArCO{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Run-2 of the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, Philip; Desch, Klaus; Grefe, Christian; Ricken, Oliver; Wagner, Peter [Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of the three components of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a straw tube tracker designed to provide information on track reconstruction and particle identification. In the proton-proton phase of Run-1 of the LHC, the TRT was operated with the Xe-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} gas mixture it was originally designed with. However, due to the evolution of irreparable gas leaks during operation in Run-1, the exclusive use of Xe-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} will result in costly Xenon loss. The solution aimed at is to operate the most significantly affected parts of the TRT with an Ar-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} gas mixture in Run-2. This talk covers the process of developing the proposed mode of operation of the ATLAS TRT in Run-2 based on studies of simulations of different operation scenarios. Along with the validation of the simulations, the analysis of the performance of the TRT detector in different possible Run-2 scenarios is presented.

  3. Expected performance of the ATLAS transition radiation tracking detector with ArCO2O2 in Run-2 of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of the three components of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a straw tube tracker designed to provide information on track reconstruction and particle identification. In the proton-proton phase of Run-1 of the LHC, the TRT was operated with the Xe-CO2-O2 gas mixture it was originally designed with. However, due to the evolution of irreparable gas leaks during operation in Run-1, the exclusive use of Xe-CO2-O2 will result in costly Xenon loss. The solution aimed at is to operate the most significantly affected parts of the TRT with an Ar-CO2-O2 gas mixture in Run-2. This talk covers the process of developing the proposed mode of operation of the ATLAS TRT in Run-2 based on studies of simulations of different operation scenarios. Along with the validation of the simulations, the analysis of the performance of the TRT detector in different possible Run-2 scenarios is presented.

  4. Radiation atlas of Poland 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection with support and commitment of the State Inspectorate for Environmental Protection carried out necessary surveys and collected materials which allowed to elaborate present edition of the Radiation Atlas of Poland (1997). Data presented in the form of maps provide readers with the information on the 137Cs and natural radionuclides concentration in the environment. The average annual doses to the public from various sources of the ionizing radiation, e.g. doses from X-ray apparatus and radionuclides used in medical diagnostics or from the internal contamination of the human organism are also presented in the publication

  5. NREL North American Solar Radiation Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R; Gray-Hann, P.

    2001-04-01

    This presentation is about NREL's North American Solar Radiation Atlas, which currently includes 48 states (Alaska and Hawaii to be added in the future). It discusses the goals of the Atlas which are to: deliver basic solar performance estimates to general users, deliver a wide variety of additional information to more advanced users, be easy to use, full featured, and extensible.

  6. Studying radiative B decays with the Atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of radiative B decays with the ATLAS detector at the LHC (large hadron collider). Radiative decays belong to the rare decays family. Rare decays transitions involve flavor changing neutral currents (for example b → sγ), which are forbidden at the lowest order in the Standard Model. Therefore these processes occur only at the next order, thus involving penguin or box diagrams, which are very sensitive to 'new physics' contributions. The main goal of our study is to show that it would be possible to develop an online selection strategy for radiative B decays with the ATLAS detector. To this end, we have studied the treatment of low energy photons by the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal). Our analysis shows that ATLAS ECal will be efficient with these particles. This property is extensively used in the next section, where a selection strategy for radiative B decays is proposed. Indeed, we look for a low energy region of interest in the ECal as soon as the level 1 of the trigger. Then, photon identification cuts are performed in this region at level 2. However, a large part of the proposed selection scheme is also based on the inner detector, particularly at level 2. The final results show that large amounts of signal events could be collected in only one year by ATLAS. A preliminary significance (S/√B) estimation is also presented. Encouraging results concerning the observability of exclusive radiative B decays are obtained. (author)

  7. Studying radiative B decays with the Atlas detector; Etude des desintegrations radiatives des mesons B dans le detecteur ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viret, S

    2004-09-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of radiative B decays with the ATLAS detector at the LHC (large hadron collider). Radiative decays belong to the rare decays family. Rare decays transitions involve flavor changing neutral currents (for example b {yields} s{gamma}), which are forbidden at the lowest order in the Standard Model. Therefore these processes occur only at the next order, thus involving penguin or box diagrams, which are very sensitive to 'new physics' contributions. The main goal of our study is to show that it would be possible to develop an online selection strategy for radiative B decays with the ATLAS detector. To this end, we have studied the treatment of low energy photons by the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal). Our analysis shows that ATLAS ECal will be efficient with these particles. This property is extensively used in the next section, where a selection strategy for radiative B decays is proposed. Indeed, we look for a low energy region of interest in the ECal as soon as the level 1 of the trigger. Then, photon identification cuts are performed in this region at level 2. However, a large part of the proposed selection scheme is also based on the inner detector, particularly at level 2. The final results show that large amounts of signal events could be collected in only one year by ATLAS. A preliminary significance (S/{radical}B) estimation is also presented. Encouraging results concerning the observability of exclusive radiative B decays are obtained. (author)

  8. ATLAS Transition Region Upgrade at Phase-1

    CERN Document Server

    Song, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the L1 Muon trigger transition region (1.0<|ƞ|<1.3) upgrade of ATLAS Detector at phase-1. The high fake trigger rate in the Endcap region 1.0<|ƞ|<2.4 would become a serious problem for the ATLAS L1 Muon trigger system at high luminosity. For the region 1.3<|ƞ|<2.4, covered by the Small Wheel, ATLAS is enhancing the present muon trigger by adding local fake rejection and track angle measurement capabilities. To reduce the rate in the remaining ƞ interval it has been proposed a similar enhancement by adding at the edge of the inner barrel a structure of 3-layers RPCs of a new generation. These RPCs will be based on a thinner gas gap and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standards, a new high performance Front End, integrating fast TDC capabilities, and a new low profile and light mechanical structure allowing the installation in the tiny space available.This design effectively suppresses fake triggers by making the coincidence with both end-cap and interaction point...

  9. Properties of transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several fundamental electromagnetic problems associated with the transition radiation accompanying the passage of charged particles through perfectly conducting planar surfaces are investigated. For a charge of uniform but arbitrary velocity incident normally on a grounded, infinitely conducting plane, the exact transition fields are obtained, allowing a detailed analysis of both the radiation distribution and associated transition events. The radiation in this case is also computed by both direct integration of the constructed surface current, and the 'pair annihilation' interpretation of the problem. Subsequent investigation of the electromagnetic annihilation of charge allows establishment of the 'annihilation radiation theorem' relating charge self-energy to annihilation energy. The problem of the radiation loss due to a charge passing through a hole in the plane is then formulated and solved by 'interpolating' between the computed nonrelativistic and existing ultra-relativistic solutions. For nonrelativistic motion, the presence of the source charge is found to induce an infinite number of image multipoles contained within a diameter of the hole, whose associated bramsstrahlung gives rise to the transition radiation of the source. Application of the interpolation formula allows construction of a temperature dependent radiation loss expression appropriate to the passage of a relativistic beam pulse through an aperture. A formula is also developed for the radiation loss suffered by a finite length beam passing through the hole, and employed in estimating the transition radiation losses in the 200-MeV proton LINAC at NAL. Finally, the anomalous intensity peaks due to 'edge waves' appearing in the Fresnel-like diffraction patterns of electron micrographs are investigated qualitatively in connection with the transition radiation associated with the electron beam's traversal of the specimen

  10. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  11. Observation of a New χb State in Radiative Transitions to Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) at ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.

    2012-04-01

    The χb(nP) quarkonium states are produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at s=7TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4fb-1, these states are reconstructed through their radiative decays to Υ(1S,2S) with Υ→μ+μ-. In addition to the mass peaks corresponding to the decay modes χb(1P,2P)→Υ(1S)γ, a new structure centered at a mass of 10.530±0.005(stat)±0.009(syst)GeV is also observed, in both the Υ(1S)γ and Υ(2S)γ decay modes. This structure is interpreted as the χb(3P) system.

  12. Observation of a new $\\chi_b$ state in radiative transitions to $\\Upsilon$(1S) and $\\Upsilon$(2S) at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Å sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Bø rge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jø rgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The $\\chi_b$(nP) quarkonium states are produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb$^{-1}$, these states are reconstructed through their radiative decays to $\\Upsilon$(1S,2S) with $\\Upsilon \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. In addition to the mass peaks corresponding to the decay modes $\\chi_b(1P,2P) \\to \\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$, a new structure centered at a mass of 10.539+/-0.004 (stat.)+/-0.008 (syst.) GeV is also observed, in both the $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ decay modes. This is interpreted as the $\\chi_b$(3P) system.

  13. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2012-01-01

    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  14. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  15. Anomalous radiative transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous transitions involving photons derived by many-body interaction of the form ∂μGμ in the standard model are studied for the first time. This does not affect the equation of motion in the bulk, but modifies the wavefunctions, and causes an unusual transition characterized by a time-independent probability. In the transition probability at a time interval T expressed generally in the form P=TΓ0+P(d), now with P(d)≠0. The diffractive term P(d) has its origin in the overlap of waves of the initial and final states, and reveals the characteristics of waves. In particular, the processes of the neutrino–photon interaction ordinarily forbidden by the Landau–Yang theorem (Γ0=0) manifest themselves through the boundary interaction. The new term leads physical processes over a wide energy range to have finite probabilities. New methods of detecting neutrinos using lasers are proposed, based on this diffractive term; these would enhance the detectability of neutrinos by many orders of magnitude

  16. XYZ radiative transitions at BESIII

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Vindhyawasini

    2015-01-01

    Many unexpected charmonium-like states have recently been observed above the $D\\overline{D}$ threshold, which features can't be explained by the conventional quark models. These states are known as XYZ mesons. The study of the radiative transition among these states can provide the important features of XYZ states. This study has recently been performed by the BESIII using the large data samples collected at different center-of-mass energies above 3.8 GeV. This report summarizes the recent results of XYZ radiative transitions at BESIII.

  17. Online Radiation Dose Measurement System for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Particle detectors and readout electronics in the high energy physics experiment ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN operate in radiation field containing photons, charged particles and neutrons. The particles in the radiation field originate from proton-proton interactions as well as from interactions of these particles with material in the experimental apparatus. In the innermost parts of ATLAS detector components will be exposed to ionizing doses exceeding 100 kGy. Energetic hadrons will also cause displacement damage in silicon equivalent to fluences of several times 10e14 1 MeV-neutrons per cm2. Such radiation doses can have severe influence on the performance of detectors. It is therefore very important to continuously monitor the accumulated doses to understand the detector performance and to correctly predict the lifetime of radiation sensitive components. Measurements of doses are important also to verify the simulations and represent a crucial input into the models used for predicting future ...

  18. Quantum theory of transition radiation and transition pair creation

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, V. N.; Katkov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    Theory of the transition radiation and the transition pair creation is developed in the frame of QED. The spectral-angular distributions of probability of the transition radiation and of the transition pair creation are found. The total energy losses of and the total probability of pair creation are calculated and analyzed. Features of radiation and pair creation processes in a superdence medium (typical for white dwarfs) are discussed.

  19. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  20. Transition radiation of the neutrino magnetic moment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuda, M.; Kurihara, Y

    1994-01-01

    If the neutrino has a finite mass and a magnetic moment it would produce transition radiation when crossing the interface between two media. We found that the probability of transition radiation is larger by an order of magnitude using the quantum theory than that recently reported by one of us using classical electrodynamics, and that the energy spectrum of the radiation is nearly uniform.

  1. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  2. Radiation damage monitoring of the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Sally; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module record of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  3. Alternative application for the radiation background in the development of the atlas database of atmospheric radiation

    CERN Document Server

    De la Hoz, Ivan Arturo Morales

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays radiation is one of the variables to be considered in the environmental forecasting and it is meaningful in the increase of global warming, together greenhouse effect. The radiation considered by the meteorological organizations depends on the World Radiometric Reference (WRR), the World Standard Group (WSG), addressed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). This work is based on the cosmic microwave background, as a variable to be estimated in order to get information about the incident radiation in the Earth's atmosphere, as a valuable and meaningful contribution in the building of the radiation atlas by the (UPME) and (IDEAM). Due to the fact that the variables considered are ultraviolet and infrared radiation, ozone column, direct radiation and diffuse radiation, the last two get the global radiation, and are the only ones to be evaluated by the national meteorological organizations in the country. The study of the cosmic background radiation as a research project will provide data which ...

  4. Atlas transmission line/transition design and fabrication status

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Ricketts, R L; Valdez, G A

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. Design has been completed for this new generation pulsed-power machine consisting of an azimuthal array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission line consists of a cable header, load protection switch, and tri-plate assembly interfacing to the center transition section. The cable header interface to the Marx module provides a mechanism to remove the Marx module for maintenance without removing other components of the transmission line. The load protection switch provides a mechanism for protecting the load during charging of the Marx in the event of a pre-fire condition. The aluminum tri-plate is a low-inductance transmission line that carries radial current flow from the Marx energy storage system at the machine periphery toward the load. All transmission line components are oil insulated except the...

  5. Contextual Atlas Regression Forests: Multiple-Atlas-Based Automated Dose Prediction in Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Purdie, Thomas G

    2016-04-01

    Radiation therapy is an integral part of cancer treatment, but to date it remains highly manual. Plans are created through optimization of dose volume objectives that specify intent to minimize, maximize, or achieve a prescribed dose level to clinical targets and organs. Optimization is NP-hard, requiring highly iterative and manual initialization procedures. We present a proof-of-concept for a method to automatically infer the radiation dose directly from the patient's treatment planning image based on a database of previous patients with corresponding clinical treatment plans. Our method uses regression forests augmented with density estimation over the most informative features to learn an automatic atlas-selection metric that is tailored to dose prediction. We validate our approach on 276 patients from 3 clinical treatment plan sites (whole breast, breast cavity, and prostate), with an overall dose prediction accuracies of 78.68%, 64.76%, 86.83% under the Gamma metric. PMID:26660888

  6. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/γ, where γ is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron's longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristics of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets

  7. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  8. Pion and Sigma Polarizabilities and Radiative Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Moinester, Murray A.

    1994-01-01

    Fermilab E781 plans measurements of gamma-Sigma and $\\gamma$-pion interactions using a 600 GeV beam of Sigmas and pions, and a virtual photon target. Pion polarizabilities and radiative transitions will be measured in this experiment. The former can test a precise prediction of chiral symmetry; the latter for a_1(1260) ----> pi + gamma is important for understanding the polarizability. The experiment also measures polarizabilities and radiative transitions for Sigma hyperons. The polarizabili...

  9. Calculation of radiative transition probabilities and lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, W. T.; Verma, K. K.; Stwalley, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for calculating bound-bound and bound-continuum (free) radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes are summarized. Calculations include rotational dependence and R-dependent electronic transition moments (no Franck-Condon or R-centroid approximation). Detailed comparisons of theoretical results with experimental measurements are made for bound-bound transitions in the A-X systems of LiH and Na2. New bound-free results are presented for LiH. New bound-free results and comparisons with very recent fluorescence experiments are presented for Na2.

  10. Radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities have been measured for over 35 neutral and singly ionized species in the Wisconsin Atomic Transition Probabilities (WATP) Program since it began in 1980. Radiative lifetimes are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence of a slow atomic/ionic beam. These lifetimes are combined with branching fractions to yield absolute atomic transition probabilities for neutral and singly ionized species. The branching fractions are determined from emission spectra recorded using the 1.0 m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory. The current focus of the WATP Program is on the rare-earth elements, in particular Tm, Dy, and Ho

  11. Recent measurements of coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extended series of experiments has been used to investigate transition radiation in the x-ray spectral region. The x-rays were generated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron-positron linear accelerator by 54 MeV electrons traversing multiple thin-foil targets. The measured angular and spectral distributions have shown excellent agreement with calculated predictions based on a simplified theoretical description of transition radiation. Recently, energy-resolved measurements of x-ray generation by targets consisting of multiple closely-spaced foils has clearly demonstrated the longitudinal coherence of transition radiation. This behavior might lead to a variety of applications such as tuneable narrow-band x-ray sources, measurement of x-ray dielectric constants, or particle beam diagnostics. These issues will be discussed, and recent results will be presented

  12. Pion and Kaon Polarizabilities and Radiative Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Moinester, Murray A.; Steiner, Victor

    1998-01-01

    CERN COMPASS plans measurements of gamma-pi and gamma-K interactions using 50-280 GeV pion (kaon) beams and a virtual photon target. Pion (kaon) polarizabilities and radiative transitions will be measured via Primakoff effect reactions such as pi+gamma->pi'+gamma and pi+gamma->meson. The former can test a precise prediction of chiral symmetry; the latter for pi+gamma->a1(1260) is important for understanding the polarizability. The radiative transition of a pion to a low mass two-pion system, ...

  13. A model of interband radiative transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittrich, Jaroslav; Exner, Pavel; Hirokawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2004), s. 753-786. ISSN 0025-5645 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 482 Keywords : radiative transition * crystal spectral band * decay law Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2004

  14. Transition radiation of ultrarelativistic neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a quantum theoretical calculation of transition radiation by neutral particles with spin 1/2 equipped with magnetic moments and/or electric dipole moments. The limit of vanishing masses is treated exactly for arbitrary refraction index. Finally we apply our result to the solar neutrino flux. (author)

  15. A model of interband radiative transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittrich, Jaroslav; Exner, Pavel; Hirokawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2004), s. 753-786. ISSN 0025-5645 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048101; GA MŠk ME 482 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : radiative transition * two-band model Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2004

  16. ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from Brookhaven have played...

  17. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in ATLAS with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakubek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Prospísil, S.; Suk, M; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-01-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  18. First Results from the Online Radiation Dose Monitoring System in ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration; Deliyergiyev, M; Gorišek, A; Kramberger, G; Mikuž, M; Franz, S; Hartert, J; Dawson, I; Miyagawa, P; Nicolas, L

    2011-01-01

    High radiation doses which will accumulate in components of ATLAS experiment during data taking will causes damage to detectors and readout electronics. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the doses to estimate the level of degradation caused by radiation. Online radiation monitoring system measures ionizing dose in SiO2 , displacement damage in silicon in terms of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence and fluence of thermal neutrons at several locations in ATLAS detector. In this paper design of the system, results of measurements and comparison of measured integrated doses and fluences with predictions from FLUKA simulation will be shown.

  19. Atlas-guided prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atlas-based IMRT planning technique for prostate cancer was developed and evaluated. A multi-dose atlas was built based on the anatomy patterns of the patients, more specifically, the percent distance to the prostate and the concaveness angle formed by the seminal vesicles relative to the anterior-posterior axis. A 70-case dataset was classified using a k-medoids clustering analysis to recognize anatomy pattern variations in the dataset. The best classification, defined by the number of classes or medoids, was determined by the largest value of the average silhouette width. Reference plans from each class formed a multi-dose atlas. The atlas-guided planning (AGP) technique started with matching the new case anatomy pattern to one of the reference cases in the atlas; then a deformable registration between the atlas and new case anatomies transferred the dose from the atlas to the new case to guide inverse planning with full automation. 20 additional clinical cases were re-planned to evaluate the AGP technique. Dosimetric properties between AGP and clinical plans were evaluated. The classification analysis determined that the 5-case atlas would best represent anatomy patterns for the patient cohort. AGP took approximately 1 min on average (corresponding to 70 iterations of optimization) for all cases. When dosimetric parameters were compared, the differences between AGP and clinical plans were less than 3.5%, albeit some statistical significances observed: homogeneity index (p  >  0.05), conformity index (p  <  0.01), bladder gEUD (p  <  0.01), and rectum gEUD (p  =  0.02). Atlas-guided treatment planning is feasible and efficient. Atlas predicted dose can effectively guide the optimizer to achieve plan quality comparable to that of clinical plans. (paper)

  20. Performance And Radiation Hardness Of The Atlas/sct Detector Module

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a general purpose experiment being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at FERN, Geneva. ATLAS is designed to exploit the full physics potential of LHC, in particular to study topics concerning the Higgs mechanism, Super-symmetry and CP violation. The cross sections for the processes under study are extremely small, requiring very high luminosity colliding beams. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is an essential part of the Inner Detector tracking system of ATLAS. The active elements of the SCT is 4088 detector modules, tiled on four barrel cylinders and eighteen endcap disks. As a consequence of the high luminosity, the detector modules will operate in a harsh radiation environment. This thesis describes work concerning radiation hardness, beam test performance and methods for production testing of detector modules. The radiation hardness studies have been focused on the electrical performance of the front-end ASIC and the detector module. The results have identified features ...

  1. Glance traceability - Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Évora, L. H. R. A.; Molina-Pérez, J.; Pommès, K.; Galvão, K. K.; Maidantchik, C.

    2010-04-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceability and radiation measurements is ensured, as well as simultaneous management of multiples equipment. The software is fully operational, being used by the Radiation Protection Experts of ATLAS and trained users since the first beam of the LHC. Initially developed for the ATLAS detector, the flexibility of the system has allowed its adaptation for the LHCb detector.

  2. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O' Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  3. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, AdnexaR, AdnexaL, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, FemurR, and FemurL. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  4. ATLAS Fact Sheet : To raise awareness of the ATLAS detector and collaboration on the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2010-01-01

    Facts on the Detector, Calorimeters, Muon System, Inner Detector, Pixel Detector, Semiconductor Tracker, Transition Radiation Tracker,, Surface hall, Cavern, Detector, Magnet system, Solenoid, Toroid, Event rates, Physics processes, Supersymmetric particles, Comparing LHC with Cosmic rays, Heavy ion collisions, Trigger and Data Acquisition TDAQ, Computing, the LHC and the ATLAS collaboration. This fact sheet also contains images of ATLAS and the collaboration as well as a short list of videos on ATLAS available for viewing.

  5. Radiation-induced phase transition of paraffins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When irradiated by the 500 kV electron at a dose of about 1.5 x 10-3 C/cm2, normal paraffins exhibit a solid-solid phase transition; a transition from a triclinic form to an orthorhombic one in n-C22H46 and n-C24H50 and from a monoclinic form to an orthorhombic one in n-C28H58, n-C36H74 and n-C44H90. The transition to a phase with high energy (orthorhombic phase) accommodates the radiation-induced stresses. The excess strain energy produced by cross-links in crystals is assumed to be equal to the enthalpy change of the phase transition, and the number of cross-links required to induce the phase transition is estimated at one per volume of about ten molecular chains. To compare with irradiated crystals, mixed crystals are prepared from solutions of binary mixtures of n-C23H48 and n-C24H50 and of n-C24H50 and n-C25H52. When the content of impurities (n-C23H48 or n-C25H52) reaches 10% in molar fraction, the crystal form of mixed crystals changes from the stable triclinic one to the unstable orthorhombic one. Thus, the number of lattice imperfections of mixed lattice is also estimated at one per volume of ten molecules. It is concluded from the above two estimations that the phase transition occurs when the content of lattice imperfections reaches the value of one per ten molecular chains and the value does not depend on the type of imperfections in these paraffins. (author)

  6. Radiation damage of transition metal carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this grant period we have investigated electrical properties of transition metal carbides and radiation-induced defects produced by low-temperature electron irradiation in them. Special attention has been given to the composition VC[sub 0.88] in which the vacancies on the carbon sublattice of this fcc crystal order to produce a V[sub 8]C[sub 7] superlattice. The existence of this superlattice structure was found to make the crystal somewhat resistant to radiation damage at low doses and/or at ambient temperature. At larger doses significant changes in the resistivity are produced. Annealing effects were observed which we believe to be connected with the reconstitution of the superlattice structure.

  7. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  8. Two ATLAS trackers become one

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector barrel comes one step closer to completion as the semiconductor tracker is merged with the transition radiation tracker. ATLAS collaborators prepare for the insertion of the semiconductor tracker (SCT, behind) into the transition radiation tracker (TRT, in front). Some had hoped it would fall on Valentine's Day. But despite the slight delay, Friday 17 February was lovingly embraced as 'Conception Day,' when dozens of physicists and engineers from the international collaboration gathered to witness the insertion of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker into the transition radiation tracker, a major milestone in the assembly of the experiment's inner detector. With just millimeters of room for error, the cylindrical trackers were slid into each other as inner detector integration coordinator Heinz Pernegger issued commands and scientists held out flashlights, lay on their backs and stood on ladders to take careful measurements. Each tracker is the result of about 10 years of international ...

  9. Pion and Kaon Polarizabilities and Radiative Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Moinester, M A; Moinester, Murray A.; Steiner, Victor

    1998-01-01

    CERN COMPASS plans measurements of gamma-pi and gamma-K interactions using 50-280 GeV pion (kaon) beams and a virtual photon target. Pion (kaon) polarizabilities and radiative transitions will be measured via Primakoff effect reactions such as pi+gamma->pi'+gamma and pi+gamma->meson. The former can test a precise prediction of chiral symmetry; the latter for pi+gamma->a1(1260) is important for understanding the polarizability. The radiative transition of a pion to a low mass two-pion system, pi+gamma->pi+pi0, can also be studied to measure the chiral anomaly amplitude F(3pi) (characterizing gamma->3pi), arising from the effective Chiral Lagrangian. We review here the motivation for the above physics program. We describe the beam, target, detector, and trigger requirements for these experiments. We also describe FNAL SELEX attempts to study related physics via the interaction of 600 GeV pions with target electrons. Data analysis in progress aims to identify the reactions pi+e->pi'+e'+pi0 related to the chiral ...

  10. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  11. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Akhnazarov, V; Canepa, A; Bremer, J; Burckhart, H; Cattai, A; Voss, R; Hervas, L; Kaplon, J; Nessi, M; Werner, P; Ten kate, H; Tyrvainen, H; Vandelli, W; Krasznahorkay, A; Gray, H; Alvarez gonzalez, B; Eifert, T F; Rolando, G; Oide, H; Barak, L; Glatzer, J; Backhaus, M; Schaefer, D M; Maciejewski, J P; Milic, A; Jin, S; Von torne, E; Limbach, C; Medinnis, M J; Gregor, I; Levonian, S; Schmitt, S; Waananen, A; Monnier, E; Muanza, S G; Pralavorio, P; Talby, M; Tiouchichine, E; Tocut, V M; Rybkin, G; Wang, S; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Ocariz, J H; Bertoli, W; Malaescu, B; Sbarra, C; Yamamoto, A; Sasaki, O; Koriki, T; Hara, K; Da silva gomes, A; Carvalho maneira, J; Marcalo da palma, A; Chekulaev, S; Tikhomirov, V; Snesarev, A; Buzykaev, A; Maslennikov, A; Peleganchuk, S; Sukharev, A; Kaplan, B E; Swiatlowski, M J; Nef, P D; Schnoor, U; Oakham, G F; Ueno, R; Orr, R S; Abouzeid, O; Haug, S; Peng, H; Kus, V; Vitek, M; Temming, K K; Dang, N P; Meier, K; Schultz-coulon, H; Geisler, M P; Sander, H; Schaefer, U; Ellinghaus, F; Rieke, S; Nussbaumer, A; Liu, Y; Richter, R; Kortner, S; Fernandez-bosman, M; Ullan comes, M; Espinal curull, J; Chiriotti alvarez, S; Caubet serrabou, M; Valladolid gallego, E; Kaci, M; Carrasco vela, N; Lancon, E C; Besson, N E; Gautard, V; Bracinik, J; Bartsch, V C; Potter, C J; Lester, C G; Moeller, V A; Rosten, J; Crooks, D; Mathieson, K; Houston, S C; Wright, M; Jones, T W; Harris, O B; Byatt, T J; Dobson, E; Hodgson, P; Hodgkinson, M C; Dris, M; Karakostas, K; Ntekas, K; Oren, D; Duchovni, E; Etzion, E; Oren, Y; Ferrer, L M; Testa, M; Doria, A; Merola, L; Sekhniaidze, G; Giordano, R; Ricciardi, S; Milazzo, A; Falciano, S; De pedis, D; Dionisi, C; Veneziano, S; Cardarelli, R; Verzegnassi, C; Soualah, R; Ochi, A; Ohshima, T; Kishiki, S; Linde, F L; Vreeswijk, M; Werneke, P; Muijs, A; Vankov, P H; Jansweijer, P P M; Dale, O; Lund, E; Bruckman de renstrom, P; Dabrowski, W; Adamek, J D; Wolters, H; Micu, L; Pantea, D; Tudorache, V; Mjoernmark, J; Klimek, P J; Ferrari, A; Abdinov, O; Akhoundov, A; Hashimov, R; Shelkov, G; Khubua, J; Ladygin, E; Lazarev, A; Glagolev, V; Dedovich, D; Lykasov, G; Zhemchugov, A; Zolnikov, Y; Ryabenko, M; Sivoklokov, S; Vasilyev, I; Shalimov, A; Lobanov, M; Paramoshkina, E; Mosidze, M; Bingul, A; Nodulman, L J; Guarino, V J; Yoshida, R; Drake, G R; Calafiura, P; Haber, C; Quarrie, D R; Alonso, J R; Anderson, C; Evans, H; Lammers, S W; Baubock, M; Anderson, K; Petti, R; Suhr, C A; Linnemann, J T; Richards, R A; Tollefson, K A; Holzbauer, J L; Stoker, D P; Pier, S; Nelson, A J; Isakov, V; Martin, A J; Adelman, J A; Paganini, M; Gutierrez, P; Snow, J M; Pearson, B L; Cleland, W E; Savinov, V; Wong, W; Goodson, J J; Li, H; Lacey, R A; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H; Lanni, F; Nevski, P; Rescia, S; Kierstead, J A; Liu, Z; Yu, W W H; Bensinger, J; Hashemi, K S; Bogavac, D; Cindro, V; Hoeferkamp, M R; Coelli, S; Iodice, M; Piegaia, R N; Alonso, F; Wahlberg, H P; Barberio, E L; Limosani, A; Rodd, N L; Jennens, D T; Hill, E C; Pospisil, S; Smolek, K; Schaile, D A; Rauscher, F G; Adomeit, S; Mattig, P M; Wahlen, H; Volkmer, F; Calvente lopez, S; Sanchis peris, E J; Pallin, D; Podlyski, F; Says, L; Boumediene, D E; Scott, W; Phillips, P W; Greenall, A; Turner, P; Gwilliam, C B; Kluge, T; Wrona, B; Sellers, G J; Millward, G; Adragna, P; Hartin, A; Alpigiani, C; Piccaro, E; Bret cano, M; Hughes jones, R E; Mercer, D; Oh, A; Chavda, V S; Carminati, L; Cavasinni, V; Fedin, O; Patrichev, S; Ryabov, Y; Nesterov, S; Grebenyuk, O; Sasso, J; Mahmood, H; Polsdofer, E; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Liu, H; Hegazy, K H; Benjamin, D P; Zobernig, G; Ban, J; Brooijmans, G H; Keener, P; Williams, H H; Le geyt, B C; Hines, E J; Fadeyev, V; Schumm, B A; Law, A T; Kuhl, A D; Neubauer, M S; Shang, R; Gagliardi, G; Calabro, D; Conta, C; Zinna, M; Jones, G; Li, J; Stradling, A R; Hadavand, H K; Mcguigan, P; Chiu, P; Baldelomar, E; Stroynowski, R A; Kehoe, R L; De groot, N; Timmermans, C; Lach-heb, F; Addy, T N; Nakano, I; Moreno lopez, D; Grosse-knetter, J; Tyson, B; Rude, G D; Tafirout, R; Benoit, P; Danielsson, H O; Elsing, M; Fassnacht, P; Froidevaux, D; Ganis, G; Gorini, B; Lasseur, C; Lehmann miotto, G; Kollar, D; Aleksa, M; Sfyrla, A; Duehrssen-debling, K; Fressard-batraneanu, S; Van der ster, D C; Bortolin, C; Schumacher, J; Mentink, M; Geich-gimbel, C; Yau wong, K H; Lafaye, R; Crepe-renaudin, S; Albrand, S; Hoffmann, D; Pangaud, P; Meessen, C; Hrivnac, J; Vernay, E; Perus, A; Henrot versille, S L; Le dortz, O; Derue, F; Piccinini, M; Polini, A; Terada, S; Arai, Y; Ikeno, M; Fujii, H; Nagano, K; Ukegawa, F; Aguilar saavedra, J A; Conde muino, P; Castro, N F; Eremin, V; Kopytine, M; Sulin, V; Tsukerman, I; Korol, A; Nemethy, P; Bartoldus, R; Glatte, A; Chelsky, S; Van nieuwkoop, J; Bellerive, A; Sinervo, J K; Battaglia, A; Barbier, G J; Pohl, M; Rosselet, L; Alexandre, G B; Prokoshin, F; Pezoa rivera, R A; Batkova, L; Kladiva, E; Stastny, J; Kubes, T; Vidlakova, Z; Esch, H; Homann, M; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Pfeifer, B; Stenzel, H; Andrei, G V; Wessels, M; Buescher, V; Kleinknecht, K; Fiedler, F M; Schroeder, C D; Fernandez, E; Mir martinez, L; Vorwerk, V; Bernabeu verdu, J; Salt, J; Civera navarrete, J V; Bernard, R; Berriaud, C P; Chevalier, L P; Hubbard, R; Schune, P; Nikolopoulos, K; Batley, J R; Brochu, F M; Phillips, A W; Teixeira-dias, P J; Rose, M B D; Buttar, C; Buckley, A G; Nurse, E L; Larner, A B; Boddy, C; Henderson, J; Costanzo, D; Tarem, S; Maccarrone, G; Laurelli, P F; Alviggi, M; Chiaramonte, R; Izzo, V; Palumbo, V; Fraternali, M; Crosetti, G; Marchese, F; Yamaguchi, Y; Hessey, N P; Mechnich, J M; Liebig, W; Kastanas, K A; Sjursen, T B; Zalieckas, J; Cameron, D G; Banka, P; Kowalewska, A B; Dwuznik, M; Mindur, B; Boldea, V; Hedberg, V; Smirnova, O; Sellden, B; Allahverdiyev, T; Gornushkin, Y; Koultchitski, I; Tokmenin, V; Chizhov, M; Gongadze, A; Khramov, E; Sadykov, R; Krasnoslobodtsev, I; Smirnova, L; Kramarenko, V; Minaenko, A; Zenin, O; Beddall, A J; Ozcan, E V; Hou, S; Wang, S; Moyse, E; Willocq, S; Chekanov, S; Le compte, T J; Love, J R; Ciocio, A; Hinchliffe, I; Tsulaia, V; Gomez, A; Luehring, F; Zieminska, D; Huth, J E; Gonski, J L; Oreglia, M; Tang, F; Shochet, M J; Costin, T; Mcleod, A; Uzunyan, S; Martin, S P; Pope, B G; Schwienhorst, R H; Brau, J E; Ptacek, E S; Milburn, R H; Sabancilar, E; Lauer, R; Saleem, M; Mohamed meera lebbai, M R; Lou, X; Reeves, K B; Rijssenbeek, M; Novakova, P N; Rahm, D; Steinberg, P A; Wenaus, T J; Paige, F; Ye, S; Kotcher, J R; Assamagan, K A; Oliveira damazio, D; Maeno, T; Henry, A; Dushkin, A; Costa, G; Meroni, C; Resconi, S; Lari, T; Biglietti, M; Lohse, T; Gonzalez silva, M L; Monticelli, F G; Saavedra, A F; Patel, N D; Ciodaro xavier, T; Asevedo nepomuceno, A; Lefebvre, M; Albert, J E; Kubik, P; Faltova, J; Turecek, D; Solc, J; Schaile, O; Ebke, J; Losel, P J; Zeitnitz, C; Sturm, P D; Barreiro alonso, F; Modesto alapont, P; Soret medel, J; Garzon alama, E J; Gee, C N; Mccubbin, N A; Sankey, D; Emeliyanov, D; Dewhurst, A L; Houlden, M A; Klein, M; Burdin, S; Lehan, A K; Eisenhandler, E; Lloyd, S; Traynor, D P; Ibbotson, M; Marshall, R; Pater, J; Freestone, J; Masik, J; Haughton, I; Manousakis katsikakis, A; Sampsonidis, D; Krepouri, A; Roda, C; Sarri, F; Fukunaga, C; Nadtochiy, A; Kara, S O; Timm, S; Alam, S M; Rashid, T; Goldfarb, S; Espahbodi, S; Marley, D E; Rau, A W; Dos anjos, A R; Haque, S; Grau, N C; Havener, L B; Thomson, E J; Newcomer, F M; Hansl-kozanecki, G; Deberg, H A; Takeshita, T; Goggi, V; Ennis, J S; Olness, F I; Kama, S; Ordonez sanz, G; Koetsveld, F; Elamri, M; Mansoor-ul-islam, S; Lemmer, B; Kawamura, G; Bindi, M; Schulte, S; Kugel, A; Kretz, M P; Kurchaninov, L; Blanchot, G; Chromek-burckhart, D; Di girolamo, B; Francis, D; Gianotti, F; Nordberg, M Y; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Boyd, J; Wilkens, H G; Pauly, T; Fabre, C; Tricoli, A; Bertet, D; Ruiz martinez, M A; Arnaez, O L; Lenzi, B; Boveia, A J; Gillberg, D I; Davies, J M; Zimmermann, R; Uhlenbrock, M; Kraus, J K; Narayan, R T; John, A; Dam, M; Padilla aranda, C; 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Carlsen, A; Kanwal, B; Cochran jr, J H; Aronnax, M V; Lockner, M J; Zhou, B; Levin, D S; Weaverdyck, C J; Grom, G F; Rudge, A; Ebenstein, W L; Jia, B; Yamaoka, J; Jared, R C; Wu, S L; Banerjee, S; Lu, Q; Hughes, E W; Alkire, S P; Degenhardt, J D; Lipeles, E D; Spencer, E N; Savine, A; Cheu, E C; Lampl, W; Veatch, J R; Roberts, K; Atkinson, M J; Odino, G A; Polesello, G; Martin, T; White, A P; Stephens, R; Grinbaum sarkisyan, E; Vartapetian, A; Yu, J; Sosebee, M; Thilagar, P A; Spurlock, B; Bonde, R; Filthaut, F; Klok, P; Hoummada, A; Ouchrif, M; Pellegrini, G; Rafi tatjer, J M; Navarro, G A; Blumenschein, U; Weingarten, J C; Mueller, D; Graber, L; Gao, Y; Bode, A; Capeans garrido, M D M; Carli, T; Wells, P; Beltramello, O; Vuillermet, R; Dudarev, A; Salzburger, A; Torchiani, C I; Serfon, C L G; Sloper, J E; Duperrier, G; Lilova, P T; Knecht, M O; Lassnig, M; Anders, G; Deviveiros, P; Young, C; Sforza, F; Shaochen, C; Lu, F; Wermes, N; Wienemann, P; Schwindt, T; Hansen, P H; Hansen, J B; 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Murillo quijada, J A; Grout, Z J; Chapman, J D; Cowan, G D; George, S; Boisvert, V; Mcmahon, T R; Doyle, A T; Thompson, S A; Britton, D; Smizanska, M; Campanelli, M; Butterworth, J M; Loken, J; Renton, P; Barr, A J; Issever, C; Short, D; Crispin ortuzar, M; Tovey, D R; French, R; Rozen, Y; Alexander, G; Kreisel, A; Conventi, F; Raulo, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Giagu, S; Luci, C; Nisati, A; Cobal, M; Ishikawa, A; Jinnouchi, O; Bos, K; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J; Van vulpen, I B; Kieft, G; Mora, K D; Olsen, F; Rohne, O M; Pajchel, K; Nilsen, J K; Wosiek, B K; Wozniak, K W; Badescu, E; Jinaru, A; Bohm, C; Johansson, E K; Sjoelin, J B R; Clement, C; Buszello, C P; Huseynova, D; Boyko, I; Popov, B; Poukhov, O; Vinogradov, V; Tsiareshka, P; Skvorodnev, N; Soldatov, A; Chuguev, A; Gushchin, V; Yazici, E; Lutz, M S; Malon, D; Vanyashin, A; Lavrijsen, W; Spieler, H; Biesiada, J L; Bahr, M; Kong, J; Tatarkhanov, M; Ogren, H; Van kooten, R J; Cwetanski, P; Butler, J M; Shank, J T; Chakraborty, D; Ermoline, I; Sinev, N; Whiteson, D O; Corso radu, A; Huang, J; Werth, M P; Kastoryano, M; Meirose da silva costa, B; Namasivayam, H; Hobbs, J D; Schamberger jr, R D; Guo, F; Potekhin, M; Popovic, D; Gorisek, A; Sokhrannyi, G; Hofsajer, I W; Mandelli, L; Ceradini, F; Graziani, E; Giorgi, F; Zur nedden, M E G; Grancagnolo, S; Volpi, M; Nunes hanninger, G; Rados, P K; Milesi, M; Cuthbert, C J; Black, C W; Fink grael, F; Fincke-keeler, M; Keeler, R; Kowalewski, R V; Berghaus, F O; Qi, M; Davidek, T; Tas, P; Jakubek, J; Duckeck, G; Walker, R; Mitterer, C A; Harenberg, T; Sandvoss, S A; Del peso, J; Llorente merino, J; Gonzalez millan, V; Irles quiles, A; Crouau, M; Gris, P L Y; Liauzu, S; Romano saez, S M; Gallop, B J; Jones, T J; Austin, N C; Morris, J; Duerdoth, I; Thompson, R J; Kelly, M P; Leisos, A; Garas, A; Pizio, C; Venda pinto, B A; Kudin, L; Qian, J; Wilson, A W; Mietlicki, D; Long, J D; Sang, Z; Arms, K E; Rahimi, A M; Moss, J J; Oh, S H; Parker, S I; Parsons, J; Cunitz, H; Vanguri, R S; Sadrozinski, H; Lockman, W S; Martinez-mc kinney, G; Goussiou, A; Jones, A; Lie, K; Hasegawa, Y; Olcese, M; Gilewsky, V; Harrison, P F; Janus, M; Spangenberg, M; De, K; Ozturk, N; Pal, A K; Darmora, S; Bullock, D J; Oviawe, O; Derkaoui, J E; Rahal, G; Sircar, A; Frey, A S; Stolte, P; Rosien, N; Zoch, K; Li, L; Schouten, D W; Catinaccio, A; Ciapetti, M; Delruelle, N; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Hoecker, A; Klioutchnikova, T; Macina, D; Malyukov, S; Spiwoks, R D; Unal, G P; Vandoni, G; Petersen, B A; Pommes, K; Nairz, A M; Wengler, T; Mladenov, D; Solans sanchez, C A; Lantzsch, K; Schmieden, K; Jakobsen, S; Ritsch, E; Sciuccati, A; Alves dos santos, A M; Ouyang, Q; Zhou, M; Brock, I C; Janssen, J; Katzy, J; Anders, C F; Nilsson, B S; Bazan, A; Di ciaccio, L; Yildizkaya, T; Collot, J; Malek, F; Trocme, B S; Breugnon, P; Godiot, S; Adam bourdarios, C; Coulon, J; Duflot, L; Petroff, P G; Zerwas, D; Lieuvin, M; Calderini, G; Laporte, D; Ocariz, J; Gabrielli, A; Ohska, T K; Kurochkin, Y; Kantserov, V; Vasilyeva, L; Speransky, M; Smirnov, S; Antonov, A; Bulekov, O; Tikhonov, Y; Sargsyan, L; Vardanyan, G; Budick, B; Kocian, M L; Luitz, S; Young, C C; Grenier, P J; Kelsey, M; Black, J E; Kneringer, E; Jussel, P; Horton, A J; Beaudry, J; Chandra, A; Ereditato, A; Topfel, C M; Mathieu, R; Bucci, F; Muenstermann, D; White, R M; He, M; Urban, J; Straka, M; Vrba, V; Schumacher, M; Parzefall, U; Mahboubi, K; Sommer, P O; Koepke, L H; Bethke, S; Moser, H; Wiesmann, M; Walkowiak, W A; Fleck, I J; Martinez-perez, M; Sanchez sanchez, C A; Jorgensen roca, S; Accion garcia, E; Sainz ruiz, C A; Valls ferrer, J A; Amoros vicente, G; Vives torrescasana, R; Ouraou, A; Formica, A; Hassani, S; Watson, M F; Cottin buracchio, G F; Bussey, P J; Saxon, D; Ferrando, J E; Collins-tooth, C L; Hall, D C; Cuhadar donszelmann, T; Dawson, I; Duxfield, R; Argyropoulos, T; Brodet, E; Livneh, R; Shougaev, K; Reinherz, E I; Guttman, N; Beretta, M M; Vilucchi, E; Aloisio, A; Patricelli, S; Caprio, M; Cevenini, F; De vecchi, C; Livan, M; Rimoldi, A; Vercesi, V; Ayad, R; Mastroberardino, A; Ciapetti, G; Luminari, L; Rescigno, M; Santonico, R; Salamon, A; Del papa, C; Kurashige, H; Homma, Y; Tomoto, M; Horii, Y; Sugaya, Y; Hanagaki, K; Bobbink, G; Kluit, P M; Koffeman, E N; Van eijk, B; Lee, H; Eigen, G; Dorholt, O; Strandlie, A; Strzempek, P B; Dita, S; Stoicea, G; Chitan, A; Leven, S S; Moa, T; Brenner, R; Ekelof, T J C; Olshevskiy, A; Roumiantsev, V; Chlachidze, G; Zimine, N; Gusakov, Y; Grigalashvili, N; Mineev, M; Potrap, I; Barashkou, A; Shoukavy, D; Shaykhatdenov, B; Pikelner, A; Gladilin, L; Ammosov, V; Abramov, A; Arik, M; Sahinsoy, M; Uysal, Z; Azizi, K; Hotinli, S C; Zhou, S; Berger, E; Blair, R; Underwood, D G; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-sciveres, M A; Siegrist, J L; Kipnis, I; Dahl, O; Holland, S; Barbaro galtieri, A; Smith, P T; Parua, N; Franklin, M; Mercurio, K M; Tong, B; Pod, E; Cole, S G; Hopkins, W H; Guest, D H; Severini, H; Marsicano, J J; Abbott, B K; Wang, Q; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Takai, H; Rajagopalan, S; Protopopescu, S D; Snyder, S S; Undrus, A; Popescu, R N; Begel, M A; Blocker, C A; Amelung, C; Mandic, I; Macek, B; Tucker, B H; Citterio, M; Troncon, C; Orestano, D; Taccini, C; Romeo, G L; Dova, M T; Taylor, G N; Gesualdi manhaes, A; Mcpherson, R A; Sobie, R; Taylor, R P; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Slovak, R; Sopko, B; Vacek, V; Sanders, M P; Hertenberger, R; Meineck, C; Becks, K; Kind, P; Sandhoff, M; Cantero garcia, J; De la torre perez, H; Castillo gimenez, V; Ros, E; Hernandez jimenez, Y; Chadelas, R; Santoni, C; Washbrook, A J; O'brien, B J; Wynne, B M; Mehta, A; Vossebeld, J H; Landon, M; Teixeira dias castanheira, M; Cerrito, L; Keates, J R; Fassouliotis, D; Chardalas, M; Manousos, A; Grachev, V; Seliverstov, D; Sedykh, E; Cakir, O; Ciftci, R; Edson, W; Prell, S A; Rosati, M; Stroman, T; Jiang, H; Neal, H A; Li, X; Gan, K K; Smith, D S; Kruse, M C; Ko, B R; Leung fook cheong, A M; Cole, B; Angerami, A R; Greene, Z S; Kroll, J I; Van berg, R P; Forbush, D A; Lubatti, H; Raisher, J; Shupe, M A; Wolin, S; Oshita, H; Gaudio, G; Das, R; Konig, A C; Croft, V A; Harvey, A; Maaroufi, F; Melo, I; Greenwood jr, Z D; Shabalina, E; Mchedlidze, G; Drechsler, E; Rieger, J K; Blackston, M; Colombo, T

    2002-01-01

    % ATLAS \\\\ \\\\ ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for recording proton-proton collisions at LHC. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 144 participating institutions (June 1998) with more than 1750~physicists and engineers (700 from non-Member States). The detector design has been optimized to cover the largest possible range of LHC physics: searches for Higgs bosons and alternative schemes for the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism; searches for supersymmetric particles, new gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and quark and lepton compositeness indicating extensions to the Standard Model and new physics beyond it; studies of the origin of CP violation via high-precision measurements of CP-violating B-decays; high-precision measurements of the third quark family such as the top-quark mass and decay properties, rare decays of B-hadrons, spectroscopy of rare B-hadrons, and $ B ^0 _{s} $-mixing. \\\\ \\\\The ATLAS dectector, shown in the Figure includes an inner tracking detector inside a 2~T~solenoid providing an axial...

  12. Radiation Damage of the ATLAS Pixel Sensors Using Leakage Current Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The current measurement system measures directly the leakage current in pixel sensors. The system is integrated with the ATLAS Pixel high voltage delivery system. The system runs as a monitor of a radiation damage of the pixel sensors. The leakage current data collected for the completed data taking period are analyzed. The recent status of the sensor's radiation damage and a comparison with the theoretical predictions are presented.

  13. Radiation hard micro-coaxial cables for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Imbert, P; de La Taille, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has chosen for the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and for all the end-cap calorimeters a sampling technique, with liquid argon as the active medium. The read-out electronics and the calibration pulsers are located in boxes outside the cryostats housing the detectors. Signals are transmitted between the detectors and the electronic boxes through custom-designed micro- coaxial cables, which are the subject of this paper. These cables have to satisfy very stringent tolerances in terms of signal transmission, dimensions and radiation hardness. Following a successful pre-series production, these cables have been selected for equipping the ATLAS calorimeter. (16 refs).

  14. World nuclear atlas. A step toward energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illustrated by more than 120 maps and figures, this book proposes an overview of the world nuclear industry, of its development, and of the various strategies chosen within the perspective of energy transition. It proposes an overview of the status of nuclear energy in the world (presentation of the nuclear energy, development during the X X century, uranium production, fuel production and processing, the nuclear reactor industry), addresses the main controversies (health and environmental impact, waste management, opacity of the information, major accidents), the new challenges faced by the nuclear sector (a difficult assessment of huge costs, competition with renewable energies, a competitive environment, a technological uncertainty, transparency and democracy), the solutions chosen by big countries (USA, China, India, Japan, Europe, the German energy transition), and proposes a focus on France which is the only country which chose an all-nuclear strategy (history, nuclear installations, main actors, the myth of the French energy independence, the post-Fukushima French fleet, the case of the Fessenheim reactor, the EPR in question, the challenge of waste storage with the Cigeo project, the debate on the nuclear cost)

  15. Lymphatic atlas-based target volume definition for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the improvements in current imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, the detection of normal or malignant lymph nodes remains a challenge due to the large variability in lymph node characteristics and the variation in imaging quality and the limited imaging resolution. A computerized lymph node atlas could be the ideal tool for target volume definition based on the distribution of normal lymph nodes surrounding the verified malignant nodes to improve the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The standard lymph node topography in the newly constructed 3D lymph node atlas offers a detailed topographical distribution of discrete nodal locations in relation to surrounding organs at risk. In the present paper, the recently developed lymph node atlas is used for selection and delineation of target volumes in the head and neck, thorax and pelvic region. Image registration techniques were implemented to integrate the topography of the lymph node atlas into the patient's data set. By combining the knowledge-based lymph node distribution with the patient's data set, more detailed definitions of the target volumes were obtained to facilitate biologically based treatment plan optimization. The response values of the biologically optimized treatment plans were used to derive the probability of tumor control and the probability of complications in organs at risk. The treatment outcome of the lung reference plan showed a lower probability of recurrence in comparison to planning without the lymph node atlas. The lymph node atlas can improve and standardize the target volume definition by including more accurate anatomical knowledge for target volume definition and biologically optimized radiation therapy planning

  16. A new transition radiation detector for cosmic ray nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, J.; Meyer, P.; Muller, D.; Swordy, S.

    1981-01-01

    Test measurements on materials for transition radiation detectors at a low Lorentz factor are reported. The materials will be based on board Spacelab-2 for determining the composition and energy spectra of nuclear cosmic rays in the 1 TeV/nucleon range. The transition radiation detectors consist of a sandwich of radiator-photon detector combinations. The radiators emit X-rays and are composed of polyolefin fibers used with Xe filled multiwired proportional chamber (MWPC) detectors capable of detecting particle Lorentz factors of several hundred. The sizing of the detectors is outlined, noting the requirement of a thickness which provides a maximum ratio of transition radiation to total signal in the chambers. The fiber radiator-MWPC responses were tested at Fermilab and in an electron cyclotron. An increase in transition radiation detection was found as a square power law of Z, and the use of six radiator-MWPC on board the Spacelab-2 is outlined.

  17. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  18. Radiation-hard power electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade for the ATLAS detector to provide enhanced triggering and reconstruction of muons in the forward region. The large LV power demands of the NSW necessitate a point-of-load architecture with on-detector power conversion. The radiation load and magnetic field of this environment, while significant, are nevertheless still in the range where commercial-off-the-shelf power devices may suffice. We present studies on the radiation-hardness and magnetic-field tolerance of several candidate buck converters and linear regulators. Device survival and performance are characterized when exposed to gamma radiation, neutrons, protons and magnetic fields

  19. Radiation-hard power electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, J.; Amidei, D.; Baccaro, S.; Citterio, M.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Sekhon Edgar, K.; Edgar, R.; Fiore, S.; Lanza, A.; Latorre, S.; Lazzaroni, M.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade for the ATLAS detector to provide enhanced triggering and reconstruction of muons in the forward region. The large LV power demands of the NSW necessitate a point-of-load architecture with on-detector power conversion. The radiation load and magnetic field of this environment, while significant, are nevertheless still in the range where commercial-off-the-shelf power devices may suffice. We present studies on the radiation-hardness and magnetic-field tolerance of several candidate buck converters and linear regulators. Device survival and performance are characterized when exposed to gamma radiation, neutrons, protons and magnetic fields.

  20. RL10 Engine Ability to Transition from Atlas to Shuttle/Centaur Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    A key launch vehicle design feature is the ability to take advantage of new technologies while minimizing expensive and time consuming development and test programs. With successful space launch experiences and the unique features of both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) and Atlas/Centaur programs, it became attractive to leverage these capabilities. The Shuttle/Centaur Program was created to transition the existing Centaur vehicle to be launched from the Space Shuttle cargo bay. This provided the ability to launch heaver and larger payloads, and take advantage of new unique launch operational capabilities. A successful Shuttle/Centaur Program required the Centaur main propulsion system to quickly accommodate the new operating conditions for two new Shuttle/Centaur configurations and evolve to function in the human Space Shuttle environment. This paper describes the transition of the Atlas/Centaur RL10 engine to the Shuttle/Centaur configurations; shows the unique versatility and capability of the engine; and highlights the importance of ground testing. Propulsion testing outcomes emphasize the value added benefits of testing heritage hardware and the significant impact to existing and future programs.

  1. Radiation hardness of two CMOS prototypes for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, B. T.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; McMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-02-01

    The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will require the replacement of the existing silicon strip tracker and the transistion radiation tracker. Although a baseline design for this tracker exists the ATLAS collaboration and other non-ATLAS groups are exploring the feasibility of using CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) which would be arranged in a strip-like fashion and would take advantage of the service and support structure already being developed for the upgrade. Two test devices made with the AMS H35 process (a High voltage or HV CMOS process) have been subjected to various radiation environments and have performed well. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  2. Radiation-Hard Opto-Link for the Atlas Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the opto-boards and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 33 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2).

  3. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  4. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  5. The ATLAS FTK Auxiliary Card: A Highly Functional VME Rear Transition Module for a Hardware Track Finding Processing Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Alison, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdan, M; Bryant, P; Cheng, YY; Krizka, K; Shochet, M; Tompkins, L; Webster, J

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer is a hardware-based track finder for the ATLAS High Level Trigger. Pattern recognition and preliminary track fitting are performed by VME Processing Units consisting of an Associative Memory Board (AMB) containing custom associative memory chips for pattern recognition, and the Auxiliary Card (AUX), a powerful rear transition module which formats the data for the AMB and performs linearized fits on AMB track candidates. We report on the design and testing of the AUX, which utilizes six FPGAs to process up to 32 Gbps of hit data and fit one track candidate per nanosecond.

  6. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  7. A radiation tolerant Data link board for the ATLAS TileCal upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration; Muschter, Steffen Lothar; Silverstein, Samuel; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We describe the latest (last?) full functionality revision of the high-speed data link board for the ATLAS TileCal phase 2 upgrade. It is highly redundant, using two Kintex-7 FPGAs and two Molex QSFP+ electro-optic modules. The FPGAs are remotely configured through two radiation-hard CERN GBTx deserialisers (GBTx), which also provide the LHC-synchronous system clock. The four QSFP+ uplinks transmit data at 10 Gbps. Virtually all single-point error modes are removed, and a combination of triple-mode redundancy, internal and external scrubbing will adequately protect against radiation-induced errors.

  8. Gravitational Radiation from First-Order Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Child, Hillary L

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that first order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase that greatly enhances this radiation even in the absence of turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.

  9. Polarization of transition radiation on some sorts of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of transition radiation under impact of relativistic particles under small angle to the atomic string of a crystal is considered. The conditions under which the non-uniformity of the electron density along the string is not substantial are obtained. In this case the problem of transition radiation is reduced to the problem of the particle radiation on the thin fiber-like dielectric target. The formulae for the spectral-angular distribution of transition radiation under both regular and random collisions of a particle with the set of fiber-like targets are obtained. The radiation of the particle on a single atomic plane and on a set pf planes in crystal is also considered

  10. Integrated High-Rate Transition Radiation Detector and Tracking Chamber for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-6 \\\\ \\\\Over the past five years, RD-6 has developed a transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker for high rate operation at LHC. The detector elements are based on C-fibre reinforced kapton straw tubes of 4~mm diameter filled with a Xenon gas mixture. Detailed measurements with and without magnetic field have been performed in test beams, and in particular have demonstrated the possibility of operating straw tubes at very high rate (up to 20~MHz) with accurate drift-time measurement accuracy. A full-scale engineering prototype containing 10~000 straws is presently under assembly and will be accurately measured with a powerful X-ray tube. Integrated front-end electronics with fast readout have been designed and successfully operated in test beam. \\\\ \\\\Finally extensive simulations performed for ATLAS have shown that such a detector will provide powerful pattern recognition, accurate momentum measurements, efficient level-2 triggering and excellent electron identification, even at the highe...

  11. Recent progress in the development of transition radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M. L.; Hartmann, G.; Prince, T.; Mueller, D.

    1978-01-01

    Transition-radiation detectors have been used in several recent cosmic-ray experiments for particle identification at energies E/mc-squared of at least about 1000. In order to optimize the design of such detectors and to use them for energy measurements over a broad energy range, it is necessary to study the details of the transition-radiation process. Experimental results are presented which test the theoretical predictions more precisely and at higher energies than in previous experiments. The dependence of the interference pattern in the frequency spectrum on the radiator dimensions is studied, and the total transition-radiation yield generated by electrons in various radiators is measured over a very wide energy range, from 5 to 300 GeV. The significance of the individual experimental parameters in the design of transition radiation detectors is reviewed, and the characteristics of transition-radiation detectors capable of measuring particle energies over the range E/mc-squared from about 300 to 100,000 are discussed.

  12. Design of a transition radiation detector for cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Mueller, D.; Prince, T.

    1975-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors consisting of sandwiches of plastic foam radiators and multiwire proportional chambers can be used to identify cosmic ray particles with energies gamma ? E/mc-squared is greater than 10 to the 3rd and to measure their energy in the region gamma is roughly equal to 10 to the 3rd

  13. Measurement of radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since it began in 1980, the Wisconsin Atomic Transition Probabilities (WATP) Program had measured radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities for over 35 neutral and singly ionized species. Radiative lifetimes are measured using time- resolved laser-induced fluorescence of a slow atomic/ionic beam. These lifetimes are combined with branching fractions to yield absolute atomic transition probabilities for neutral and singly ionized species. The branching fractions are determined from emission spectra recorded using the 1.0 m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak, AZ. Currently the focus of the WATP Program is on the rare-earth elements, in particular Tm, Dy, and Ho.

  14. Optical transition radiation in presence of acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Saharian, A A

    2009-01-01

    Transition radiation from relativistic electrons is investigated in an ultrasonic superlattice excited in a finite thickness plate. In the quasi-classical approximation formulae are derived for the vector potential of the electromagnetic field and for the spectral-angular distribution of the radiation intensity. The acoustic waves generate new resonance peaks in the spectral and angular distribution of the radiation intensity. The heights of the peaks can be tuned by choosing the parameters of the acoustic wave.

  15. A radiation tolerant Data link board for the ATLAS Tile Cal upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Akerstedt, Henrik; The ATLAS collaboration; Muschter, Steffen Lothar; Silverstein, Samuel; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest, full-functionality revision of the high-speed data link board developed for the Phase-2 upgrade of ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter. The link board design is highly redundant, with digital functionality implemented in two Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGAs, and two Molex QSFP+ electro-optic modules with uplinks run at 10 Gbps. The FPGAs are remotely configured through two radiation-hard CERN GBTx deserialisers (GBTx), which also provide the LHC-synchronous system clock. The redundant design eliminates virtually all single-point error modes, and a combination of triple-mode redundancy (TMR), internal and external scrubbing will provide adequate protection against radiation-induced errors. The small portion of the FPGA design that cannot be protected by TMR will be the dominant source of radiation-induced errors, even if that area is small.

  16. Performance of radiation-hard HV/HR CMOS sensors for the ATLAS inner detector upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Barbero, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Breugnon, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2016-03-01

    A major upgrade (Phase II Upgrade) to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), scheduled for 2022, will be brought to the machine so as to extend its discovery potential. The upgraded LHC, called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will run with a nominal leveled instantaneous luminosity of 5×1034 cm-2s-1, more than twice the expected luminosity. This unprecedented luminosity will result in higher occupancy and background radiations, which will request the design of a new Inner Tracker (ITk) which should have higher granularity, reduced material budget and improved radiation tolerance. A new pixel sensor concept based on High Voltage and High Resistivity CMOS (HV/HR CMOS) technology targeting the ATLAS inner detector upgrade is under exploration. With respect to the traditional hybrid pixel detector, the HV/HR CMOS sensor can potentially offer lower material budget, reduced pixel pitch and lower cost. Several prototypes have been designed and characterized within the ATLAS upgrade R&D effort, to investigate the detection and radiation hardness performance of various commercial technologies. An overview of the HV/HR CMOS sensor operation principle is described in this paper. The characterizations of three prototypes with X-ray, proton and neutron irradiation are also given.

  17. Performance of radiation-hard HV/HR CMOS sensors for the ATLAS inner detector upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major upgrade (Phase II Upgrade) to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), scheduled for 2022, will be brought to the machine so as to extend its discovery potential. The upgraded LHC, called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will run with a nominal leveled instantaneous luminosity of 5×1034 cm−2s−1, more than twice the expected luminosity. This unprecedented luminosity will result in higher occupancy and background radiations, which will request the design of a new Inner Tracker (ITk) which should have higher granularity, reduced material budget and improved radiation tolerance. A new pixel sensor concept based on High Voltage and High Resistivity CMOS (HV/HR CMOS) technology targeting the ATLAS inner detector upgrade is under exploration. With respect to the traditional hybrid pixel detector, the HV/HR CMOS sensor can potentially offer lower material budget, reduced pixel pitch and lower cost. Several prototypes have been designed and characterized within the ATLAS upgrade R and D effort, to investigate the detection and radiation hardness performance of various commercial technologies. An overview of the HV/HR CMOS sensor operation principle is described in this paper. The characterizations of three prototypes with X-ray, proton and neutron irradiation are also given

  18. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  19. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget data set, November 1985 to October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Rutan, David; Bess, T. Dale

    1992-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented for 21 months from Nov. 1985 to Oct. 1987. These data were retrieved from measurements made by the shortwave wide-field-of-view radiometer of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 spacecraft. Profiles of zonal mean albedos and absorbed solar radiation were tabulated. These geographical distributions are provided as a resource for researchers studying the radiation budget of the Earth. The El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1986-1987 is included in this data set. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation extends to 12 years the period covered by two similar atlases: NASA RP-1230 (Jul. 1975 - Oct. 1978) and NASA RP-1231 (Nov. 1978 - Oct. 1985). These three compilations complement the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith in NASA RP-1185, RP-1186, and RP-1261, which were also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  20. Transition radiation as an x-ray source for lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors demonstrate that high-intensity soft x-rays from transition radiation can be generated by passing moderate-energy electron beams through targets consisting of multiple foils of beryllium and aluminum. The authors measured the absolute photon flux from five foil targets using a 44-μA, 109-MeV-electron beam, and estimated the photon flux by exposing 4'' silicon wafers coated with PGMA photoresist. All previous measurements of photon production used photon-counting methods. They destructively tested foils at high-average currents for the first time. They exposed photoresist using a mask to produce a soft-x-ray lithograph. This research constitutes the first use of transition radiation as a source of soft x rays for lithography. The results are discussed in this paper. They indicate that moderate-energy linacs with transition radiators offer an alternative method of high power production of soft x rays for lithography

  1. Radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jivan, Harshna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is a hadronic calorimeter responsible for detecting hadrons as well as accommodating for the missing transverse energy that result from the p-p collisions within the LHC. Plastic scintillators form an integral component of this calorimeter due to their ability to undergo prompt fluorescence when exposed to ionising particles. The scintillators employed are specifically chosen for their properties of high optical transmission and fast rise and decay time which enables efficient data capture since fast signal pulses can be generated. The main draw-back of plastic scintillators however is their susceptibility to radiation damage. The damage caused by radiation exposure reduces the scintillation light yield and introduces an error into the time-of flight data acquired. During Run 1 of the LHC data taking period, plastic scintillators employed within the GAP region between the Tile Calorimeter’s central and extended barrels sustained a significant amount of damage. Wit...

  2. Acceleration radiation, transition probabilities, and trans-Planckian physics

    OpenAIRE

    Agulló, Iván; Navarro-Salas, José; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Parker, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    An important question in the derivation of the acceleration radiation, which also arises in Hawking's derivation of black hole radiance, is the need to invoke trans-Planckian physics for the quantum field that originates the created quanta. We point out that this issue can be further clarified by reconsidering the analysis in terms of particle detectors, transition probabilities, and local two-point functions. By writing down separate expressions for the spontaneous- and induced-transition pr...

  3. Radiative transitions in mesons in a non relativistic quark model

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnaz, R.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gignoux, C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the non relativistic quark model, an exhaustive study of radiative transitions in mesons is performed. The emphasis is put on several points. Some traditional approximations (long wave length limit, non relativistic phase space, dipole approximation for E1 transitions, gaussian wave functions) are analyzed in detail and their effects commented. A complete treatment using three different types of realistic quark-antiquark potential is made. The overall agreement with experi...

  4. Transition-radiation-Compton-scattering detector for very relativistic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, W. Z.; Mack, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents the design and predicted performance of a large acceptance (2 sq m sr) transition-radiation-Compton-scattering detector system which can be used to measure energy spectra up to several thousand Gev/nucleon for nuclei with Z between 6 and 28, as well as up to 40,000 GeV/nucleon for He. The following circumstances made such a detector system practicable: (1) transition radiation output is proportional to the square of particle charge; (2) output varies at least as rapidly as the square of Lorentz factor over the range from several hundred to several thousand.

  5. Blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition is computed to be −0.0140 ± 0.0062 Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody radiation shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga+ states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. Quadrupole and non-adiabatic dipole polarizabilities were also computed. A byproduct of the analysis involved calculations of the low-lying spectrum and oscillator strengths, including polarizabilities, of the Ga2+ ion. (paper)

  6. Transition radiation from electrons with orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Konkov, Anatoly S; Polonskaya, Marina S

    2013-01-01

    Several experimental groups have recently obtained the so called vortex electrons (electrons with orbital angular momentum (OAM) of l = 100h) with energies of 300 keV. The gyromagnetic ratio of such electrons becomes proportional to the OAM value, which leads to the corresponding increase of the electron magnetic moment. In this paper we investigate the transition radiation from the "charge + magnetic moment" system using the theory of classical electrodynamics. The circular polarization of optical transition radiation amounts up to 70%, which allows to use this effect for the independent measurement of the electron orbital momentum value.

  7. Recent progress in the transition radiation detector techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L. C. L.

    1973-01-01

    A list of some of the major experimental achievements involving charged particles in the relativistic region are presented. With the emphasis mainly directed to the X-ray region, certain modes of application of the transition radiation for the identification and separation of relativistic charged particles are discussed. Some recent developments in detection techniques and improvements in detector performances are presented. Experiments were also carried out to detect the dynamic radiation, but no evidence of such an effect was observed.

  8. Radiation preheating can trigger transition from deflagration to detonation

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In this article effect of radiation preheating of unburnt mixture by propagating deflagration front is studied from the viewpoint of its ability to form a promoting temperature gradient and trigger transition to detonation. First, we investigate the effect of radiation preheating of the unburnt mixtures, when they are traveling through the wrinkles on the flame surface, in order to estimate a possibility of significant temperature rise. Subsequently, numerical simulations of a simplified math...

  9. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  10. Free-free radiative transitions of electron-atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports experimental investigations of Free-Free (FF) transitions, which are observable in electron-atom interaction in intense radiation fields of lasers. The theory of induced FF transitions is described for moderate and intense laser power densities. Experiments are discussed that show it is possible to do spectroscopy on resonances with the FF adsorption method. Resonant FF absorption processes are discussed between the (Ne+)3s2(1S) resonances and the resonances around 18.6 eV. The high energy resolution enabled the fine-structure of the upper resonances to be resolved. An electron backscattering spectrometer for multiphoton FF transitions is described. (Auth.)

  11. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  12. Recent progress with the Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Froidevaux, D

    Start-up of end-cap assembly in Russia On July 2nd at PNPI (first photo) and on August 1st at JINR Dubna (second photo), the first straws were inserted into the first 4-plane end-cap wheels, each containing 3072 straws. The straws were glued, the radiator stacks were installed and the PNPI wheel was tested for gas leaks. An initial large leak rate was observed and fixed by increasing somewhat the amount of glue around each straw end-piece and improving the leak-tightness of the testing equipment itself. PNPI will assemble a total of 48 4-plane wheels of type A using two assembly lines. JINR Dubna will assemble a total of 32 4-plane wheels of type B using a single assembly line. The next steps are the gluing of the so-called active webs (printed circuit boards connecting high voltage and signal lines from straw/wire to HV supply and front-end boards), followed by wiring, and will take place in November. PNPI and JINR Dubna should start mass production in February-March next year. Barrel module produc...

  13. Measurements of Compton Scattered Transition Radiation at High Lorentz Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Case, G L; Cherry, M L; Isbert, J; Mitchell, J W; Patterson, D; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Isbert, Joachim; Mitchell, John W.; Patterson, Donald

    2004-01-01

    X-ray transition radiation can be used to measure the Lorentz factor of relativistic particles. Standard transition radiation detectors (TRDs) typically incorporate thin plastic foil radiators and gas-filled x-ray detectors, and are sensitive up to \\gamma ~ 10^4. To reach higher Lorentz factors (up to \\gamma ~ 10^5), thicker, denser radiators can be used, which consequently produce x-rays of harder energies (>100 keV). At these energies, scintillator detectors are more efficient in detecting the hard x-rays, and Compton scattering of the x-rays out of the path of the particle becomes an important effect. The Compton scattering can be utilized to separate the transition radiation from the ionization background spatially. The use of conducting metal foils is predicted to yield enhanced signals compared to standard nonconducting plastic foils of the same dimensions. We have designed and built a Compton Scatter TRD optimized for high Lorentz factors and exposed it to high energy electrons at the CERN SPS. We pres...

  14. Comparison of Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation and Coherent Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Khodnevych, Vitalii; Bezshyyko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Smith-Purcell radiation and Transition Radiation are two radiative phenomenon that occur in charged particles accelerators. For both the emission can be significantly enhanced with sufficiently short pulses and both can be used to measure the form factor of the pulse. We compare the yield of these phenomenon in different configurations and look at their application as bunch length monitors, including background filtering and rejection. We apply these calculations to the specific case of the CLIO Free Electron laser.

  15. The ATLAS FTK Auxiliary Card: A Highly Functional VME Rear Transition Module for a Hardware Track Finding Processing Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Alison, John; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdan, Mircea; Bryant, Patrick; Cheng, Yangyang; Krizka, Karol; Shochet, Mel; Tompkins, Lauren; Webster, Jordan S

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer is a hardware-based charged particle track finder for the High Level Trigger system of the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC. Using a multi-component system, it finds charged particle trajectories of 1 GeV/c and greater using data from the full ATLAS silicon tracking detectors at a rate of 100 kHz. Pattern recognition and preliminary track fitting are performed by VME Processing Units consisting of an Associative Memory Board containing custom associative memory chips for pattern recognition, and the Auxiliary Card (AUX), a powerful rear transition module which formats the data for pattern recognition and performs linearized fits on track candidates. We report on the design and testing of the AUX, which utilizes six FPGAs to process up to 32 Gbps of hit data, as well as fit the helical trajectory of one track candidate per nanosecond through a highly parallel track fitting architecture. Both the board and firmware design will be discussed, as well as the performance observed in tests at CERN ...

  16. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation; Le rayonnement de transition: 2. etude experimentale du rayonnement de transition optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S

    1999-07-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  17. Development of an ADC Radiation Tolerance Characterization System for the Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hongbin; Chen, Kai; Kierstead, James; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS LAr calorimeter will perform its Phase-I upgrade during the long shut down (LS2) in 2018, a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) will be designed and installed. Several commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) multichannel high-speed ADCs have been selected as possible backups of the radiation tolerant ADC ASICs for LTDB. In order to evaluate the radiation tolerance of these back up commercial ADCs, we developed an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system, which includes the ADC boards, data acquisition (DAQ) board, signal generator, external power supplies and a host computer. The ADC board is custom designed for different ADCs, which has ADC driver and clock distribution circuits integrated on board. The Xilinx ZC706 FPGA development board is used as DAQ board. The data from ADC are routed to the FPGA through the FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) connector, de-serialized and monitored by the FPGA, and then transmitted to the host computer through the Gigabit Ethernet. A software program has been developed wit...

  18. Last ATLAS TRT module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT) consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. Images with the team responsible for assembly : Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  19. Can transition radiation explain the ANITA event 3985267?

    CERN Document Server

    Motloch, Pavel; Privitera, Paolo; Zas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether transition radiation from a particle shower crossing the interface between Earth and air and induced by an Earth-skimming neutrino can explain the upward event announced recently by the ANITA Collaboration. While the properties of the observed signal can in principle be explained with transition radiation, the flux necessary for a successful explanation is in tension with the current best limits from the Pierre Auger Observatory, the IceCube neutrino detector and the ANITA balloon. We also show that in this scenario, the direction of the incoming neutrino is determined precisely to within a few degrees, from the polarization properties of the observed events and thanks to the Earth opacity to ultra high energy neutrinos.

  20. Development of n{sup +}-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, Y., E-mail: yoshinobu.unno@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Carter, J.R.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Robinson, D. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K. [Josef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitt Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Clark, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genve 4 (Switzerland); and others

    2014-11-21

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n{sup +}-in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers.

  1. Development of n+-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n+-in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers

  2. Cristallisation fractionnée et contamination crustale dans la série magmatique jurassique transitionnelle du Haut Atlas central (Maroc)Fractional crystallisation and crustal contamination in the transitional Jurassic magmatic series of Central High Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayane, Rachid; Essaifi, Abderrahim; Maury, René C.; Piqué, Alain; Laville, Edgard; Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    The Middle Jurassic plutonism of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) was emplaced in N45° trending anticlinal ridges. It is characterised by various petrographic facies including mafic rocks (troctolites), intermediate rocks (diorites, monzodiorites), and evolved rocks (syenites), together with heterogeneous facies resulting from mixing between acidic and the intermediate magmas. Mineralogical and chemical data show ( i) the transitional character of the Jurassic magmatic series of the Central High Atlas and ( ii) the implication of continental crust as a contaminant during fractional crystallization. To cite this article: R. Zayane et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 97-104.

  3. Transition radiation from electrons with orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Konkov, Anatoly S.; Potylitsyn, Alexander P.; Polonskaya, Marina S.

    2013-01-01

    Several experimental groups have recently obtained the so called vortex electrons (electrons with orbital angular momentum (OAM) of l = 100h) with energies of 300 keV. The gyromagnetic ratio of such electrons becomes proportional to the OAM value, which leads to the corresponding increase of the electron magnetic moment. In this paper we investigate the transition radiation from the "charge + magnetic moment" system using the theory of classical electrodynamics. The circular polarization of o...

  4. Diffraction effects in the coherent transition radiation bunch length diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    Diffraction effects in the Coherent Transition Radiation (CTR) bunch length diagnostics are considered for the A0 Photoinjector and the New Muon Laboratory (NML) injection module. The effects can cause a noticeable distortion of the measured CTR spectra depending on the experimental setup and the bunch parameters and resulting in errors of the bunch length measurements. Presented calculations show possible systematic errors in the bunch length in measurements based on the CTR spectra at A0 Photo injector and the NML injection module.

  5. Successful beam tests for ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Another round of beam tests of prototypes for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for ALICE has been completed and there are already some good results. Mass production of the components of the detector will start early next year.   Top view of the setup for the Transition Radiation Detector prototype tests at CERN.On the left, can be seen the full-scale TRD prototype together with four smaller versions. These are busy days for the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector) team of ALICE. Twenty people - mainly from Germany, but also from Russia and Japan - were working hard during the beam tests this autumn at CERN to assess the performance of their detector prototypes. Analysis of the data shows that the TRD can achieve the desired physics goal even for the highest conceivable multiplicities in lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In its final configuration in the ALICE experiment, the TRD will greatly help in identifying high-momentum electrons, which are 'needles in a haystack' that consists mostly of...

  6. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VII

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, KM

    2013-01-01

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 231 levels of Ti VII. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}) and flexible atomic code ({\\sc fac}) are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are provided for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 231 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels (159,162). In addition, lifetimes for all 231 levels are listed. Comparisons are made with existing results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. In particular, the most recent calculations reported by Singh {\\em et al} [Can J. Phys. {\\bf 90} (2012) 833] are found to be unreliable, with discrepancies for energy levels of up to 1 Ryd and for radiative rates of up to five orders of magnitude for several transitions, particularly the we...

  7. Automatic atlas based electron density and structure contouring for MRI-based prostate radiation therapy on the cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group have been developing methods for MRI-alone prostate cancer radiation therapy treatment planning. To assist with clinical validation of the workflow we are investigating a cloud platform solution for research purposes. Benefits of cloud computing can include increased scalability, performance and extensibility while reducing total cost of ownership. In this paper we demonstrate the generation of DICOM-RT directories containing an automatic average atlas based electron density image and fast pelvic organ contouring from whole pelvis MR scans.

  8. Automatic Atlas Based Electron Density and Structure Contouring for MRI-based Prostate Radiation Therapy on the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, J. A.; Burdett, N.; Greer, P. B.; Sun, J.; Parker, J.; Pichler, P.; Stanwell, P.; Chandra, S.; Rivest-Hénault, D.; Ghose, S.; Salvado, O.; Fripp, J.

    2014-03-01

    Our group have been developing methods for MRI-alone prostate cancer radiation therapy treatment planning. To assist with clinical validation of the workflow we are investigating a cloud platform solution for research purposes. Benefits of cloud computing can include increased scalability, performance and extensibility while reducing total cost of ownership. In this paper we demonstrate the generation of DICOM-RT directories containing an automatic average atlas based electron density image and fast pelvic organ contouring from whole pelvis MR scans.

  9. Sub GV/cm terahertz radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions via coherent transition radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W. J.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2016-06-01

    Broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with extremely high peak power, generated by the interaction of a femtosecond laser with a thin solid target, has been investigated via particle-in-cell simulations. The spatial (angular) and temporal profiles of the THz radiation reveal that it is caused by the coherent transition radiation emitted when laser-produced hot electrons pass through the front or rear surface of the target. Dependence of the THz radiation on laser and target parameters is studied; it is shown to have a strong correlation with hot electron production. The THz radiation conversion efficiency can be as high as a few times 10-3. This radiation is not only a potentially high power THz source, but may also be used as a unique diagnostic of hot electron generation and transport in relativistic laser-solid interactions.

  10. Radiative lifetimes and transition probabilities of neutral lanthanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Palmer, A. J.; Lawler, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    The radiative lifetimes of 72 odd-parity levels of neutral lanthanum are measured to ±5% accuracy using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam. The levels range in energy from 15031 to 32140 cm-1. Branching fraction measurements using Fourier-transform spectroscopy are attempted and completed for all of the 72 levels. The branching fractions, when combined with the radiative lifetimes, yield new transition probabilities for 315 lines of the first spectrum of lanthanum (La i ). This study is part of a larger body of work on the radiative properties of rare earth neutral atoms, and is motivated by research needs in lighting science and astrophysics.

  11. Radiation hardness and lifetime studies of LEDs and VCSELs for the optical readout of the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J; Mommsen, R K; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A R; Monnier, E; Hou, H Q; Lear, K L

    1999-01-01

    We study the radiation hardness and the lifetime of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser diodes (VCSELs) in the context of the development of the optical readout for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) at LHC. About 170 LEDs from two different manufacturers and about 130 VCSELs were irradiated with neutron and proton fluences equivalent to (and in some cases more than twice as high as) the combined neutral and charged particle fluence of about 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 n (1 MeV eq. in GaAs)/cm sup 2 expected in the ATLAS inner detector. We report on the radiation damage and the conditions required for its partial annealing under forward bias, we calculate radiation damage constants, and we present post-irradiation failure rates for LEDs and VCSELs. The lifetime after irradiation was investigated by operating the diodes at an elevated temperature of 50 degree sign C for several months, resulting in operating times corresponding to up to 70 years of operation in the ATLAS SCT. From o...

  12. Transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of Mg III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.

    2015-03-01

    There have been calculated transition probabilities for 365 lines arising from 2p5 n s(n = 3 , 4 , 5) , 2p5 n p(n = 3 , 4) , 2p5 n d(n = 3 , 4) , 2p5 n f(n = 4 , 5) and 2p5 5g configurations of Mg III and radiative lifetimes corresponding to 89 levels. These values were obtained in intermediate coupling (IC) by using ab initio relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) calculations. Later, we use the standard method of least square fitting of experimental energy levels for the IC calculations by means of Cowan's computer codes. The vast majority of the calculated transition probabilities correspond to lines lying in the ultraviolet range (UV) which are of high interest in astrophysics. Our results are compared to those previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, the values of transition probabilities of configuration levels 2p5 4d, 2p5 n f(n = 4 , 5) and 2p5 5g are presented for the first time. In light of these findings, it is possible to extend the range of wavelengths which allows us to estimate the temperature in plasma diagnostic. In addition, our results for radiative lifetimes have been compared to the available experimental values.

  13. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-I Trigger Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosities of $\\mathcal{L} > 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The Front End (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. The FE electronics were qualified for radiation levels corresponding to 10 years of LHC operations. The high luminosity running of the LHC (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of $5 \\times 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^ {-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and an integrated luminosity of $3000 \\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ will exceed these d...

  14. Radiative lifetimes and transition probabilities for electric-dipole delta n equals zero transitions in highly stripped sulfur ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, D. J.; Elston, S. B.; Griffin, P. M.; Forester, J. P.; Thoe, R. S.; Peterson, R. S.; Sellin, I. A.; Hayden, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The beam-foil time-of-flight method has been used to investigate radiative lifetimes and transition rates involving allowed intrashell transitions within the L shell of highly ionized sulfur. The results for these transitions, which can be particularly correlation-sensitive, are compared with current calculations based upon multiconfigurational models.

  15. New developments on transition radiation detectors using superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By raising slightly either the temperature or the magnetic field to above that of the critical temperature or the critical magnetic field, the type I superconducting granules would still remain in the superconducting state which becomes a metastable state and is called the superheated superconducting state. If a relativistic charged particle incident on such a granule which is located in a colloidal suspension has imported to it an energy that is above the threshold energy (for state flipping) of the granule then it would flip to the normal state. The threshold energy of a granule is a function of the square of its radius, whereas the energy loss of a charged particle due to ionization is linearly proportional to the radius. The size of the granule can be pre-determined to be such that its threshold energy is slightly above the ionization loss of a relativistic charged particle. Then the traversal of the charged particle through such a granule would not affect the superconducting state of the granule unless a transition x-ray radiation is emitted at the surface of the granule by the traversing particle and the x-ray transition radiation is immediately absorbed either in total or partially by the metallic granule causing it to flip to the normal state. The total intensity of the x-ray transition radiation is linearly proportional to the Lorentz factor γ of the traversing particle, and the number of granules flipped would also be a measure of γ. Three methods for detecting the flipping of granules from the superconducting state to the normal state are described. They include the frequency measuring method, the SQUID method, and the pulse method with low noise amplifier system

  16. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-μm length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  17. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  18. Radiation damage of transition metal carbides. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, G.

    1991-12-31

    In this grant period we have investigated electrical properties of transition metal carbides and radiation-induced defects produced by low-temperature electron irradiation in them. Special attention has been given to the composition VC{sub 0.88} in which the vacancies on the carbon sublattice of this fcc crystal order to produce a V{sub 8}C{sub 7} superlattice. The existence of this superlattice structure was found to make the crystal somewhat resistant to radiation damage at low doses and/or at ambient temperature. At larger doses significant changes in the resistivity are produced. Annealing effects were observed which we believe to be connected with the reconstitution of the superlattice structure.

  19. Advanced Simulations of Optical Transition and Diffraction Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078350; Bobb, Lorraine Marie; Bolzon, B; Bravin, Enrico; Karataev, Pavel; Kruchinin, Konstantin; Lefevre, Thibaut; Mazzoni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Charged particle beam diagnostics is a key task in modern and future accelerator installations. The diagnostic tools are practically the “eyes” of the operators. The precision and resolution of the diagnostic equipment are crucial to define the performance of the accelerator. Transition and diffraction radiation (TR and DR) are widely used for electron beam parameter monitoring. However, the precision and resolution of those devices are determined by how well the production, transport and detection of these radiation types are understood. This paper reports on simulations of TR and DR spatial-spectral characteristics using the physical optics propagation (POP) mode of the Zemax advanced optics simulation software. A good consistency with theory is demonstrated. Also, realistic optical system alignment issues are discussed.

  20. A Study of Radiative Bottomonium Transitions using Converted Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-15

    The authors use (111 {+-} 1) million {Upsilon}(3S) and (89 {+-} 1) million {Upsilon}(2S) events recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions betwen bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs by the detector material. They observe {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}{chi}{sub b0,2}(1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for {chi}{sub b1,2}(1P, 2P) {yields} {gamma}{Upsilon}(1S) and {chi}{sub b1,2}(2P) {yields} {gamma}{Upsilon}(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the {eta}{sub b}(1S) and {eta}{sub b}(2S) states.

  1. Radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivan, H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Erasmus, R.; Liao, S.; Madhuku, M.; Peters, G.; Sekonya, K.; Solvyanov, O.

    2015-10-01

    The radiation damage in polyvinyl toluene based plastic scintillator EJ200 obtained from ELJEN technology was investigated. This forms part of a comparative study conducted to aid in the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector during which the Gap scintillators will be replaced. Samples subjected to 6 MeV proton irradiation using the tandem accelerator of iThemba LABS, were irradiated with doses of approximately 0.8 MGy, 8 MGy, 25 MGy and 80 MGy. The optical properties were investigated using transmission spectroscopy and light yield analysis whilst structural damage was assessed using Raman spectroscopy. Findings indicate that for the dose of 0.8 MGy, no structural damage occurs and light loss can be attributed to a breakdown in the light transfer between base and fluor dopants. For doses of 8 MGy to 80 MGy, structural damage leads to possible hydrogen loss in the benzene ring of the PVT base which forms free radicals. This results in an additional absorptive component causing increased transmission loss and light yield loss with increasing dose.

  2. Transitioning from 2-D Radiation Therapy to 3-D Conformal Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Training Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of radiation oncology has advanced very rapidly in recent years. However, the sophistication of technology available in individual radiation therapy centres varies dramatically throughout the world. Treatment capabilities with planar imaging and limited cross-sectional imaging support have been labelled as two dimensional radiation therapy (2-D RT). With increased use of more advanced cross-sectional imaging, the introduction of more complex dose calculation capabilities for treatment planning and more sophisticated treatment delivery procedures, three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) can be provided. Further sophistication in treatment planning and treatment delivery capabilities enables intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Recognizing that huge disparities exist across the world, and in an attempt to aid in advancing institutional capabilities, the IAEA published ‘Transition from 2-D Radiotherapy to 3-D Conformal and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy’ (IAEA-TECDOC-1588) in May 2008. Divided into two parts — on CRT and on IMRT — the publication provides guidelines on the transition from 2-D RT through 3-D CRT to IMRT. It is recognized that 3-D CRT is the standard of care in most radiation treatment processes and that IMRT technologies are still evolving. The publication provides clear guidelines and highlights the milestones to be achieved when transitioning from 2-D RT to 3-D CRT and IMRT. While IAEA-TECDOC-1588 provides comprehensive guidelines and milestones, the present publication provides training materials to aid professionals in the continuing education required for the implementation of more advanced treatment capabilities, especially 3-D CRT. These materials are based on the results of two consultants meetings organized by the IAEA in 2009 and 2010, primarily focused on providing guidance on what training materials were available or needed to be developed, with a special emphasis on transitioning from 2-D

  3. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, KM; Msezane, AZ

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s$^2$2s$^2$2p$^6$) 3s$^2$3p$^5$, 3s3p$^6$, 3s$^2$3p$^4$3d, 3s3p$^5$3d, 3s$^2$3p$^33d^2$, 3s$^2$3p$^4$4s, 3s$^2$3p$^4$4p and 3s$^2$3p$^4$4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}) and flexible atomic code ({\\sc fac}) are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be acc...

  4. Phase transitions of materials studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation is an excellent tool for studies of structural phase transitions. Among others it enables to follow the transition as a function of the parameter inducing the transition (e.g. pressure, temperature) and time. The latter possibility is due to the short recording times resulting from the high intensity of S.R. For these studies simultaneous recording of the whole diffraction pattern is of great importance. This is achieved either by using a monochromatic beam and a position sensitive detector (PSD) or by using X-ray energy dispersive diffraction (XED). The first method is described only briefly because of its analogy to the conventional method. In the XED method one uses a polychromatic 'white' incident beam, a fixed scattering angle and an energy dispersive detector. The main characteristics of the method is the simultaneous recording of the whole diffraction pattern and the fixed scattering angle. The XED method is discussed in some detail. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 15 figs., 23 refs

  5. Polarized angular distributions of parametric x radiation and vacuum-ultraviolet transition radiation from relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present quantifiable images of the angular distributions (AD's) of parametric x radiation (PXR), and vacuum-ultraviolet transition radiation (vuv TR) from 230 MeV electrons interacting with a silicon crystal. Both AD's are highly polarized. The vuv TR and optical TR data provide measurements of the beam energy and effective divergence angle. Using these quantities and separately known values of the electronic susceptibility |χ0|, we show that the measured PXR AD is in good agreement with the predictions of single crystal theory. Our analysis suggests a method to measure |χ0| using PXR AD's

  6. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  7. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-1 Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosities of $L > 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The front end (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. In order to exploit the higher luminosity while keeping the same trigger bandwidth of 100 kHz, higher transverse granularity, higher resolution and longitudinal shower shape information will be provided from the LAr calorimeter to the Level-1 trigger processors. New trigger readout electronics have been designed for this purpose, which wil...

  8. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  9. Process guiding for the ZEUS transition-radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transition-Radiation-Detector (TRD) has been built to separate electrons from pions. It needs a complex gassystem which has to be controlled and monitored by a computer. To enable a test of the gassystem and the TRD's highvoltagesystem a stand-alone-version of the HWC/HWM (hardware-control and hardware-monitoring) had been developed. This stand-alone-version consists of an elementary computer- and software-system. VIP and MVME-147 computers have been selected for the computer-hardware. The computers for realtimeprocessing base on this processors, the VMEbus and digital to analog converters and analog to digital converters. The software-system based on OS/9 device-drivers. With this components monitoring and controlling software has been written. (orig.)

  10. On radiofrequency component of transition radiation of extensive air shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of radio emission caused by the transition radiation of the contrarily charged particles of the expensive air shower in the magnetic field of the Earth is studied for the first time. It is established that for the showers with the energy about 1022 eV the maximum stage whereof is reached at the sea level the electrical field voltage constitutes 60 μV/m MHz at the distance of 500 km from the shower axis. The spectrum intensity maximum is in the area corresponding to the atmospheric disturbances minimum (∼ 1 μHz). These conditions stimulate the formulation of the experiment on the high-energy cosmic ray radio detection, the scheme whereof is proposed in this work

  11. Cherenkov-transition radiation in gamma frequency region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral and angular distributions as well as the total number of photons of gamma-ray Cherenkov-transition radiation (GCTR) produced by charged particles in the photon energy region (0.8-2) MeV are calculated using the results of the recent discovery that in the above mentioned region the refraction index of some materials is greater than 1, n(ω) > 1, due to Delbruck scattering on Coulomb field of nuclei. Using the results of the carried out numerical calculations, it is proposed an experimental arrangement for observation and experimental study of GCTR produced by electrons with energy slightly higher than the threshold energy of GCTR. Some applications of GCTR, in particular, the search of new materials with n(ω) > 1 in gamma region with the help of this method are discussed

  12. Progress in the development of a tracking transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the TRD/Tracker is to provide charged particle tracking in the r-z plane and to provide particle identification capabilities that are independent of and complementary to calorimetric methods. The tracking goals include observation of the charged particle multiplicity and topology, reconstruction of the primary vertex or vertices, and assignment of charged particles to the correct vertex. Particle identification goals include the independent validation of electron candidates selected by calorimetric signatures, the rejection of false electron candidates that rise from accidental overlaps of low momentum charged particles with photon-induced electromagnetic showers in the calorimeter, and the identification of electrons arising from Dalitz decays or from photon conversions. The authors report on progress towards the development of an integrated transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker. Mechanical design and simulation of a detector has been pursued; a prototype device with 240 channels has been constructed and tested. Innovative construction techniques have been developed

  13. Model electron density approximations for electron radiative transitions in the field of complex ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron radiative transitions in the fields of complex ions with heavy cores are under consideration. Theoretical models based on model electron density approximations make it possible to express all types of radiative frequency in terms of atomic electron density distribution with a close connection between a radiated frequency and effective radius of radiation. (author)

  14. Investigation concerning the radiation behaviour of an elementary dipole transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berloffa, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    The irradiance of an atomic dipole transition -screened at microscopic distances from its origin- reveals interesting details not always evident when dealing with light phenomena. The basis of this investigations are pure classical. The HERTZ vector- formalism was used (BORN & WOLF). The special features of the electrodynamics radiation behaviour of such an atomic transition solely became evident when generally made disregards were suspended. However, the complexity of the originating equations forced one to treat the problem numerically. All computations were done due to a dipole elongation of 0,1Å with an oscillation frequency corresponding to the YAG-laser wavelength, λY = 1,064 μm. Strikingly a Fourier analysis of the irradiance (Poynting vector) doesn't replicate this frequency, moreover, it reveals harmonics. Up to ~ 0,1 μm the fourth harmonic dominates, second harmonic is also appearing albeit at a minor amount. Beyond 0,1 μm fourth and second harmonic exchange their appearance. Up to 100nm from the dipole centre sixth and eighth harmonics are also present but at minor strengths. Outside the source centre the optical field is perceived as light wave and practically, instead of the presumed YAG wavelength, we measure double this frequency, namely green light. At distances below 0,1 μm the fourth harmonic prevails being capable of performing a two photon absorption.

  15. The spin-orbit term in radiative transitions of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out that one finds in the literature two different results for the spin-orbit term in radiative transitions of hadrons. We analyze the problem and find that, besides the term usually quoted -ieω(σ x p).εγ/4 m2 ≅ e[∇(VV+VS) x σ].εγ/4 m2 (VV, VS are the Lorentz vector and scalar pieces of the binding potential and ω the photon energy), there is another term that gives a final result e(∇ VV x σ).εγ/2 m2. We use for our proof two different approaches: The Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, and the method of Brodsky and Primack based on a dipole formula. In hadrons, the electric field has two pieces, the photon radiation field, and a strong interaction piece, of order 1/e relative to the former. These two pieces are at the origin of the two spin-orbit terms at the order (v/c)3. (orig.)

  16. Search for invisible axion, radiated in M1 transition of 125m Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper suggests a technique to search invisible axion radiated at M-transitions of isomeric nuclei. It is determined experimentally that at M1-transition of 125m Te nucleus the probability of axion radiation is ≤ 1.3 x 10-5 (90% reliability level)

  17. Radiative lifetimes, branching rations, and absolute transition probabilities in Cr II and Zn II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    New absolute atomic transition probability measurements are reported for 12 transitions in Cr II and two transitions in Zn II. These transition probabilities are determined by combining branching ratios measured by classical techniques and radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared with branching fractions, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities in the literature. The 206 nm resonance multiplets in Cr II and Zn II are included in this work. These multiplets are very useful in determining the distribution of the elements in the gas versus grain phases in the interstellar medium.

  18. Properties of transition radiation emitted from multiple thin-foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition Radiation(TR) is expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because TR X-rays can be produced by low energy electrons compared to synchrotron radiation(SR) in the X-ray region. We measured energy spectra of resonance transition radiation emitted from thin-foil stacks passed by a 130MeV dc electron beam. The results discriminate between intra-foil and inter-foil resonances. (author)

  19. Experimental diagnostics using optical transition radiation at CEBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denard, J.-C.; Rule, D.; Fiorito, R.; Adderley, P.; Jordan, K.; Capek, K.

    1995-05-01

    Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) devices have unique properties that allow them to complement the diagnostic tools more commonly used in particle accelerators. CEBAF is designed to produce a continuous electron beam accelerated up to 4 GeV by recirculating it five times through two 400 MeV superconducting linacs. We present two OTR applications that cannot be performed with standard fluorescent screens. The goal of the first one is to provide a multiturn ``viewer'' using the backward OTR emitted from a 0.8 μm thick aluminum foil. The foil must be thin enough to keep most of the beam in the machine after each passage. Looking at the successive turns in the linacs on the same screen will provide a new diagnostic device to help tune the machine. Replacing the ceramic of the present viewers with an Al foil is relatively simple and inexpensive. The preliminary results in single pass are encouraging. The goal of the second OTR application is to measure the emittance of high current continuous beams (≊200 μA) of low emittance (5 10-9 mrad) and size (≤50 μm rms). Standard fluorescent screens or wire scanners cannot withstand such an intense beam.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation and δ electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of a transition radiation detector (TRD). The program has been written for the TRD in the ZEUS spectrometer, which separates electrons from hadrons in the momentum range between 1 GeV/c and 30 GeV/c. Both, total charge method and cluster counting method were simulated taking into account various experimental parameters. In particular, it was found that the cluster counting method relies on a quantitative understanding of the background originating from the production of δ-electrons by charged particles. The results of the Monte Carlo calculations are in agreement with experimental data obtained with prototypes within a systematic uncertainty of 20%. We applied our Monte Carlo program to studies in order to find an optimum layout for the TRD within available space in the ZEUS spectrometer. In this context, the performance of TRD layouts with different geometries and materials has been evaluated comprehensively. The geometry found by optimization promises an improvement on hadron suppression by a factor of about two for both methods compared with present results from test measurements. Applying algorithms for a detailed analysis of the energy and space distributions of the clusters in the TRD, hadrons in the momentum range from 1 to 30 GeV/c can be suppressed to a level of less than 2%. This method of cluster analysing improves the suppression of hadrons by a factor of about two compared to the total charge method. (orig.)

  1. Electronic transitions in surface and near-surface radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of surface effects arising from electron, heavy particle or photon irradiation of dielectric surfaces are increasingly focusing on the electronic interactions by which energy is absorbed, localized, and transformed or transferred prior to the ultimate dissipation of the incident energy - through, for example, ejection of atoms or molecules from the dielectric. Recent experiments in our laboratories illustrate the varied roles played by electronic transitions in determining the flow of electronic energy during the bombardment of dielectric surfaces by photons, electrons and heavy particles. Specific examples include: the effects of surface overlayers and adsorbed hydrogen in retarding substrate desorption; substrate-temperature- and energy-resolved studies of photon-stimulated desorption from alkali halides; and electronic level-hybridization effects in the sputtering of metal oxides by argon ions. These simple model systems are a critical testing ground for studying the mechanisms of surface radiation damage in more complex materials because of the wealth of information available about their electronic and geometric structure, and because the character and modes of formation of their permanent electronic defects are well understood. (orig.)

  2. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  3. Transition radiation at radio frequencies from ultrahigh-energy neutrino-induced showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloch, Pavel; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Privitera, Paolo; Zas, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Coherent radiation at radio frequencies from high-energy showers fully contained in a dense radio-transparent medium—like ice, salt, soil, or regolith—has been extensively investigated as a promising technique to search for ultrahigh-energy neutrinos. Additional emission in the form of transition radiation may occur when a neutrino-induced shower produced close to the Earth's surface emerges from the ground into atmospheric air. We present the first detailed evaluation of transition radiation from high-energy showers crossing the boundary between two different media. We found that transition radiation is sizable over a wide solid angle and coherent up to ˜1 GHz . These properties encourage further work to evaluate the potential of a large-aperture ultrahigh-energy neutrino experiment based on the detection of transition radiation.

  4. Transition radiation at radio frequencies from ultra-high energy neutrino-induced showers

    CERN Document Server

    Motloch, Pavel; Privitera, Paolo; Zas, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Coherent radiation at radio frequencies from high-energy showers fully contained in a dense radio-transparent medium - like ice, salt or regolith - has been extensively investigated as a promising technique to search for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos. Additional emission in the form of transition radiation may occur when a neutrino-induced shower produced close to the Earth surface emerges from the ground into atmospheric air. We present the first detailed evaluation of transition radiation from high-energy showers crossing the boundary between two different media. We found that transition radiation is sizable over a wide solid angle and coherent up to $\\sim$ 1 GHz. These properties encourage further work to evaluate the potential of a large-aperture UHE neutrino experiment based on detection of transition radiation.

  5. Vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability and radiation in a medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recast the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability for the description of radiation in an isotropic medium of permeability μ, and permittivity ε, in a form which brings us in contact with radiation theory in vacuum. Using the inherited property of such a system, with arbitrary current distributions, of emitting photons via the Poisson distribution, the average number of photons emitted in such a medium is directly obtained from which the power of radiation is readily extracted. As an application, the power of radiation, emitted by a charged particle, in a medium trapped between perfectly conducting neutral parallel plates for arbitrary finite separations is explicitly obtained. - Highlights: • Quantum viewpoint of radiation in a medium based on the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probabilities. • Mathematical method in handling radiation in a medium for arbitrary sources. • Radiated energy and power for arbitrary current distributions in a medium. • Explicit power of radiation in a medium in a bounded region

  6. Construction and performance of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) has been designed to identify electrons in the pion dominated background of heavy-ions collisions. As electrons do not interact strongly, they allow to probe the early phase of the interaction. As trigger on high-pt e+e- pairs within 6.5 μs after collision, the TRD can initiate the readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TRD is composed of 18 super modules arranged in a barrel geometry in the central part of the ALICE detector. It offers almost 1.2 million readout channels on a total area of close to 700 m2. The particle detection properties of the TRD depend crucially on details in the design of the cathode pad readout plane. The design parameters of the TRD readout pad plane are introduced and analysed regarding their physical properties. The noise patterns observed in the detector can be directly linked to the static pad capacitance distribution and corrected for it. A summary is then given of the TRD services infrastructure at CERN: a 70 kW low voltage system, a 1080 channel 2.5 kV high voltage setup and the Ethernet network serving more than 600 nodes. Two beam tests were conducted at the CERN PS accelerator in 2004 and 2007 using full sized TRD chambers from series production. Details on the setups are presented with particular emphasis on the custom tailored data acquisition systems. Finally the performance of the TRD is studied, focusing on the pion rejection capability and the excellent position resolution. (orig.)

  7. Construction and performance of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emschermann, David

    2010-01-20

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) has been designed to identify electrons in the pion dominated background of heavy-ions collisions. As electrons do not interact strongly, they allow to probe the early phase of the interaction. As trigger on high-p{sub t} e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs within 6.5 {mu}s after collision, the TRD can initiate the readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TRD is composed of 18 super modules arranged in a barrel geometry in the central part of the ALICE detector. It offers almost 1.2 million readout channels on a total area of close to 700 m{sup 2}. The particle detection properties of the TRD depend crucially on details in the design of the cathode pad readout plane. The design parameters of the TRD readout pad plane are introduced and analysed regarding their physical properties. The noise patterns observed in the detector can be directly linked to the static pad capacitance distribution and corrected for it. A summary is then given of the TRD services infrastructure at CERN: a 70 kW low voltage system, a 1080 channel 2.5 kV high voltage setup and the Ethernet network serving more than 600 nodes. Two beam tests were conducted at the CERN PS accelerator in 2004 and 2007 using full sized TRD chambers from series production. Details on the setups are presented with particular emphasis on the custom tailored data acquisition systems. Finally the performance of the TRD is studied, focusing on the pion rejection capability and the excellent position resolution. (orig.)

  8. Atlas of the thoracic lymph nodal delineation and recommendations for lymph nodal CTV of esophageal squamous cell cancer in radiation therapy from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To construct an anatomical atlas of thoracic lymph node regions of esophageal cancer (EC) based on definitions from The Japan Esophageal Society (JES) and generate a consensus to delineate the nodal clinical target volume (CTVn) for elective nodal radiation (ENI) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods and materials: An interdisciplinary group including two dedicated radiation oncologists, an experienced radiologist, a pathologist and two thoracic surgeons were gathered to generate a three-dimensional radiological description for the mediastinal lymph node regions of EC on axial CT scans. Then the radiological boundaries of lymph node regions were validated by a relatively large number of physicians in multiple institutions. Results: An atlas of detailed anatomic boundaries of lymph node station No. 105–114 was defined on axial CT, along with illustrations. From the previous work, the study provided a guide of CTVn contouring for ENI of thoracic ESCC from a single center. Conclusion: It is feasible to use such an atlas of thoracic lymph node stations for radiotherapy planning. A phase III study based on the atlas is ongoing in China to measure quantitatively the ENI received by patients with ESCC

  9. ATLAS Inner Detector developments

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three layers of silicon pixels, four double layers of silicon microstrips and a Transition Radiation Tracker (straw tubes). The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch ($50 \\times 300~\\mu$m) and low occupancy ($<3 \\times 10^{-4}$ at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors, and of the good tracking capabilities of the SCT and the TRT. The full detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between $b$-jets and jets produced by light quarks.

  10. Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model with the ATLAS detector and the development of radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, Yiftah

    We are investigating a radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology, the principal component of plasma television displays. This Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS) technology is a variant of micro-pattern gas radiation detectors. Based on the properties of existing plasma display panels, we expect eventually to be able to build a sealed array of plasma discharge gas cells to detect ionizing radiation with fast rise time of less than 10ns and high spatial resolution using a pixel pitch of less than 100 micrometer. In this thesis I shall describe our program of testing plasma display panels as detectors, including simulations, design and the first laboratory and beam studies that demonstrate the detection of cosmic ray muons, beta rays and medium energy protons. The ATLAS detector is used to search for high-mass resonances, in particular heavy neutral gauge bosons (Z') and excited states of Kaluza-Klein γ/Z bosons decaying to an electron-positron pair or a muon-antimuon pair. Results are presented based ...

  11. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim P.

    2003-06-26

    Transition radiation generated by an electron beam, produced by a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the self-modulated regime, crossing the plasma-vacuum boundary is considered. The angular distributions and spectra are calculated for both the incoherent and coherent radiation. The effects of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions on the differential energy spectra are examined. Diffraction radiation from the finite transverse extent of the plasma is considered and shown to strongly modify the spectra and energy radiated for long wavelength radiation. This method of transition radiation generation has the capability of producing high peak power THz radiation, of order 100 (mu)J/pulse at the plasma-vacuum interface, which is several orders of magnitude beyond current state-of-the-art THz sources.

  12. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition radiation generated by an electron beam, produced by a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the self-modulated regime, crossing the plasma-vacuum boundary is considered. The angular distributions and spectra are calculated for both the incoherent and coherent radiation. The effects of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions on the differential energy spectra are examined. Diffraction radiation from the finite transverse extent of the plasma is considered and shown to strongly modify the spectra and energy radiated for long wavelength radiation. This method of transition radiation generation has the capability of producing high peak power THz radiation, of order 100 (mu)J/pulse at the plasma-vacuum interface, which is several orders of magnitude beyond current state-of-the-art THz sources

  13. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  14. Transition radiation in the pre-wave zone. An approach to solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic approach to solution to the pre-wave zone problem is suggested for transition radiation produced by relativistic charged particles at the normal incidence on the infinite boundary between a metal and vacuum

  15. Transition radiation in the pre-wave zone. An approach to solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzilov, V.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    An analytic approach to solution to the pre-wave zone problem is suggested for transition radiation produced by relativistic charged particles at the normal incidence on the infinite boundary between a metal and vacuum.

  16. Optical Transition Radiation Measurement of Electron Beam for Beijing Free Electron Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiang; XIE Jia-Lin; LI Yong-Gui; ZHUANG Jie-Jia

    2001-01-01

    We used transition radiation techniques instead of the original phosphor targets to improve the electronic beam diagnostic system at Beijing Free Electron Laser. The beam profile, size (3.3 × 2.4 mm), position and divergence angle (σrms = 2.5 mrad) in transverse have been obtained from optical transition radiation. We also present the experimental set-up and some preliminary results.

  17. The structure and glass transition behavior of PLLA under the influence of gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Miličević Dejan S.; Trifunović Saša B.; Mudrinić Tihana M.; Leskovac Andreja R.; Ignjatović Nenad L.; Dojčilović Jablan R.; Suljovrujić Edin H.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the structure and glass transition behavior of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) has been studied. Since PLLA exposed to high-energy radiation in the presence of air is prone to chain scission reactions and large degradation, changes in molecular weight were obtained by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Alterations in the glass transition behaviour were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The apparent activation energy, ΔH*, for the glass tr...

  18. Demonstration of Coherent Terahertz Transition Radiation from Relativistic Laser-Solid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guo-Qian; Li, Yu-Tong; Zhang, Yi-Hang; Liu, Hao; Ge, Xu-Lei; Yang, Su; Wei, Wen-Qing; Yuan, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Yan-Qing; Zhu, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Wei-Min; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Chen, Li-Ming; Lu, Xin; Ma, Jing-Long; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Coherent transition radiation in the terahertz (THz) region with energies of sub-mJ/pulse has been demonstrated by relativistic laser-driven electron beams crossing the solid-vacuum boundary. Targets including mass-limited foils and layered metal-plastic targets are used to verify the radiation mechanism and characterize the radiation properties. Observations of THz emissions as a function of target parameters agree well with the formation-zone and diffraction model of transition radiation. Particle-in-cell simulations also well reproduce the observed characteristics of THz emissions. The present THz transition radiation enables not only a potential tabletop brilliant THz source, but also a novel noninvasive diagnostic for fast electron generation and transport in laser-plasma interactions.

  19. Transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of levels in F I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Gueltekin, E-mail: gultekin@selcuk.edu.tr; Dogan, Duygu; Ates, Sule; Taser, Mehmet

    2012-07-15

    The electric dipole transition probabilities and the lifetimes of excited levels have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT) and the quantum defect orbital theory (QDOT) in atomic fluorine. In the calculations, many of transition arrays included both multiplet and fine-structure transitions are considered. We employed Numerical Coulomb Approximation (NCA) wave functions and numerical non-relativistic Hartree-Fock (NRHF) wave functions for expectation values of radii in determination of parameters. The necessary energy values have been taken from experimental energy data in the literature. The calculated transition probabilities and lifetimes have been compared with available theoretical and experimental results. A good agreement with results in literature has been obtained. Moreover, some transition probability and the lifetime values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using these methods.

  20. Radiative transition probabilities and recombination coefficients of the ion C IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Bound-bound and bound-free radiative transition probabilities, as well as radiative recombination coefficients of the ion C IV, are computed with a semi-empirical polarization potential method. The nonhydrogenic probabilities and coefficients are given for all bound states of the ion up to the principal quantum number n = 7.

  1. Test beam performance of a tracking TRD [Transition Radiation Detector] prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Tracking Transition Radiation Detector prototype has been constructed and tested. It consists of 240 straw tubes, 4 mm in diameter, imbedded in a polyethylene block acting as the radiator. Its performance as an electron identifier as well as a tracking device for minimum ionizing particles has been determined. 2 refs., 6 figs

  2. An Atlas-Based Electron Density Mapping Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone Treatment Planning and Adaptive MRI-Based Prostate Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate radiation therapy dose planning directly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans would reduce costs and uncertainties due to multimodality image registration. Adaptive planning using a combined MRI-linear accelerator approach will also require dose calculations to be performed using MRI data. The aim of this work was to develop an atlas-based method to map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for dose calculations and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Methods and Materials: Whole-pelvis MRI and CT scan data were collected from 39 prostate patients. Scans from 2 patients showed significantly different anatomy from that of the remaining patient population, and these patients were excluded. A whole-pelvis MRI atlas was generated based on the manually delineated MRI scans. In addition, a conjugate electron-density atlas was generated from the coregistered computed tomography (CT)-MRI scans. Pseudo-CT scans for each patient were automatically generated by global and nonrigid registration of the MRI atlas to the patient MRI scan, followed by application of the same transformations to the electron-density atlas. Comparisons were made between organ segmentations by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and point dose calculations for 26 patients on planning CT and pseudo-CT scans. Results: The agreement between pseudo-CT and planning CT was quantified by differences in the point dose at isocenter and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi-squared values indicated that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions were equivalent. No significant differences (p > 0.9) were found between CT and pseudo-CT Hounsfield units for organs of interest. Mean ± standard deviation DSC scores for the atlas-based segmentation of the pelvic bones were 0.79 ± 0.12, 0.70 ± 0.14 for the prostate, 0.64 ± 0.16 for the bladder, and 0.63 ± 0.16 for the rectum. Conclusions: The

  3. An Atlas-Based Electron Density Mapping Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone Treatment Planning and Adaptive MRI-Based Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Jason A., E-mail: jason.dowling@csiro.au [Australian e-Health Research Center, CSIRO ICT Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Queensland (Australia); Lambert, Jonathan [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Parker, Joel [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Salvado, Olivier; Fripp, Jurgen [Australian e-Health Research Center, CSIRO ICT Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Queensland (Australia); Capp, Anne; Wratten, Chris; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate radiation therapy dose planning directly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans would reduce costs and uncertainties due to multimodality image registration. Adaptive planning using a combined MRI-linear accelerator approach will also require dose calculations to be performed using MRI data. The aim of this work was to develop an atlas-based method to map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for dose calculations and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Methods and Materials: Whole-pelvis MRI and CT scan data were collected from 39 prostate patients. Scans from 2 patients showed significantly different anatomy from that of the remaining patient population, and these patients were excluded. A whole-pelvis MRI atlas was generated based on the manually delineated MRI scans. In addition, a conjugate electron-density atlas was generated from the coregistered computed tomography (CT)-MRI scans. Pseudo-CT scans for each patient were automatically generated by global and nonrigid registration of the MRI atlas to the patient MRI scan, followed by application of the same transformations to the electron-density atlas. Comparisons were made between organ segmentations by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and point dose calculations for 26 patients on planning CT and pseudo-CT scans. Results: The agreement between pseudo-CT and planning CT was quantified by differences in the point dose at isocenter and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi-squared values indicated that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions were equivalent. No significant differences (p > 0.9) were found between CT and pseudo-CT Hounsfield units for organs of interest. Mean {+-} standard deviation DSC scores for the atlas-based segmentation of the pelvic bones were 0.79 {+-} 0.12, 0.70 {+-} 0.14 for the prostate, 0.64 {+-} 0.16 for the bladder, and 0.63 {+-} 0.16 for the rectum

  4. Gravitational radiation generated by cosmological phase transition magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study gravitational waves generated by the cosmological magnetic fields induced via bubble collisions during the electroweak (EW) and QCD phase transitions. The magnetic field generation mechanisms considered here are based on the use of the fundamental EW minimal supersymmetric and QCD Lagrangians. The gravitational waves spectrum is computed using a magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model. We find that the gravitational wave spectrum amplitude generated by the EW phase transition peaks at a frequency of approximately 1-2 mHz, and is of the order of 10-20-10-21; thus this signal is possibly detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The gravitational waves generated during the QCD phase transition, however, are outside the LISA sensitivity bands.

  5. Radiative transitions in highly-stripped carbon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition energies and weighted absorption oscillator strength (gf) values are evaluated for a number of dipole-allowed transitions in highly-charged ions Ne4+, Si8+, Ar12+ and Ti16+ belong to the astrophysically important carbon series employing the time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock (TDCHF) theory. Estimated values compare favourably with other existing results and the new ones repoted here may constitute a useful set for reference. The large-Z behaviour of the gf values is also examined. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage of Silicon Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mikeštíková, Marcela; Št'astný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of different types of end-cap miniature n + -in- p strip sensors, ATLAS12A, were evaluated in Institute of Physics in Prague before and after proton and gamma irradiation. We report here on the bulk damage aspects, including the increase of leakage current and evaluation of the full depletion voltage and the surface damage, including the decrease of inter-strip resistance, changes in inter-strip capacitance and the effectiveness of punch-through protection structure. It was verified that different geometries of end-cap sensors do not influence their stability; the sensors should provide acceptable strip isolation and n ew gate PTP structure functions well even at the highest tested proton fluence 2× 10 15 n eq / cm 2

  7. Vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability and the classic radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the fact that the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability for the interaction of the Maxwell field Aμ(x) with a given current Jμ(x) represents the probability of no photons emitted by the current of a Poisson distribution, the average number of photons emitted of given energies for the underlying distribution is readily derived. From this the classical power of radiation of Schwinger of a relativistic charged particle follows. - Highlights: • Quantum viewpoint of radiation theory based on the vacuum-to-transition probabilities. • Mathematical method in handling radiation for extended and point sources. • Radiated energy and power for arbitrary source distribution obtained from the above. • Explicit power of radiation for point relativistic sources from the general theory

  8. Observation of coherent transition radiation using relativistic pico second electron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an electron beams passes through boundaries of two different media with different dielectric constants, it generates radiation. The radiation emitted by the prebunched electron beam becomes coherent if the size of the bunch is smaller than the wavelength. Therefore, transition radiation can be considered as a possible broad band radiation source as well as a probe to the pico second and sub picosecond electron beam profiles. Using 1.2 MeV, 200 mA, macropulse electron beam, transition radiation was generated. The electron gun consists of 2.856 GHz Klystron, thermionic cathode. The emitted electron beam was bunched by passing through an alpha magnet. As a result of the combination, a pico second pulse (1.2 MeV, up to 80 A micropulse) was obtained. Experimental results, comparisons with the theory, and simulated electron beam profiles will be presented

  9. Commissioning of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker with cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanecka, E.; Atlas Sct Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests with cosmic rays of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) as well as operational experience of running the fully integrated silicon detector during the commissioning of the completed SCT. Prior to inserting into ATLAS, the barrel part of the SCT has been integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel and tested with cosmic rays. A sector of 468 SCT modules has been powered and read simultaneously with TRT modules in physics mode. In total 500 thousand events were recorded during cosmic runs and processed with the ATLAS off-line reconstruction software. The SCT performance was measured in terms of the average noise occupancy per channel (4.5×10-5) and the overall efficiency (>99%). The tests with cosmic rays proved full functionality of the complex Detector Control System (DCS) which provides control, monitoring and safety functions for the detector electronics.

  10. Study of ATLAS TRT performance with GRID and supercomputers.

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Belyaev, Nikita; Ryabinkin, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    After the early success in discovering a new particle consistent with the long awaited Higgs boson, Large Hadron Collider experiments are ready for the precision measurements and further discoveries that will be made possible by much higher LHC collision rates from spring 2015. A proper understanding of the detectors performance at high occupancy conditions is important for many on-going physics analyses. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of these detectors. TRT is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). TRT contributes significantly to the resolution for high-pT tracks in the ID providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. ATLAS experiment is using Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. WLCG is a global collaboration of computer centers and provides seamless access to computing resources which include data storage capacity, processing power, sensors, visualisation tools and more. WLCG...

  11. Study of ATLAS TRT performance with GRID and supercomputers.

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration; Belyaev, Nikita; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Ryabinkin, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    After the early success in discovering a new particle consistent with the long awaited Higgs boson, Large Hadron Collider experiments are ready for the precision measurements and further discoveries that will be made possible by much higher LHC collision rates from spring 2015. A proper understanding of the detectors performance at highoccupancy conditions is important for many on-going physics analyses. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of these detectors. TRT is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). TRT contributes significantly to the resolution for high-pT tracks in the ID providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. ATLAS experiment is using Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. WLCG is a global collaboration of computer centers and provides seamless access to computing resources which include data storage capacity, processing power, sensors, visualization tools and more. WLCG ...

  12. Charged track reconstruction and b-tagging performance in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Favareto, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is designed to provide precision tracking informa- tion at LHC luminosities with a hermetic detector covering 5 units in pseudo- rapidity. It features a large silicon tracker subdivided into a pixel and a strip system for precise tracking and primary/secondary vertex reconstruction and to provide excellent b-tagging capabilities. A Transition Radiation Tracker improves the momentum reconstruction and provides electron identification information. The subject of these proceedings is the performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector achieved after its first 2 years of operation. The excellent detector performance and more than a decade of simulation studies provided a good basis for the commissioning of the offline track and vertex reconstruction. Early studies with cosmic events and the ever increasing amount of high quality p-p collision data allowed for rapid progress in understanding of the detector. Today the ATLAS Inner Detector approaches its design values in most relevant performance c...

  13. Radiation tolerance and mitigation strategies for FPGA:s in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Akerstedt, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    During 2014, demonstrator electronics will be installed in a Tile calorimeter "drawer" to get long term experience with the inherently redundant electronics proposed for a full upgrade scheduled for 2022. The new system, being FPGA-based, uses dense programmable logic which must be proven to be sufficently radiation tolerant. It must be protected against radiation induced single event upsets that corrupt memory and logic functions. Radiation induced errors need to be found and compensated for in time, to minimize data loss but also to avoid permanent damage. Strategies for detecting and correcting radiation induced errors in the Kintex-7 FPGA:s of the demonstrator are evaluated and discussed.

  14. Radiation tolerance and mitigation strategies for FPGA:s in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Akerstedt, H; The ATLAS collaboration; Drake, G; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Tang, F; Anderson, K; Paramonov, A

    2013-01-01

    During 2014, upgrade-demonstrator electronics will be installed in a Tile calorimeter drawer to obtain long term experience with the inherently redundant electronics proposed for a full upgrade scheduled for 2022. The new, FPGA-based system uses dense programmable logic, which must be proven to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. It must also be protected against radiation induced single event upsets that can corrupt memory and logic Radiation induced errors need to be found and compensated for in time to minimize data loss, and also to avoid permanent damage. Strategies for detecting and correcting radiation induced errors in the Kintex-7 FPGAs on the demonstrator electronics are evaluated and discussed.

  15. Oscillator strengths and radiative transition rates for Kα lines in gold X-ray spectra: 1s-2p transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S) and radiative decay rates (A) are presented for all 1s-2p transitions in gold (Au) ions. X-ray emission from gold is extensively used, such as in fusion experiments, and in medical research for diagnostics and treatment. The Kα 1s-2p transitions in gold are found to be in the hard X-ray region of 66-73 keV (0.1888-0.1706A) and are limited to from hydrogen-like to fluorine-like ions as the 2p subshell is filled beyond fluorine. While there are two 1s-2p transitions (1s2S1/2-2p2P1/2o and 1s2S1/2-2p2P3/2o) for hydrogen-like gold, Au+78, the number varies depending on the number of electrons in the 2p subshell before and after the transition. For example, there are 35 1s-2p transitions giving the same number of Kα lines for carbon-like Au, Au+73. The transitions can be of both types, dipole allowed and intercombination, and are in general strong, that is, A∼1016/s. However, there are also weak transitions in the set. The present results are obtained from configuration interaction atomic structure calculations using the code SUPERSTRUCTURE which includes relativistic effects in Breit-Pauli approximation. The results have been benchmarked for a few ionic states with other detailed relativistic approaches, such as Dirac-Fock and coupled cluster. Comparisons with the very few transitions in the literature as well as those from other approaches indicate reasonable accuracy for the present results

  16. The phase transition in VO2 probed using x-ray, visible and infrared radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suhas; Strachan, John Paul; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Pickett, Matthew D.; Santori, Charles; Gibson, Gary; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a model system that has been used to understand closely occurring multiband electronic (Mott) and structural (Peierls) transitions for over half a century due to continued scientific and technological interests. Among the many techniques used to study VO2, the most frequently used involve electromagnetic radiation as a probe. Understanding of the distinct physical information provided by different probing radiations is incomplete, mostly owing to the complicated nature of the phase transitions. Here, we use transmission of spatially averaged infrared (λ = 1.5 μm) and visible (λ = 500 nm) radiations followed by spectroscopy and nanoscale imaging using x-rays (λ = 2.25-2.38 nm) to probe the same VO2 sample while controlling the ambient temperature across its hysteretic phase transitions and monitoring its electrical resistance. We directly observed nanoscale puddles of distinct electronic and structural compositions during the transition. The two main results are that, during both heating and cooling, the transition of infrared and visible transmission occurs at significantly lower temperatures than the Mott transition, and the electronic (Mott) transition occurs before the structural (Peierls) transition in temperature. We use our data to provide insights into possible microphysical origins of the different transition characteristics. We highlight that it is important to understand these effects because small changes in the nature of the probe can yield quantitatively, and even qualitatively, different results when applied to a non-trivial multiband phase transition. Our results guide more judicious use of probe type and interpretation of the resulting data.

  17. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  18. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering, (Russian Federation); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  19. Radiative transitions in mesons in a non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the non-relativistic quark model, an exhaustive study of radiative transitions in mesons is performed. Emphasis is placed on several points. Some traditional approximations (long-wavelength limit, non-relativistic phase space, dipole approximation for E1 transitions, Gaussian wave functions) are analyzed and their effects commented. A complete treatment using three different types of realistic quark-antiquark potential is made. The overall agreement with experimental data is quite good, but some improvements are suggested. (orig.)

  20. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron-self Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value $\\dot M \\sim 3\\alpha\\ \\dot M_{\\rm Edd}$, above which cold and de...

  1. The structure and glass transition behavior of PLLA under the influence of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miličević Dejan S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gamma radiation on the structure and glass transition behavior of poly-L-lactide (PLLA has been studied. Since PLLA exposed to high-energy radiation in the presence of air is prone to chain scission reactions and large degradation, changes in molecular weight were obtained by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Alterations in the glass transition behaviour were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The apparent activation energy, ΔH*, for the glass transition was determined on the basis of the heating rate dependence of the glass transition temperature, Tg. Our findings support the fact that chain scission is the main reason for the decrease of Tg and ΔH* with the absorbed dose. At low doses, despite large changes in molecular weight, only small alterations are observed in the glass transition temperature and apparent activation energy. Further increase in the absorbed dose introduces not only significant changes in the molecular weight but also in the glass transition temperature and the activation energy. Such glass transition behaviour is a manifestation of a well-known effect of molecular weight on Tg, postulated by the Fox-Flory equation. However, all the observed alterations are small and tolerable at absorbed doses required for sterilization (up to 25 kGy in most circumstances. Furthermore, this study reveals that the radiation-induced changes in the molecular weight and the glass transition temperature occur in a predictable and fairly accurate manner. Therefore, gamma radiation can be used not only for sterilization but also for tailoring desirable end-use properties of PLLA based implants.

  2. Phenomenology of heavy quarkonium radiative E1 transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Hector E. [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We present preliminary results of the evaluation of the next-to-leading-order (NLO) relativistic corrections to the heavy quarkonium electric dipole transition (E1) rate. In our evaluation we use the quark-antiquark potential up to 1/m{sup 2} corrections that includes the effective string theory expression for the long range, a review on the method to construct this potential is given. Our results compare favorable with the experiments and may provide predictions for the rates for which no experimental data is yet available.

  3. Phenomenology of heavy quarkonium radiative E1 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results of the evaluation of the next-to-leading-order (NLO) relativistic corrections to the heavy quarkonium electric dipole transition (E1) rate. In our evaluation we use the quark-antiquark potential up to 1/m2 corrections that includes the effective string theory expression for the long range, a review on the method to construct this potential is given. Our results compare favorable with the experiments and may provide predictions for the rates for which no experimental data is yet available

  4. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  5. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Belinda A., E-mail: Belinda.Campbell@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Simoens, Nathalie [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Everitt, Sarah [Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Burbury, Kate [Department of Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  6. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required

  7. Spatial resolution in optical transition radiation (OTR) beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the OTR single particle image dimension is obtained using diffraction theory based on a realistic description of the radiation source. This approach allows the analysis of the effect of the finite size of the emitting screen and of the imaging system. The role of practical experimental conditions in treating the intensity tail problem is estimated. It is shown that by exploiting the polarization properties of OTR, a considerable enhancement in the spatial resolution can be achieved, which becomes very similar to that of a standard point source

  8. Optical transition radiation from a thin carbon foil: a beam profile monitor for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memo considers placement of an ultra thin carbon foil into the SLC beam. Transition radiation light would be emitted from the surface of the foil. The optical spot from the foil could be viewed with a microscope objective lens and registered with an image detector. Multiple scattering for the foil thicknesses necessary will not affect the beam emittance. Calculations show that a thin carbon foil can withstand the electron beam if the electron beam is larger than 10 μm in size. There are many possible radiation mechanisms from a foil - bremsstrahlung, black body temperature radiation, Cerenkov light, scintillation light, and transition radiation. Transition radiation is apparently dominant. It is proposed to use thin carbon foils, 75 to 150 A thick. Calculations indicate that 5 x 1010 beam electrons will radiate a useable number of optical photons. Specifically with 150 A foils the fractional yield of useful optical photons is 10-3 photons per incident electron 5 x 10+7 optical photons imaged upon an image plane. Spread these photons over a 32 x 32 pixel CCD and one has the readout system of a monitor

  9. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2011-01-01

    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

  10. Pre-wave zone studies of Coherent Transition and Diffraction Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced accelerator technology, based on plasma structures, requires high brightness electron beams, which can be used also to drive advanced radiation sources. Indeed, electron beams to be injected into the plasma and accelerated in the plasma channel are characterized by small transverse size and ultra-short time duration, allowing the production of coherent radiation in the THz range. In the present work we report both theoretical and experimental studies on the spatial/angular distribution of Coherent Transition and Diffraction Radiation in the pre-wave zone

  11. Optical transition radiation in presence of acoustic waves for an oblique incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Saharian, A A

    2011-01-01

    Forward transition radiation is considered in an ultrasonic superlattice excited in a finite thickness plate under oblique incidence of relativistic electrons. We investigate the influence of acoustic waves on both the intensity and polarization of the radiation. In the quasi-classical approximation, formulas are derived for the vector potential of the electromagnetic field and for the spectral-angular distribution of the radiation intensity. It is shown that the acoustic waves generate new resonance peaks in the spectral and angular distributions. The heights and the location of the peaks can be controlled by choosing the parameters of the acoustic wave. The numerical examples are given for a plate of fused quartz.

  12. The radiation-matter transition in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Mazumdar, Anupam; John D. Barrow

    1998-01-01

    We study the transition from radiation domination to matter domination in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, in particular examining how the Hubble length at equality depends on the coupling parameter $\\omega$. We consider the prospects for using high-accuracy microwave anisotropy and large-scale structure data to constrain $\\omega$ more strongly than by conventional solar system gravity experiments.

  13. Transition radiation excited by a load moving over the interface of two elastic layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.; Tsouvalas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transition radiation is emitted when a perturbation source (e.g., electric charge, mechanical load), which does not possess an inherent frequency, moves along a straight line at a constant velocity in or near an inhomogeneous medium. The phenomenon was described for the first time in electromagnetic

  14. Two-photon radiation in the 90Zr 0+→0+ transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on studying two-photon radiation in 0+→0+-transition with 1.76 MeV of 90Zr is described. Ratio of two-photon process and pair conversion probabilities Wγγ/Wπ=(7.4±1.4)x10-4 is obtained

  15. Report on the Radiation Effects Testing of the Infrared and Optical Transition Radiation Camera Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Presented in this report are the results tests performed at Argonne National Lab in collaboration with Los Alamos National Lab to assess the reliability of the critical 99Mo production facility beam monitoring diagnostics. The main components of the beam monitoring systems are two cameras that will be exposed to radiation during accelerator operation. The purpose of this test is to assess the reliability of the cameras and related optical components when exposed to operational radiation levels. Both X-ray and neutron radiation could potentially damage camera electronics as well as the optical components such as lenses and windows. This report covers results of the testing of component reliability when exposed to X-ray radiation. With the information from this study we provide recommendations for implementing protective measures for the camera systems in order to minimize the occurrence of radiation-induced failure within a ten month production run cycle.

  16. Report on the Radiation Effects Testing of the Infrared and Optical Transition Radiation Camera Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results tests performed at Argonne National Lab in collaboration with Los Alamos National Lab to assess the reliability of the critical 99Mo production facility beam monitoring diagnostics. The main components of the beam monitoring systems are two cameras that will be exposed to radiation during accelerator operation. The purpose of this test is to assess the reliability of the cameras and related optical components when exposed to operational radiation levels. Both X-ray and neutron radiation could potentially damage camera electronics as well as the optical components such as lenses and windows. This report covers results of the testing of component reliability when exposed to X-ray radiation. With the information from this study we provide recommendations for implementing protective measures for the camera systems in order to minimize the occurrence of radiation-induced failure within a ten month production run cycle.

  17. Radiation Qualification of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf LVDS and G-link Serializers and Deserializers for the ATLAS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ichimiya, R; Arai, Y; Ikeno, M; Sasaki, O; Ohshita, H; Takada, N; Hane, Y; Hasuko, K; Nomoto, H; Sakamoto, H; Shibuya, K; Takemoto, T; Fukunaga, C; Toshima, K; Sakuma, T; 10th Workshop on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiments

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS endcap muon level-1 trigger system is divided into three parts; one off-detector part and two on-detector parts. Serialized data transfer with LVDS is used between two on-detector parts (15m apart) and serialized G-link transfer with optical transmission (90m) is used from the on-detector part to the off-detector part. Since the radiation damage of the components used in the on-detector parts is a matter of concern, we have investigate systematically the radiation susceptibility to both total ionizing dose and single event effects of COTS serializer/deserializer chipsets for LVDS (two candidates) and G-link (one) together. In this report we discuss in detail the characteristics of these LVDS chipsets and qualification of the G-link components for radiation.

  18. A comparative study of the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S.; Erasmus, R.; Jivan, H.; Pelwan, C.; Peters, G.; Sideras-Haddad, E.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of radiation on the light transmittance of plastic scintillators was studied experimentally. The high optical transmittance property of plastic scintillators makes them essential in the effective functioning of the Tile calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN. This significant role played by the scintillators makes this research imperative in the movement towards the upgrade of the tile calorimeter. The radiation damage of polyvinyl toluene (PVT) based plastic scintillators was studied, namely, EJ-200, EJ-208 and EJ-260, all manufactured and provided to us by ELJEN technology. In addition, in order to compare to scintillator brands actually in use at the ATLAS detector currently, two polystyrene (PS) based scintillators and an additional PVT based scintillator were also scrutinized in this study, namely, Dubna, Protvino and Bicron, respectively. All the samples were irradiated using a 6 MeV proton beam at different doses at iThemba LABS Gauteng. The radiation process was planned and mimicked by doing simulations using a SRIM program. In addition, transmission spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples of each grade were obtained, observed and analyzed.

  19. A test of transition radiation detectors for a colliding beam experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tested transition radiation detectors (TRDs) to separate electrons from pions in the momentum range between 2.0 GeV/c and 7.5 GeV/c. The radiator materials used in this experiment were polypropylene (CH2) fibers and lithium (Li) foils. A Xe filled longitudinal drift chamber of 3 cm depth was used for detecting transition radiation photons. We compared the methods of truncated mean of the total charge measurements and of maximum likelihood as well as cluster counting methods. We obtained 2% electron/pion separation for the CH2 fibers in the configuration of four modules with total length of 32 cm for a typical geometry of a collider experiment. (orig.)

  20. TRTViewer: Monitoring and Diagnostic Tool for the TRT Detector of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Tikhomirov, V. O.

    TRTViewer is the dedicated software tool for monitoring of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) performance at dif- ferent electronics levels: individual channels, readout chips or electronic boards. It can use several sources of input information - from direct DAQ stream or raw data files to ROOT files with processed analysis histograms. Using TRTViewer one can quickly estimate the TRT operational parameters - occupancy, efficiency, timing, reveal problematic regions with noisy, dead or inefficient channels, check calibration uniformity, etc. This tool is widely used by shifters in ATLAS Control Room and also by TRT experts during electronics installation, tuning, operation control and express-offline data analysis.

  1. Ultra-high energy neutrino dispersion in plasma and radiative transition $\

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, A V; Shitova, A M

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of additional energy of neutrino and antineutrino in plasma is performed. A general expression for the neutrino self-energy operator is obtained in the case of ultra-high energies when the local limit of the weak interaction is not valid. The neutrino and antineutrino additional energy in plasma is calculated using the dependence of the $W$ and $Z$--boson propagators on the momentum transferred. The kinematical region for the neutrino radiative transition (the so-called "neutrino spin light") is established for some important astrophysical cases. For high energy neutrino and antineutrino, dominating transition channels in plasma, $\

  2. A radiation method for variation of the insulator-conductor transition of polyethylene compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation method for controlled variation of the insulator-conductor transition of electroconductive polymeric materials, based on low density polyethylene (LDPE) compositions has been proposed. This method involves gamma rays (60Co)-irradiation of LDPE compositions filled with soot PM-120 type. The effect of the irradiation dose on the controlled steepness decrease of the insulator-conductor transition has been obtained. The dependences of tensile strength at break, elongation at break, differential Young's modulus and Vicat softening point of LDPE compositions on the irradiation dose has been established. (author)

  3. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  4. Study of a transition radiation detector for the DO experiment at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DZero experiment will study proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV in the center of mass produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (USA). The main features of the detector are an excellent hermetical calorimeter and a very good identification of muons and electrons. The Transition Radiation Detector contributes to electron/jet discrimination. Transition radiation is emitted when a charge particle crosses the interface between two media of different refraction indices. A N foils radiator produces about N/137 soft X rays when the Lorentz factor gamma of the particle is greater than a threshold of the order of 1000. The radiated energy saturates when gamma goes to infinity. These properties allow to separate electrons from pions until 140 GeV. This study presents the results of a test on a 5 GeV electron and pion beam of a prototype of chamber and of three radiators made of lithium foils, polypropylene foils, and polyethylene fibers. The detector response to pions and electrons is compared to theoretical predictions. Different statistical methods of electron/pion separation are compared on the experimental data. A method has been performed using likelihood functions which obtains a pion rejection greater than 50 for an electron efficiency of 90%. The performances are compared to those of other TRDs

  5. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management

  6. Beam diagnostics using transition radiation produced by a 100 Mev electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on several experiments using the optical transition radiation (OTR) produced by a 100 MeV electron beam. In using a sensitive video camera coupled with a digital image processing system an accurate and simple beam profile monitor has been devised. In measuring with a photo-multiplier the radiation emitted in a small solid angle around the direction of the OTR emission, a signal very sensitive to beam energy variations has been obtained. These experiments have been carried out on the Saclay ALS linac

  7. Search for Detour Transitions in the Radiative EC Decay of $^{81}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Rykaczewski, K

    2002-01-01

    % IS355 \\\\ \\\\ It is proposed to produce at ISOLDE the $^{81}$Kr activity and to study its 1-st forbidden unique (1u) radiative electron-capture decay in low background conditions available in Warsaw. The intensity of the photon spectrum will be compared to predictions of the internal-bremsstrahlung theory. A question is whether an excess of the intensity will be observed, indicating the role of detour $\\gamma$/$\\beta$ transitions via intermediate virtual nuclear states, as detected already for the 1u radiative decay of $^{41}$Ca.

  8. Recombination of charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in silicon doped by transition metals impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, L A

    2003-01-01

    It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).

  9. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Cr-like Co IV and Ni V

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M; Karpuškienė, R; Keenan, F P; Kisielius, R; Stancalie, V

    2015-01-01

    We report calculations of energy levels and radiative rates ($A$-values) for transitions in Cr-like Co IV and Ni V. The quasi-relativistic Hartree-Fock (QRHF) code is adopted for calculating the data although GRASP (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) and flexible atomic code (FAC) have also been employed for comparison purposes. No radiative rates are available in the literature to compare with our results, but our calculated energies are in close agreement with those compiled by NIST for a majority of the levels. However, there are discrepancies for a few levels of up to 3\\%. The $A$-values are listed for all significantly contributing E1, E2 and M1 transitions, and the corresponding lifetimes reported, although unfortunately no previous theoretical or experimental results exist to compare with our data.

  10. Single-shot electro-optic sampling of coherent transition radiation at the A0 Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future collider applications and present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. Potential applications in shot-to-shot, non-interceptive diagnostics continue to be pursued for live beam monitoring of collider and pump-probe experiments. Related to our developing work with electro-optic imaging, we present results on single-shot electro-optic sampling of the coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the A0 photoinjector.

  11. RADIATION THERAPY OF A PRESUMPTIVE URETHRAL TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA IN AN EASTERN GRAY SQUIRREL (SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Sanford, Sara E; St-Vincent, Rachel; Hiss, Anne

    2015-12-01

    An adult female Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), with a previous history of primary renal transitional cell carcinoma treated by nephrectomy, was diagnosed with a metastatic urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) utilizing the veterinary bladder tumor antigen test in combination with other noninvasive diagnostic tests. The squirrel was treated with piroxicam and external beam radiation therapy given in 18 treatments over 30 days to achieve a total of 54 gray. Mild to moderate side effects from the pelvic irradiation were self-limiting and easily managed. Resolution of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 6 mo until recurrence of metastasis. This report represents the first published account of both TCC and external beam radiation therapy in an Eastern gray squirrel. PMID:26667551

  12. Exotic and excited-state meson spectroscopy and radiative transitions from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Thomas

    2010-09-01

    We discuss recent progress in extracting the excited meson spectrum and radiative transition form factors using lattice QCD. We mention results in the charmonium sector, including the first lattice QCD calculation of radiative transition rates involving excited charmonium states, highlighting results for high spin and exotic states. We present recent results on a highly excited isovector meson spectrum from dynamical anisotropic lattices. Using carefully constructed operators we show how the continuum spin of extracted states can be reliably identified and confidently extract excited states, states with exotic quantum numbers and states of high spin. This spectrum includes the first spin-four state extracted from lattice QCD. We conclude with some comments on future prospects.

  13. Using Generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose Atlases to Combine and Analyze Prospective Dosimetric and Radiation Pneumonitis Data From 2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Dose Escalation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fan; Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Borst, Gerben R. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rosenzweig, Kenneth E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Lebesque, Joos V. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jackson, Andrew, E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Methods and Materials: Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate {>=}20% were plotted. Results: The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. Conclusions: The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power.

  14. Possibilities of optical transition radiation using for the U-70 and the UNR proton beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results for optical transition radiation (OTR) of 70 GeV protons have been obtained. A possibility of the proton beam diagnostics using this raiation and the digital television method is illustrated. It is shown that thin aluminium fail doesn't perturb the proton beam and the conditions for using OTR for beam monitoring improve with proton energy. 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 tab

  15. A novel method for sub-micrometer transverse electron beam size measurements using optical transition radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Aryshev, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Howell, D.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2010-01-01

    Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) appearing when a charged particle crosses a boundary between two media with different dielectric properties has widely been used as a tool for transverse profile measurements of charged particle beams in various facilities worldwide. The resolution of the monitor is defined by so-called Point Spread Function (PSF), source distribution generated by a single electron and projected by an optical system onto a screen. In this paper we represent the development o...

  16. Consensus Guidelines and Contouring Atlas for Pelvic Node Delineation in Prostate and Pelvic Node Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish reproducible guidelines for delineating the clinical target volume (CTV) of the pelvic lymph nodes (LN) by combining the freehand Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) vascular expansion techniques. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with prostate cancer underwent standard planning computed tomography scanning. Four different CTVs (RMH, RTOG, modified RTOG, and Prostate and pelvIs Versus prOsTate Alone treatment for Locally advanced prostate cancer [PIVOTAL] trial) were created for each patient, and 6 different bowel expansion margins (BEM) were created to assess bowel avoidance by the CTV. The resulting CTVs were compared visually and by using Jaccard conformity indices. The volume of overlap between bowel and planning target volume (PTV) was measured to aid selection of an appropriate BEM to enable maximal LN yet minimal normal tissue coverage. Results: In total, 84 nodal contours were evaluated. LN coverage was similar in all groups, with all of the vascular-expansion techniques (RTOG, modified RTOG, and PIVOTAL), resulting in larger CTVs than that of the RMH technique (mean volumes: 287.3 cm3, 326.7 cm3, 310.3 cm3, and 256.7 cm3, respectively). Mean volumes of bowel within the modified RTOG PTV were 19.5 cm3 (with 0 mm BEM), 17.4 cm3 (1-mm BEM), 10.8 cm3 (2-mm BEM), 6.9 cm3 (3-mm BEM), 5.0 cm3 (4-mm BEM), and 1.4 cm3 (5-mm BEM) in comparison with an overlap of 9.2 cm3 seen using the RMH technique. Evaluation of conformity between LN-CTVs from each technique revealed similar volumes and coverage. Conclusions: Vascular expansion techniques result in larger LN-CTVs than the freehand RMH technique. Because the RMH technique is supported by phase 1 and 2 trial safety data, we proposed modifications to the RTOG technique, including the addition of a 3-mm BEM, which resulted in LN-CTV coverage similar to that of the RMH technique, with reduction in bowel and planning

  17. Consensus Guidelines and Contouring Atlas for Pelvic Node Delineation in Prostate and Pelvic Node Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Victoria A. [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Staffurth, John [Institute of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Naismith, Olivia [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Esmail, Alikhan [Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich (United Kingdom); Gulliford, Sarah [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Khoo, Vincent [Department of Radiotherapy, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Lewis, Rebecca [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Littler, John [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom); McNair, Helen [Department of Radiotherapy, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Sadoyze, Azmat [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Scotland, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Scrase, Christopher [Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam [Department of Radiology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Syndikus, Isabel [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zarkar, Anjali [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David, E-mail: David.Dearnaley@icr.ac.uk [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish reproducible guidelines for delineating the clinical target volume (CTV) of the pelvic lymph nodes (LN) by combining the freehand Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) vascular expansion techniques. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with prostate cancer underwent standard planning computed tomography scanning. Four different CTVs (RMH, RTOG, modified RTOG, and Prostate and pelvIs Versus prOsTate Alone treatment for Locally advanced prostate cancer [PIVOTAL] trial) were created for each patient, and 6 different bowel expansion margins (BEM) were created to assess bowel avoidance by the CTV. The resulting CTVs were compared visually and by using Jaccard conformity indices. The volume of overlap between bowel and planning target volume (PTV) was measured to aid selection of an appropriate BEM to enable maximal LN yet minimal normal tissue coverage. Results: In total, 84 nodal contours were evaluated. LN coverage was similar in all groups, with all of the vascular-expansion techniques (RTOG, modified RTOG, and PIVOTAL), resulting in larger CTVs than that of the RMH technique (mean volumes: 287.3 cm{sup 3}, 326.7 cm{sup 3}, 310.3 cm{sup 3}, and 256.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively). Mean volumes of bowel within the modified RTOG PTV were 19.5 cm{sup 3} (with 0 mm BEM), 17.4 cm{sup 3} (1-mm BEM), 10.8 cm{sup 3} (2-mm BEM), 6.9 cm{sup 3} (3-mm BEM), 5.0 cm{sup 3} (4-mm BEM), and 1.4 cm{sup 3} (5-mm BEM) in comparison with an overlap of 9.2 cm{sup 3} seen using the RMH technique. Evaluation of conformity between LN-CTVs from each technique revealed similar volumes and coverage. Conclusions: Vascular expansion techniques result in larger LN-CTVs than the freehand RMH technique. Because the RMH technique is supported by phase 1 and 2 trial safety data, we proposed modifications to the RTOG technique, including the addition of a 3-mm BEM, which resulted in LN-CTV coverage similar

  18. Determination of electron bunch shape using transition radiation and phase-energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosson, E.R.; Berryman, K.W.; Richman, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We present data comparing microbunch temporal information obtained from electron beam phase-energy measurements with that obtained from transition radiation auto-correlation measurements. The data was taken to resolve some of the ambiguities in previous transition radiation results. By measuring the energy spectrum of the electron beam as a function of its phase relative to the accelerating field, phase-energy information was extracted. This data was analyzed using tomographic techniques to reconstruct the phase-space distribution assuming an electron energy dependence of E({var_phi}) = E{sub o} + E{sub acc}cos({var_phi}), where E{sub o} is the energy of an electron entering the field, E{sub acc} is the peak energy gain, and {var_phi} is the phase between the crest of the RF wave and an electron. Temporal information about the beam was obtained from the phase space distribution by taking the one dimensional projection along the time axis. We discuss the use of this technique to verify other transition radiation analysis methods.

  19. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Fe V, Co VI and Ni VII

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Kisielius, R

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels, Land\\'{e} $g$-factors and radiative lifetimes are reported for the lowest 182 levels of the 3d$^4$, 3d$^3$4s and 3d$^3$4p configurations of Fe~V, Co~VI and Ni~VII. Additionally, radiative rates ($A$-values) have been calculated for the E1, E2 and M1 transitions among these levels. The calculations have been performed in a quasi-relativistic approach (QR) with a very large {\\em configuration interaction} (CI) wavefunction expansion, which has been found to be necessary for these ions. Our calculated energies for all ions are in excellent agreement with the available measurements, for most levels. Discrepancies among various calculations for the radiative rates of E1 transitions in Fe~V are up to a factor of two for stronger transitions ($f \\geq 0.1$), and larger (over an order of magnitude) for weaker ones. The reasons for these discrepancies have been discussed and mainly are due to the differing amount of CI and methodologies adopted. However, there are no appreciable discrepancies in similar ...

  20. Heavy Ion Physics at the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Takai, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is one of the two large detectors built to carry on high pT physics  at the Large Hadron Collider. The detector is designed to perform optimally at the challenging nominal LHC machine luminosity of 10^34 cm-2s-1. ATLAS has a finely segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters covering 10 units of rapidity. The inner tracking system is composed of  sicilicon pixel detector, silicon central tracker, transition radiation tracker and a 2T solenoidal magnet, covering 5 units of rapidity. The muon spectrometer is located outside the calorimeter volume. Muon chambers and air core toroids are used to track muons of momentum larger than 4 GeV.  The ATLAS detector has a superb performance for jet physics because of its calorimeters. Simulation studies also indicate that it will be possible to tag b-jets in the heavy ion environment. Upsilon and J/Psi can be reconstructed through the di-muon decay channel. The detector is ideal for the study of global variables, namely total energy flow and ...

  1. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wu, Ning; Cheng, Guanghui [Radiation Oncology, Jilin University, Chuangchun, Jilin (China); Zhou, Zhengyang [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing (China); Yu, David S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Curran, Walter J. [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results: Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions: We have validated

  2. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results: Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions: We have validated

  3. Reduced transition probabilities for 4He radiative capture reactions at astrophysical energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduced transition probabilities from an electric quadrupole B(E2) and reduced transition probabilities from a magnetic dipole B(M1) between the ground state and the first excited state have been calculated for the 3He(α,γ)7Be, 8Be(α,γ)12C and 12C(α,γ)16O radiative capture reactions with the M3Y potential. These reactions are important in stellar evolution. The calculated B(M1) and B(E2) for 7Be nuclei are found to be 1.082 × 10−3 e2 fm2 and 1.921 e2 fm4 from transitions 3/2− to 1/2−, respectively. The obtained values for reduced transition probabilities B(E2) for the 12C and 16O nuclei from transitions 0+ to 2+ are 12.54 e2 fm4 and 14.18 e2 fm4, respectively. The results are in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data

  4. Multi-chip module development for the ATLAS pixel detector. Analysis of the front-end chip electronics in radiation hard 0.25-μm technology as well as development and realization of a serial power concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is a silicon pixel detector. The use of radiation tolerant components is mandatory due to the harsh radiation environment. The smallest independent component of the pixel detector is a hybride pixel module consisting of a large oxygen enriched silicon sensor and 16 specifically developed ASICs. To achieve the necessary radiation tolerance the ASICs are produced in a 0.25 μm technology in combination with special design techniques. The measurements of the readout electronics during all stages of production of a full module are presented and the performance of the modules is compared with the strict requirements of the ATLAS pixel detector. Furthermore a new powering scheme for pixel detectors is presented, aiming at reducing the total power consumption, the material for the electrical services and the amount of power cables. The advantages and disadvantages of this concept are discussed on the example of the ATLAS pixel detector with pixel modules modified accounting to the new powering scheme. The performance of six of those modules operating at the same time in a small system test is compared to that of normal ATLAS pixel modules. (orig.)

  5. Gamma Cherenkov-transition radiation produced by charged particles at an interface and in a stack of plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral and angular distributions as well as the total number of photons of gamma-ray Cherenkov-transition radiation (GCTR) in the photon energy region (1÷10) MeV produced by charged particles passing through an interface between two media and a stack of plates are calculated using the formulae of X-ray transition radiation. The concept of formation length for GCTR is discussed.

  6. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  7. Inner detector tracking performance with high pile-up in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATLAS is a multi purpose detector predominantly designed for the reconstruction of pp-collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. An important ingredient for the event reconstruction is the tracking of charged particles. In ATLAS this is achieved deploying two different silicon detectors and a transition radiation tracker. The spatial information returned by the sensitive detector elements when traversed by charged particles are clustered to discrete space points. Dedicated tracking algorithms reconstruct the original track of the charged particle. This becomes more difficult with higher numbers of particles, i.e. a higher number of space points. With the increase of the instantaneous luminosity in 2012 there will be up to 40 pile-up collisions per bunch crossing. Hence ATLAS standard tracking is not feasible anymore with respect to the rate of wrongly reconstructed tracks and reconstruction time. New tracking cuts have been studied to speed up track reconstruction and reduce the fake rate while keeping reconstruction efficiency stable.

  8. Estimation of radiation doses for transition from emergency to existing exposure situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abdelfatah A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from emergency to existing exposure situation is an important stage in the nuclear or radiological emergency plan. It requires arrangements to be put in place and to be implemented so as to ensure that the transition is made in a coordinated and orderly manner of guidelines for adjusting the undertaken protective actions and other response actions. The delivering radiation doses to public and environmental pollution are monitoring that measurements should be implemented according to certain plan of intervention and protective actions in the different stages of the N/R accident. In this study, a computer model (RASCAL is used to calculate the effect of severe accident could have detected on an operating nuclear power reactor PWR and the possible impact on the public. Features for the decision to implement the transition from emergency to existing exposure situation are proposed depending on the estimation of the collection of deliver exposure doses to the public and environment due to monitoring the different radiation sources resulting from the N/R accident.

  9. SLHC and ATLAS, Initial Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Nessi, M

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments in the plans and scenarios proposed by the LHC machine experts towards the SLHC, have triggered various concerns and reserves in the ATLAS community. In particular the eventual need to insert dipoles, quadrupoles and protection elements inside the detector creates major concerns, because of its complex logistics and the risk of reducing the effectiveness of the ATLAS internal radiation shielding. Justifications and constraints on how to best use this space are given.

  10. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: status and perspectives for Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector contributes to the tracking, particle identification, and triggering capabilities of the experiment. It is composed of six layers of multi-wire proportional chambers, each of which is preceded by a radiator and a Xe/CO$_2$-filled drift volume. The signal is sampled in timebins of 100~ns over the drift length which allows for the reconstruction of chamber-wise track segments, both online and offline. The particle identification is based on the specific energy loss of charged particles and additional transition radiation photons, the latter being a signature for electrons. The detector is segmented into 18 sectors, of which 13 were installed in Run I. The TRD was included in data taking since the LHC start-up and was successfully used for electron identification and triggering. During the Long Shutdown 1, the detector was completed and now covers the full azimuthal acceptance. Furthermore, the readout and trigger components were upgraded. When data taking was started for ...

  11. Semi-empirical studies of atomic transition probabilities, oscillator strengths and radiative lifetimes in Hf II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, laser induced fluorescence and Fourier Transform techniques have been applied to measure radiative lifetimes and branching fractions in Hf II in order to derive oscillator strengths and transition probabilities. In the present work, we propose to compare for the first time these experimental data to computed values obtained by two different semi-empirical approaches, respectively based on a parametrization of the oscillator strengths and on a pseudo-relativistic Hartree–Fock model including core-polarization effects. The overall agreement between all sets of data is found to be good. We furthermore give radial integrals of the main atomic transitions in this study: 〈5d6s6p|r1|5d26s〉=0.1504 (0.0064), 〈6s26p|r1|5d6s2〉=1.299 (0.012), 〈5d26p|r1|5d26s〉=−0.298 (0.013), 〈5d26p|r1|5d3〉=2.025 (0.027). Finally a new set of oscillator strengths and transition probabilities is reported for many transitions in Hf II

  12. Gas gain stabilisation in the ATLAS TRT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindur, B.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A.; Arslan, O.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Bault, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Bocci, A.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Brock, I.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Celebi, E.; Cetin, S. A.; Choi, K.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Davis, D.; Degeorge, C.; Derendarz, D.; Desch, K.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dressnandt, N.; Dubinin, F. A.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Froidevaux, D.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gecse, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Grefe, C.; Gurbuz, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hawkins, A. D.; Heim, S.; Holway, K.; Kantserov, V. A.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kisielewski, B.; Klopov, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korotkova, N. A.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kramarenko, V.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kruse, M.; Kudin, L. G.; Lichard, P.; Loginov, A.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lytken, E.; Maleev, V. P.; Maevskiy, A. S.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mashinistov, R. Y.; Meyer, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mistry, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Newcomer, F. M.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palacino, G.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; RØhne, O.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Ricken, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ryjov, V.; Sasmaz, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Shmeleva, A. P.; Shulga, E.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Soldatov, E.; Sulin, V. V.; Tartarelli, G.; Taylor, W.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vasquez, J.; Vasilyeva, L. F.; Vlazlo, O.; Weinert, B.; Williams, H. H.; Wong, V.; Zhukov, K. I.; Zieminska, D.

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS (one of two general purpose detectors at the LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a large straw-based detector and contains about 350,000 electronics channels. The performance of the TRT as tracking and particularly particle identification detector strongly depends on stability of the operation parameters with most important parameter being the gas gain which must be kept constant across the detector volume. The gas gain in the straws can vary significantly with atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas mixture composition changes. This paper presents a concept of the gas gain stabilisation in the TRT and describes in detail the Gas Gain Stabilisation System (GGSS) integrated into the Detector Control System (DCS). Operation stability of the GGSS during Run-1 is demonstrated.

  13. High-energy cosmic-ray electrons - A new measurement using transition-radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Mueller, D.; Prince, T.

    1977-01-01

    A new detector for cosmic-ray electrons, consisting of a combination of a transition-radiation detector and a shower detector, has been constructed, calibrated at accelerator beams, and exposed in a balloon flight under 5 g/sq cm of atmosphere. The design of this instrument and the methods of data analysis are described. Preliminary results in the energy range 9-300 GeV are presented. The energy spectrum of electrons is found to be significantly steeper than that of protons, consistent with a long escape lifetime of cosmic rays in the galaxy.

  14. Radiative transition probabilities for all vibrational levels in the X 1Sigma(+) state of HF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Warren T.; Stwalley, William C.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Valderrama, Giuseppe L.; Berry, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent analyses have led to an experimentally-based potential energy curve for the ground state of HF which includes nonadiabatic corrections and which joins smoothly to the long-range potential at an accurately determined dissociation limit. Using this potential curve and a new ab initio dipole moment function, accurate radiative transition probabilities among all vibrational levels of the ground state of HF have been calculated for selected rotational quantum numbers. Comparisons of Einstein A spontaneous emission coefficients, dipole moment absorption matrix elements, and Herman-Wallis factors for absorption bands are presented.

  15. Thermodynamic theory of phase transition in biosubstance from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synergetic conception of biophysical action of ionizing radiation low doses is offered and on its basis the universal theoretic-analytical expression for functional dependence ''dose - effect'' in the all range of doses is received. And in the field of low doses the behavior of this dependence is a consequence of phase transition of the first kind in dose-sensitive microvolume and carries the brightly expressed parabolic character, which qualitatively precisely describes all known and most carefully executed experiments in this field. (author)

  16. Electron Beam Spectrum Diagnostics with Optical Transition Radiation on the Beijing Free-Electron Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泉凤; 吴频; 高建江; 吴刚

    2004-01-01

    A measurement system was developed to measure the electron beam spectrum of the Beijing free-electron laser based on the optical transition radiation (OTR). This paper describes the system, which consists of a 32-channel high resolution of 0.02% OTR detector, especially the spectrometer. The OTR angular-distribution pattern at the focal plane has two apexes, but the two apexes are smoothed out due to the electron beam energy distribution. The energy spectrum can be measured if the magnet energy resolution is higher than 0.7% to distinguish the electron beam energy distribution.

  17. Search for electromagnetic transitions between molecular states : results from the radiative capture channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the characterization of the cluster nature of resonances in 12C+12C and 12C+16O by measuring their γ decay. Results from resonant radiative capture measurements in these systems are presented. Spin attributions as well as specificities of the decay pattern are described. For the 12C+12C system, identification of γ transitions within the molecular band are discussed as well as a new method to measure the eventual persistence of the resonant behaviour down to astrophysical energies

  18. Progress on the Flash X-Ray Optical Transition Radiation Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, V; Houck, T; Brown, C

    2008-03-30

    This document summarizes the Flash X-Ray accelerator (FXR) optical transition radiation (OTR) spot-size diagnostics efforts in FY07. During this year, new analysis, simulation, and experimental approaches were utilized to interpret OTR spot data from both dielectric foils such as Kapton (VN type) and metal coated foils. Significant new findings of the intricacies involved in the diagnostic and of FXR operational issues were achieved. Geometry and temperature based effects were found to affect the beam image profiles from the OTR foils. These effects must be taken into account in order to deduce accurately the beam current density profile.

  19. Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

  20. Performance of the transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ambriola, M

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the transition radiation detector (TRD) of the PAMELA telescope has been studied using beam test data and simulation tools. PAMELA is a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer designed to measure particles and antiparticles spectra in cosmic rays. The particle identification at high energy will be achieved by combining the measurements by the TRD and a Si-W imaging calorimeter. The TRD is composed of 9 planes of straw tubes, interleaved with carbon fiber radiators. A prototype of the detector has been exposed to particle beams of electrons, pions and muons of various momenta at the CERN-PS and SPS accelerator facilities. In addition a dedicated Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the detector. Here we illustrate both simulation results and experimental data analysis procedures and we will discuss the estimated TRD performance. (15 refs).

  1. Coherent transition radiation-based diagnosis of electron beam pulse shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bunch shapes of an electron beams is increasingly difficult to measure, as the time-scales of interest are now sub-picosecond. We discuss here the use of coherent transition radiation CTR for such measurements. Two types of measurements are presented: the deduction of macroscopic (0.3 psec resolution) pulse profile using interferometry, and the examination of microbunch (50 fsec) structure from an FEL-bunched beam using spectral characteristics of the CTR. For the macrobunch measurement we discuss the problem of missing low frequency radiation and one solution for extracting meaningful data with this problem present. For microbunch CTR, we examing initial spectrally resolved measurements, and some interesting deviations in the CTR spectrum from the standard theoretical predictions. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Windowless transition between atmospheric pressure and high vacuum via differential pumping for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gog, T; Casa, D M; Kuzmenko, I; Krakora, R J; Bolin, T B

    2007-07-01

    A differential pump assembly is introduced which can provide a windowless transition between the full atmospheric pressure of an in-air sample environment and the high-vacuum region of a synchrotron radiation beamline, while providing a clear aperture of approximately 1 mm to pass through the X-ray beam from a modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source. This novel pump assembly is meant to be used as a substitute for an exit vacuum window on synchrotron beamlines, where the existence of such a window would negatively impact the coherent nature of the X-ray beam or would introduce parasitic scattering, distorting weak scattering signals from samples under study. It is found that the length of beam pipe necessary to reduce atmospheric pressure to below 10 mbar is only about 130 mm, making the expected photon transmission for hard X-rays through this pipe competitive with that of a regular Be beamline window. This result is due to turbulent flow dominating the first pumping stage, providing a mechanism of strong gas conductance limitation, which is further enhanced by introducing artificial surface roughness in the pipe. Successive reduction of pressure through the transitional flow regime into the high-vacuum region is accomplished over a length of several meters, using beam pipes of increasing diameter. While the pump assembly has not been tested with X-rays, possible applications are discussed in the context of coherent and small-angle scattering. PMID:17587659

  3. Energy levels, radiative rates, and lifetimes for transitions in W XL

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, KM

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in Br-like W XL, calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}). Configuration interaction (CI) has been included among 46 configurations (generating 4215 levels) over a wide energy range up to 213 Ryd. However, for conciseness results are only listed for the lowest 360 levels (with energies up to $\\sim$ 43 Ryd), which mainly belong to the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4f, 4s4p$^6$, 4p$^6$4d, 4s4p$^5$4d, 4s$^2$4p$^3$4d$^2$, and 4s$^2$4p$^3$4d4f configurations, and provided for four types of transitions, i.e. E1, E2, M1, and M2. Comparisons are made with existing (but limited) results. However, to fully assess the accuracy of our data, analogous calculations have been performed with the flexible atomic code ({\\sc fac}), including even a larger CI than in {\\sc grasp}. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.02 Ryd, whereas results for radiative rates (and lifetimes) should ...

  4. Polymorphous phase transitions as a tool for radiation processes study in an ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the results of study of recombination luminescence both ammonium halogen crystals and LiKSO4 after X-ray irradiation are presented. Within 80-300 K temperature range non-induced ammonium halogen crystals have two the thermally-induced luminescence peaks in the 110-120 K and 160-180 K domains. The first peak is connected with activation of Vk-centers migration. The second one is related with recombination either the NH30 with proton or NH3+ with atomic hydrogen. However the hydrogen centers in this compound have not been defined. In the order-chaos phase transition the recombination process model in 160-180 K field is proposed. The model is grounded on the peculiarities of radiation defects formation and its dynamics in the examined systems. In the LiKSO4 crystals the influence of polymorphous phase transition at 180 K on radiation defects accumulation responsible for appearance recombination luminescence in 260 K field allows to assert that in this temperature range the SO3- defects decomposition are taking place. It is determined, that these defects have two principal channels for formation. The first one is connected with the initial defects transformation and the efficiency considerably depends on crystal lattice type. The second one does not sense a change the of spatial symmetry. The suitable mechanisms are proposed

  5. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  6. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  7. Energy levels, radiative rates, and lifetimes for transitions in W XL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M., E-mail: K.Aggarwal@qub.ac.uk; Keenan, Francis P.

    2014-11-15

    Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in Br-like tungsten, W XL, calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Configuration interaction (CI) has been included among 46 configurations (generating 4215 levels) over a wide energy range up to 213 Ryd. However, for conciseness results are only listed for the lowest 360 levels (with energies up to ∼43 Ryd), which mainly belong to the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 5},4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}4d,4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}4f,4s4p{sup 6},4p{sup 6}4d,4s4p{sup 5}4d,4s{sup 2}4p{sup 3}4d{sup 2}, and 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 3}4d4f configurations, and provided for four types of transitions, E1, E2, M1, and M2. Comparisons are made with existing (but limited) results. However, to fully assess the accuracy of our data, analogous calculations have been performed with the flexible atomic code, including an even larger CI than in GRASP. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.02 Ryd, whereas results for radiative rates (and lifetimes) should be accurate to better than 20% for a majority of the strong transitions.

  8. Development of MRI-based atlases of non-human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L; Reutens, David; Watson, Charles

    2015-02-15

    Brain atlases are a fundamental resource for neuroscience research. In the past few decades they have undergone a transition from traditional printed histological atlases to digital atlases made up of multiple data sets from multiple modalities, and atlases based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become widespread. Here we discuss the methods involved in making an MRI brain atlas, including registration of multiple data sets into a model, ontological classification, segmentation of a minimum deformation model, dissemination strategies, and applications of these atlases. Finally, we discuss possible future directions in the development of brain atlases. PMID:25236843

  9. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhaoming

    2016-06-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron self-Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value dot{M} ˜ 3α dot{M}_Edd, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down on to the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary, our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenario for the state transition.

  10. Excited meson radiative transitions from lattice QCD using variationally optimized operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, Christian J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Dudek, Jozef J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Edwards, Robert G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-06-02

    We explore the use of 'optimized' operators, designed to interpolate only a single meson eigenstate, in three-point correlation functions with a vector-current insertion. These operators are constructed as linear combinations in a large basis of meson interpolating fields using a variational analysis of matrices of two-point correlation functions. After performing such a determination at both zero and non-zero momentum, we compute three-point functions and are able to study radiative transition matrix elements featuring excited state mesons. The required two- and three-point correlation functions are efficiently computed using the distillation framework in which there is a factorization between quark propagation and operator construction, allowing for a large number of meson operators of definite momentum to be considered. We illustrate the method with a calculation using anisotopic lattices having three flavors of dynamical quark all tuned to the physical strange quark mass, considering form-factors and transitions of pseudoscalar and vector meson excitations. In conclusion, the dependence on photon virtuality for a number of form-factors and transitions is extracted and some discussion of excited-state phenomenology is presented.

  11. Transition from image intensifier to flat panel detector in interventional cardiology: Impact of radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan S Livingstone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat panel detector (FPD technology in interventional cardiology is on the increase due to its varied advantages compared to the conventional image intensifier (II systems. It is not clear whether FPD imparts lower radiation doses compared to II systems though a few studies support this finding. This study intends to compare radiation doses from II and FPD systems for coronaryangiography (CAG and Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA performed in a tertiary referral center. Radiation doses were measured using dose area product (DAP meter from patients who underwent CAG (n = 222 and PTCA (n = 75 performed using FPD angiography system. The DAP values from FPD were compared with earlier reported data using II systems from the same referral center where the study was conducted. The mean DAP values from FPD system for CAG and PTCA were 24.35 and 63.64 Gycm 2 and those from II system were 27.71 and 65.44 Gycm 2 . Transition from II to FPD system requires stringent dose optimization strategies right from the initial period of installation.

  12. Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition

    CERN Document Server

    Jeet, Justin; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 \\mbox{eV}$ and $8.8 \\mbox{eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2)\\mbox{s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600)\\mbox{s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  13. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy (229)Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-06-26

    We report the results of a direct search for the (229)Th (I(π)=3/2(+)←5/2(+)) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing (229)Th-doped LiSrAlF(6) crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s≲τ≲(2000-5600)  s. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches. PMID:26197124

  14. TRTViewer: the ATLAS TRT detector monitoring and diagnostics tool

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, S Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the LargeHadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is designed to combine the drift tube tracker with transition radiation detector, providing an important contribution to the charged particles precise momentum measurement and particle (mainly electron) identification. The TRT consists of a barrel section at small pseudo rapidity (eta) and two separate end-cap partitions at large eta. The detector performance and its operational conditions were permanently monitored during all commissioning and data-taking stages using various software tools, one of which -- TRTViewer -- is described in the present paper. The TRTViewer is the dedicated program for monitoring the TRT raw data quality and detector performance at different hardware levels: individual straws, readout chips and electronic boards. The data analysis results can be presented on the event-by-event basis or in the form of color maps representing the ...

  15. Impact of subgrid-scale radiative heating variability on the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus transition in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Heng; Gustafson, William I.; Wang, Hailong

    2014-04-29

    Subgrid-scale interactions between turbulence and radiation are potentially important for accurately reproducing marine low clouds in climate models. To better understand the impact of these interactions, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is configured for large eddy simulation (LES) to study the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus (Sc-to-Cu) transition. Using the GEWEX Atmospheric System Studies (GASS) composite Lagrangian transition case and the Atlantic Trade Wind Experiment (ATEX) case, it is shown that the lack of subgrid-scale turbulence-radiation interaction, as is the case in current generation climate models, accelerates the Sc-to-Cu transition. Our analysis suggests that in cloud-topped boundary layers subgrid-scale turbulence-radiation interactions contribute to stronger production of temperature variance, which in turn leads to stronger buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy and helps to maintain the Sc cover.

  16. Prime wires for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In an award ceremony on 3 September, ATLAS honoured the French company Axon Cable for its special coaxial cables, which were purpose-built for the Liquid Argon calorimeter modules. Working for CERN since the 1970s, Axon' Cable received the ATLAS supplier award last week for its contribution to the liquid argon calorimeter cables of ATLAS (LAL/Orsay, France and University of Victoria, Canada), started in 1996. Its two sets of minicoaxial cables, called harnesses "A" and "B", are designed to function in the harsh conditions in the liquid argon (at 90 Kelvin or -183°C) and under extreme radiation (up to several Mrads). The cables are mainly used for the readout of the calorimeters, and are connected to the outside world by 114 signal feedthroughs with 1920 channels each. The signal from the detectors is transmitted directly without any amplification, which imposes tight restrictions on the impedance and on the signal propagation time of the cables. Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, gives the award for best s...

  17. Studies of the ATLAS Inner Detector material using $\\sqrt{s}=$13 TeV $pp$ collision data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises three different technologies: the Pixel detector (Pixel), the silicon strip tracker (SCT), and the transition radiation drift tube tracker (TRT). The material in the ATLAS Inner Detector is studied with several methods, using the $pp$ collision sample collected at $\\sqrt{s}=$13 TeV in 2015. The material within the innermost barrel regions of the ATLAS Inner Detector is studied using reconstructed hadronic interaction and photon conversion vertices from samples of minimum bias events. It was found that the description of the Insertable B-Layer, which is the new, innermost Pixel layer installed in 2014, in the geometry model was missing some material components. After updating the model, data and simulation show good agreement at the barrel region. The Pixel services (cables, cooling pipes, support trays) were modified between the Pixel and SCT detectors in 2014. The material in this region is also studied by investigating the efficiency with which tracks reconstructed only in...

  18. Multicomponent measurements of the Jefferson Lab energy recovery linac electron beam using optical transition and diffraction radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, M. A.; Fiorito, R. B.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; O'Shea, P. G.; Benson, S. V.; Douglas, D.; Evtushenko, P.; Jordan, K.

    2008-08-01

    High brightness electron accelerators, such as energy recovery linacs (ERL), often have complex particle distributions that can create difficulties in beam transport as well as matching to devices such as wigglers used to generate radiation from the beam. Optical transition radiation (OTR), OTR interferometry (OTRI), and optical diffraction-transition radiation interferometry (ODTRI) have proven to be effective tools for diagnosing both the spatial and angular distributions of charged particle beams. OTRI and ODTRI have been used to measure rms divergences, and optical transverse phase space mapping has been demonstrated using OTRI. In this work we present the results of diagnostic experiments using OTR and optical diffraction radiation conducted at the Jefferson Laboratory’s 115 MeV ERL which show the presence of two separate components within the beam’s spatial and angular distributions. By assuming a correlation between the spatial and angular features, we estimate an rms emittance value for each of the two components.

  19. Energy cross-calibration from the first CREAM flight: transition radiation detector versus calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maestro, P; Allison, P S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Boyle, P J; Brandt, T J; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Marrocchesi, P S; Malinine, A; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S; Nutter, S; Park, H; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Swordy, S; Wakely, S P; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon experiment had two successful flights in 2004/05 and 2005/06. It was designed to perform energy measurements from a few GeV up to 1000 TeV, taking advantage of different detection techniques. The first instrument, CREAM-1, combined a transition radiation detector with a calorimeter to provide independent energy measurements of cosmicraynuclei. Each detector was calibrated with particle beams in a limited range of energies. In order to assess the absolute energy scale of the instrument and to investigate the systematic effects of each technique, a cross-calibration was performed by comparing the two independent energy estimates on selected samples of oxygen and carbon nuclei.

  20. Considerations on the Diffraction Limitations to the Spatial Resolution of Optical Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Artru, X; Honkavaara, K; Variola, A

    1999-01-01

    The interest in using optical transition radiation (OTR) in high energy (multiGeV) beam diagnostics has motivated theoretical and experimental investigations on the limitations brought by diffraction on the attainable resolution. This paper presents calculations of the diffraction effects in an optical set-up using OTR. The OTR diffraction pattern in a telescopic system is calculated taking into account the radial polarization of OTR. The obtained diffraction pattern is compared to the patterns obtained by other authors and the effects of different parameters on the shape and on the size of the OTR diffraction pattern are studied. The major role played by the radial polarization on the shape of the diffraction pattern is outlined. An alternative method to calculate the OTR diffraction pattern is also sketched

  1. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the b...

  2. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the beam profile will be described

  3. A high rate transition radiation detector for particle identification in a hadron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was built for the purpose of tagging beam particles in a high rate (∼2 MHz) 250 GeV/c hadron beam during data taking for Experiment 769 at Fermilab. The availability of a good ''tool kit'', including a Monte Carlo program which could reliably predict the detector performance, made it possible to design and build the TRD in approximately one year. Pion or proton samples, each with a small contamination due to the other, could be selected with high efficiency by making cuts on the number of planes of the TRD registering hits for each incident beam particle. The detector is expected to work well to separate kaons from pions in the 500 GeV/c negative beam for E791. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Resonance effects of transition radiation emitted from thin foil stacks using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Takaaki; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Transition Radiation(TR) X rays are expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because the interference among TR X rays emitted from many thin foils placed periodically in vacuum can increase their intensity and make them quasi-monochromatic. In order to study the interference (resonance) effects of TR, we measured the energy spectra of TR for several sets of thin-foil stacks at various emission angles. It was found that the resonance effects of TR are classified into intrafoil and interfoil resonances and the intensity of TR X rays increases nonlinearly with increasing foil number, attributing to the interfoil resonance. It became evident that the brilliance of TR is as high as that of SR. (author)

  5. A transition radiation detector interleaved with low-density targets for the NOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, K V; Bernardini, P; Brigida, M; Campana, D; Candela, A M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Ceres, A; D'Aquino, B; De Cataldo, G; De Mitri, I; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Lamanna, E; Lauro, A; Leone, A; Loparco, F; Mancarella, G; Martello, D; Mazziotta, M N; Mikheyev, S P; Mongelli, M; Osteria, G; Palladino, Vittorio; Passeggio, G; Perchiazzi, M; Pontoniere, G; Rainó, A; Rocco, R; Romanucci, E; Rubizzo, U; Sacchetti, A; Scapparone, E; Spinelli, P; Tikhomirov, V; Vaccina, A; Vanzanella, E; Weber, M

    2001-01-01

    The NOE Collaboration has proposed a transition radiation detector (TRD) interleaved with marble targets to tag the electron decay channel of tau leptons produced by nu /sub tau /, eventually originated by nu /sub mu / oscillations in a long base line experiment. A reduced scale TRD detector prototype has been built and exposed to an electron/pion beam at the CERN PS. Discrimination capabilities between electrons and both charged and neutral pions, representing the main source of background for our measurement, have been determined obtaining rejection factors of the order of the tenth of percent for charged pions, and of a few percent for the neutral pion, matching the experiment requirements. The capabilities of this detector to measure the energy released by particles that start showering inside the targets are shown. A momentum resolution sigma /sub p//P

  6. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron-self Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value $\\dot M \\sim 3\\alpha\\ \\dot M_{\\rm Edd}$, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down onto the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenari...

  7. Radiative transition probabilities in the X2Πg state of CO2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ab initio calculated potential energy and electric dipole moment functions, absolute radiative transition probabilities between the rovibronic Renner-Teller states of the electronic ground state X2Πg of CO2+ have been evaluated. The rovibronic eigenstates were obtained (up to 6500cm-1 and J≤(13)/2 ) from variational calculations including the Renner-Teller and spin-orbit angular momentum couplings. The absolute intensities for the rovibrational states of the neutral CO2 electronic ground state, calculated by a similar approach, are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data. For CO2+ the presented results are expected to have similar accuracy. It is found that the overtone intensities of the antisymmetric stretching mode of CO2+ are of similar magnitude as the fundamental transitions, in contrast with CO2. The theoretically generated IR-emission spectrum is compared with the limb spectrum of the Mars atmosphere, measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor

  8. Performance of the ATLAS vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector consists of three layers of silicon pixels, four double layers of silicon microstrips and a transition radiation tracker (straw tubes). The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch (50*300 mu m) and low occupancy (<3*10/sup -4/ at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors. The full (GEANT3) detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between b-jets and jets produced by light quarks. (8 refs).

  9. Mongolian Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatic atlas dated 1985, in Mongolian, with introductory material also in Russian and English. One hundred eight pages in single page PDFs.

  10. Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, P.; Coleman, J.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. Michael; Neil, G.; Williams, G. P.

    2006-11-01

    The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA, Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.

  11. Spin–flip processes and radiative decay of dark intravalley excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodeniuk, A. O.; Basko, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    We perform a theoretical study of radiative decay of dark intravalley excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. This decay necessarily involves an electronic spin flip. The intrinsic decay mechanism due to interband spin–flip dipole moment perpendicular to the monolayer plane, gives a rate about 100–1000 times smaller than that of bright excitons. However, we find that this mechanism also introduces an energy splitting due to a local field effect, and the whole oscillator strength is contained in the higher-energy component, while the lowest-energy state remains dark and needs an extrinsic spin–flip mechanism for the decay. Rashba effect due to a perpendicular electric field or a dielectric substrate, gives a negligible radiative decay rate (about 107 times slower than that of bright excitons). Spin flip due to Zeeman effect in a sufficiently strong in-plane magnetic field can give a decay rate comparable to that due to the intrinsic interband spin–flip dipole.

  12. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in Al X

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M

    2013-01-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes are calculated among the lowest 98 levels of the n <= 4 configurations of Be-like Al X. The GRASP (General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package) is adopted and data are provided for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions. Similar data are also obtained with the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) to assess the accuracy of the calculations. Based on comparisons between calculations with the two codes as well as with available measurements, our listed energy levels are assessed to be accurate to better than 0.3%. However, the accuracy for radiative rates and lifetimes is estimated to be about 20%. Collision strengths are also calculated for which the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code (DARC) is used. A wide energy range (up to 380 Ryd) is considered and resonances resolved in a fine energy mesh in the thresholds region. The collision strengths are subsequently averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution to determine effective collision strengths up to a temperature of 1.6...

  13. Observational Constraints on the Stellar Radiation Field Impinging on Transitional Disk Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Szulágyi, Judit; Ábrahám, Péter; Apai, Dániel; Bouwman, Jeroen; Moór, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Mid-infrared atomic and ionic line ratios measured in spectra of pre-main sequence stars are sensitive indicators of the hardness of the radiation field impinging on the disk surface. We present a low-resolution Spitzer IRS search for [Ar II] at 6.98 $\\mu$m, [Ne II] at 12.81 $\\mu$m, and [Ne III] 15.55 $\\mu$m lines in 56 transitional disks. These objects, characterized by reduced near-infrared but strong far-infrared excess emission, are ideal targets to set constraints on the stellar radiation field onto the disk because their spectra are not contaminated by shock emission from jets/outflows or by molecular emission lines. After demonstrating that we can detect [Ne II] lines and recover their fluxes from the low-resolution spectra, here we report the first detections of [Ar II] lines towards protoplanetary disks. We did not detect [Ne III] emission in any of our sources. Our [Ne II]/[Ne III] line flux ratios combined with literature data suggest that a soft-EUV or X-ray spectrum produces these gas lines. Furt...

  14. Studies on the application of transition radiation for the particle identification at ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron-proton storage ring HERA at DESY will probe new kinematical regions of deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering. In particular, new heavy particles may be produced with masses up to 180 GeV. The ZEUS collaboration is presently going to develop a suitable detector for the expected physical interactions at HERA. One of the most important requirements for ZEUS is a good performance of the electron identification system. A Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is being developed to meet this task by separating hadrons and electrons. This thesis describes studies to find an optimum layout for the TRD to be used in ZEUS. Two series of measurements were performed at CERN and DESY in the momentum range between 1 GeV/c and 6 GeV/c in order to separate electrons from pions. Foams as well as fibres and foils served as radiator materials to create TR photons while two types of chambers, a longitudinal drift chamber (DC) and a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC), were used for detecting the TR quanta within a setup consisting of four complete modules. Both kinds of chambers had a depth of 16 mm and were dominantly filled with xenon. Analyzing the total charge data, methods of mean, truncated mean and maximum likelihood algorithms have been applied. Several procedures were tested to analyze the signal structure in detail - a so called cluster analysis. As a result of the total charge measurements a pion contamination of about 1% is obtained at 90% electron detection efficiency with a polypropylene radiator in a configuration of four modules of a total length of 40 cm. An improvement by a factor of about two for the discrimination of pions can be obtained in case of a detailed cluster analysis. (orig./HSI)

  15. Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, Michael; Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2016-04-01

    Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35∘. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for rmic > 40R1, where rmic is the distance from the end of the potential core and R1 is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/rmic decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.

  16. Optimization of a transition radiation detector for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR has to provide electron-pion separation as well as charged-particle tracking. Within this work, thin and symmetric Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) without additional drift region were proposed. the proposed prototypes feature a foil-based entrance window to minimize the material budget and to reduce the absorption probability of the generated TR photon. Based on the conceptual design of thin and symmetric MWPCs without drift region, multiple prototypes were constructed and their performance presented within this thesis. With the constructed prototypes of generations II and III the geometries of the wire and cathode planes were determined to be 4+4 mm and 5+5 mm. Based on the results of a performed test beam campaign in 2011 with this prototypes new prototypes of generation IV were manufactured and tested in a subsequent test beam campaign in 2012. Prototypes of different radiators were developed together with the MWPC prototypes. Along with regular foil radiators, foam-based radiator types made of polyethylene foam were utilized. Also radiators constructed in a sandwich design, which used different fiber materials confined with solid foam sheets, were used. For the prototypes without drift region, simulations of the electrostatic and mechanical properties were performed. The GARFIELD software package was used to simulate the electric field and to determine the resulting drift lines of the generated electrons. The mean gas amplification depending on the utilized gas and the applied anode voltage was simulated and the gas-gain homogeneity was verified. Since the thin foil-based entrance window experiences a deformation due to pressure differences inside and outside the MWPC, the variation on the gas gain depending on the deformation was simulated. The mechanical properties focusing on the stability of the entrance window was determined with a finiteelement

  17. Optimization of a transition radiation detector for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arend, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR has to provide electron-pion separation as well as charged-particle tracking. Within this work, thin and symmetric Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) without additional drift region were proposed. the proposed prototypes feature a foil-based entrance window to minimize the material budget and to reduce the absorption probability of the generated TR photon. Based on the conceptual design of thin and symmetric MWPCs without drift region, multiple prototypes were constructed and their performance presented within this thesis. With the constructed prototypes of generations II and III the geometries of the wire and cathode planes were determined to be 4+4 mm and 5+5 mm. Based on the results of a performed test beam campaign in 2011 with this prototypes new prototypes of generation IV were manufactured and tested in a subsequent test beam campaign in 2012. Prototypes of different radiators were developed together with the MWPC prototypes. Along with regular foil radiators, foam-based radiator types made of polyethylene foam were utilized. Also radiators constructed in a sandwich design, which used different fiber materials confined with solid foam sheets, were used. For the prototypes without drift region, simulations of the electrostatic and mechanical properties were performed. The GARFIELD software package was used to simulate the electric field and to determine the resulting drift lines of the generated electrons. The mean gas amplification depending on the utilized gas and the applied anode voltage was simulated and the gas-gain homogeneity was verified. Since the thin foil-based entrance window experiences a deformation due to pressure differences inside and outside the MWPC, the variation on the gas gain depending on the deformation was simulated. The mechanical properties focusing on the stability of the entrance window was determined with a finiteelement

  18. Oscillator strengths and radiative transition rates for K{sub {alpha}} lines in gold X-ray spectra: 1s-2p transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahar, Sultana N. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: nahar@astronomy.ohio-state.edu; Pradhan, Anil K.; Sur, Chiranjib [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S) and radiative decay rates (A) are presented for all 1s-2p transitions in gold (Au) ions. X-ray emission from gold is extensively used, such as in fusion experiments, and in medical research for diagnostics and treatment. The K{sub {alpha}} 1s-2p transitions in gold are found to be in the hard X-ray region of 66-73 keV (0.1888-0.1706A) and are limited to from hydrogen-like to fluorine-like ions as the 2p subshell is filled beyond fluorine. While there are two 1s-2p transitions (1s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}{sup o} and 1s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2p{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{sup o}) for hydrogen-like gold, Au{sup +78}, the number varies depending on the number of electrons in the 2p subshell before and after the transition. For example, there are 35 1s-2p transitions giving the same number of K{sub {alpha}} lines for carbon-like Au, Au{sup +73}. The transitions can be of both types, dipole allowed and intercombination, and are in general strong, that is, A{approx}10{sup 16}/s. However, there are also weak transitions in the set. The present results are obtained from configuration interaction atomic structure calculations using the code SUPERSTRUCTURE which includes relativistic effects in Breit-Pauli approximation. The results have been benchmarked for a few ionic states with other detailed relativistic approaches, such as Dirac-Fock and coupled cluster. Comparisons with the very few transitions in the literature as well as those from other approaches indicate reasonable accuracy for the present results.

  19. Evaluation of an atlas-based automatic segmentation software for the delineation of brain organs at risk in a radiation therapy clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Conformal radiation therapy techniques require the delineation of volumes of interest, a time-consuming and operator-dependent task. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the potential interest of an atlas-based automatic segmentation software (ABAS) of brain organs at risk (OAR), when used under our clinical conditions. Materials and methods: Automatic and manual segmentations of the eyes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, pituitary gland, brain stem and cerebellum of 11 patients on T1-weighted magnetic resonance, 3-mm thick slice images were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The sensitivity and specificity of the ABAS were also computed and analysed from a radiotherapy point of view by splitting the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) space into four sub-regions. Results: Automatic segmentation of OAR was achieved in 7-8 min. Excellent agreement was obtained between automatic and manual delineations for organs exceeding 7 cm3: the DSC was greater than 0.8. For smaller structures, the DSC was lower than 0.41. Conclusions: These tests demonstrated that this ABAS is a robust and reliable tool for automatic delineation of large structures under clinical conditions in our daily practice, even though the small structures must continue to be delineated manually by an expert

  20. Particle identification with the Silicon Transition Radiation Detector (SiTRD): State of art and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a novel Transition Radiation Detector (SiTRD) based on silicon strip detectors (SSDs) operated in a magnetic field region. In this way the trajectory of the radiating particle is deflected with respect to the Transition Radiation X-rays that are absorbed in a detector region far away from the particle track. The SiTRD combines the particle identification performance of a traditional TRD with the high-precision tracking capability of SSDs, and it can be suitable for both accelerator and cosmic ray experiments, whenever particle identification and momentum reconstruction are required. In this paper we will show the experimental results obtained with a reduced scale SiTRD prototype exposed to an electron-pion beam

  1. Energy levels, radiative rates, and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like C V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report calculations for energy levels, radiative rates, and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like C V. The GRASP (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates, and for determining the collision strengths and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates, and line strength are reported for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of C V. Collision strengths have been averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths so obtained are reported over a wide temperature range below 106 K. Additionally, lifetimes are also reported for all calculated levels. (author)

  2. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  3. Commissioning of the ATLAS inner detector with cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, H.

    2008-07-01

    The inner detector of the ATLAS experiment is in the process of being commissioned using cosmic ray events. First tests were performed in the SR1 assembly hall at CERN with both barrel and endcaps for all different detector technologies (pixels and microstrips silicon detectors as well as straw tubes with additional transition radiation detection). Integration with the rest of the ATLAS sub-detectors is now being done in the ATLAS cavern. The full software chain has been set up in order to reconstruct and analyse this kind of events. Final detector decoders have been developed, different pattern recognition algorithms and track fitters have been validated as well as the various alignment and calibration methods. The infrastructure to deal with conditions data coming from the data acquisition, detector control system and calibration runs has been put in place, allowing also to apply alignment and calibration constants. The software has also been essential to monitor the detector performance during data taking. Detector efficiencies, noise occupancies and resolutions have been studied in detail and compared with those obtained from simulation.

  4. ATLAS' inner silicon tracker on track for completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Last week, the team working at the SR1 facility on the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment reached a project milestone after the delivery of the last Semi-conductor Tracker (SCT) barrel to CERN. The third barrel before its insertion into the support structure.The insertion of a completed barrel to its support structure is one of the highlights of the assembly and test sequence of the SCT in SR1. The inner detector will eventually sit in the 2 teslas magnetic field of the ATLAS solenoid, tracking charged particles from proton-proton collisions at the centre of ATLAS. The particles will be measured by a pixel detector (consisting of 3 pixel layers), an SCT (4 silicon strip layers) and a transition radiation tracker (TRT) (consisting of more than 52,000 straw tubes - see Bulletin 14/2005). The SCT has a silicon surface area of 61m2 with about 6 million operational channels so that all tracks can be identified and precisely measured. During 2004 a team of physicists, engineers, and technicians from several...

  5. Studies on the optimization of the ZEUS transition-radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of test measurements, made with pre-prototypes of the ZEUS-TRD. We used longitudinal drift chambers filled with 90% xenon and 8% CO2/2% iso-C4H10 as quench gases. The readout was made by 6bit nonlinear FADC's with an effective dynamic range of 8bits. The used amplifiers were types built in SMD-technique with high amplification factors. Pole-Zero filters to make the pulses shorter and better reconstructable were build in. The cathode wires, wires that separate the drift region from the amplification region, were also read out, and showed signal structures similar to that of the signal-wires. These cathodes, fixed perpendicular to the sense wires, are useful to identify double tracks. New radiator types, based on polypropylen fibres have been tested. We found that the coating of the fibre surfaces is very bad for the production of transition radiation. To separate hadrons from electrons we used 3 different total-charge methods; two of them preferred cluster-structures. For the test we took data on the base of one chamber and simulated 4 chambers (the final ZEUS-TRD will have 4 ones) with a liklihood-algorithm. We took the data at the CERN PS at 1-10 GeV with a mixed particle beam am. For an electron efficiency of 90% we found the following pion contaminations: minimum contamination at 4 GeV 1.7%, maximum contamination at 10 GeV 3.1%. (orig.)

  6. On using the coherent far IR radiation produced by a charged particle bunch to determine its shape - II Measurement with synchrotron and transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.397, p.221-31, 1997. The coherent radiation spectrum from mm long relativistic electron bunches perturbed in different ways is investigated with a large aperture Michelson spectrometer. From these data we are able to determine the structure and asymmetric shape of the longitudinal electron density of short relativistic electron bunches on a submillimeter length scale by utilizing the Kramers-Kronig analysis technique described previously. Both synchrotron and transition radiation have been used successfully to determine the bunch shape. We further demonstrate how the influence of the LINAC tuning on bunch width and bunch asymmetry can be determined by using this technique. (orig.)

  7. Multi-chip module development for the ATLAS pixel detector. Analysis of the front-end chip electronics in radiation hard 0.25-{mu}m technology as well as development and realization of a serial power concept; Multi-Chip-Modul-Entwicklung fuer den ATLAS-Pixeldetektor. Analyse der Front-End-Chip-Elektronik in strahlenharter0,25-{mu}m-Technologie sowie Entwicklung und Realisierung eines Serial-Powering-Konzeptes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmanns, T.

    2004-08-01

    The innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is a silicon pixel detector. The use of radiation tolerant components is mandatory due to the harsh radiation environment. The smallest independent component of the pixel detector is a hybride pixel module consisting of a large oxygen enriched silicon sensor and 16 specifically developed ASICs. To achieve the necessary radiation tolerance the ASICs are produced in a 0.25 {mu}m technology in combination with special design techniques. The measurements of the readout electronics during all stages of production of a full module are presented and the performance of the modules is compared with the strict requirements of the ATLAS pixel detector. Furthermore a new powering scheme for pixel detectors is presented, aiming at reducing the total power consumption, the material for the electrical services and the amount of power cables. The advantages and disadvantages of this concept are discussed on the example of the ATLAS pixel detector with pixel modules modified accounting to the new powering scheme. The performance of six of those modules operating at the same time in a small system test is compared to that of normal ATLAS pixel modules. (orig.)

  8. Branching ratios, radiative lifetimes, and transition dipole moments for tantalum nitride, TaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jacob L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kokkin, Damian L.; Sharfi, David J.; Mawhorter, Richard J.

    2016-07-01

    The dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from excitation in the regions of the [17.58]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [19.22]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0), and [19.40]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0) bands of tantalum nitride, 181TaN, have been recorded and analyzed. The branching ratios and radiative lifetimes for the [17.58]0+(v = 0), [18.42]0+(v = 0), [19.22]1+(v = 0), and [19.40]1(v = 0) states have been determined. From these values the transition dipole moments for visible bands are determined. Vibrational spacing in the X1Σ+ state and the spin-orbit splitting of the a3Δ state are measured and compared with predicted values. The dispersed fluorescence spectra and determined branching ratios reveal that the most effective mechanism for populating the a3Δ1 (J = 1, v = 0) state, which will be used in future P- and T-violation measurements, is via excitation of the [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0) band followed by subsequent spontaneous or stimulated emission.

  9. A novel coaxial Ku-band transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu, E-mail: lingjunpu@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Jiang, Tao [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A novel coaxial transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field is designed to generate high power microwave at Ku-band. By using a coaxial structure, the space-charge potential energy is suppressed significantly, that is good for enhancing efficient beam-wave interaction. In order to improve the transmission stability of the unmagnetized intense relativistic electron beam, a Pierce-like cathode is employed in the novel device. By contrast with conventional relativistic microwave generators, this kind of device has the advantages of high stability, non-guiding magnetic field, and high efficiency. Moreover, with the coaxial design, it is possible to improve the power-handing capacity by increasing the radial dimension of the Ku-band device. With a 550 keV and 7.5 kA electron beam, a 1.25 GW microwave pulse at 12.08 GHz has been obtained in the simulation. The power conversion efficiency is about 30%.

  10. Radiation interception and its efficiency for dry matter production in three crop species in the transitional humid zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in two years at the experimental fields of the International Institute of Tropical agriculture, Ibadan (7°30 ' N, 3°54 ' E) situated in the humid zone of Nigeria. The objective was to determine the biological productivity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), groundnut (Aranchis hypogea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a transitional humid forest zone of Nigeria. Crop productivity was determined by calculating the Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) from the slope of the relationship between cumulative dry matter and Intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (IPAR). Linear relationships were observed between cumulative total dry weight and cumulative Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) in all the crops. The mean radiation use efficiencies (RUE) obtained were 3.83 g MJ-1 for maize, 2.37 g MJ-1 for groundnut and 2.95 g MJ-1 for cowpea. The maize crop was a better converter of intercepted PAR to dry matter than groundnut and cowpea. (author)

  11. Custom-made power for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A small team of engineers and technicians has recently finished the design of power supplies specially tailored to working in the demanding environment of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Mass production of the units has now begun. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter power supply development team (left to right): Ivan Hruska (holding brick), Francisca Calheiros, Bohuslav Palan, Jiri Palacky and Zdenek Kotek. Power supplies are an important component of any particle detector. In ATLAS, as in the other experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, it is not easy to use standard, 'off the shelf' power supplies; they must survive radiation, tolerate magnetic fields, and satisfy limited space and water-cooling constraints. For the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter, these constraints all proved challenging for the engineers designing the power supplies. The aim was to produce a universal power module in terms of input/output voltage, delivered power and cooling, for general use in a radiation environment. The result is a distributed low-vo...

  12. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  13. Contouring Guidelines for the Axillary Lymph Nodes for the Delivery of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer: Evaluation of the RTOG Breast Cancer Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Michelle S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Usman, Asad A.; Neuschler, Erin I. [Department of Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Hayes, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Small, William, E-mail: WMSMALL@lumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the axillary lymph nodes on pretreatment diagnostic computed tomography (CT) of the chest to determine their position relative to the anatomic axillary borders as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans available for 30 breast cancer patients with clinically involved lymph nodes were fused with simulation CT. Contouring of axillary levels I, II, and III according to the RTOG guidelines was performed. Measurements were made from the area of distal tumor to the anatomic borders in 6 dimensions for each level. Results: Of the 30 patients, 100%, 93%, and 37% had clinical involvement of levels I, II, and III, respectively. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 13.6. The mean size of the largest lymph node was 2.4 cm. Extracapsular extension was seen in 23% of patients. In 97% of patients, an aspect of the involved lymph node lay outside of the anatomic border of a level. In 80% and 83% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the cranial (1.78 ± 1.0 cm; range, 0.28-3.58 cm) and anterior (1.27 ± 0.92 cm; range, 0.24-3.58 cm) borders of level I, respectively. In 80% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the caudal border of level II (1.36 ± 1.0 cm, range, 0.27-3.86 cm), and 0% to 33% of patients had tumor extension outside the remaining borders of all levels. Conclusions: To cover 95% of lymph nodes at the cranial and anterior borders of level I, an additional clinical target volume margin of 3.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively, is necessary. The RTOG guidelines may be insufficient for coverage of axillary disease in patients with clinical nodal involvement who are undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, incomplete axillary dissection, or treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy. In patients with pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans, fusion with

  14. Contouring Guidelines for the Axillary Lymph Nodes for the Delivery of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer: Evaluation of the RTOG Breast Cancer Atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the axillary lymph nodes on pretreatment diagnostic computed tomography (CT) of the chest to determine their position relative to the anatomic axillary borders as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans available for 30 breast cancer patients with clinically involved lymph nodes were fused with simulation CT. Contouring of axillary levels I, II, and III according to the RTOG guidelines was performed. Measurements were made from the area of distal tumor to the anatomic borders in 6 dimensions for each level. Results: Of the 30 patients, 100%, 93%, and 37% had clinical involvement of levels I, II, and III, respectively. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 13.6. The mean size of the largest lymph node was 2.4 cm. Extracapsular extension was seen in 23% of patients. In 97% of patients, an aspect of the involved lymph node lay outside of the anatomic border of a level. In 80% and 83% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the cranial (1.78 ± 1.0 cm; range, 0.28-3.58 cm) and anterior (1.27 ± 0.92 cm; range, 0.24-3.58 cm) borders of level I, respectively. In 80% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the caudal border of level II (1.36 ± 1.0 cm, range, 0.27-3.86 cm), and 0% to 33% of patients had tumor extension outside the remaining borders of all levels. Conclusions: To cover 95% of lymph nodes at the cranial and anterior borders of level I, an additional clinical target volume margin of 3.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively, is necessary. The RTOG guidelines may be insufficient for coverage of axillary disease in patients with clinical nodal involvement who are undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, incomplete axillary dissection, or treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy. In patients with pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans, fusion with

  15. Reconstruction of known particle decays in proton-proton collisions at energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV with the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. ATLAS is equipped with a charged particle tracking system consisting of three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements with fine detector granularity. The pixel and microstrip subdetectors, which use silicon technology, are complemented with the transition radiation tracker. The reconstruction of known particle decays is an important tool to understand the performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector and its track and vertex reconstruction and particle identification capabilities. Using data taken at center-of-mass energies of 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV, decays of several different particles such as $K^{0}_{s}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\phi$, $\\Xi$, $\\Omega$ etc. have been reconstructed and their properties compared to Monte Carlo predictions. The identification of these particles is important both for tuning different Monte Carlo generators that describes Minimum Bias events and for understanding the tracking performance. In fact...

  16. Reconstruction of known particle decays in proton-proton collisions at energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV with the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. ATLAS is equipped with a charged particle tracking system consisting of three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements with fine detector granularity. The pixel and microstrip subdetectors, which use silicon technology, are complemented with the transition radiation tracker. The reconstruction of known particle decays is an important tool to understand the performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector and its track and vertex reconstruction and particle identification capabilities. Using data taken at center-of-mass energies of 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV, several different particle decays such as Kshort, Lambda, D*, K* etc. have been reconstructed and their properties compared to MC predictions.

  17. Far-infrared transition and diffraction radiation. Pt. 2. The THz beamline at the VUV-FEL linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Schmidt, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schmueser, P.; Steffen, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2006-07-01

    In order to facilitate longitudinal bunch diagnostics with high-resolution interferometric or spectroscopic devices outside the VUV-FEL tunnel we have designed a Tera-Hertz beamline at the 140 m position of the VUV-FEL linac. The vacuum chamber housing the transition and diffraction radiation screens is located between the last acceleration module and the collimator section in front of the undulator. In Part I of this report we have presented a general scheme for computing the generation, diffraction and optical propagation of transition and diffraction radiation. In the present Part II we describe the design, technical layout and optical performance of the THz beamline at the VUV-FEL and show first measurements. (orig.)

  18. ATLAS Story

    CERN Multimedia

    Nordberg, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This film produced in July 2012 explains how fundamental research connects to Society and what benefits collaborative way of working can and may generate in the future, using ATLAS Collaboration as a case study. The film is intellectually inspired by the book "Collisions and Collaboration" (OUP) by Max Boisot (ed.), see: collisionsandcollaboration.com. The film is directed by Andrew Millington (OMNI Communications)

  19. Single window for issuing licenses for export and import of ionizing radiation sources and transit of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the electronic system for application and issuing licenses for export, import and transit of goods (EXIM), particularly for ionizing radiation sources, in the Republic of Macedonia. This system is a modern and helpful tool for simple issuing licenses, for establishing a unique database and it represents a harmonized system for exchanging information between the governmental, public and private legal persons in the Republic of Macedonia. (author)

  20. A MONOLITHIC PREAMPLIFIER-SHAPER FOR MEASUREMENT LOSS AND TRANSITION RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A custom monolithic circuit has been developed for the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) of the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This detector identifies particles by sampling their ionization energy loss (dE/dx) over a 3 cm drift space and by detecting associated transition radiation (TR) photons. The requirement of being simultaneously sensitive to dE/dx and TR events requires a dual-gain system. We have developed a compact solution featuring an octal preamplifier/shaper (P/S) IC with a split gain stage. The circuit, fabricated in 1.2 microm CMOS process, incorporates a trans-impedance preamplifier and a 70 ns unipolar CR-RC4 shaper with ion tail compensation and active DC offset cancellation. Digitally selectable gain, peaking time, and tail cancellation as well as channel-by-channel charge injection and disable can be configured in the system via a 3-wire interface. The 3.5 x 5 mm2 die is packaged in a fine-pitch 64-pin PQFP. Equivalent input noise is less than 1500 rms electrons at a power dissipation of 30 mW per channel. On a sample of 2400 chips, the DC offset was 2.3 ± 3 mV rms without trimming. A chamber-mounted TEC-PS Printed Circuit Board (PCB) houses four PIS chips, on-board calibration circuit, and 64 analog differential line drivers which transmit the shaped pulses to crate-mounted flash ADC's. 7 m apart An RS-422 link provides digital configuration downloading and read back, and supplies the calibration strobe. The 24.6 cm x 9.5 cm board dissipates 8.5 W

  1. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Appel, Jan K.; Brinza, David E.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  2. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  3. Joint Analysis of Radiative and Non-Radiative Electronic Relaxation Upon X-ray Irradiation of Transition Metal Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ronny Golnak; Sergey I. Bokarev; Robert Seidel; Jie Xiao; Gilbert Grell; Kaan Atak; Isaak Unger; Stephan Thürmer; Saadullah G. Aziz; Oliver Kühn; Bernd Winter; Emad F. Aziz

    2016-01-01

    L-edge soft X-ray spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful tool to unravel the peculiarities of electronic structure of transition metal compounds in solution. However, the X-ray absorption spectrum is often probed in the total or partial fluorescence yield modes, what leads to inherent distortions with respect to the true transmission spectrum. In the present work, we combine photon- and electron-yield experimental techniques with multi-reference first principles calculations. Exemplifi...

  4. Joint analysis of radiative and non-radiative electronic relaxation upon X-ray irradiation of transition metal aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Golnak, Ronny; Sergey I. Bokarev; Seidel, Robert; Xiao, Jie; Grell, Gilbert; Atak, Kaan; Unger, Isaak; Thürmer, Stephan; Saadullah G. Aziz; Kühn, Oliver; Winter, Bernd; Emad F. Aziz

    2016-01-01

    L-edge soft X-ray spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful tool to unravel the peculiarities of electronic structure of transition metal compounds in solution. However, the X-ray absorption spectrum is often probed in the total or partial fluorescence yield modes, what leads to inherent distortions with respect to the true transmission spectrum. In the present work, we combine photon- and electron-yield experimental techniques with multi-reference first principles calculations. Exemplifi...

  5. A study of the material in the ATLAS inner detector using secondary hadronic interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav; Zeman, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jan (2012), s. 1-39. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : transverse momentum * missing-energy * ATLAS * CERN LHC * trigger * tracks * p p scattering * pixel detector * microstrip * transition radiation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/01/P01013/pdf/1748-0221_7_01_P01013.pdf

  6. A combined ultrasonic flow meter and binary vapour mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bates; Battistin, M.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Riva, E Da; Degeorge, C.; C. Deterre; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; D. Giugni; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Berry, S.; Mathieu, M; McMahon, S.

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) evaporative coolant to a blend containing 10-25% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane). Such a change will reduce the evaporation temperature to assure thermal stability following radiation damage accumulated at full LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic instrument in which sound transit times are continuously measured in opposite directions in flowing gas at known te...

  7. Cross-calibration of the Transition Radiation Detector of AMS-02 for an Energy Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Since May 2011 the AMS-02 experiment is installed on the International Space Station and is observing cosmic radiation. It consists of several state-of-the-art sub-detectors, which redundantly measure charge and energy of traversing particles. Due to the long exposure time of AMS-02 of many years the measurement of momentum for protons and ions is limited systematically by the spatial resolution and magnetic field strength of the silicon tracker. The maximum detectable rigidity for protons is about 1.8~TV, for helium about 3.6~TV. We investigate the possibility to extend the range of the energy measurement for heavy nuclei ($Z\\geq2$) with the transition radiation detector (TRD). The response function of the TRD shows a steep increase in signal from the level of ionization at a Lorentz factor $\\gamma$ of about 500 to $\\gamma\\approx20000$, where the transition radiation signal saturates. For heavy ions the signal fluctuations in the TRD are sufficiently small to allow an energy measurement with the TRD beyond t...

  8. Magnitude of Solar Radiation Torque in the Transition Region from the Umbra to the Dark Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabette, R. E. S.; Zanardi, M. C.; Kolesnikov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of solar radiation pressure force and its influence on the motion of artificial satellites has been developed by researchers. Accurate models to describe the influence of the Earth's shadow on the torque and force due to solar radiation pressure have been presented. In this work the solar radiation torque (SRT) and its influence on the attitude of an artificial satellite are taken into account by the introduction of the Earth's shadow function in the equations of motion. This function assumes a unitary value when the satellite is in the fully illuminated region of its orbit, and the value zero for the full shade region. The main objective of this study is to analyze the magnitude of SRT using the equations described by quaternions during a 35 day period and to compare the results with the satellite transition through the shadow region and the time interval in this region. The duration and transition through the shadow region were obtained using the software "Shadow Conditions of Earth Satellites". The formulation is applied to the Brazilian Data Collection Satellites SCD1 and SCD2, and the torque model is presented in terms of the satellite attitude quaternion, distance of the satellite to the Sun, orbital elements, right ascension and declination of the Sun.

  9. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Guo, Renfeng [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhu, Maoxiang, E-mail: zhumx@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

  11. Radiative decay rates for W I, W II and W III allowed and forbidden transitions of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Quinet, Pascal; Vinogradoff, V; Palmeri, P; Biémont, Emile

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden lines in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized tungsten are discussed in the present paper. For the electric dipole transitions, recommended values are proposed from a critical evaluation of the data available in the literature. For the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions, for which no data have been published so far, a new set of radiative rates has been obtained using a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach inc...

  12. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225". ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detector s /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  13. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  14. Exploring Rotations Due to Radiation Pressure: 2-D to 3-D Transition Is Interesting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation pressure is an important topic within a standard physics course (see, in particular, Refs. 1 and 2). The physics of radiation pressure is described, the magnitude of it is derived, both for the case of a perfectly absorbing surface and of a perfect reflector, and various applications of this interesting effect are discussed, such as…

  15. Radiative rates for forbidden M1 and E2 transitions of astrophysical interest in doubly ionized iron-peak elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivet, V.; Quinet, P.; Bautista, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly ionized Fe-peak species (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) are of paramount importance for analyzing the high-resolution astrophysical spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources, such as Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula and stars like Eta Carinae. However, forbidden M1 and E2 transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly charged iron-peak ions have been investigated very little so far, and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or nonexistent. We attempt to fill that gap and provide transition probabilities for the most important forbidden lines of all doubly ionized iron-peak elements. Methods: We carried out a systematic study of the electronic structure of doubly ionized Fe-peak species. The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities were computed using the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Amaldi potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE. This multiplatform approach allowed for consistency checks and intercomparison and has proven very useful in many previous works for estimating the uncertainties affecting the radiative data. Results: We present transition probabilities for the M1 and E2 forbidden lines depopulating the metastable even levels belonging to the 3dk and 3dk-14s configurations in Sc III (k = 1), Ti III (k = 2), V III (k = 3), Cr III (k = 4), Mn III (k = 5), Fe III (k = 6), Co III (k = 7), and Ni III (k = 8).

  16. Radiative ΩQ∗→ΩQγ and ΞQ∗→ΞQ′γ transitions in light cone QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments associated with the radiative ΩQ∗→ΩQγ and ΞQ∗→ΞQ′γ transitions with Q=b or c in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. It is found that the corresponding quadrupole moments are negligibly small, while the magnetic dipole moments are considerably large. A comparison of the results of the considered multipole moments as well as corresponding decay widths with the predictions of the vector dominance model is performed

  17. Time resolved energy measurement of the Tesla test facility beam through the analysis of optical transition radiation angular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of the energy stability along the macropulse of the Tesla test facility Linac (TTFL) (1) was obtained by the measurement of the angular distribution of the optical transition radiation (OTR). This technique does not require a dispersive section and can be performed at any point of the beam line. Measurements have been performed with different settings of the RF low level control and at different values of the beam current. An energy variation along the macropulse was spread of the whole macrobunch. The analysis of the OTR angular distribution pattern allows also, to some extent, to evaluate the beam angular spread

  18. Gamma radiation and temperature influence on the chemical effect produced by isomeric transition in the telluric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the gamma radiation due to the isomeric transition is internally converted an autoionization is produced. For atoms with a high atomic number this autoionization can be a large one and produce a fragmentation in a molecule. In the specific case of the solid state these fragments remain trapped in different places of the crystalline system. This can be considered as chemical change in the original molecule. These damages produced by the nuclear transformation can be measured by different methods: heating, gamma rays, pressure, etc. In this work the results of an experimental measurement of the behavior of the crystalline telluric acid molecule fragments under gamma radiation (0 to 20 Mrads) with controlled temperature of 20C (-1960C to 500C) it is presented. It was observed that the values of the mentioned behavior vary rapidly at first for relatively low doses and that for larger doses these values remained constant. Besides with a lower temperature these variation are progressively lower. (author)

  19. Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes for transitions in Br-like ions with 38 $\\le$ Z $\\le$ 42

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in five Br-like ions (Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII and Mo VIII) are calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}). Extensive configuration interaction has been included and results are presented among the lowest 31 levels of the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations. Lifetimes for these levels have also been determined, although unfortunately no measurements are available with which to compare. However, recently theoretical results have been reported by Singh {\\em et al} [Phys. Scr. {\\bf 88} (2013) 035301] using the same {\\sc grasp} code. But their reported data for radiative rates and lifetimes cannot be reproduced and show discrepancies of up to five orders of magnitude with the present calculations.

  20. An assessment of radiation modeling strategies in simulations of laminar to transitional, oxy-methane, diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four, laboratory scale, laminar to transitional, diffusion oxy-methane flames were simulated employing different radiation modeling options and their predictions compared against experimental measurements of: temperature, flame length and radiant fraction. The models employed were: gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model, non-adiabatic extension of the equilibrium based mixture fraction model and investigations into the effects of: the thermal boundary conditions, soot and turbulence radiation interactions (TRI). Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. Flame lengths determined through the axial profiles of OH confirmed with the experimental trends by increasing with increase in fuel-inlet Reynolds numbers and decreasing with the increase in O2 composition in oxidizer. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. There were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The inclusion of soot model and TRI model did not affect our predictions as a result of low soot volume fractions and the radiation emission enhancement to the temperature fluctuations being localized to the flame sheet. -- Highlights: • Twenty four, lab scale, laminar to transitional, diffusion, oxy-methane flames were simulated. • Equilibrium model adequately predicted the temperature and flame lengths. • The experimental trends in radiant fractions were replicated. • Gray and non-gray model differences in radiant fractions were amplified at low Re. • Inclusion of soot and TRI models did not affect our predictions

  1. Laer Pulse Driven THz Generation via Resonant Transition Radiation in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Chenlong; Antonsen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An intense, short laser pulse propagating across a plasma boundary ponderomotively drives THz radiation. Full format PIC simulations and theoretical analysis are conducted to investigate the properties of this radiation. Simulation results show the THz emission originates in regions of varying density and covers a broad spectrum with maximum frequency close to the maximum plasma frequency. In the case of a sharp vacuum-plasma boundary, the radiation is generated symmetrically at the plasma entrance and exit, and its properties are independent of plasma density when the density exceeds a characteristic value determined by the product of the plasma frequency and the laser pulse duration. For a diffuse vacuum-plasma boundary, the emission from the plasma entrance and exit is asymmetric: increasing and decreasing density ramps enhance and diminish the radiated energy respectively. Enhancements by factors of 50 are found and simulations show that a 1.66 J, 50 fs driver pulse can generate ~400 \\mu J of THz radiatio...

  2. The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhuo, Junjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jiaojian; Chen, Liangfu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chu, Congying; Xie, Sangma; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states. PMID:27230218

  3. ATLAS Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  4. NUSTART: A PC code for NUclear STructure And Radiative Transition analysis and supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSTART is a computer program for the IBM PC/At. It is designed for use with the nuclear reaction cross-section code STAPLUS, which is a STAPRE-based CRAY computer code that is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NUSTART code was developed to handle large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among these levels; it operates in three modes. The Data File Error Analysis mode analyzes an existing STAPLUS input file containing the levels and their multipole transition branches for a number of physics and/or typographical errors. The Interactive Data File Generation mode allows the user to create input files of discrete levels and their branching fractions in the format required by STAPLUS, even though the user enters the information in the (different) format used by many people in the nuclear structure field. In the Branching Fractions Calculations mode, the discrete nuclear level set is read, and the multipole transitions among the levels are computed under one of two possible assumptions: (1) the levels have no collective character, or (2) the levels are all rotational band heads. Only E1, M1, and E2 transitions are considered, and the respective strength functions may be constants or, in the case of E1 transitions, the strength function may be energy dependent. The first option is used for nuclei closed shells; the bandhead option may be used to vary the E1, M1, and E2 strengths for interband transitions. K-quantum number selection rules may be invoked if desired. 19 refs

  5. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Q-balls with ATLAS. A dedicated trigger was developed and deployed for proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. It uses the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The high threshold (HT) readout capability of the TRT is used to distinguish HIPs from other background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electromagnetic calorimeters and is thereby capable of probing a larger range of HIP masses and charges. A description of the algorithm for this newly developed trigger is presented, along with a comparitive study of its performance during the 2012 data-taking period with respect to previous efforts.

  6. Joint Analysis of Radiative and Non-Radiative Electronic Relaxation Upon X-ray Irradiation of Transition Metal Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnak, Ronny; Bokarev, Sergey I.; Seidel, Robert; Xiao, Jie; Grell, Gilbert; Atak, Kaan; Unger, Isaak; Thürmer, Stephan; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kühn, Oliver; Winter, Bernd; Aziz, Emad F.

    2016-04-01

    L-edge soft X-ray spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful tool to unravel the peculiarities of electronic structure of transition metal compounds in solution. However, the X-ray absorption spectrum is often probed in the total or partial fluorescence yield modes, what leads to inherent distortions with respect to the true transmission spectrum. In the present work, we combine photon- and electron-yield experimental techniques with multi-reference first principles calculations. Exemplified for the prototypical FeCl2 aqueous solution we demonstrate that the partial yield arising from the Fe3s → 2p relaxation is a more reliable probe of the absorption spectrum than the Fe3d → 2p one. For the bonding-relevant 3d → 2p channel we further provide the basis for the joint analysis of resonant photoelectron and inelastic X-ray scattering spectra. Establishing the common energy reference allows to assign both spectra using the complementary information provided through electron-out and photon-out events.

  7. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: ajainfph@iitr.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario-L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  8. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  9. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  10. Electroweak Physics with ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Akhundov, Arif

    2008-01-01

    The precision measurements of electroweak parameters of the Standard Model with the ATLAS detector at LHC are reviewed. An emphasis is put on the bridge connecting the ATLAS measurements with the SM analysis at LEP/SLC and the Tevatron.

  11. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  12. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  13. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  14. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  15. Transition of Ki-67 index of uterine cervical tumors during radiation therapy. Immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histopathologic and Ki-67-staining features of cancer cells were investigated in biopsy specimens before and during radiation therapy in 29 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. No morphologic changes were observed up to doses of 540 cGy. A few intact cancer cells remained up to doses of 2700 cGy. Moderate changes in the cancer cells were noticed in patients who received 900 cGy or more, i.e., multinuclei, swollen nuclei and cytoplasms, and prominent large nucleoli. At doses of 1800 cGy or greater, many cancer nests had severely damaged cancer cells with features such as cytolysis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and bizarre giant cells. There was no mitosis in the cells of patients who received doses greater than 1800 cGy. The Ki-67-positive cancer cells showed diffuse nuclear-stainings and dot-stainings before radiation therapy. Radiation doses more than 900 cGy changed the staining pattern of the Ki-67 antibody; large irregular spot-stainings and ring-stainings were observed predominantly. The Ki-67 index initially increased with the radiation dose; the mean Ki-67 indices before radiation therapy and at radiation doses of 180 cGy, 540 cGy, and 900 cGy were 41%, 50%, 63%, and 68%, respectively. The indices decreased when the dose was increased further, and they were 39% and 20% at doses of 1800 cGy and 2700 cGy, respectively. Possible explanations, including recruitment of quiescent cells, for the change in Ki-67 staining are discussed

  16. Development of the coherent transition radiation FT-THz spectroscopy based on Michelson interferometer with RF detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-power terahertz radiation sources and the terahertz imaging system have been developed using an S-band compact electron linac at AIST. The linac consists of a Ce-Te photocathode RF-gun, two acceleration tubes and a magnetic bunch compressor. The linac generates the electron beam with the energy of 30 MeV, the bunch charge of 1 nC, and the bunch length of less than 1 ps. In this study, the THz radiation is generated by coherent transition radiation (CTR). We have constructed the Michelson interferometer on THz frequency range. The interferogram has been measured by changing the optical delay, frequency spectrum has been derived from it by Fourier Transform (FT). The absorption spectrum of the sample in the THz region can be obtained from the spectrum deference between w/ and w/o sample. In this paper, we will describe results of the FT-THz spectroscopy using Michelson interferometer with the THz-CTR and an RF detector. (author)

  17. Increased radiative lifetime of Tm3+:3F4 → 3H6 transition in oxyfluoride tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We prepare Tm3+-doped tellurite-zinc glasses with F− substitution. • Thermal stability becomes better with increasing F− in present glasses. • Tm3+ 1.8 μm radiative lifetime increases with F− concentration. • The origin of the increased lifetime has been discussed. - Abstract: The 1.8 μm emission properties of Tm3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses modified by the substitution of ZnF2 are investigated in this paper. The thermal stability, Raman and phonon sideband spectra, transmission and absorption spectra, emission spectra and decay curves are discussed. It is found that substitution of fluoride ions into the zinc tellurite matrix produces dramatic increase in the emission lifetime of Tm3+ 1.8 μm emission. Absorption, Raman and phonon sideband spectra are used to estimate the local structure of Tm3+ ions. These analyses indicate structural change around Tm3+ ions caused by substitution of fluoride ions monitors the increased intrinsic radiative lifetimes. An increase in the measured radiative lifetimes of the Tm3+:3F4 → 3H6 transition is observed. The origin has been discussed and the reduction of OH− absorption, decrease of maximum phonon energy and phonon density are considered to be dominant in all of the nonradiative relaxations

  18. Present status of THz coherent transition radiation source and THz time-domain spectroscopy system at AIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-power terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been developed on the basis of a compact S-band electron linac at AIST, Japan. It is strongly expected for inspection of dangerous materials in the homeland security field. The linac consists of a photocathode rf-gun, two acceleration tubes and a magnetic bunch compressor. The linac generates the 40 MeV, 1 nC electron bunch and compresses it into less than 1 ps. The THz radiation is generated in two methods with the ultra-short bunch at AIST. One is THz coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and the other is THz coherent transition radiation (CTR). In the preliminary experiment, it was observed that the focused CTR had the donut profile in the transverse field, because it has z-polarization due to the initial radial polarization. In case of the THz-TDS experiment, the CTR was controlled to linearly polarization with the polarizer and focused to an EO crystal to obtain a THz temporal waveform, which leads to THz spectrum with Fourier transform. In this paper, we will describe the details of our linac and the results of the THz-CTR-TDS experiment. (author)

  19. A radiation-hard dual channel 4-bit pipeline for a 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype with extended dynamic range for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC with extended dynamic range is presented, for use in the readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters with nominal 12-bit resolution each. The design, fabricated in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 68 dB SNDR at 18 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s while consuming 55 mW/channel from a 2.5 V supply, and exhibits no performance degradation after irradiation. Various gain selection algorithms to achieve the extended dynamic range are implemented and tested

  20. Radiation-induced tetramer-to-dimer transition of Esterichia coli lactose repressor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goffinont, S.; Davídková, Marie; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 386, č. 2 (2009), s. 300-304. ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : protein * DNA * radiation * oxidation * tetramer * dimer * lactose repressor Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2009

  1. ATLAS TDAQ application gateway upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    KOROL, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, A C; DUBROV, S; HAFEEZ, M; LEE, C J; SCANNICCHIO, D A; TWOMEY, M; VORONKOV, A; ZAYTSEV, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Gateway service is implemented with a set of dedicated computer nodes to provide a fine-grained access control between CERN General Public Network (GPN) and ATLAS Technical Control Network (ATCN). ATCN connects the ATLAS online farm used for ATLAS Operations and data taking, including the ATLAS TDAQ (Trigger and Data Aquisition) and DCS (Detector Control System) nodes. In particular, it provides restricted access to the web services (proxy), general login sessions (via SSH and RDP protocols), NAT and mail relay from ATCN. At the Operating System level the implementation is based on virtualization technologies. Here we report on the Gateway upgrade during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period: it includes the transition to the last production release of the CERN Linux distribution (SLC6), the migration to the centralized configuration management system (based on Puppet) and the redesign of the internal system architecture.

  2. Radiation-induced epilation due to couch transit dose for the Leksell Gamma Knife model C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the cause of epilation at the top of the head for 2 patients with acoustic neuromas after undergoing fractionated radiosurgery with the Leskell Gamma Knife model C. This epilation was unexpected, because the treatment planning program stated the dose at this location was 15 cm from the helmet's focus were measured. It was estimated that the 2 patients with epilation received approximately 6-7 Gy to the scalp. A shield was constructed and shown to reduce the transit dose by as much as 60%. Conclusion: The design of the helmet allows the uncollimated beams to reach areas of the patient, superior to the target, just before and after couch docking with the housing. For treatment involving a large number of shots (i.e., fractionation), off-target doses ≤8 Gy can result. For these cases, the transit dose should be considered and some form of additional shielding should be used

  3. The ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After the first three years of the LHC running the ATLAS experiment extracted it's pixel detector system to refurbish and re-position the optical readout drivers and install a new barrel layer of pixels. The experiment has also taken advantage of this access to also install a set of beam monitoring telescopes with pixel sensors, four each in the forward and backward regions. These telescopes were assembled based on chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond sensors to survive in this high radiation environment without needing extensive cooling. This talk will describe the lessons learned in construction and commissioning of the ATLAS x Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). We will show results from the construction quality assurance tests, commissioning performance, including results from cosmic ray running in early 2015 and also expected first results from LHC run 2 collisions.

  4. Atlases: Complex models of geospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Atlases content composition of maps which are different by projection, scale, format methods, contents, usage and so. Atlases can be classified by multi criteria. Modern classification of atlases by technology of making would be on: 1. classical or traditional (printed on paper and 2. electronic (made on electronic media - computer or computer station. Electronic atlases divided in three large groups: view-only electronic atlases, 2. interactive electronic atlases and 3. analytical electronic atlases.

  5. Atomic radiative transition probabilities using negative-energy orbitals in fully variational wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities have been computed using a variational many-electron theory [R. Jauregui, C.F. Bunge, E. Ley-Koo, Phys. Rev. A 55 (1997) 1781] incorporating positive-energy and negative-energy orbitals without ambiguities, and absolutely free from variational collapse. The results agree with experiment and with other calculations based on the no-pair Hamiltonian where ad hoc negative-energy orbitals occur in first-order corrections to the wave functions

  6. Total Ionizing Dose Testing of the ABC130 ASIC for the ATLAS Phase-II Semiconductor Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Morningstar, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) current inner detector was not built to withstand the radiation damage from the 3000 $\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity that is planned for the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Therefore, the ATLAS inner detector (ID) must be completely upgraded. As a part of this upgrade, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) will be replaced with new silicon microstrip sensors {[}1{]}. These silicon strips will be read out by the ABC130 chip and thus the ABC130 must be able to withstand an expected 30 Mrad of radiation over 10 years. The ABC130 chip was irradiated with 70 Mrad of x-ray radiation over the course of 2 days and the results are discussed in this report.

  7. Normal Incident Solar Radiation Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were originally downloaded from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) web site http://www.nrel.gov/gis/data_solar.html in units of...

  8. ATLAS: Black hole production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  9. ATLAS: Simulated production of a black hole

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collisions. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  10. ATLAS: Simulated production of a black hole

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  11. TOLERABILITY AND TUMOR RESPONSE OF A NOVEL LOW-DOSE PALLIATIVE RADIATION THERAPY PROTOCOL IN DOGS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER AND URETHRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kevin; Fidel, Janean

    2016-05-01

    Previously reported radiation protocols for transitional cell carcinoma of the canine lower urinary tract have been ineffective or associated with increased side effects. Objectives of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe safety of and tumor responses for a novel palliative radiation protocol for transitional cell carcinoma in dogs. Included dogs had cytologically or histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or urethra, and were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 2.7 Gy. Thirteen dogs were sampled, with six treated using radiation as first-line (induction) therapy and seven treated using radiation as rescue therapy after failing previous chemotherapy. Within 6 weeks of radiation, 7.6% (1/13) dogs had a complete response, 53.8% (7/13) partial response, 38.5% (5/13) stable disease, and none had progressive disease. Three patients presenting with urethral obstruction had spontaneous micturition restored during the treatment protocol. A single patient with unilateral ureteral obstruction was patent at recheck examination. Median survival time from time of initial diagnosis was 179 days. Median survival time from start of radiation was 150 days. Acute radiation side effects occurred in 31% (4/13) patients and were classified as grade 1 or 2. No significant late side radiation side effects were reported. No variables examined were identified as prognostic factors. Findings indicated that the reported radiation protocol was safe in this sample of dogs with bladder and urethral transitional cell carcinoma. Future prospective studies are needed to determine utility of this treatment as a rescue therapy in patients with complete urinary tract obstruction. PMID:26841125

  12. The ATLAS Inner Detector operation,data quality and tracking performance.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises silicon and gas based detectors. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking silicon devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. And the the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector is made of thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes (straws). The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The TRT is made...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Phoenix, AZ Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  14. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Portland, OR Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  15. Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, E706 (IIF)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents a method for predicting reference transition temperature adjustments for irradiated light-water cooled power reactor pressure vessel materials based on Charpy V-notch 30-ftlbf (41-J) data. Radiation damage calculative procedures have been developed from a statistical analysis of an irradiated material database that was available as of May 2000. The embrittlement correlation used in this guide was developed using the following variables: copper and nickel contents, irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence. The form of the model was based on current understanding for two mechanisms of embrittlement: stable matrix damage (SMD) and copper-rich precipitation (CRP); saturation of copper effects (for different weld materials) was included. This guide is applicable for the following specific materials, copper, nickel, and phosphorus contents, range of irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence based on the overall database: 1.1.1 MaterialsA 533 Type B Class 1 and 2, A302 Grade B, A302 G...

  16. Atomic data for radiative transitions in the third spectra of rhodium (Rh III), palladium (Pd III) and silver (Ag III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of radiative decay rates in doubly ionized rhodium (Rh III), palladium (Pd III) and silver (Ag III) has been computed by means of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree–Fock method including core-polarization effects (HFR + CPOL) and semi-empirical optimization of radial energy parameters. For these three ions, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for spectral lines appearing in the ultraviolet region from 70 to 250 nm are reported for the first time. The accuracy of these results has been estimated through the excellent agreement observed between experimental lifetime measurements and similar HFR + CPOL calculations performed recently in isoelectronic ions Ru II and Rh II. (paper)

  17. Design and performance in the first flight of the transition radiation detector and charge detector of the CREAM balloon instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument flew on a high altitude balloon in Antarctica in 2004-2005 for a record breaking 42 days. An array of detectors was deployed to identify cosmic rays and measure their energies up to several hundred TeV. A major science goal is the measurement of secondary nuclei at high energy (produced by spallation reactions of heavier cosmic rays in the interstellar medium). This is done with a transition radiation detector using xenon-filled proportional tubes, and charge identification devices comprising plastic scintillator and Cherenkov counters. Accurate and stable performance of these detectors is necessary for the reliable identification of the secondary nuclei. The design of these detectors and their performance in flight are discussed, and preliminary data presented

  18. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  19. The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernabéu , José; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Ottersbach, John; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; 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Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Villa, Mauro; Villani, Giulio; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vudragovic, Dusan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; 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Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Dennis; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xu, Da; Xu, Neng; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zambrano, Valentina; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its installation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data- taking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation, hardware commissioning and in-situ calibrations are described. Tracking performance has been measured with 7.6 million cosmic-ray events, collected using a tracking trigger and reconstructed with modular pattern-recognition and fitting software. The intrinsic hit efficiency and tracking trigger efficiencies are close to 100%. Lorentz angle measurements for both electrons and holes, specific energy-loss calibration and transition radiation turn-on measurements have been performed. Different alignment techniques have been used to reconstruct the detector geometry. After the initial alignment, a transverse impact parameter resolution of 22.1+/-0.9 {\\mu}m and a relative momentum resolution {\\sigma}p/p = (4.83+/-0.16)...

  20. Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

  1. Synchrotron radiation X-ray multiple diffraction in the study of KDP phase transition induced by electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the application of the X-ray multiple diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS to study KDP phase transition induced by electric field is discussed. A Huber three-axis (omega, phi, 2theta diffractometer mounted on a table which rotates around the incident beam allows to measure Renninger scans (RS at the XRD station of LNLS using the adequate polarization for the experiments. Prior results indicated (080 as the best choice for the KDP primary reflection and the (440( 40 four-beam case for the secondary. Two Bragg-surface diffraction (BSD reflections, where the secondary beam is propagated parallel to the sample surface, are involved in this multiple diffraction case. A RS interval of 3.3° around phi = 0° position was measured while the electric field was increased up to 6 kV/cm. At this value, a phase transition was observed and the secondary peaks became narrower and changed their RS position indicating possible occurrence of a metastable ferroelectric phase.

  2. Synchrotron radiation X-ray multiple diffraction in the study of KDP phase transition induced by electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the application of the X-ray multiple diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS) to study KDP phase transition induced by electric field is discussed. A Huber three-axis (ω, φ, 2θ) diffractometer mounted on a table which rotates around the incident beam allows to measure Renninger scans (RS) at the XRD station of LNLS using the adequate polarization for the experiments. Prior results indicated (080) as the best choice for the KDP primary reflection and the (440)(4-bar 40) four-beam case for the secondary. Two Bragg-surface diffraction reflections, where the secondary beam is propagated parallel to the sample surface, are involved in this multiple diffraction case. A RS interval of 3.3 deg around φ = 0 deg position was measured while the electric field was increased up to 6 kV/cm. At this value, a phase transition was observed and the secondary peaks became narrower and changed their RS position indicating possible occurrence of a metastable ferroelectric phase. (author)

  3. Bottomonium spectroscopy and radiative transitions involving the chi_bJ(1P,2P) states at BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Lees, J P

    2014-01-01

    We use $(121\\pm1)$ million $\\Upsilon(3S)$ and $(98\\pm1)$ million $\\Upsilon(2S)$ mesons recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II $e^+e^-$ collider at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions involving the $\\chi_{b\\mathrm{J}}(1P,2P)$ states in exclusive decays with $\\mu^+\\mu^-\\gamma\\gamma$ final states. We reconstruct twelve channels in four cascades using two complementary methods. In the first we identify both signal photon candidates in the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC), employ a calorimeter timing-based technique to reduce backgrounds, and determine branching-ratio products and fine mass splittings. These results include the best observational significance yet for the $\\chi_{b0}(2P)\\rightarrow\\gamma\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\chi_{b0}(1P)\\rightarrow\\gamma\\Upsilon(1S)$ transitions. In the second method, we identify one photon candidate in the EMC and one which has converted into an $e^+e^-$ pair due to interaction with detector material, and we measure absolute product branching fractions. This metho...

  4. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; Berghaus, Frank; Brasolin, Franco; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for ma...

  5. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; The ATLAS collaboration; Berghaus, Frank; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  6. Radiative decay rates for W I, W II and W III allowed and forbidden transitions of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden lines in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized tungsten are discussed in the present paper. For the electric dipole transitions, recommended values are proposed from a critical evaluation of the data available in the literature. For the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions, for which no data have been published so far, a new set of radiative rates has been obtained using a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach including core-polarization effects. The tables summarizing the compiled data are expected to be useful for plasma modelling in fusion reactors.

  7. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of transitions in Yb I using UV and deep-UV cw laser light and the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the third harmonic of a cw titanium:sapphire laser, the hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) of three deep-UV transitions of neutral Yb have been measured for the first time. By exploiting the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation, accurate and complete results are obtained for the HFS and IS of the 398.8 nm transition of Yb. From the measured data, normal and specific mass shift as well as field shift values for all transitions considered have been derived. (author)

  8. TRTViewer: the ATLAS TRT detector monitoring and diagnostics tool.

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, S Yu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-walled drift tubes (straws), providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 um resolution for charged particle tracks. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws, thus enabling the detector to separate electrons from pions over the energy range between 1 and 200 GeV. The TRT performance and its operation conditions have been permanently monitored during all commissioning and data-taking periods using various software tools, one of which - TRTViewer - is described in the present paper. The TRTViewer is the dedicated program for monitoring the TRT raw data quality and detector performance at different hard...

  9. TRTViewer: The ATLAS TRT detector monitoring and diagnosticstool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS inner detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is designed to combine the drift tube tracker with the transition radiation detector, providing an important contribution to the charged particles precise momentum measurement and particle (mainly electron) identification. The TRT consists of a barrel section at small pseudorapidity (η) and two separate end-cap partitions at large η. The detector performance and its operational conditions were permanently monitored during all commissioning and data-taking stages using various software tools, one of which - TRTViewer - is described in the present paper. The TRTViewer is the dedicated program for monitoring the TRT raw data quality and detector performance at different hardware levels: individual straws, readout chips and electronic boards. The data analysis results can be presented on the event-by-event basis or in the form of color maps representing the operation parameters (efficiencies, timing, occupancy, etc.) according to the real geometrical position of the detector hardware elements. The paper describes the TRTViewer software package as the event displaying tool, raw data processor and histogram and operation parameters presenter, which works with the different sources of input information: raw data files, online monitoring histograms, offline analysis histograms and TRT DAQ Configuration database. The package proved to be one of the main instruments for the fast and effective TRT diagnostics during debugging and operation periods.

  10. Use of transition radiation detectors (TRD's) for B tagging/triggering in future collider or fixed target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD's) have been used successfully for particle identification in high energy physics experiments over approximately the last ten years. They have been utilized in a variety of experimental environments, including the Intersecting Storage Rings at CERN, hadron collider experiments at the CERN SppS and at the Fermilab Tevatron, and an internal gas jet target experiment at the CERN SppS as well as fixed target experiments at both laboratories. The primary application has been electron identification, but, more recently, they have been used to identify hadrons as well, including both primary beam particles and secondaries in the very forward region of a multiparticle spectrometer. These versatile detectors show great promise for use in the identification of B decay products in future heavy quark experiments at hadron accelerators. While their anticipated role in the central or moderately forward region of the collider would be to identify electrons, in fixed target or in the very forward collider region, they would be expected instead to discriminate among hadron species. This is because the total TR energy radiated is proportional to the Lorentz factor, γ, of the the charged particle. Thus, a TRD which open-quote turns on close-quote for electrons between 1 and 2 GeV demonstrates the same response to pions only when they reach an energy of 250-500 GeV

  11. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  12. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector; Controle et etalonnage par lumiere laser et par faisceaux de muons du calorimetre hadronique a tuiles scintillantes d'ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, V

    2003-10-15

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  13. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marcisovsky, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  14. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  15. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  16. A Cherenkov Detector for Monitoring ATLAS Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrizzi, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    LUCID (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the monitor of the luminosity delivered by the LHC accelerator to the ATLAS experiment. The detector is made of two symmetric arms deployed at about 17 m from the ATLAS interaction point. Each arm consists of an aluminum vessel containing 20 tubes, 15 mm diameter and 1500 mm length, and a Cherenkov gaseous radiator (C4F10) at about 1.1 bar absolute. The light generated by charged particles above the Cherenkov threshold is collected by photomultiplier tubes (PMT) directly placed at the tubes end. Thanks to an intrinsically fast response and to its custom readout electronics, LUCID estimates the number of interactions per LHC bunch crossing and provides an interaction trigger to the ATLAS experiment. The relevant details of the detector design and the expexted performance based on Monte Carlo simulations are presented, together with the first results obtained with pp collisions produced by LHC.

  17. Studies of nematic to smectic-A phase transitions using synchrotron radiation. Experimental techniques and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution X-ray diffraction on liquid crystals, with a triple-axis spectrometer, was initiated 4-5 years ago, using rotating-anode sources. The triple-axis spectrometer, built at Risoe, is permanently positioned at the DORIS storage ring. Triple-axis X-ray spectrometer work in general and especially at the synchrotron source is a new field and a description of the techniques used is given. The experiments described are studies of the nematic to smectic-A phase transition in liquid crystals. The first is a study of the monomolecular liquid crystal 8-barS5 (C8H17O-phi-COS-phi-C5H11, where phi denotes a benzene ring). The second experimental study is one of the reentrance phenomenon in the ternary mixture: 5CTsub(.09):7CBsub(.x):80CBsub(.91-x); where 5CT(C5H11-phi-phi-phi-CN) and 7CB(C7H15-phi-phi-CN) have only a nematic phase and not the smectic-A phase. The results are interpreted in terms of Landau theory. Finally, a frame is given for discussing the nature of the smectic-A phase and an experiment is proposed to explore the nature of the smectic-A phase together with detailed calculations of (001)- and (002)-lineshapes for the smectic-A phase. (Auth.)

  18. Numerical simulation of turbulence transition and sound radiation for flow through a rigid glottal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jungsoo; Frankel, Steven H

    2007-06-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES)-based computational aeroacoustics techniques were applied to a static model of the human glottis, idealized here as a planar channel with an orifice, to study flow-acoustic interactions related to speech. Rigid models of both converging and diverging glottal passages, each featuring a 20 deg included angle and a minimal glottal diameter of 0.04 cm, with an imposed transglottal pressure of 15 cm H2O, were studied. The Favre-filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations were integrated for this low-Mach-number flow using an additive semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method and a high-order compact finite-difference scheme with characteristic-based nonreflecting boundary conditions and a multiblock approach. Flow asymmetries related to the Coanda effect and transition to turbulence, as well as the far-field sound, were captured. Acoustic-analogy-based far-field sound predictions were compared with direct simulations and showed that dipole sources, arising from unsteady flow forces exerted on the glottal walls, are primarily responsible for the tonal sound observed in the divergent glottis case. PMID:17552723

  19. Power Distribution for the ATLAS LAr Trigger Digitizer Board

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The research activity for the design of the power distribution section of the ATLAS LAr Trigger Digitizer Board board (LTDB) will be presented. Many aspects concerning the radiation hardness and the ability to operate Point-of-load converters even in presence of high magnetic fields will be covered. Devices designed by CERN have been used and their capability for implementation on the ATLAS LTDB has been exploited with the aim to have a power distribution section with the required performances.

  20. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  1. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  2. Dark matter searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter particles may be produced at the LHC in combination with other particles, typically from initial state radiation. We present results from the ATLAS experiment from searches for phenomena with jets, photons, heavy quarks, electroweak gauge bosons, or Higgs bosons recoiling against large missing transverse momentum. The measurements are interpreted using several theoretical frameworks including simplified models with pair production of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, effective field theories, and other beyond the Standard Model scenarios. Constraints from dijet searches are compared with results from the “Mono-X” searches to provide a combined interpretation in the context of simplified models.

  3. Radiative Transition Line Shape in Warm and Dense Argon Plasma: a Two-Centre Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Cong-Sen; ZHAO Zeng-Xiu; YUAN Jian-Min

    2008-01-01

    A two-centre model is employed to study the electronic structure of argon plasma at a density of 1022cm-3 and a temperature of 5eV. The model takes into account the influence of the nearest neighbour on the electronic structure of the radiator and gives a proper description of the transient molecular behaviour in dense plasmas where the mean interatomic distance can be the order of the orbital spatial extent. The orbital energies of quasi-molecular Ar,2 against the interatomic distance are calculated in the framework of density functional theory. It is shown that the orbital energies are not monotonic functions of the distance because of two competitive effects: the repulsive potential between electrons and the attractive potential between electrons and nuclei. The characteristics of this two-centre system can be categorized by three regimes depending on the ratio between the electron wavelength and the interatomic distance: atomic regime, screened atomic regime, and quasi-molecular regime. This classification agrees qualitatively with the conclusion of full quantum-mechanical approach [Yonger S M et al 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61962].

  4. Chemical freeze-out in Hawking-Unruh radiation and quark-hadron transition

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Elyazeed, Eman R Abo

    2015-01-01

    The proposed analogy between hadron production in high-energy collisions and Hawking-Unruh radiation process in the black holes shall be extended. This mechanism provides a theoretical basis for the freeze-out parameters, the temperature ($T$) and the baryon chemical potential ($\\mu$), characterizing the final state of particle production. The results from charged black holes, in which the electric charge is related to $\\mu$, are found comparable with the phenomenologically deduced parameters from the ratios of various particle species and the higher-order moments of net-proton multiplicity in thermal statistical models and Polyakov linear-sigma model. Furthermore, the resulting freeze-out condition $\\langle E\\rangle/\\langle N\\rangle\\simeq 1~$GeV for average energy per particle is in good agreement with the hadronization process in the high-energy experiments. For the entropy density ($s$), the freeze-out condition $s/T^3\\simeq7$ remains valid for $\\mu\\lesssim 0.3~$GeV. Then, due to the dependence of $T$ on $...

  5. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  6. Transition radiation detector of the experience NOMAD for the τ identification in the channel: τ- → e-ν-bare ντ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a work included in an experiment of research concerning neutrino oscillations in the channel νμ → ντ at CERN (NOMAD-WA96). This experiments need several detectors, and particularly a transition radiation detector with specific characteristics. The work consists, in a first part, in the study of neutrino physic and of the NOMAD detector. In a second part, the report presents how was implemented the transition radiation detector and how works the simulation of a such radiation. Then, the detector is optimised by comparing experiments and simulations; the thesis also presents how to control the detector. The last part talks about algorithms of pions-electrons separation. (TEC). 95 refs., 78 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Transition of radiative recombination channels from delocalized states to localized states in a GaInP alloy with partial atomic ordering: a direct optical signature of Mott transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Z. C.; Ning, J. Q.; Deng, Z.; Wang, X. H.; Xu, S. J.; Wang, R. X.; Lu, S. L.; Dong, J. R.; Yang, H.

    2016-03-01

    Anderson localization is a predominant phenomenon in condensed matter and materials physics. In fact, localized and delocalized states often co-exist in one material. They are separated by a boundary called the mobility edge. Mott transition may take place between these two regimes. However, it is widely recognized that an apparent demonstration of Anderson localization or Mott transition is a challenging task. In this article, we present a direct optical observation of a transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from delocalized (i.e., local extended) states to Anderson localized states in the GaInP base layer of a GaInP/GaAs single junction solar cell by the means of the variable-temperature electroluminescence (EL) technique. It is found that by increasing temperature, we can boost a remarkable transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from the delocalized states to the localized states. The delocalized states are induced by the local atomic ordering domains (InP/GaP monolayer superlattices) while the localized states are caused by random distribution of indium (gallium) content. The efficient transfer and thermal redistribution of carriers between the two kinds of electronic states was revealed to result in both a distinct EL mechanism transition and an electrical resistance evolution with temperature. Our study gives rise to a self-consistent precise picture for carrier localization and transfer in a GaInP alloy, which is an extremely technologically important energy material for fabricating high-efficiency photovoltaic devices.

  8. Transition of radiative recombination channels from delocalized states to localized states in a GaInP alloy with partial atomic ordering: a direct optical signature of Mott transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Z C; Ning, J Q; Deng, Z; Wang, X H; Xu, S J; Wang, R X; Lu, S L; Dong, J R; Yang, H

    2016-03-24

    Anderson localization is a predominant phenomenon in condensed matter and materials physics. In fact, localized and delocalized states often co-exist in one material. They are separated by a boundary called the mobility edge. Mott transition may take place between these two regimes. However, it is widely recognized that an apparent demonstration of Anderson localization or Mott transition is a challenging task. In this article, we present a direct optical observation of a transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from delocalized (i.e., local extended) states to Anderson localized states in the GaInP base layer of a GaInP/GaAs single junction solar cell by the means of the variable-temperature electroluminescence (EL) technique. It is found that by increasing temperature, we can boost a remarkable transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from the delocalized states to the localized states. The delocalized states are induced by the local atomic ordering domains (InP/GaP monolayer superlattices) while the localized states are caused by random distribution of indium (gallium) content. The efficient transfer and thermal redistribution of carriers between the two kinds of electronic states was revealed to result in both a distinct EL mechanism transition and an electrical resistance evolution with temperature. Our study gives rise to a self-consistent precise picture for carrier localization and transfer in a GaInP alloy, which is an extremely technologically important energy material for fabricating high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. PMID:26960547

  9. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  10. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV. The grasp (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. For determining the collision strengths, and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (darc) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are provided for all 49 levels of the above five ions. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 108 K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained using the flexible atomic code (fac) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calculations with darc, in the determination of effective collision strengths. Discrepancies between the collision strengths from darc and fac, particularly for some forbidden transitions, are also discussed. Finally, discrepancies between the present results for effective collision strengths with the darc code and earlier semi-relativistic R-matrix data are noted over a wide range of electron temperatures for many transitions in all ions. (paper)

  11. Novel digital K-edge imaging system with transition radiation from an 855-MeV electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenbuck, F; Clawiter, N; Euteneuer, H; Görgen, F; Holl, P; Johann, K; Kiser, K H; Kemmer, J; Kerschner, T; Kettig, O; Koch, H; Kube, G; Lauth, W; Mauhay, H; Schütrumpf, M; Stotter, R; Strüder, L; Walcher, T; Wilms, A; von Zanthier, C; Zemter, M

    2001-01-01

    A novel K-edge imaging method has been developed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI aiming at a very efficient use of the transition radiation (TR) flux generated by the external 855-MeV electron beam in a foil stack. A fan-like quasi-monochromatic hard X-ray beam is produced from the +or-1-mrad-wide TR cone with a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal. The absorption of the object in front of a 30 mm*10 mm pn charge-coupled device (pn-CCD) photon detector is measured at every pixel by a broad-band energy scan around the K-absorption edge. This is accomplished by a synchronous variation of the lateral crystal position and the electron beam direction which defines also the direction of the TR cone. The system has been checked with a phantom consisting of a 2.5- mu m thick molybdenum sample embedded in a 136- or 272- mu m-thick copper bulk foil. A numerical analysis of the energy spectrum for every pixel demonstrates that data as far as +or-0.75 keV away from the K edge of molybdenum at 20 keV still improv...

  12. Retinal thermal damage threshold dependence on exposure duration for the transitional near-infrared laser radiation at 1319 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiarui; Jiao, Luguang; Jing, Xiaomin; Chen, Hongxia; Hu, Xiangjun; Yang, Zaifu

    2016-01-01

    The retinal damage effects induced by transitional near-infrared (NIR) lasers have been investigated for years. However, the damage threshold dependence on exposure duration has not been revealed. In this paper, the in-vivo retinal damage ED50 thresholds were determined in chinchilla grey rabbits for 1319 nm laser radiation for exposure durations from 0.1 s to 10 s. The incident corneal irradiance diameter was fixed at 5 mm. The ED50 thresholds given in terms of the total intraocular energy (TIE) for exposure durations of 0.1, 1 and 10 s were 1.36, 6.33 and 28.6 J respectively. The ED50 thresholds were correlated by a power law equation, ED50 = 6.31t0.66 [J] where t is time [s], with correlation coefficient R = 0.9999. There exists a sufficient safety margin (factor of 28~60) between the human ED50 thresholds derived from the rabbit and the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values in the current laser safety standards. PMID:27231639

  13. Retinal thermal damage threshold dependence on exposure duration for the transitional near-infrared laser radiation at 1319 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiarui; Jiao, Luguang; Jing, Xiaomin; Chen, Hongxia; Hu, Xiangjun; Yang, Zaifu

    2016-05-01

    The retinal damage effects induced by transitional near-infrared (NIR) lasers have been investigated for years. However, the damage threshold dependence on exposure duration has not been revealed. In this paper, the in-vivo retinal damage ED50 thresholds were determined in chinchilla grey rabbits for 1319 nm laser radiation for exposure durations from 0.1 s to 10 s. The incident corneal irradiance diameter was fixed at 5 mm. The ED50 thresholds given in terms of the total intraocular energy (TIE) for exposure durations of 0.1, 1 and 10 s were 1.36, 6.33 and 28.6 J respectively. The ED50 thresholds were correlated by a power law equation, ED50 = 6.31t (0.66) [J] where t is time [s], with correlation coefficient R = 0.9999. There exists a sufficient safety margin (factor of 28~60) between the human ED50 thresholds derived from the rabbit and the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values in the current laser safety standards. PMID:27231639

  14. Radiative and nonradiative exciton energy transfer in monolayers of two-dimensional group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolatou, Christina; Wang, Haining; Chan, Weimin; Tiwari, Sandip; Rana, Farhan

    2016-04-01

    We present results on the rates of interlayer energy transfer between excitons in monolayers of two-dimensional group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). We consider both radiative (mediated by real photons) and nonradiative (mediated by virtual photons) mechanisms of energy transfer using a unified Green's function approach that takes into account modification of the exciton energy dispersions as a result of interactions. The large optical oscillator strengths associated with excitons in TMDs result in very fast energy transfer rates. The energy transfer times depend on the exciton momentum, exciton linewidth, and the interlayer separation and can range from values less than 100 femtoseconds to more than tens of picoseconds. Whereas inside the light cone the energy transfer rates of longitudinal and transverse excitons are comparable, outside the light cone the energy transfer rates of longitudinal excitons far exceed those of transverse excitons. Average energy transfer times for a thermal ensemble of longitudinal and transverse excitons is temperature dependent and can be smaller than a picosecond at room temperature for interlayer separations smaller than 10 nm. Energy transfer times of localized excitons range from values less than a picosecond to several tens of picoseconds. When the exciton scattering and dephasing rates are small, energy transfer dynamics exhibit coherent oscillations. Our results show that electromagnetic interlayer energy transfer can be an efficient mechanism for energy exchange between TMD monolayers.

  15. The Phase-2 Upgrade of the Silicon Strip Tracker of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performs extremely well in operation. About 26 fb-1 of data have been collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 and at 8 TeV in 2012. Meanwhile, a phased upgrade of the LHC is planned and in about ten years from now the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is foreseen. By luminosity levelling and a ten times higher LHC design luminosity the delivery of about 3000 fb-1 is envisaged. To cope with the severe radiation dose and high particle rates, an upgrade of several detector components of the ATLAS experiment is required. The inner detector and transition radiation tracker will be replaced by an all silicon tracking detector. The report focuses on the Phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS silicon strip detector. It gives an overview of the concept and highlight technology choices for the upgrade strip tracker. The developments towards low mass and modular double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region are discussed. The current status of prototyping, assembly procedures a...

  16. Sensor studies of n+-in-n planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning upgrades of its pixel detector to cope with the luminosity increase foreseen in the coming years within the transition from LHC to Super-LHC (SLHC/HL-LHC). Associated with an increase in instantaneous luminosity is a rise of the target integrated luminosity from 730 fb-1 to about 3000 fb-1 which directly translates into significantly higher radiation damage. These upgrades consist of the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL, with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis, before 2016/17. In addition, the complete pixel detector will be exchanged before 2020/21. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5.1015neqcm-2 at their end-of-life. The total fluence of the innermost pixel layer after the SLHC upgrade might even reach 2.1016neqcm-2. We have performed systematic measurements of planar pixel detectors based on the current ATLAS readout chip FE-I3 and obtained first experience with the new IBL readout chip FE-I4. First results will be presented.

  17. Soft QCD at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoob, Sahal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The talk will summarise measurements of the total inelastic proton-proton cross-section and charged particle distributions by ATLAS and CMS at 13 TeV. These measurements provide necessary inputs to non-perturbative models of soft QCD, and the transition region between non-perturbative and perturbative calculations. The results are compared to popular Monte-Carlo generators in collider, and cosmic shower physics.

  18. The ATLAS pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinziani, M.

    2007-01-01

    After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

  19. ATLAS Thesis Awards 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on Thursday 25 February. The winners also presented their work in front of members of the ATLAS Collaboration. Winners: Javier Montejo Berlingen, Barcelona (Spain), Ruth Pöttgen, Mainz (Germany), Nils Ruthmann, Freiburg (Germany), and Steven Schramm, Toronto (Canada).

  20. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  1. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    La Givrine near St Cergue Cross Country Skiing and Fondue at Basse Ruche with M Nordberg, P Jenni, M Nessi, F Gianotti and Co. ATLAS Management Fondu dinner, reviewing state of play of the experiment Many fun scenes from cross country skiing and after 41 minutes of the film starts the fondue dinner in a nice chalet with many persons working for ATLAS experiment

  2. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Budker Nuclear Physics Institute, Novosibirsk Sequence 1 Shots of aircraft factory where machining for ATLAS is done Shots of aircraft Work on components for ATLAS big wheel Discussions between Tikhonov and Nordberg in workshop Sequence 2 Shots of downtown Novosibirsk, including little church which is mid-point of Russian Federation Sequence 3 Interview of Yuri Tikhonov by Andrew Millington

  3. A Slice of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An entire section of the ATLAS detector is being assembled at Prévessin. Since May the components have been tested using a beam from the SPS, giving the ATLAS team valuable experience of operating the detector as well as an opportunity to debug the system.

  4. ATLAS brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  5. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  6. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  7. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  8. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  9. ATLAS brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  10. ATLAS brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  11. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  12. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  13. ATLAS Virtual Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS Virtual Visits is a project initiated in 2011 for the Education & Outreach program of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Its goal is to promote public appreciation of the LHC physics program and particle physics, in general, through direct dialogue between ATLAS physicists and remote audiences. A Virtual Visit is an IP-based videoconference, coupled with a public webcast and video recording, between ATLAS physicists and remote locations around the world, that typically include high school or university classrooms, Masterclasses, science fairs, or other special events, usually hosted by collaboration members. Over the past two years, more than 10,000 people, from all of the world’s continents, have actively participated in ATLAS Virtual Visits, with many more enjoying the experience from the publicly available webcasts and recordings. We present an overview of our experience and discuss potential development for the future.

  14. Software Validation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS collaboration operates an extensive set of protocols to validate the quality of the offline software in a timely manner. This is essential in order to process the large amounts of data being collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 without complications on the offline software side. We will discuss a number of different strategies used to validate the ATLAS offline software; running the ATLAS framework software, Athena, in a variety of configurations daily on each nightly build via the ATLAS Nightly System (ATN) and Run Time Tester (RTT) systems; the monitoring of these tests and checking the compilation of the software via distributed teams of rotating shifters; monitoring of and follow up on bug reports by the shifter teams and periodic software cleaning weeks to improve the quality of the offline software further.

  15. Dear ATLAS colleagues,

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/news/news_mali.php) many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  16. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m **2 and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 cm**-**2 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degree C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary radhard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminiutn/Kapton tapes and cooled by C//3F//8 evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected flue...

  17. Remote control of ATLAS-MPX Network and Data Visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS-MPX Network is a network of 15 Medipix2-based detector devices, installed in various positions in the ATLAS detector at CERN, Geneva. The aim of the network is to perform a real-time measurement of the spectral characteristics and the composition of radiation inside the ATLAS detector during its operation. The remote control system of ATLAS-MPX controls and configures all the devices from one place, via a web interface, accessible from different operating systems. The Data Visualization application, also with a web interface, has been developed in order to present measured data to the scientific community. It allows to browse through recorded frames from all devices and to search for specific frames by date and time. Charts containing the number of different types of tracks in each frame as a function of time may be rendered from the database.

  18. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result

  19. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Wouters, Johan [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result.

  20. Optical Link of the Atlas Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, K. K.

    2007-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 32 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2) and the experience from the production.

  1. The discrimination between cosmic positrons and protons with the Transition Radiation Detector of the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    Millinger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development and validation of a particle identification method with the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 to allow for the determination of the positron fraction in the cosmic lepton flux. Independent measurements indicate that a significant amount of about 23% of the energy density in the universe consists of an unknown mass contribution, the so-called Dark Matter. The Neutralino, as the most popular Dark Matter partic...

  2. Prospective randomized double-blind study of atlas-based organ-at-risk autosegmentation-assisted radiation planning in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) for radiotherapy (RT) planning are manually defined, which is a tedious and inaccurate process. We sought to assess the feasibility, time reduction, and acceptability of an atlas-based autosegmentation (AS) compared to manual segmentation (MS) of OARs. Materials and methods: A commercial platform generated 16 OARs. Resident physicians were randomly assigned to modify AS OAR (AS + R) or to draw MS OAR followed by attending physician correction. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to measure overlap between groups compared with attending approved OARs (DSC = 1 means perfect overlap). 40 cases were segmented. Results: Mean ± SD segmentation time in the AS + R group was 19.7 ± 8.0 min, compared to 28.5 ± 8.0 min in the MS cohort, amounting to a 30.9% time reduction (Wilcoxon p < 0.01). For each OAR, AS DSC was statistically different from both AS + R and MS ROIs (all Steel–Dwass p < 0.01) except the spinal cord and the mandible, suggesting oversight of AS/MS processes is required; AS + R and MS DSCs were non-different. AS compared to attending approved OAR DSCs varied considerably, with a chiasm mean ± SD DSC of 0.37 ± 0.32 and brainstem of 0.97 ± 0.03. Conclusions: Autosegmentation provides a time savings in head and neck regions of interest generation. However, attending physician approval remains vital

  3. Curcumin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells transformed by low doses of radiation and estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of global mortality in women. Curcumin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-migratory and apoptotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An in vitro model was developed with the MCF-10F immortalized breast epithelial cell line exposed to low radiation doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α-particles (150 keV/µm) and cultured in the presence of 17β-estradiol (estrogen). The following cell lines were used: i) MCF-10F, normal; ii) Alpha5, pre-tumorigenic, and iii) Tumor2 derived from Alpha5 injected into the nude mice. Our previous results have shown that Alpha5 and Tumor2 increased cell proliferation, anchorage independency, invasive capabilities and tumor formation in nude mice in comparison to control. Results indicated that curcumin decreased expression of EMT-related genes in Tumor2 cell line when compared to its counterpart as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, ZEB2, Twist1, Slug, Axl, vimentin, STAT-3, fibronectin; and genes p53 and caveolin-1, as well as apoptotic genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and others such as cyclin D1 and NFκB. All these changes induced a decrease in migratory and invasive capabilities of such a cell line. Thus, it seems that curcumin may impinge upon apoptosis and metastatic properties of the malignant cells exerting antitumor activity in breast cancer cells transformed by low doses of α-particles and estrogen in vitro. PMID:27082017

  4. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV. PMID:17317923

  5. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Cl XVI, K XVIII, Ca XIX and Sc XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Cl XVI, K XVIII, Ca XIX and Sc XX. The GRASP (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. To determine the collision strengths and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 107.4 K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained from the flexible atomic code (FAC) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calculations with DARC, in the determination of effective collision strengths. Discrepancies between the collision strengths from DARC and FAC, particularly for forbidden transitions, are also discussed. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are listed for all the 49 levels of the above four ions.

  6. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  7. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  8. ATLAS Forward Detectors and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, N

    2010-01-01

    In this communication I describe the ATLAS forward physics program and the detectors, LUCID, ZDC and ALFA that have been designed to meet this experimental challenge. In addition to their primary role in the determination of ATLAS luminosity these detectors - in conjunction with the main ATLAS detector - will be used to study soft QCD and diffractive physics in the initial low luminosity phase of ATLAS running. Finally, I will briefly describe the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project that currently represents the future of the ATLAS forward physics program.

  9. Recent QCD results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pleskot, Vojtech; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has has performed several measurements of phenomena connected to QCD at soft scales or at the transition to the hard regime. These include the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies in Run-1 and Run-2 of the elastic, inelastic and total cross sections in pp collisions, the properties of minimum bias and the underlying event interactions, particle production and their correlations, as well as of diffractive and exclusive events. These results are sensitive to non-perturbative models of soft QCD. Jet and photon production cross sections have been measured differentially for inclusive and multi-object final states at 7, 8 and 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector and are compared to expectations based on next-to-leading order QCD calculations as well as Monte Carlo simulations. Further studies of jet production properties include the measurements of jet properties, and the determination of the strong coupling constant alpha_s. These measurements provide direct probes of short-distance phy...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - EnviroAtlas Community Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas Community. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the...

  11. Synchrotron radiation studies of local structure and bonding in transition metal aluminides and rare earth transition metal magnetic nitrides. Final report, August 1, 1990--July 14, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following areas of study are reported on: bonding and near neighbor force constants in NiAl, CoAl, FeAl via temperature dependent EXAFS; alloys formed when Fe or Ga is microalloyed into a NiAl matrix; EXAFS studies of nitrided versus non nitrided Y2Fe17; and transition metal x-ray spectra as related to magnetic moments

  12. Determinazione delle Prestazioni del Sistema Tracciante di ATLAS con i Primi Dati

    CERN Document Server

    Favareto, Andrea; Andreazza, Attilio

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is a charged particle tracking system built on three subdetectors: silicon detectors, Pixel and SCT, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. They provide high precision measurements with fine granularity. The performance of the track reconstruction and the resolution on track parameters are studied in detail with the first data. This study is essential for all physics analysis and for the understanding of the detector during the commissioning phase. In particular, tracking allows to discriminate charged particles sign and to determine their momentum. Furthermore it allows to reconstruct primary vertices of interactions and to identify, through secondary vertices, particles with an average life long enough to cover a significant path within detector.

  13. Performance and future development of the ASDBLR ASIC for the ATLAS TRT

    CERN Document Server

    Bevensee, B E; Newcomer, F M; Tyrrell, B; Van Berg, R; Williams, H H; Romaniouk, A

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS TRT straw tracker will consist of more than 420 K straw tubes filled with a Xenon-based fast gas located in a magnetic field of 2 T. Some tubes will operate at rates in excess of 20 MHz. Stringent signal processing goals $9 have been determined using both simulation tools and measurement standards set by hand tuned discrete component prototypes. These include the ability to detect the earliest clusters from ionizing tracks as well as energetic $9 transition radiation photons without baseline shifts in a low noise and low power design. We report on measurements of two ASIC's fabricated in different processes that appear to be capable of achieving these goals. (2 refs).

  14. ATLAS Event - First Splash of Particles in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2008-01-01

    A simulated event. September 10, 2008 - The ATLAS detector lit up as a flood of particles traversed the detector when the beam was occasionally directed at a target near ATLAS. This allowed ATLAS physicists to study how well the various components of the detector were functioning in preparation for the forthcoming collisions. The first ATLAS data recorded on September 10, 2008 is seen here. Running time 24 seconds

  15. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2006-01-01

    CERN, Building 40 Interview with theorist Mr. Philip Hinchliffe (Berkeley) as well an interview with his wife Mrs. Hinchliffe who is also Physics Department head at Berkeley. They are both working in ATLAS Experiment.

  16. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS Physics Workshop at the University of Roma Tre held from Monday 06 June 2005 to Saturday 11 June 2005. Experts establishing workshop, poster, people milling Shots of Peter Jenni introduction Many audience shots Sequences from various talks

  17. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  18. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  19. ATLAS Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The poster details the different aspects of the ATLAS Distributed Computing experience after the first year of LHC data taking. We describe the performance of the ATLAS distributed computing system and the lessons learned during the 2010 run, pointing out parts of the system which were in a good shape, and also spotting areas which required improvements. Improvements ranged from hardware upgrade on the ATLAS Tier-0 computing pools to improve data distribution rates, tuning of FTS channels between CERN and Tier-1s, and studying data access patterns for Grid analysis to improve the global processing rate. We show recent software development driven by operational needs with emphasis on data management and job execution in the ATLAS production system.

  20. General Dynamics Atlas family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, James

    Developments concerning the Atlas family of launch vehicles over the last three or four years are summarized. Attention is given to the center of gravity, load factors, acoustics, pyroshock, low-frequency sinusoidal vibration, and high-frequency random vibration.

  1. ATLAS Cavern baseplate

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the incredible amounth of iron used for ATLAS cavern. Please look at the related links and also videos that are concerning the civil engineering where you can see even more detailed cavern excavation work.

  2. The Latest from ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Since November 2008, ATLAS has undertaken detailed maintenance, consolidation and repair work on the detector (see Bulletin of 20 July 2009). Today, the fraction of the detector that is operational has increased compared to last year: less than 1% of dead channels for most of the sub-systems. "We are going to start taking data this year with a detector which is even more efficient than it was last year," agrees ATLAS Spokesperson, Fabiola Gianotti. By mid-September the detector was fully closed again, and the cavern sealed. The magnet system has been operated at nominal current for extensive periods over recent months. Once the cavern was sealed, ATLAS began two weeks of combined running. Right now, subsystems are joining the run incrementally until the point where the whole detector is integrated and running as one. In the words of ATLAS Technical Coordinator, Marzio Nessi: "Now we really start physics." In parallel, the analysis ...

  3. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  4. Development of n.sup.+./sup.-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 765, Nov (2014), s. 80-90. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon strip * n + -in-p * P-type * Radiation-tolerant * HL-LHC * PTP Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  5. Relativistic many-body calculations of excitation energy and radiative transition probabilities for many-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy levels, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric dipole nl1nl2[LSJ]-nl3nl4[L'S'J'] transition in Be- (n=2), Mg- (n=3), Zn- (n=4) and Sm- (n=5) like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z=N to 100 where N is number of electron in system. (author)

  6. ATLAS physics results

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, Vasiliki A

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has been successfully taking data since the end of 2009 in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, and in heavy ion collisions. In these lectures, some of the most recent ATLAS results will be given on Standard Model measurements, the discovery of the Higgs boson, searches for supersymmetry and exotics and on heavy-ion results.

  7. ATLAS Jet Energy Scale

    OpenAIRE

    D. Schouten; Tanasijczuk, A.; Vetterli, M.(Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada); Collaboration, for the ATLAS

    2012-01-01

    Jets originating from the fragmentation of quarks and gluons are the most common, and complicated, final state objects produced at hadron colliders. A precise knowledge of their energy calibration is therefore of great importance at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, while is very difficult to ascertain. We present in-situ techniques and results for the jet energy scale at ATLAS using recent collision data. ATLAS has demonstrated an understanding of the necessary jet energy cor...

  8. ATLAS distributed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, David; Branco, Miguel; Albrand, Solveig; Rybkine, G.; Orellana, F.; Liko, D.; Tan C.L.; Deng, W.; C. KANNAN; Harrison Karl; Fassi, Farida; Fulachier, J.; Chetan, N.; Haeberli, C.; Soroko, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS distributed analysis (ADA) system is described. The ATLAS experiment has more that 2000 physicists from 150 insititutions in 34 countries. Users, data and processing are distributed over these sites. ADA makes use of a collection of high-level web services whose interfaces are expressed in terms of AJDL (abstract job definition language) which includes descriptions of datasets, transformations and jobs. The high-level services are implemented using generic parts...

  9. ATLAS Metadata Infrastructure Evolution for Run 2 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemmeren, P.; Cranshaw, J.; Malon, D.; Vaniachine, A.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS developed and employed for Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider a sophisticated infrastructure for metadata handling in event processing jobs. This infrastructure profits from a rich feature set provided by the ATLAS execution control framework, including standardized interfaces and invocation mechanisms for tools and services, segregation of transient data stores with concomitant object lifetime management, and mechanisms for handling occurrences asynchronous to the control framework's state machine transitions. This metadata infrastructure is evolving and being extended for Run 2 to allow its use and reuse in downstream physics analyses, analyses that may or may not utilize the ATLAS control framework. At the same time, multiprocessing versions of the control framework and the requirements of future multithreaded frameworks are leading to redesign of components that use an incident-handling approach to asynchrony. The increased use of scatter-gather architectures, both local and distributed, requires further enhancement of metadata infrastructure in order to ensure semantic coherence and robust bookkeeping. This paper describes the evolution of ATLAS metadata infrastructure for Run 2 and beyond, including the transition to dual-use tools—tools that can operate inside or outside the ATLAS control framework—and the implications thereof. It further examines how the design of this infrastructure is changing to accommodate the requirements of future frameworks and emerging event processing architectures.

  10. ATLAS Facility Description Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The ATLAS has the same two-loop features as the APR1400 and is designed according to the well-known scaling method suggested by Ishii and Kataoka to simulate the various test scenarios as realistically as possible. It is a half-height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400. The fluid system of the ATLAS consists of a primary system, a secondary system, a safety injection system, a break simulating system, a containment simulating system, and auxiliary systems. The primary system includes a reactor vessel, two hot legs, four cold legs, a pressurizer, four reactor coolant pumps, and two steam generators. The secondary system of the ATLAS is simplified to be of a circulating loop-type. Most of the safety injection features of the APR1400 and the OPR1000 are incorporated into the safety injection system of the ATLAS. In the ATLAS test facility, about 1300 instrumentations are installed to precisely investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior in simulation of the various test scenarios. This report describes the scaling methodology, the geometric data of the individual component, and the specification and the location of the instrumentations in detail

  11. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Kanti M

    2013-01-01

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV. The {\\sc grasp} (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. For determining the collision strengths, and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code ({\\sc darc}) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are provided for all 49 levels of the above five ions. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 10$^{8}$ K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained using the Flexible Atomic Code ({\\sc fac}) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calcul...

  12. Dark Matter searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    If Dark Matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it can be produced at the LHC. It can be identified via initial state radiation (ISR) of the incoming partons, leaving a signature in the detector of the ISR particle (jet, photon, Z or W) recoiling off of the invisible Dark Matter particles, resulting in a large momentum imbalance. Many signatures of large missing transverse momentum recoiling against jets, photons, heavy-flavor quarks, weak gauge bosons or Higgs bosons provide an interesting channel for Dark Matter searches. These LHC searches complement those from (in)direct detection experiments. Results of these searches with the ATLAS experiment, in both effective field theory and simplified models with pair WIMP production are discussed. Both 8TeV and 13TeV pp collision data has been used in these results.

  13. Material Studies with Photon Conversions and Energy Flow at the ATLAS Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the start of the LHC operations at at center of mass energy of 7 TeV a large sample of low energy photons, mostly coming from the decay of neutral mesons, have been collected with the ATLAS detector. Due to the large amount of material upstream the electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter, about 50% of these photons will convert before reaching it. The converted photons are used as a tool to map the material of the ATLAS tracker in front of the EM calorimeter. The results of the material measurements relative to an accurately measured reference volume inside the tracker, together with an estimate of the most important sources of systematic uncertainties will be shown. The effect of the energy loss due to Bremsstrahlung on the conversion vertex reconstruction precision is also discussed. The results from using the extremely pure electron sample provided by the converted photons to study the particle identification capabilities of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), are presented. Furthermore, the measurement of the energy flow in the electromagnetic calorimeter (EM) is typically used to spot early detector problems, but it is also sensitive to the (radially integrated) amount of material in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter. Using the LHC collision data collected at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV, the two dimensional (η versus φ) occupancy maps of the EM calorimeter for each longitudinal layer have been extracted. Such a method provides a cross check of the total amount of material in front of the calorimeter and it is complementary to others only sensitive to the amount of material in the tracker. The measurement accuracy will be dominated by the systematic uncertainties and the ultimate accuracy is expected to be about 5% of the material upstream. (author)

  14. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. The film has original working sound.

  15. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T. (eds.)

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  16. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries

  17. SU-E-J-129: Atlas Development for Cardiac Automatic Contouring Using Multi-Atlas Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a set of atlases for automatic contouring of cardiac structures to determine heart radiation dose and the associated toxicity. Methods: Six thoracic cancer patients with both contrast and non-contrast CT images were acquired for this study. Eight radiation oncologists manually and independently delineated cardiac contours on the non-contrast CT by referring to the fused contrast CT and following the RTOG 1106 atlas contouring guideline. Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated, including heart, four chambers, four coronary arteries, pulmonary artery and vein, inferior and superior vena cava, and ascending and descending aorta. Individual expert contours were fused using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for each ROI and each patient. The fused contours became atlases for an in-house multi-atlas segmentation. Using leave-one-out test, we generated auto-segmented contours for each ROI and each patient. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the fused contours using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Results: Inter-observer variability was not obvious for heart, chambers, and aorta but was large for other structures that were not clearly distinguishable on CT image. The average DSC between individual expert contours and the fused contours were less than 50% for coronary arteries and pulmonary vein, and the average MSD were greater than 4.0 mm. The largest MSD of expert contours deviating from the fused contours was 2.5 cm. The mean DSC and MSD of auto-segmented contours were within one standard deviation of expert contouring variability except the right coronary artery. The coronary arteries, vena cava, and pulmonary vein had DSC<70% and MSD>3.0 mm. Conclusion: A set of cardiac atlases was created for cardiac automatic contouring, the accuracy of which was comparable to the variability in expert contouring. However, substantial modification may need

  18. Simulated production of a black hole in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was created in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  19. Radiative transition probabilities for the B 1PI - X 1SIGMA+ and B 1PI - A 1SIGMA+ of 7LiH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently reported (J. Chem. Phys. 66, 5412 (1977)) hybrid potential curves for the X 1Σ+ and A 1Σ+ states of LiH and the herein reported hybrid potential curve for the B 1Pi state of LiH are combined with the ab initio transition moments of Docken and Hinze (J. Chem. Phys. 57, 4936 (1972)) to calculate radiative transition probabilities between all B 1Pi (v' less than or equal to 2) and all X 1Σ+ (v'' less than or equal to 23) and A 1Σ+ (v'' less than or equal to 26) vibrational levels of 7LiH. The strongest single emission band found is the B 1Pi (v' = 2) → X 1Σ+ (v'' = 23) band between the highest ''long-range'' levels in each potential. For all B 1Pi levels, the emission is dominated by B → X rather than B → A emission

  20. Observation of Flux-Grown α-Fe2O3 Single Crystal at the Morin Transition by 57Fe Synchrotron Radiation Mössbauer Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takaya; Nakamura, Shin; Ikeda, Naoshi; Fujiwara, Kosuke; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Seto, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    The Morin transition of a high-quality flux-grown single crystal of α-Fe2O3 was studied by 57Fe synchrotron radiation Mössbauer diffraction. The measured rocking curves and Mössbauer spectra gave direct evidence that the coexistence of magnetic phases during the Morin transition occurred over a wide temperature range. The complex magnetic structure at the phase coexistence induced a large magnetostrictive distortion in the α-Fe2O3 crystal surface. In contrast, however, when the antiferromagnetic phase was dominant at low temperatures, the distortion disappeared, and the initial high crystal perfection was recovered. The spectral line shapes were discussed in terms of the interference between electronic and nuclear scatterings.

  1. Relativistic many-body calculations of excitation energy and radiative transition probabilities for many-electron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U.I.; Johnson, W.R. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Energy levels, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric dipole nl{sub 1}nl{sub 2}[LSJ]-nl{sub 3}nl{sub 4}[L'S'J'] transition in Be- (n=2), Mg- (n=3), Zn- (n=4) and Sm- (n=5) like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z=N to 100 where N is number of electron in system. (author)

  2. Fermi surfaces in hexagonal transition metals and rare earth hexaborides determined by two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiations (2D-ACAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi surfaces in hexagonal transition metals (Ti, Zr, Ru) and rare earth hexaborides (LaB6, CeB6, PrB6, NdB6) are determined by two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiations (2D-ACAR). Through the course of the determination of Fermi surfaces from experimental data, unique properties of this technique are discussed placing particular emphasis on the forthcoming studies of electronic structures near defects and surfaces. (author) 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Franck-Condon Factors and Radiative Lifetime of the A^{2}\\Pi_{1/2} - X^{2}\\Sigma^{+} Transition of Ytterbium Monoflouride, YbF

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C; Bulleid, N E; Smallman, I J; Hendricks, R J; Skoff, S M; Hudson, J J; Sauer, B E; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence spectrum resulting from laser excitation of the A^{2}\\Pi_{1/2} - X^{2}\\Sigma^{+} (0,0) band of ytterbium monofluoride, YbF, has been recorded and analyzed to determine the Franck-Condon factors. The measured values are compared with those predicted from Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potential energy curves. From the fluorescence decay curve the radiative lifetime of the A^{2}\\Pi_{1/2} state is measured to be 28\\pm2 ns, and the corresponding transition dipole moment is 4.39\\pm0.16 D. The implications for laser cooling YbF are discussed.

  4. Numerical simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition – Part 2: Impact of initial ice crystal number, radiation, stratification, secondary nucleation and layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gierens

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition were performed with an LES model. In Part 1 the impact of relative humidity, temperature and vertical wind shear was explored in a detailed parametric study. Here, we study atmospheric parameters (like stratification and depth of the supersaturated layer and processes which may affect the contrail evolution. Under suitable conditions (controlled by the radiation scenario and stratification radiative heating lifts the contrail-cirrus and prolongs its lifetime. The radiation scenario affects the radiance incident on the contrail layer and is characterised herein by the season, time of day and the presence of lower-level cloudiness. The potential of contrail-driven secondary nucleation, both via heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores (from former contrail ice crystals and homogeneous nucleation is investigated. It turned out that in our model the pure contrail dynamics (triggered by radiative heating does not suffice to force homogeneous freezing of ambient liquid aerosol particles. Our model results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores is unimportant mainly because the relative humidity does not exceed ice saturation substantially close to the contrail core. Contrail evolution is not controlled by the depth of the supersaturated layer as long as it exceeds roughly 500 m. Deep fallstreaks however need thicker layers. A variation of the initial ice crystal number is effective during the whole evolution of a contrail which implies that engine modifications that lead to lower soot emissions would lead to optically thinner and shorter living contrail-cirrus.

  5. ATLAS Review Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Szeless, B

    The ATLAS internal reviews, be it the mandatory Production Readiness Reviews, the now newly installed Production Advancement Reviews, or the more and more requested different Design Reviews, have become a part of our ATLAS culture over the past years. The Activity Systems Status Overviews are, for the time being, a one in time event and should be held for each system as soon as possible to have some meaning. There seems to a consensus that the reviews have become a useful project tool for the ATLAS management but even more so for the sub-systems themselves making achievements as well as possible shortcomings visible. One other recognized byproduct is the increasing cross talk between the systems, a very important ingredient to make profit all the systems from the large collective knowledge we dispose of in ATLAS. In the last two months, the first two PARs were organized for the MDT End Caps and the TRT Barrel Modules, both part of the US contribution to the ATLAS Project. Furthermore several different design...

  6. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  7. Distributed analysis in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, A.; Legger, F.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment accumulated more than 140 PB of data during the first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The analysis of such an amount of data is a challenging task for the distributed physics community. The Distributed Analysis (DA) system of the ATLAS experiment is an established and stable component of the ATLAS distributed computing operations. About half a million user jobs are running daily on DA resources, submitted by more than 1500 ATLAS physicists. The reliability of the DA system during the first run of the LHC and the following shutdown period has been high thanks to the continuous automatic validation of the distributed analysis sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters. During the LHC shutdown, the ATLAS computing model has undergone several changes to improve the analysis workflows, including the re-design of the production system, a new analysis data format and event model, and the development of common reduction and analysis frameworks. We report on the impact such changes have on the DA infrastructure, describe the new DA components, and include recent performance measurements.

  8. Distributed analysis in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment accumulated more than 140 PB of data during the first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The analysis of such an amount of data for the distributed physics community is a challenging task. The Distributed Analysis (DA) system of the ATLAS experiment is an established and stable component of the ATLAS distributed computing operations. About half a million user jobs are daily running on DA resources, submitted by more than 1500 ATLAS physicists. The reliability of the DA system during the first run of the LHC and the following shutdown period has been high thanks to the continuous automatic validation of the distributed analysis sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters. During the LHC shutdown, the ATLAS computing model has undergone several changes to improve the analysis workflows, including the re-design of the production system, a new analysis data format and event model, and the development of common reduction and analysis frameworks. We r...

  9. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f7/5 core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 ± 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 ± 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 ± 0.02 A and 0.30 ± 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed

  10. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  11. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Qballs with the ATLAS trigger system. With proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass enegy of 8 TeV, the trigger was designed to have unique properties as a tracker for HIPs. It uses only the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The unique high threshold readout capability of the TRT is used at the location where HIPs in the detector are looked for. In particular the number and the fraction of TRT high threshold hits is used to distinguish HIPs from background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electro-magnetic calorimeters as a seed unlike previously used trigger algorithms for such searches. Thus the new trigger is capable of probing a large range of HIP masses and charges. We will give a description of the algorithms for this newly developed trigger for HIP searches...

  12. QCD physics in Atlas at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton-proton collider with a 14 TeV center of mass energy. The design luminosity is 1034 cm-1s-1 with beam collisions separated by 25 ns. The initial operation for physics will take place at a luminosity of 1033cm-1s-1 and it is expected that the integrated luminosity delivered in the first year will be 10 fb-1. This integrated luminosity will result in very large event samples for most processes, for example: ∼108 leptonic W decays, 104 γ's with Et > 500GeV and 104 jets with Et > 1TeV. As a result of the high statistics event samples, the understanding of most QCD processes at 14TeV will be systematics limited after the first year of running. The Atlas detector [1] is a general purpose detector designed to be sensitive to the many physics processes which are expected at the LHC. It contains high performance tracking using silicon detectors and a transition radiation tracker in a 2 Tesla solenoidal magnetic field, a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead-liquid argon, a hadron calorimeter based on steel-scintillator and Cu/W-liquid argon, and a large instrumented air-core toroid magnet system for muon measurement. The basic performance characteristics of these systems are given in Table 1

  13. Radiation pre-vulcanization effect on properties of the truck tyre's transition layer and the truck tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the natural rubber is chosen as the main constituents for the transition layer of all-steel load radial tyre, which is pre-vulcanized by 500-keV E-beam irradiation of up to 60 kGy. The results show that the green strength of transitional layer increases with the dose, reaching four times as much as the control (without irradiation) at 60 kGy. The final mechanical properties do not differ significantly from those of the control except that the aging and fatigue performance increased. However, thickness of the natural rubber transitional layer for an average single tyre can be reduced by 1 mm (or 1.5 kg) without obvious adverse effect on tyre performance. (authors)

  14. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Austin, TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). The layers in this...

  15. The ATLAS eNews Scientific Editor is changing

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    The first issue of the ATLAS eNews appeared three years ago, in July 2001. These informal and lively communications within ATLAS have been pioneered by Pippa Wells (CERN), and ever since then she has been driving the effort to assemble and launch the twelve issues published so far. Over these years she has shaped the nice informal character of this highly appreciated documentation, also outside the ATLAS Collaboration. Pippa deserves a very hearty thank from the whole Collaboration! I am glad to announce that Joleen Pater (University of Manchester) has accepted the challenge to continue this task for the coming years. The present issue is commonly edited by Pippa and Jo, marking the transition. I thank Pippa sincerely for the great job done, and I am welcoming Jo for the future issues!

  16. ATLAS Metadata Infrastructure Evolution for Run 2 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    van Gemmeren, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration; Malon, David; Vaniachine, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS developed and employed for Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider a sophisticated infrastructure for metadata handling in event processing jobs. This infrastructure profits from a rich feature set provided by the ATLAS execution control framework, including standardized interfaces and invocation mechanisms for tools and services, segregation of transient data stores with concomitant object lifetime management, and mechanisms for handling occurrences asynchronous to the control framework’s state machine transitions. This metadata infrastructure is evolving and being extended for Run 2 to allow its use and reuse in downstream physics analyses, analyses that may or may not utilize the ATLAS control framework. At the same time, multiprocessing versions of the control framework and the requirements of future multithreaded frameworks are leading to redesign of components that use an incident-handling approach to asynchrony. The increased use of scatter-gather architectures, both local and distributed, requires ...

  17. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan P.; Berghaus, Frank; Brasolin, Franco; Domingues Cordeiro, Cristovao Jose; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; LeBlanc, Matthew; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing Infrastructure as a Service resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, a system for dynamic location-based discovery of caching proxy servers, and the usage of a data federation to unify the worldwide grid of storage elements into a single namespace and access point. The usage of the experiment's high level trigger farm for Monte Carlo production, in a specialized cloud environment, is presented. Finally, we evaluate and compare the performance of commercial clouds using several benchmarks.

  18. Design of a trigger layout and the corresponding implementation of a 200 GB/s readout network for the ALICE transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the use of modern information technology, intelligent trigger systems are gaining more and more importance in high-energy physics. Particularly in heavy ion experiments, the large number of generated particles results in an enormous amount of data. By filtering the data at an early stage and discarding irrelevant events, the efficiency of the entire system can be raised significantly. The ALICE experiment at CERN breaks new ground in this respect. With the Transition Radiation Detector, the acquired signals are processed parallel right on the detector using more than 65 000 multi-chip modules. Via a readout network, the preprocessed data arrives at a global track reconstruction unit, which contributes to the decision whether an event is discarded or further processed. In this thesis, a trigger concept for the Transition Radiation Detector is developed and the readout network is implemented. A special challenge is to achieve an efficient interaction of the above processing stages. By means of simulations and analyses, the entire system is optimized in this regard. It turns out that the read-out process plays a decisive role. In this context, a design flow for the used ASIC is developed. The analyses show that through optimizations the extremely high demands made on this complex system can be met. During a beam time, first prototypes have successfully been tested. The entire system is currently being assembled and will be brought on line in 2008. (orig.)

  19. The ATLAS Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The Level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a Level-2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The ATLAS experiment has taken data with high efficiency continuously over entire running periods from 2010 to 2012, for which sophisticated triggers to guard the highest physics output while reducing effectively the event rate were mandatory. The ATLAS muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment. The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving ...

  20. The ATLAS tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Casado, MP; Benslama, K; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sfyrla, A; Shamin, M; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of a trigger for hadronically decaying tau leptons at the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC) is challenging due to the high background rate, on the other hand it increases tremendously the discovery potential of ATLAS in searches for Standard Model (SM) or Supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs or other more exotic final states. In this paper we describe the ATLAS tau trigger system, focusing on the early data taking period, and present results from studies based on GEANT 4 simulated events, including trigger rates and the acceptance of tau leptons from SM processes. In order to cope with the rate and optimize the efficiency of important physics channels, the results of the current simulation studies indicate that ATLAS tau triggers should include either relatively high transverse momentum single tau signatures, or low transverse momentum tau signatures in combination with other signatures, such as missing transverse energy, leptons, or jets.