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Sample records for atlas cryostat odyssey

  1. 2001, the ATLAS Cryostat Odyssey

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    After a journey of several thousand kilometres, over sea and land, by canal and highway, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter finally arrived at CERN last week. Installed in Hall 180, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will be fitted out to take the central superconducting solenoid and the electromagnetic calorimeter. On Monday 2 July, different French police units and EDF officials were once again keeping careful watch around the hairpin bends of the road twisting down from the Col de la Faucille: a special load weighing 100 tonnes, 7 metres high, 5.8 metres wide and 7.2 metres long was being brought down into the Pays de Gex to the Meyrin site of CERN. This time the destination was the ATLAS experiment. A huge blue tarpaulin cover concealed the cryogenics barrel of the experiment's liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter. The cryostat consists of a vacuum chamber, a cylinder that is 5.5 metres in diameter, 7 metres long, and a concentric cold chamber ...

  2. Inside the ATLAS solenoid cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Scientists are seen working on the inside of the ATLAS cryostat, which will be used to cool liquid argon to 90 K in the electromagnetic calorimeter. Thin lead plates immersed in the cooled liquid will produce electromagnetic showers of particles when an electron, positron or photon enter the detector. This causes the argon to glow, allowing the initial particle energy to be measured.

  3. The ATLAS cryostat comes into the lime-light

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Aubert, director of IN2P3, addresses the teams involved in the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. At the rear, the barrel cryostat being equipped. In response to an invitation from IN2P3, the French national institute for nuclear and particle physics, the ATLAS experiment teams have celebrated progress made in the construction of their Liquid Argon Detector. In particular they wanted to salute the arrival of the cryostat for one of the end-caps, built by the company Simic in Italy. The second is expected at the end of January 2003. The cryostats are the fruit of a collaboration between IN2P3, the Max Planck Institute in Munich and the German Ministry for education and research (BMBF). The barrel cryostat arrived from Japan last year. The three cryostats will contain four types of different detectors made by the collaboration. They will contain in total nearly 400 modules including electromagnetic modules. More than half the modules for one of the two electromagnetic calorimeter barrels have bee...

  4. Arrival of the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Oberlack, H

    On Wednesday, 4th June the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter (end-cap A) arrived at CERN and was immediately unloaded from the truck in building 180 (see Figures 1 and 2), where the integration of the LAr calorimeters into their cryostats takes place. The transport from the Italian company SIMIC, where both end-cap calorimeters have been produced took longer than expected due to delays because of the G8 summit. Thanks to the great effort by the CERN Host State office and the French-German steering group that supplies the end-cap cryostat as an in-kind contribution to the LAr collaboration, an exceptional convoy was finally available and the cryostat could make its way to CERN. Fig.1 (left): Truck with the end-cap cryostat. Fig.2 (right): Unloading the cryostat in bldg. 180. Each end-cap cryostat will contain an electromagnetic calorimeter wheel, two wheels of a hadronic calorimeter, and a forward calorimeter. The design of the cryostat as a double vessel structure made of Aluminum fulfills t...

  5. An ATLAS inner detector end-cap is placed in its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation housed inside the inner end-cap must be kept cool to avoid thermal noise. This cooling is achieved on ATLAS by placing the end-cap inside a liquid argon cryostat. The end-cap measures particles that are produced close to the direction of the beam pipe and would otherwise be missed.

  6. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  7. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  8. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  9. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  10. Cryostat Design

    OpenAIRE

    Parma, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give non-expert engineers and scientists working in the domain of accelerators a general introduction to the main disciplines and technologies involved in the design and construction of accelerator cryostats. Far from being an exhaustive coverage of these topics, an attempt is made to provide simple design and calculation rules for a preliminary design of cryostats. Recurrent reference is made to the Large Hadron Collider magnet cryostats, as most of the material presented ...

  11. Cryostat Design

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to give non-expert engineers and scientists working in the domain of accelerators a general introduction to the main disciplines and technologies involved in the design and construction of accelerator cryostats. Far from being an exhaustive coverage of these topics, an attempt is made to provide simple design and calculation rules for a preliminary design of cryostats. Recurrent reference is made to the Large Hadron Collider magnet cryostats, as most of the material presented is taken from their design and construction at CERN.

  12. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  13. Cryostats for SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non metallic and non magnetic cryostat, with a very low thermal budget and a container type autonomy was developed, to condition S.Q.U.I.D. magnetometers which maximum sensitivity reaches 10-14 Tesla Hertzsup(-1/2). This instrumentation puts in hand new concepts of composite materials, thermal shock and vibration resistant, multilayer thermal radiative insulation also to the prouve of vibrations with thermal equivalent emissivity lower than 10-3

  14. GFRP stainless steel hybrid cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an instrument to measure superconducting properties (Jc,Tc,Hc) by the magnetization method, a cryostat containing the magnet that generated an external magnetic field has been developed. To ensure thermal insulation ability and structural durability, this cryostat consists of a GFRP inner vessel and a stainless steel outer vessel. Various tests were carried out to verify the sufficient performance of this cryostat. Results are presented

  15. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  16. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  17. ATLAS rewards two Japanese suppliers of major detector components.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS supplier award in recognition of excellence has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced the liquid-argon barrel cryostat. Kawasaki received its award in Hall 189 on the Meyrin site, where the cryostat is currently located. Toshiba Corporation's award for the superconducting central solenoid was presented two months ago at the Toshiba headquarters in Japan. Photo 01: P. Pailler, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon cryostats, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 04: H. Oberlack, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon system, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 11: P. Jenni (left), ATLAS Collaboration spokesperson, presenting the ATLAS supplier award for the barrel cryostat for the liquid-argon calorimeter to Mr. S. Nose, General Manager of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. Photo 18: J. Sondericker (left), liquid-argon barrel cryostat project engineer (BNL), presenting Mr. Nose (Kawasaki) an award from Brookhaven for the barrel cryostat for the ATLAS liquid-argo...

  18. Odyssey: a Solar System Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Christophe, B; Anderson, J D; Asmar, S; Bério, Ph; Bertolami, O; Bingham, R; Bondu, F; Bouyer, Ph; Bremer, S; Brillet, A; Courty, J-M; Dittus, H; Foulon, B; Gil, P; Johann, U; Jordan, J F; Kent, B; Lämmerzahl, C; Lévy, A; Métris, G; Nock, K T; Olsen, Ø; Páramos, J; Prestage, J D; Progrebenko, S V; Rasel, E; Rathke, A; Reynaud, S; Rievers, B; Samain, E; Sumner, T J; Theil, S; Touboul, P; Turyshev, S; Vrancken, P; Wolf, P; Yu, N

    2007-01-01

    The Solar System Odyssey mission uses modern-day high-precision experimental techniques to answer some of the important questions on the laws of fundamental physics which determine dynamics in the solar system. It could lead to a major discovery by using readily available technologies and could be flown early within the Cosmic Vision time frame. The mission proposes to perform a set of precision gravitation experiments from the vicinity of Earth to the deep Solar System far beyond the orbit of known planets: verification of gravity in the deep Solar System, measurement of Eddington's parameter, investigation on fly-by anomaly, mapping of gravity field in the outer solar system. The Odyssey mission focuses its efforts on the challenge of designing a deep space mission within the cost of 300Meuros. This challenge restricts the main mission design choices (launcher, energy and payload options) and trade-offs in science goals. The payload definition emphasises demonstrated technology, with non gravitational force...

  19. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    IT-UDS-Audiovisual Services

    2002-01-01

    The film shows the re-assembly of the liquid Argon endcap cryostat. It has been taken apart in order to repair some stoppers. After this repair, the cold vessel was surrounded with super isolation and was lifted and inserted into the warm vessel. This was a rather delicate operation that was successfully finished!

  20. THE CHARACTER OF CIRCE IN THE ODYSSEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. McClymont

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the character of Circe in the Odyssey, emphasizing that she has not only an evil but a positive side to her character. The implications of her being a witch, swearing an oath to Odysseus and being a god are explored. She is also briefly compared with other characters in the Odyssey.

  1. Cryostat design for SSC quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baseline design of the SSC Collider Quadrupole Magnet (CQM) cryostat is complete. The cryostat is designed to minimize cost and maximize system reliability. Many components have already been procured. Material characterization and component tests for many of the parts have been completed or are ongoing. The first CQM cryostat will be assembled in September of 1993. This paper describes the cryostat design for the CQM developed at Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W). The CQM cryostat operates at cryogenic temperatures with a very stringent heat load budget. The cryostat supports the cold mass within the cryostat and insulates the cold mass against heating by conduction, thermal radiation and residual gas conduction. A description of the major components highlighting the key design features is given. The tradeoff studies performed for each component are summarized. The results of a static thermal analysis of the cryostat are presented

  2. ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from Brookhaven have played...

  3. Superconducting super collider magnet cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Superconducting Super Collider high energy physics research facility will entail one of the major cryogenic system undertakings of the next decade. The two 30 Km diameter accelerator rings contain an integrated system of ≅ 10,000 superconducting devices that must have low capital cost and operate reliably and efficiently over the lifetime of the machine. The design for the ≅ 8000 superconducting dipole magnet cryostats has been developed and evaluated by both component and systems tests. The details of the design are presented along with summaries of the experimental evaluations of the suspension system, insulation, transient phenomena, systems' performance, etc

  4. Three phase superconducting armature: Windings and cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of superconducting wires with reduced losses under AC magnetic fields allows to design AC Machines using superconducting coils for both field and armature windings. A superconduction armature needs new materials and new concepts for the windings and the cryostat: Glass fiber reinforced epoxy structure; Non impregnated superconducting windings; Low losses horizontal cryostat. The paper presents a cryostat designed to receive a three phase superconducting winding as to form, with a superconducting field winding rotor, a 20 kVa synchronous machine. Construction and preliminary test on the cryostat and the windings are reported

  5. Old women in the Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Skafte Jensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being a heroic epic, the Odyssey is peopled by male protagonists in their prime. Nevertheless, the poem gives attention also to humbler figures, among them old women. They are few, but important. A couple of them belong to the highest stratum of society, the rest are slaves. Especially, they are trophoi, nurses, and the impression given is that such nurses are an indispensable part of any big household. The most impressive of them is Odysseus’ nurse Eurycleia, who has a role to play all the way through the poem. When her story is traced from beginning to end it unfolds as a poem inside the poem, with its own inner coherence. Her character is ambiguous: in some scenes she is the quintessence of care and kindness, in others she is brutal, so much so as to make of her one of the scariest characters in the poem. What has made her so full of hatred? the hard life as a slave. She has accustomed herself to her fate and shows unbroken solidarity with her masters, only to feel all the more offended by the amount of work the feasting suitors have caused. Besides, a traditional fairy tale pattern runs as an undercurrent through the epic, with Penelope and Eurycleia filling in the same tale role so that good and bad is split between them.

  6. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Akhnazarov, V; Canepa, A; Bremer, J; Burckhart, H; Cattai, A; Voss, R; Hervas, L; Kaplon, J; Nessi, M; Werner, P; Ten kate, H; Tyrvainen, H; Vandelli, W; Krasznahorkay, A; Gray, H; Alvarez gonzalez, B; Eifert, T F; Rolando, G; Oide, H; Barak, L; Glatzer, J; Backhaus, M; Schaefer, D M; Maciejewski, J P; Milic, A; Jin, S; Von torne, E; Limbach, C; Medinnis, M J; Gregor, I; Levonian, S; Schmitt, S; Waananen, A; Monnier, E; Muanza, S G; Pralavorio, P; Talby, M; Tiouchichine, E; Tocut, V M; Rybkin, G; Wang, S; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Ocariz, J H; Bertoli, W; Malaescu, B; Sbarra, C; Yamamoto, A; Sasaki, O; Koriki, T; Hara, K; Da silva gomes, A; Carvalho maneira, J; Marcalo da palma, A; Chekulaev, S; Tikhomirov, V; Snesarev, A; Buzykaev, A; Maslennikov, A; Peleganchuk, S; Sukharev, A; Kaplan, B E; Swiatlowski, M J; Nef, P D; Schnoor, U; Oakham, G F; Ueno, R; Orr, R S; Abouzeid, O; Haug, S; Peng, H; Kus, V; Vitek, M; Temming, K K; Dang, N P; Meier, K; Schultz-coulon, H; Geisler, M P; Sander, H; Schaefer, U; Ellinghaus, F; Rieke, S; Nussbaumer, A; Liu, Y; Richter, R; Kortner, S; Fernandez-bosman, M; Ullan comes, M; Espinal curull, J; Chiriotti alvarez, S; Caubet serrabou, M; Valladolid gallego, E; Kaci, M; Carrasco vela, N; Lancon, E C; Besson, N E; Gautard, V; Bracinik, J; Bartsch, V C; Potter, C J; Lester, C G; Moeller, V A; Rosten, J; Crooks, D; Mathieson, K; Houston, S C; Wright, M; Jones, T W; Harris, O B; Byatt, T J; Dobson, E; Hodgson, P; Hodgkinson, M C; Dris, M; Karakostas, K; Ntekas, K; Oren, D; Duchovni, E; Etzion, E; Oren, Y; Ferrer, L M; Testa, M; Doria, A; Merola, L; Sekhniaidze, G; Giordano, R; Ricciardi, S; Milazzo, A; Falciano, S; De pedis, D; Dionisi, C; Veneziano, S; Cardarelli, R; Verzegnassi, C; Soualah, R; Ochi, A; Ohshima, T; Kishiki, S; Linde, F L; Vreeswijk, M; Werneke, P; Muijs, A; Vankov, P H; Jansweijer, P P M; Dale, O; Lund, E; Bruckman de renstrom, P; Dabrowski, W; Adamek, J D; Wolters, H; Micu, L; Pantea, D; Tudorache, V; Mjoernmark, J; Klimek, P J; Ferrari, A; Abdinov, O; Akhoundov, A; Hashimov, R; Shelkov, G; Khubua, J; Ladygin, E; Lazarev, A; Glagolev, V; Dedovich, D; Lykasov, G; Zhemchugov, A; Zolnikov, Y; Ryabenko, M; Sivoklokov, S; Vasilyev, I; Shalimov, A; Lobanov, M; Paramoshkina, E; Mosidze, M; Bingul, A; Nodulman, L J; Guarino, V J; Yoshida, R; Drake, G R; Calafiura, P; Haber, C; Quarrie, D R; Alonso, J R; Anderson, C; Evans, H; Lammers, S W; Baubock, M; Anderson, K; Petti, R; Suhr, C A; Linnemann, J T; Richards, R A; Tollefson, K A; Holzbauer, J L; Stoker, D P; Pier, S; Nelson, A J; Isakov, V; Martin, A J; Adelman, J A; Paganini, M; Gutierrez, P; Snow, J M; Pearson, B L; Cleland, W E; Savinov, V; Wong, W; Goodson, J J; Li, H; Lacey, R A; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H; Lanni, F; Nevski, P; Rescia, S; Kierstead, J A; Liu, Z; Yu, W W H; Bensinger, J; Hashemi, K S; Bogavac, D; Cindro, V; Hoeferkamp, M R; Coelli, S; Iodice, M; Piegaia, R N; Alonso, F; Wahlberg, H P; Barberio, E L; Limosani, A; Rodd, N L; Jennens, D T; Hill, E C; Pospisil, S; Smolek, K; Schaile, D A; Rauscher, F G; Adomeit, S; Mattig, P M; Wahlen, H; Volkmer, F; Calvente lopez, S; Sanchis peris, E J; Pallin, D; Podlyski, F; Says, L; Boumediene, D E; Scott, W; Phillips, P W; Greenall, A; Turner, P; Gwilliam, C B; Kluge, T; Wrona, B; Sellers, G J; Millward, G; Adragna, P; Hartin, A; Alpigiani, C; Piccaro, E; Bret cano, M; Hughes jones, R E; Mercer, D; Oh, A; Chavda, V S; Carminati, L; Cavasinni, V; Fedin, O; Patrichev, S; Ryabov, Y; Nesterov, S; Grebenyuk, O; Sasso, J; Mahmood, H; Polsdofer, E; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Liu, H; Hegazy, K H; Benjamin, D P; Zobernig, G; Ban, J; Brooijmans, G H; Keener, P; Williams, H H; Le geyt, B C; Hines, E J; Fadeyev, V; Schumm, B A; Law, A T; Kuhl, A D; Neubauer, M S; Shang, R; Gagliardi, G; Calabro, D; Conta, C; Zinna, M; Jones, G; Li, J; Stradling, A R; Hadavand, H K; Mcguigan, P; Chiu, P; Baldelomar, E; Stroynowski, R A; Kehoe, R L; De groot, N; Timmermans, C; Lach-heb, F; Addy, T N; Nakano, I; Moreno lopez, D; Grosse-knetter, J; Tyson, B; Rude, G D; Tafirout, R; Benoit, P; Danielsson, H O; Elsing, M; Fassnacht, P; Froidevaux, D; Ganis, G; Gorini, B; Lasseur, C; Lehmann miotto, G; Kollar, D; Aleksa, M; Sfyrla, A; Duehrssen-debling, K; Fressard-batraneanu, S; Van der ster, D C; Bortolin, C; Schumacher, J; Mentink, M; Geich-gimbel, C; Yau wong, K H; Lafaye, R; Crepe-renaudin, S; Albrand, S; Hoffmann, D; Pangaud, P; Meessen, C; Hrivnac, J; Vernay, E; Perus, A; Henrot versille, S L; Le dortz, O; Derue, F; Piccinini, M; Polini, A; Terada, S; Arai, Y; Ikeno, M; Fujii, H; Nagano, K; Ukegawa, F; Aguilar saavedra, J A; Conde muino, P; Castro, N F; Eremin, V; Kopytine, M; Sulin, V; Tsukerman, I; Korol, A; Nemethy, P; Bartoldus, R; Glatte, A; Chelsky, S; Van nieuwkoop, J; Bellerive, A; Sinervo, J K; Battaglia, A; Barbier, G J; Pohl, M; Rosselet, L; Alexandre, G B; Prokoshin, F; Pezoa rivera, R A; Batkova, L; Kladiva, E; Stastny, J; Kubes, T; Vidlakova, Z; Esch, H; Homann, M; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Pfeifer, B; Stenzel, H; Andrei, G V; Wessels, M; Buescher, V; Kleinknecht, K; Fiedler, F M; Schroeder, C D; Fernandez, E; Mir martinez, L; Vorwerk, V; Bernabeu verdu, J; Salt, J; Civera navarrete, J V; Bernard, R; Berriaud, C P; Chevalier, L P; Hubbard, R; Schune, P; Nikolopoulos, K; Batley, J R; Brochu, F M; Phillips, A W; Teixeira-dias, P J; Rose, M B D; Buttar, C; Buckley, A G; Nurse, E L; Larner, A B; Boddy, C; Henderson, J; Costanzo, D; Tarem, S; Maccarrone, G; Laurelli, P F; Alviggi, M; Chiaramonte, R; Izzo, V; Palumbo, V; Fraternali, M; Crosetti, G; Marchese, F; Yamaguchi, Y; Hessey, N P; Mechnich, J M; Liebig, W; Kastanas, K A; Sjursen, T B; Zalieckas, J; Cameron, D G; Banka, P; Kowalewska, A B; Dwuznik, M; Mindur, B; Boldea, V; Hedberg, V; Smirnova, O; Sellden, B; Allahverdiyev, T; Gornushkin, Y; Koultchitski, I; Tokmenin, V; Chizhov, M; Gongadze, A; Khramov, E; Sadykov, R; Krasnoslobodtsev, I; Smirnova, L; Kramarenko, V; Minaenko, A; Zenin, O; Beddall, A J; Ozcan, E V; Hou, S; Wang, S; Moyse, E; Willocq, S; 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Wickens, F J; Martin, V J; Jackson, J N; Prichard, P; Kretzschmar, J; Martin, A J; Walker, C J; Potter, K M; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Houiris, A G; Iliadis, D; Fanti, M; Bertolucci, F; Maleev, V; Sultanov, S; Rosenberg, E I; Krumnack, N E; Bieganek, C; Diehl, E B; Mc kee, S P; Eppig, A P; Harper, D R; Liu, C; Schwarz, T A; Mazor, B; Looper, K A; Wiedenmann, W; Huang, P; Stahlman, J M; Battaglia, M; Nielsen, J A; Zhao, T; Khanov, A; Kaushik, V S; Vichou, E; Liss, A M; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Parodi, F; Passaggio, S; Rossi, L; Kuzhir, P; Ignatenko, A; Ferrari, R; Spairani, M; Pianori, E; Sekula, S J; Firan, A I; Cao, T; Hetherly, J W; Gouighri, M; Vassilakopoulos, V; Long, M C; Shimojima, M; Sawyer, L H; Brummett, R E; Losada, M A; Schorlemmer, A L; Mantoani, M; Bawa, H S; Mornacchi, G; Nicquevert, B; Palestini, S; Stapnes, S; Veness, R; Kotamaki, M J; Sorde, C; Iengo, P; Campana, S; Goossens, L; Zajacova, Z; Pribyl, L; Poveda torres, J; Marzin, A; Conti, G; Carrillo montoya, G D; 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Mcgarvie, S A; Kilvington, G J; D'auria, S; O'shea, V; Mcglone, H M; Fox, H; Henderson, R; Kartvelishvili, V; Davies, B; Sherwood, P; Fraser, J T; Lancaster, M A; Tseng, J C; Hays, C P; Apolle, R; Dixon, S D; Parker, K A; Gazis, E; Papadopoulou, T; Panagiotopoulou, E; Karastathis, N; Hershenhorn, A D; Milov, A; Groth-jensen, J; Bilokon, H; Miscetti, S; Canale, V; Rebuzzi, D M; Capua, M; Bagnaia, P; De salvo, A; Gentile, S; Safai tehrani, F; Solfaroli camillocci, E; Sasao, N; Tsunada, K; Massaro, G; Magrath, C A; Van kesteren, Z; Beker, M G; Van den wollenberg, W; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Read, A L; Gjelsten, B K; Banas, E A; Turnau, J; Derendarz, D K; Kisielewska, D; Chesneanu, D; Rotaru, M; Maurer, J B; Wong, M L; Lund-jensen, B; Asman, B; Jon-and, K B; Silverstein, S B; Johansen, M; Alexandrov, I; Iatsounenko, I; Krumshteyn, Z; Peshekhonov, V; Rybaltchenko, K; Samoylov, V; Cheplakov, A; Kekelidze, G; Lyablin, M; Teterine, V; Bednyakov, V; Kruchonak, U; Shiyakova, M M; Demichev, M; Denisov, S P; Fenyuk, A; Djobava, T; Salukvadze, G; Cetin, S A; Brau, B P; Pais, P R; Proudfoot, J; Van gemmeren, P; Zhang, Q; Beringer, J A; Ely, R; Leggett, C; Pengg, F X; Barnett, M R; Quick, R E; Williams, S; Gardner jr, R W; Huston, J; Brock, R; Wanotayaroj, C; Unel, G N; Taffard, A C; Frate, M; Baker, K O; Tipton, P L; Hutchison, A; Walsh, B J; Norberg, S R; Su, J; Tsybyshev, D; Caballero bejar, J; Ernst, M U; Wellenstein, H; Vudragovic, D; Vidic, I; Gorelov, I V; Toms, K; Alimonti, G; Petrucci, F; Kolanoski, H; Smith, J; Jeng, G; Watson, I J; Guimaraes ferreira, F; Miranda vieira xavier, F; Araujo pereira, R; Poffenberger, P; Sopko, V; Elmsheuser, J; Wittkowski, J; Glitza, K; Gorfine, G W; Ferrer soria, A; Fuster verdu, J A; Sanchis lozano, A; Reinmuth, G; Busato, E; Haywood, S J; Mcmahon, S J; Qian, W; Villani, E G; Laycock, P J; Poll, A J; Rizvi, E S; Foster, J M; Loebinger, F; Forti, A; Plano, W G; Brown, G J A; Kordas, K; Vegni, G; Ohsugi, T; Iwata, Y; Cherkaoui el moursli, R; Sahin, M; Akyazi, E; Carlsen, A; Kanwal, B; Cochran jr, J H; Aronnax, M V; Lockner, M J; Zhou, B; Levin, D S; Weaverdyck, C J; Grom, G F; Rudge, A; Ebenstein, W L; Jia, B; Yamaoka, J; Jared, R C; Wu, S L; Banerjee, S; Lu, Q; Hughes, E W; Alkire, S P; Degenhardt, J D; Lipeles, E D; Spencer, E N; Savine, A; Cheu, E C; Lampl, W; Veatch, J R; Roberts, K; Atkinson, M J; Odino, G A; Polesello, G; Martin, T; White, A P; Stephens, R; Grinbaum sarkisyan, E; Vartapetian, A; Yu, J; Sosebee, M; Thilagar, P A; Spurlock, B; Bonde, R; Filthaut, F; Klok, P; Hoummada, A; Ouchrif, M; Pellegrini, G; Rafi tatjer, J M; Navarro, G A; Blumenschein, U; Weingarten, J C; Mueller, D; Graber, L; Gao, Y; Bode, A; Capeans garrido, M D M; Carli, T; Wells, P; Beltramello, O; Vuillermet, R; Dudarev, A; Salzburger, A; Torchiani, C I; Serfon, C L G; Sloper, J E; Duperrier, G; Lilova, P T; Knecht, M O; Lassnig, M; Anders, G; Deviveiros, P; Young, C; Sforza, F; Shaochen, C; Lu, F; Wermes, N; Wienemann, P; Schwindt, T; Hansen, P H; Hansen, J B; Pingel, A M; Massol, N; Elles, S L; Hallewell, G D; Rozanov, A; Vacavant, L; Fournier, D A; Poggioli, L; Puzo, P M; Tanaka, R; Escalier, M A; Makovec, N; Rezynkina, K; De cecco, S; Cavalleri, P G; Massa, I; Zoccoli, A; Tanaka, S; Odaka, S; Mitsui, S; Tomasio pina, J A; Santos, H F; Satsounkevitch, I; Harkusha, S; Baranov, S; Nechaeva, P; Kayumov, F; Kazanin, V; Asai, M; Mount, R P; Nelson, T K; Smith, D; Kenney, C J; Malone, C M; Kobel, M; Friedrich, F; Grohs, J P; Jais, W J; O'neil, D C; Warburton, A T; Vincter, M; Mccarthy, T G; Groer, L S; Pham, Q T; Taylor, W J; La marra, D; Perrin, E; Wu, X; Bell, W H; Delitzsch, C M; Feng, C; Zhu, C; Tokar, S; Bruncko, D; Kupco, A; Marcisovsky, M; Jakoubek, T; Bruneliere, R; Aktas, A; Narrias villar, D I; Tapprogge, S; Mattmann, J; Kroha, H; Crespo, J; Korolkov, I; Cavallaro, E; Cabrera urban, S; Mitsou, V; Kozanecki, W; Mansoulie, B; Pabot, Y; Etienvre, A; Bauer, F; Chevallier, F; Bouty, A R; Watkins, P; Watson, A; Faulkner, P J W; Curtis, C J; Murillo quijada, J A; Grout, Z J; Chapman, J D; Cowan, G D; George, S; Boisvert, V; Mcmahon, T R; Doyle, A T; Thompson, S A; Britton, D; Smizanska, M; Campanelli, M; Butterworth, J M; Loken, J; Renton, P; Barr, A J; Issever, C; Short, D; Crispin ortuzar, M; Tovey, D R; French, R; Rozen, Y; Alexander, G; Kreisel, A; Conventi, F; Raulo, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Giagu, S; Luci, C; Nisati, A; Cobal, M; Ishikawa, A; Jinnouchi, O; Bos, K; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J; Van vulpen, I B; Kieft, G; Mora, K D; Olsen, F; Rohne, O M; Pajchel, K; Nilsen, J K; Wosiek, B K; Wozniak, K W; Badescu, E; Jinaru, A; Bohm, C; Johansson, E K; Sjoelin, J B R; Clement, C; Buszello, C P; Huseynova, D; Boyko, I; Popov, B; Poukhov, O; Vinogradov, V; Tsiareshka, P; Skvorodnev, N; Soldatov, A; Chuguev, A; Gushchin, V; Yazici, E; Lutz, M S; Malon, D; Vanyashin, A; Lavrijsen, W; Spieler, H; Biesiada, J L; Bahr, M; Kong, J; Tatarkhanov, M; Ogren, H; Van kooten, R J; Cwetanski, P; Butler, J M; Shank, J T; Chakraborty, D; Ermoline, I; Sinev, N; Whiteson, D O; Corso radu, A; Huang, J; Werth, M P; Kastoryano, M; Meirose da silva costa, B; Namasivayam, H; Hobbs, J D; Schamberger jr, R D; Guo, F; Potekhin, M; Popovic, D; Gorisek, A; Sokhrannyi, G; Hofsajer, I W; Mandelli, L; Ceradini, F; Graziani, E; Giorgi, F; Zur nedden, M E G; Grancagnolo, S; Volpi, M; Nunes hanninger, G; Rados, P K; Milesi, M; Cuthbert, C J; Black, C W; Fink grael, F; Fincke-keeler, M; Keeler, R; Kowalewski, R V; Berghaus, F O; Qi, M; Davidek, T; Tas, P; Jakubek, J; Duckeck, G; Walker, R; Mitterer, C A; Harenberg, T; Sandvoss, S A; Del peso, J; Llorente merino, J; Gonzalez millan, V; Irles quiles, A; Crouau, M; Gris, P L Y; Liauzu, S; Romano saez, S M; Gallop, B J; Jones, T J; Austin, N C; Morris, J; Duerdoth, I; Thompson, R J; Kelly, M P; Leisos, A; Garas, A; Pizio, C; Venda pinto, B A; Kudin, L; Qian, J; Wilson, A W; Mietlicki, D; Long, J D; Sang, Z; Arms, K E; Rahimi, A M; Moss, J J; Oh, S H; Parker, S I; Parsons, J; Cunitz, H; Vanguri, R S; Sadrozinski, H; Lockman, W S; Martinez-mc kinney, G; Goussiou, A; Jones, A; Lie, K; Hasegawa, Y; Olcese, M; Gilewsky, V; Harrison, P F; Janus, M; Spangenberg, M; De, K; Ozturk, N; Pal, A K; Darmora, S; Bullock, D J; Oviawe, O; Derkaoui, J E; Rahal, G; Sircar, A; Frey, A S; Stolte, P; Rosien, N; Zoch, K; Li, L; Schouten, D W; Catinaccio, A; Ciapetti, M; Delruelle, N; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Hoecker, A; Klioutchnikova, T; Macina, D; Malyukov, S; Spiwoks, R D; Unal, G P; Vandoni, G; Petersen, B A; Pommes, K; Nairz, A M; Wengler, T; Mladenov, D; Solans sanchez, C A; Lantzsch, K; Schmieden, K; Jakobsen, S; Ritsch, E; Sciuccati, A; Alves dos santos, A M; Ouyang, Q; Zhou, M; Brock, I C; Janssen, J; Katzy, J; Anders, C F; Nilsson, B S; Bazan, A; Di ciaccio, L; Yildizkaya, T; Collot, J; Malek, F; Trocme, B S; Breugnon, P; Godiot, S; Adam bourdarios, C; Coulon, J; Duflot, L; Petroff, P G; Zerwas, D; Lieuvin, M; Calderini, G; Laporte, D; Ocariz, J; Gabrielli, A; Ohska, T K; Kurochkin, Y; Kantserov, V; Vasilyeva, L; Speransky, M; Smirnov, S; Antonov, A; Bulekov, O; Tikhonov, Y; Sargsyan, L; Vardanyan, G; Budick, B; Kocian, M L; Luitz, S; Young, C C; Grenier, P J; Kelsey, M; Black, J E; Kneringer, E; Jussel, P; Horton, A J; Beaudry, J; Chandra, A; Ereditato, A; Topfel, C M; Mathieu, R; Bucci, F; Muenstermann, D; White, R M; He, M; Urban, J; Straka, M; Vrba, V; Schumacher, M; Parzefall, U; Mahboubi, K; Sommer, P O; Koepke, L H; Bethke, S; Moser, H; Wiesmann, M; Walkowiak, W A; Fleck, I J; Martinez-perez, M; Sanchez sanchez, C A; Jorgensen roca, S; Accion garcia, E; Sainz ruiz, C A; Valls ferrer, J A; Amoros vicente, G; Vives torrescasana, R; Ouraou, A; Formica, A; Hassani, S; Watson, M F; Cottin buracchio, G F; Bussey, P J; Saxon, D; Ferrando, J E; Collins-tooth, C L; Hall, D C; Cuhadar donszelmann, T; Dawson, I; Duxfield, R; Argyropoulos, T; Brodet, E; Livneh, R; Shougaev, K; Reinherz, E I; Guttman, N; Beretta, M M; Vilucchi, E; Aloisio, A; Patricelli, S; Caprio, M; Cevenini, F; De vecchi, C; Livan, M; Rimoldi, A; Vercesi, V; Ayad, R; Mastroberardino, A; Ciapetti, G; Luminari, L; Rescigno, M; Santonico, R; Salamon, A; Del papa, C; Kurashige, H; Homma, Y; Tomoto, M; Horii, Y; Sugaya, Y; Hanagaki, K; Bobbink, G; Kluit, P M; Koffeman, E N; Van eijk, B; Lee, H; Eigen, G; Dorholt, O; Strandlie, A; Strzempek, P B; Dita, S; Stoicea, G; Chitan, A; Leven, S S; Moa, T; Brenner, R; Ekelof, T J C; Olshevskiy, A; Roumiantsev, V; Chlachidze, G; Zimine, N; Gusakov, Y; Grigalashvili, N; Mineev, M; Potrap, I; Barashkou, A; Shoukavy, D; Shaykhatdenov, B; Pikelner, A; Gladilin, L; Ammosov, V; Abramov, A; Arik, M; Sahinsoy, M; Uysal, Z; Azizi, K; Hotinli, S C; Zhou, S; Berger, E; Blair, R; Underwood, D G; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-sciveres, M A; Siegrist, J L; Kipnis, I; Dahl, O; Holland, S; Barbaro galtieri, A; Smith, P T; Parua, N; Franklin, M; Mercurio, K M; Tong, B; Pod, E; Cole, S G; Hopkins, W H; Guest, D H; Severini, H; Marsicano, J J; Abbott, B K; Wang, Q; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Takai, H; Rajagopalan, S; Protopopescu, S D; Snyder, S S; Undrus, A; Popescu, R N; Begel, M A; Blocker, C A; Amelung, C; Mandic, I; Macek, B; Tucker, B H; Citterio, M; Troncon, C; Orestano, D; Taccini, C; Romeo, G L; Dova, M T; Taylor, G N; Gesualdi manhaes, A; Mcpherson, R A; Sobie, R; Taylor, R P; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Slovak, R; Sopko, B; Vacek, V; Sanders, M P; Hertenberger, R; Meineck, C; Becks, K; Kind, P; Sandhoff, M; Cantero garcia, J; De la torre perez, H; Castillo gimenez, V; Ros, E; Hernandez jimenez, Y; Chadelas, R; Santoni, C; Washbrook, A J; O'brien, B J; Wynne, B M; Mehta, A; Vossebeld, J H; Landon, M; Teixeira dias castanheira, M; Cerrito, L; Keates, J R; Fassouliotis, D; Chardalas, M; Manousos, A; Grachev, V; Seliverstov, D; Sedykh, E; Cakir, O; Ciftci, R; Edson, W; Prell, S A; Rosati, M; Stroman, T; Jiang, H; Neal, H A; Li, X; Gan, K K; Smith, D S; Kruse, M C; Ko, B R; Leung fook cheong, A M; Cole, B; Angerami, A R; Greene, Z S; Kroll, J I; Van berg, R P; Forbush, D A; Lubatti, H; Raisher, J; Shupe, M A; Wolin, S; Oshita, H; Gaudio, G; Das, R; Konig, A C; Croft, V A; Harvey, A; Maaroufi, F; Melo, I; Greenwood jr, Z D; Shabalina, E; Mchedlidze, G; Drechsler, E; Rieger, J K; Blackston, M; Colombo, T

    2002-01-01

    % ATLAS \\\\ \\\\ ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for recording proton-proton collisions at LHC. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 144 participating institutions (June 1998) with more than 1750~physicists and engineers (700 from non-Member States). The detector design has been optimized to cover the largest possible range of LHC physics: searches for Higgs bosons and alternative schemes for the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism; searches for supersymmetric particles, new gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and quark and lepton compositeness indicating extensions to the Standard Model and new physics beyond it; studies of the origin of CP violation via high-precision measurements of CP-violating B-decays; high-precision measurements of the third quark family such as the top-quark mass and decay properties, rare decays of B-hadrons, spectroscopy of rare B-hadrons, and $ B ^0 _{s} $-mixing. \\\\ \\\\The ATLAS dectector, shown in the Figure includes an inner tracking detector inside a 2~T~solenoid providing an axial...

  7. Special Cryostats for Lithium Compensated Germanium Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many applications of Ge(Li) detectors an extreme design of the cryostat is desirable. One example is a coincidence or anticoincidence setup where the Ge(Li) detector is surrounded by one or several other detectors, usually Nal(Tl) crystals or plastic scintillators. To be usable in this arrangement the part of the cryostat containing the Ge(Li) detector should have the form of a long hood, with the detector placed at its very end. The diameter of the hood should be as small as detector dimensions permit. Excellent energy resolution and reasonably low liquid nitrogen consumption must be retained. Two cryostats fulfilling these conditions will be described. For the first cryostat emphasis lay on the reduction of the hood diameter to an absolute minimum; for the other incorporation of a device regulating the temperature of the cryostat surface was required. The difficulties encountered will be discussed; they were primarily connected with the necessity of combining minimum temperature loss at the detector position with extreme cryostat compactness and cold finger length. The incorporation of a cooled FET transistor in the cryostat will also be described. The gamma spectrometers using the cryostats gave resolutions down to 2.8 keV FWHM for the 1173 keV gamma line from Co 60 and 1.2 keV FWHM for the 122 keV line from Co 57

  8. Thermal architecture of the Clover cryostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, William F.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter; Chase, Simon; Kiernan, Brian; North, Chris E.

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the Clover cryostats, which are dry cryostats containing three stages of cooling; a pulse tube cooler, a sorption fridge and a continuous miniature dilution refrigerator. We describe the thermal architecture of the system and present thermal data for the various stages including its performance when tilted.

  9. Analysis Supporting MSFC Cryostat Testing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from an analysis of the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) cryostat testing unit. A finite element model was generated to determine both temperature distribution and stress distribution in the cryostat testing unit for load conditions supplied by MSFC. This report contains the results of that analysis.

  10. Effectiveness of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading for Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical Education Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Odyssey Reading, published by CompassLearning, is a comprehensive reading/language arts program using adaptive software for core instruction. This is the first study of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading (CLO) in PUSD and was based on data from the school years 2006-2008. For this study, Odyssey Reading was implemented in reading classes in grades…

  11. Comet Odyssey: Comet Surface Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Bradley, J.; Smythe, W. D.; Brophy, J. R.; Lisano, M. E.; Syvertson, M. L.; Cangahuala, L. A.; Liu, J.; Carlisle, G. L.

    2010-10-01

    Comet Odyssey is a proposed New Frontiers mission that would return the first samples from the surface of a cometary nucleus. Stardust demonstrated the tremendous power of analysis of returned samples in terrestrial laboratories versus what can be accomplished in situ with robotic missions. But Stardust collected only 1 milligram of coma dust, and the 6.1 km/s flyby speed heated samples up to 2000 K. Comet Odyssey would collect two independent 800 cc samples directly from the surface in a far more benign manner, preserving the primitive composition. Given a minimum surface density of 0.2 g/cm3, this would return two 160 g surface samples to Earth. Comet Odyssey employs solar-electric propulsion to rendezvous with the target comet. After 180 days of reconnaissance and site selection, the spacecraft performs a "touch-and-go” maneuver with surface contact lasting 3 seconds. A brush-wheel sampler on a remote arm collects up to 800 cc of sample. A duplicate second arm and sampler collects the second sample. The samples are placed in a return capsule and maintained at colder than -70 C during the return flight and at colder than -30 C during re-entry and for up to six hours after landing. The entire capsule is then refrigerated and transported to the Astromaterials Curatorial Facility at NASA/JSC for initial inspection and sample analysis by the Comet Odyssey team. Comet Odyssey's planned target was comet 9P/Tempel 1, with launch in December 2017 and comet arrival in June 2022. After a stay of 300 days at the comet, the spacecraft departs and arrives at Earth in May 2027. Comet Odyssey is a forerunner to a flagship Cryogenic Comet Sample Return mission that would return samples from deep below the nucleus surface, including volatile ices. This work was supported by internal funds from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  12. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  13. Cryostat for testing RF power couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similar to the power leads of accelerator superconducting magnets, the power couplers of accelerator superconducting cavities are components that link room temperature to superfluid helium temperature for the purpose of energy transfer. Instead of conducting kiloamperes of current they guide megawatts of RF power between those two temperatures. In this paper we describe a cryostat designed for testing the performance of these components and measuring their heat loads. A special feature of this cryostat is its minimum liquid inventory that considerably simplifies safety related requirements. This cryostat is part of a Fermilab facility contributing to the international collaboration working on TESLA (TeV Electron Superconducting Linear Accelerator). This facility is now operational and we will be presenting specifications as well as performance data on the cryostat as well as the first pair of power couplers tested with it

  14. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  15. The EBEX Cryostat and Supporting Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sagiv, Ilan; Bao, Chaoyun; Hanany, Shaul; Jones, Terry; Klein, Jeffrey; Milligan, Michael; Polsgrove, Daniel E; Raach, Kate; Zilic, Kyle; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S; Vinukurov, Yuri; Matsumura, Tomotake; Ade, Peter; Grainger, Will; Pascale, Enzo; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Hillbrand, Seth; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Limon, Michele; Miller, Amber; Jaffe, Andrew; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Tristram, Matthieu; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Kisner, Ted; Aubin, Francois; Dobbs, Matt; MacDermid, Kevin; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johhannes; Irwin, Kent; Reintsema, Carl; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Leach, Sam; Johnson, Bradley; Lee, Adrian; Tran, Huan; Levinson, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    We describe the cryostat and supporting electronics for the EBEX experiment. EBEX is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to measure the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The instrument includes a 1.5 meter Gregorian-type telescope and 1432 bolometric transition edge sensor detectors operating at 0.3 K. Electronics for monitoring temperatures and controlling cryostat refrigerators is read out over CANbus. A timing system ensures the data from all subsystems is accurately synchronized. EBEX completed an engineering test flight in June 2009 during which the cryogenics and supporting electronics performed according to predictions. The temperatures of the cryostat were stable, and an analysis of a subset of the data finds no scan synchronous signal in the cryostat temperatures. Preparations are underway for an Antarctic flight.

  16. Cryostat and CCD for MEGARA at GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Ferrusca, D.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, F. M.; Vílchez Medina, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the GTC. The spectrograph subsystems include the pseudo-slit, the shutter, the collimator with a focusing mechanism, pupil elements on a volume phase holographic grating (VPH) wheel and the camera joined to the cryostat through the last lens, with a CCD detector inside. In this paper we describe the full preliminary design of the cryostat which will harbor the CCD detector for the spectrograph. The selected cryogenic device is an LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at INAOE. A complete description of the cryostat main body and CCD head is presented as well as all the vacuum and temperature sub-systems to operate it. The CCD is surrounded by a radiation shield to improve its performance and is placed in a custom made mechanical mounting which will allow physical adjustments for alignment with the spectrograph camera. The 4k x 4k pixel CCD231 is our selection for the cryogenically cooled detector of MEGARA. The characteristics of this CCD, the internal cryostat cabling and CCD controller hardware are discussed. Finally, static structural finite element modeling and thermal analysis results are shown to validate the cryostat model.

  17. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  18. Cryogen free cryostat for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most very low temperature (below 1K) experiments at advanced neutron facilities are based on dilution and 3He refrigerator inserts used with Orange cryostats, or similar systems. However recent increases in the cost of liquid helium caused by global helium supply problems, has raised significant concern about the affordability of such cryostats. Here we present the design and test results of a cryogen free top-loading cryostat with a standard KelvinoxVT® dilution refrigerator insert which provides sample environment for neutron scattering experiments in the temperature range 35 mK - 300 K. The dilution refrigerator insert operates in a continuous regime. The cooling time of the insert is similar to one operated in the Orange cryostat. The main performance criteria such as base temperature, cooling power, and circulation rate are compatible with the technical specification of a standard dilution refrigerator. In fact the system offers operating parameters very similar to those of an Orange cryostat, but without the complication of cryogens. The first scientific results obtained in ultra-low temperature neutron scattering experiment with this system are also going to be discussed

  19. Simple operated multipurpose temperature control cryostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABBAS T.A.; OMAR M.S.

    2007-01-01

    A suitable simple optical cryostat for optical, magneto-optical, electrical and thermo-electrical measurements was designed. It is suitable for use in a magnetic pool gap as narrow as less than 1 cm. Throughout a long period of time, the heat diffusion process of the cryostat can be easily operated at slow increase in sample temperature in a range 1.25 K/min at 200 K that will be reduced gradually to 0.66 K at room temperature. Liquid nitrogen was used to cool down the temperature. During the operation, the change in the measured energy gap of a semiconductor sample and other physical parameters resulting from the change of temperature can be corrected through the temperature coefficient of that parameter at the corresponding temperature.The cryostat was successfully used for all experiments mentioned above to measure the properties of a single crystal of GaP (Gallium Phosphate) semiconductor.

  20. Low evaporation helium cryostat with a refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of a helium cryostat for a superconducting magnet is reported. A small refrigerator pre-cools the magnet and removes heat load. A gas filled thermal switch cools a helium vessel and thermally insulates the vessel when the refrigerator stops. Nb3Sn wires are used in the helium vessel to avoid resistive heating. The evaporation rate of the liquid helium is 1.0 - 1.7 1/day (with external current of 28A), when a magnet (maximum field 7T in 25mm bore) is set in the cryostat. (author)

  1. Conceptual design of JT-60SA cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JT-60U modification program to fully superconducting device has been proceeded, namely ''JT-60SA'', toward early realization of fusion energy based on tokamak concept. The design of JT-60SA cryostat is expected to achieve a vacuum thermal insulation for super conducting coils, a bio-shielding boundary and structural gravity support. The cryostat is required to cover JT-60SA tokamak device, which is 15 m of total height and 7 m of radius, but there is geometrical limit due to surrounding devices reutilized. Although the cryostat consists of vessel body and gravity support, and the structural material is low cobalt 304 stainless steel (Co: 2, and the design of the leaf spring is considered to reduce thermal stress, and to withstand the mechanical loads of plasma disruption and seismic loads. The coolant is 80 K gas helium and both sides of panel are covered with multi-layers super insulation (SI) to reduce heat load (radiation) up to 1/100. Fraction of non-covered region is assumed to be 2% due to many port-joints and supports for the vacuum vessel. Total heat load for inner surface of cryostat (600 m2) is 9kW and the heat load for the port-joints (-300 m2) is assumed up to 9 kW. The operational pressure of the cryostat is required to keep less than 10-2 Pa and about 100,000 m2 of structural surfaces is considered for exhaust system specification. Another role of the cryostat is the radiation protection. Biological shielding up to 10 micro-Sv/h (for maintenance acceptance) is required of the cryostat surface after the 10 years operation. Thus the cryostat consists of boron (2 wt%) doped concrete of 220 mm thickness and structural SS304 of total 40 mm thickness. The concrete reduces the air activation (41Ar) in the torus hall by 90% rather than the normal one by the thermal neutron absorption of boron. (orig.)

  2. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Figure 1: Some members of the solenoid and liquid argon teams proudly pose in front of the barrel cryosat, complete with detector and magnet. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. Figure 2: The alignment survey by Dirk Mergelkuhl and Aude Wiart. (EST-SU) At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. Figure 3: The solenoid on the insertion stand, with Akira Yamamoto the solenoid designer and project leader. Figure 4: Taka Kondo, ATLAS Japan spokesperson, and Shoichi Mizumaki, Toshiba project engineer for the ATLAS solenoid, celebrate the insertion. Aft...

  3. NASA Set for 2001 Mars Odyssey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国宁

    2001-01-01

    人类对火星的探索处于起步阶段,却体现出了不屈不饶的精神。NASA在1999年的两次发射太空船均以失败告终,今年发射The Mars Odyssey获得成功。文章告诉我们:The Mars Odyssey will complete its 400-million-mile journey in October.让我们在金秋十月等候The Mars Odyssey发回的关于火星的信息吧。

  4. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN2) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  5. ASME Code Calculations for the CC Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    This engineering note contains the ASHE Code calculations for the CC Cryostat prepared by the manufacturer, Richmond-Lox Equipment Company. Most of these were taken from calculations initially prepared by Fermilab personne1and pub1ished in Eng. Note 68.

  6. ITER cryostat thermal shield detailed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural design and study on fabrication and assembly of the cryostat thermal shield for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat thermal shield is attached to cover the cryostat inner wall in order to reduce the radiation heat loads applied to the superconducting coils operation at 4 K. The thermal shield consists of low-emissivity foils which are passively cooled and shield plates which are actively cooled with low temperature helium gas. The foils are multi-layered assemblies and are attached on both surfaces of the shield plates. The material of the foils are silver coated 304 stainless steel, polyimide or polyester. The silver coated stainless steel foils should be adopted to the foils at the locations where radiation dose is over 10 MGy. The route of coolant pipes for the shield plates is designed so as to keep the surface temperature of the shield plates below 100 K. This report describes the detailed design of the cryostat thermal shield, and outlines the fabrication and assembly procedures. (J.P.N.)

  7. ITER cryostat thermal shield detailed design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Hamada, Kazuya; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke; Kato, Takashi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikawa, Akira

    1999-03-01

    The structural design and study on fabrication and assembly of the cryostat thermal shield for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat thermal shield is attached to cover the cryostat inner wall in order to reduce the radiation heat loads applied to the superconducting coils operation at 4 K. The thermal shield consists of low-emissivity foils which are passively cooled and shield plates which are actively cooled with low temperature helium gas. The foils are multi-layered assemblies and are attached on both surfaces of the shield plates. The material of the foils are silver coated 304 stainless steel, polyimide or polyester. The silver coated stainless steel foils should be adopted to the foils at the locations where radiation dose is over 10 MGy. The route of coolant pipes for the shield plates is designed so as to keep the surface temperature of the shield plates below 100 K. This report describes the detailed design of the cryostat thermal shield, and outlines the fabrication and assembly procedures. (J.P.N.)

  8. SSC 50 mm collider dipole cryostat design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    The cryostat of a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet consists of all magnet components except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, provide all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be manufacturable at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shields, multilayer insulation system, cryogenic piping, interconnections, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their expected operating life. This paper describes the design of the current SSC dipole magnet cryostat and includes discussions on the structural and thermal considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems.

  9. The LINC-NIRVANA IR cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, W.; Baumeister, H.; Bizenberger, P.

    2006-06-01

    The MPIA is leading an international consortium of institutes building an instrument called LINC-NIRVANA. The instrument will combine the light from the two 8.4 m primary mirrors of the LBT. The beam combiner will operate at wavelengths between 1.1 and 2.4 microns, using a Hawaii2 detector. A volume of about 1.6 m high with a diameter of about 0.65 m is required for the cold optics. The size of the instrument and the high requirements on vibrations brought us to a new approach for the cooling of the cryostat, which has never been tried in astronomy. The cryostat will be cooled by a flow of Helium gas. The cooler which cools the gas will be placed far away on a different level in the telescope building. The cold helium will be fed through long vacuum isolated transfer lines to the instrument cryostat. Inside the cryostat a tube will be wrapped around the mounting structure of the cold optics. The first hardware arrived at the MPIA in 2005 and the system will soon be tested in our labs.

  10. Cryostat design for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryostat of an SSC dipole magnet consists of all magnet components except the cold mass assembly. It serves to support the cold mass accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, provide all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations and must be manufacturable at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shields, multilayer insulation (MLI) system, cryogenic piping, interconnections, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course their 25 year expected life. This paper describes the design of the current SSC collider dipole magnet cryostat and includes discussions on the thermal, structural, and dynamic considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

  12. Conceptual design and structural analysis of the CFETR cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The CFETR cryostat is a large vacuum container surrounding the tokamak basic machine. • Two conceptual design schemes of CFETR cryostat were proposed. • A series of structural analyses were performed for cryostat cylinder. • The design of base section is feasible for cryostat. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is a new tokamak device, one important component of which is cryostat and it is now under designing by China national integration design group. The CFETR cryostat is a large single-wall vacuum-tight container surrounding the tokamak basic machine, which consists of top dome-shape lid, two cylindrical sections with circumferential stiffening ribs and bottom flat head. It shall provide a vacuum environment (10−4 Pa) for the operation of the superconducting coils and all the loads that derive from cryostat itself and inner components should be transferred to the floor of tokamak pit. In this paper, two schemes of cryostat were proposed and then the structural analyses including seismic response analysis, elastic stress analysis and buckling analysis were performed to validate the conceptual design of CFETR cryostat. Based on the analysis results, it can be inferred that the cryostat II has a higher stiffness and stability. The structure of cryostat I needs to be improved against buckling and it is more difficult to manufacture for cryostat II due to its complex curved surface compared with cryostat I. Finally, the structural analysis for base section was performed and the design of main support was proved to be feasible. The design of CFETR cryostat has not been finalized and structural optimization still need to be proceeded based on the analysis results

  13. Conceptual design and structural analysis of the CFETR cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: wangzhen@ipp.ac.cn; Yang, Qingxi; Xu, Hao

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The CFETR cryostat is a large vacuum container surrounding the tokamak basic machine. • Two conceptual design schemes of CFETR cryostat were proposed. • A series of structural analyses were performed for cryostat cylinder. • The design of base section is feasible for cryostat. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is a new tokamak device, one important component of which is cryostat and it is now under designing by China national integration design group. The CFETR cryostat is a large single-wall vacuum-tight container surrounding the tokamak basic machine, which consists of top dome-shape lid, two cylindrical sections with circumferential stiffening ribs and bottom flat head. It shall provide a vacuum environment (10{sup −4} Pa) for the operation of the superconducting coils and all the loads that derive from cryostat itself and inner components should be transferred to the floor of tokamak pit. In this paper, two schemes of cryostat were proposed and then the structural analyses including seismic response analysis, elastic stress analysis and buckling analysis were performed to validate the conceptual design of CFETR cryostat. Based on the analysis results, it can be inferred that the cryostat II has a higher stiffness and stability. The structure of cryostat I needs to be improved against buckling and it is more difficult to manufacture for cryostat II due to its complex curved surface compared with cryostat I. Finally, the structural analysis for base section was performed and the design of main support was proved to be feasible. The design of CFETR cryostat has not been finalized and structural optimization still need to be proceeded based on the analysis results.

  14. Cryostat and CCD for MEGARA at GTC

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Domínguez, E.; Ferrusca Rodríguez, D.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; E. Carrasco; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Gil De Paz, Armando; F. M. Sánchez; Vílchez, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrografo en GTC de Alta Resolucion para Astronomia) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the GTC. The spectrograph subsystems include the pseudo-slit, the shutter, the collimator with a focusing mechanism, pupil elements on a volume phase holographic grating (VPH) wheel and the camera joined to the cryostat through the last lens, with a CCD detector inside. In this paper we describe the full preliminary design of the cryost...

  15. Building the BICEP3 Test Cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Samantha; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Thompson, Keith L.; Grayson, James; Karpel, Ethan; Monticue, Val; Kuo Group/Bicep3 Collaboration Team

    2016-03-01

    BICEP3, a ground-based telescope stationed in the South Pole, currently employs a cryostat to observe the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, the earliest light in the Universe, by using devices that take advantage of the superconductivity transition of titanium. The cryostat consists of staggered temperature stages at 300 K, 50 K, 4 K, 2 K, 350 mK, and 250 mK that are maintained by both a pulse tube and three stage helium (He4-He3-He3) sorption refrigerator. However, currently the helium refrigerator is experiencing unanticipated heat loading which is decreasing the fridge cycle hold time and thus the number of hours that BICEP3 can observe for in a given period of time. To address this issue, this past summer I worked at Stanford University to construct a thermally-similar cryostat that will be used to test the thermal conductivities of its various internal components at subKelvin temperatures and determine the source of this heat loading.

  16. Overview of instrumentation and control of ITER-cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cryostat is a cylindrical vacuum vessel of ∼28 meter diameter and 30 meter height and 50 mm thickness. The Cryostat instrumentation is required to monitor variables such as temperature, strain, acceleration and displacement to insure mechanical structural integrity of cryostat. The instrumentation system design includes the design of transducers and their supports, selection of cables, design and selection of feedthroughs, as well as the development of adequate signal monitoring techniques. Cryostat pedestal ring is Safety Important Component. As main components like Vacuum vessel and magnet system rests on the pedestal ring. There will be considerable temperature difference between inside and outside environment of pedestal ring. To avoid the ice formation, a heating system shall be used to control the temperature of the Cryostat pedestal ring. Strain measurement will be used for monitoring structural integrity of cryostat during operational modes of ITER. Accelerometer will be used for off-normal effect on the cryostat. Cryostat shall be monitored for motion through the use of displacement Transducers. The Cryostat instrumentation and Control System will contribute to Machine operation, investment protection, spill localization, maintenance. (author)

  17. Cryostat engineering design and manufacturing of the EAST superconducting Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EAST cryostat is a large single walled vessel surrounding the entire basic machine consisting of central cylindrical section and two end enclosures, a flat base structure with external reinforcements and dome-shaped lid structure. The main function of EAST cryostat provides the thermal barrier between the ambient temperature testing hall and the supercritical helium cooled superconducting magnet with the base pressure of 5 x 10-4 Pa. The base structure has been connected with the main support which has eight equally spaced support legs anchored on the concrete base. It also provides feed through penetrations for all the connecting elements inside and outside the cryostat. The cryostat vessel was executed to satisfy the performance and operation requirements. The major loads applied to the cryostat are vacuum pressure, dead weight of vacuum vessel, PFC, thermal shield, and magnet which are total 360 tonnes, seismic events and electromagnetic forces originated by eddy currents. The structural analyses including buckling for the cryostat vessel under the plasma operation condition have been carried out using finite element code. Stress analysis results show that the maximum stress intensity was below the allowable value, and the cryostat had buckling safety factor of over 16. Based on the results, structural robustness of the cryostat vessel has been proved. The engineering design and fabrication has been completed. The paper will summarize the structural analyses, the design activities and give a short description of the fabrication of the cryostat component

  18. Thermal calculations of nitrogen-free nonmagnetic helium cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal calculations of nitrogen-free helium cryostats are made using a program of hydraulic-thermal calculations for complex cryosystems ''TEPGIST''. A comparison with the experimental is presented, the influence of a number of factors on cryostat resources is studied and an automatic man-machine selection system of optimal design parameters is proposed

  19. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance was attributed on 2nd September 2002 during a ceremony in Hall 180 to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months before at their headquarters in Japan. The ATLAS experiment will become a reality thanks to a large international collaboration partnership. The industrial suppliers for the components all over the world play a major role in the construction of this gigantic jigsaw for the LHC. And sometimes they perform so well, that their work deserves specially to be recognised. This is the case for Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Toshiba Corporation, producers of the Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat and of the Superconducting Central Solenoid, respectively. With these awards, the ATLAS Collaboration wants to congratulate Kawasaki and Toshiba for fulfilling the hi...

  20. Injuries to the head and neck in Homer's Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Ghaly, Ghaly Adly; Azari, Afroditi

    2016-07-01

    The Odyssey and the Iliad are the most prominent works of ancient Greek epic poetry, and we have retrieved injuries to the head and neck mentioned in the Odyssey. We studied the texts both in ancient Greek and the translations in modern Greek and English and searched for references to trauma to the head and neck. We recorded the injuries, the attacker and defender, the weapons used, the site, and the result. There were 11 injuries of the head and neck, nine of which were fatal. PMID:26586491

  1. Design of cryostat for testing high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho Myung; Baik, Joun Hoon; Lee, Hoon; Kim, Young Kwon; Park, Jeong Soo; Song, Seung Jae [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This project is proposed to develop several design techniques concerning the gas-cooled or the refrigerator-cooled cryostats to test the HTS at temperature ranges between 20 K and 100 K. (1) It is shown by a numerical analysis that the thermal stability of HTS in a gas-cooled cryostat is satisfactory, mainly because of large heat capacity. The feasibility of the gas-cooled cryostat is demonstrated after the cooling load calculation, the selection of the cryocooler, and the detailed design and fabrication. It is also found that the current leads in the gas-cooled cryostat increases the cooling load but can make the cool-down time shorter to a considerable degree. (2) The thermal stability and the cooling load of HTS in a refrigerator-cooled cryostat do not differ much from those in a gas-cooled cryostat. On the other hand, it has been known that the thermal switches and the soft-contact materials in the refrigerator-superconductor interface are necessary to shorten the coo-down time and to provide a flexibility in the configuration of cryostat. Various shapes and designs are demonstrated for the refrigerator-cooled cryostat. (3) Binary current leads are indispensable in a refrigerator-cooled cryostat. The current lead is a series combination of a normal metal at warm side and a HTS at cold side. It is shown that the optimal diameter-length relation exits for the minimum refrigeration work. It is also found that the refrigerator work decreases as the length of HTS increases. For a given length of HTS, there is an optimal cross-sectional area and it increases with the length. 54 refs., 9 tabs., 56 figs. (author)

  2. Design Evolution and Analysis of the ITER Cryostat Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Han; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Songke

    2015-12-01

    The cryostat is a vacuum tight container enveloping the entire basic systems of the ITER tokamak machine, including a vacuum vessel, a superconducting magnet and thermal shield etc. It is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4 Pa to limit the heat transfer via gas conduction and convection to the cryogenically cooled components. Another important function of cryostat is to support all the loads from the tokamak to the concrete floor of the pit by its support system during different operational regimes and accident scenarios. This paper briefly presents the design evolution and associated analysis of the cryostat support system and the structural interface with the building.

  3. Cryostat for Ultra-low-energy Threshold Germanium Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonicalzi, Ricco [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fast, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hossbach, Todd W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orrell, John L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Overman, Cory T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); VanDevender, Brent A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents progress on the development of a cryostat intended to improve upon the low-energy threshold (below 0.5 keV) of p-type point contact germanium gamma-ray spectrometers. Ultra-low energy thresholds are important in the detection of low-energy nuclear recoils, an event class relevant to both dark matter direct detection and measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The cryostat design, including a thermal and electrical-field model, is presented. A prototype cryostat has been assembled and data acquired to evaluate its vacuum and thermal performance.

  4. Cryostat for Ultra-low-energy Threshold Germanium Spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, Craig E; Fast, James E; Hossbach, Todd W; Orrell, John L; Overman, Cory T; Vandevender, Brent A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents progress on the development of a cryostat intended to improve upon the low-energy threshold (below 0.5 keV) of p-type point contact germanium gamma-ray spectrometers. Ultra-low energy thresholds are important in the detection of low-energy nuclear recoils, an event class relevant to both dark matter direct detection and measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The cryostat design, including a thermal and electrical-field model, is given. A prototype cryostat has been assembled and data acquired to evaluate its vacuum and thermal performance.

  5. Construction feasibility study of the ITER EDA cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Y.; LaFaille, J.P.; D`haeseleer, W. [EFET/BELGATOM, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    The Cryostat is a large vessel serving as containment for the tokamak machine. The ITER project decided to have industry perform a feasibility study on the 1994 concept of the Cryostat. This paper summarizes the results of the study and suggests some improvements that could be brought to the design. In 1995, the design of the Cryostat was modified. A qualitative comparison between the two designs, in the light of the performed feasibility study, is attempted. Many of the suggestions of this study seem to have been incorporated in the new design.

  6. Construction feasibility study of the ITER EDA cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cryostat is a large vessel serving as containment for the tokamak machine. The ITER project decided to have industry perform a feasibility study on the 1994 concept of the Cryostat. This paper summarizes the results of the study and suggests some improvements that could be brought to the design. In 1995, the design of the Cryostat was modified. A qualitative comparison between the two designs, in the light of the performed feasibility study, is attempted. Many of the suggestions of this study seem to have been incorporated in the new design

  7. Thermal architecture for the SPIDER flight cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Gudmundsson, J E; Amiri, M; Benton, S J; Bihary, R; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bonetti, J A; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; O'Dea, D; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Helson, K R; Hilton, G; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Montroy, T E; Morford, T A; Netterfield, C B; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Schenker, M A; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; 10.1117/12.857925

    2011-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic system for SPIDER, a balloon-borne microwave polarimeter that will map 8% of the sky with degree-scale angular resolution. The system consists of a 1284 L liquid helium cryostat and a 16 L capillary-filled superfluid helium tank, which provide base operating temperatures of 4 K and 1.5 K, respectively. Closed-cycle helium-3 adsorption refrigerators supply sub-Kelvin cooling power to multiple focal planes, which are housed in monochromatic telescope inserts. The main helium tank is suspended inside the vacuum vessel with thermally insulating fiberglass flexures, and shielded from thermal radiation by a combination of two vapor cooled shields and multi-layer insulation. This system allows for an extremely low instrumental background and a hold time in excess of 25 days. The total mass of the cryogenic system, including cryogens, is approximately 1000 kg. This enables conventional long duration balloon flights. We will discuss the design, thermal analysis, and qualification of the cryog...

  8. Development of the cryostat vessel for KSTAR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KSTAR cryostat is a 8.8 m diameter vacuum vessel that provides the necessary thermal barrier between the ambient temperature test cell and the supercritical helium cooled superconducting magnet providing the base pressure of 1 x 10-3 Pa. The cryostat is a single walled vessel consisting of central cylindrical section and two end closures, a flat base structure with external reinforcements and a dome-shaped lid structure. The base structure has 8 equally spaced support legs anchored on the concrete base. The cryostat vessel design was executed to satisfy the performance and operation requirements. The major loads considered in the structural analysis were vacuum pressure, dead weight, electromagnetic load driven by plasma disruption, and seismic load. Based on the fabrication and inspection procedures for the vessel, cryostat vessel was fabricated and inspected. It was confirmed that the inspection results were acceptable

  9. SSC superconducting dipole magnet cryostat model style B construction experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program to upgrade the full scale SSC dipole magnet cryostat model function and assembly methods has resulted in a series of dipole magnets designated as style B construction. New design features and assembly techniques have produced a magnet and cryostat assembly that is the basis for Phase 1 of the SSC dipole magnet industrialization program. Details of the assembly program, assembly experience, and comparison to previous assembly experiences are presented. Improvements in magnet assembly techniques are also evaluated. 6 refs., 5 figs

  10. A Versatile Nuclear Demagnetization Cryostat for Ultralow Temperature Research

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Weijun

    1997-01-01

    A new cascade nuclear demagnetization cryostat has been designed and constructed. Our aim was to build a versatile, modular cryostat, with a large experimental space providing an excellent platform for various types of ultra-low temperature measurements. A powerful dilution refrigerator, combined with a massive copper nuclear cooling stage, will enable us to reach the low temperatures necessary in studies of nuclear magnetic ordering. First experiments will include nuclear magnetism in Rh and...

  11. SSC 50mm dipole magnet cryostat thermal measurement results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat, DCA323, was instrumented at Fermilab and delivered to the SSC Laboratory for installation into the accelerator systems string test facility. In series with other magnets, the instrumented cryostat will be used to quantify and verify cryostat thermal performance with respect to design requirements. Prior to leaving Fermilab, DCA323 was subjected to magnetic testing at the Magnetic Test Facility (MTF). This presented an opportunity to obtain preliminary thermal performance data under simulated operating conditions. It should be noted that measurements of overall cryostat thermal performance were not possible during the MTF measurements as the magnet test stands are designed for magnetic rather than thermal testing. They are not designed to limit heat inleak to the ends of the cryostat, which has been shown to have a significant effect on overall measured thermal performance. Nonetheless, these measurements do offer insight into the performance of several of the cryostat components and sub-systems

  12. Design Status of the ITER Cryostat High Vacuum Pumping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting magnets and structures of ITER are enveloped by the cryostat vessel which, during normal operation, is evacuated to 0.1 mPa to limit the gas conduction heat load to the cold components to an acceptable level. When the magnets are cold all gases except helium (and to an extent protium) are pumped by the cold magnet surfaces; the former gas arises from leaks in helium bearing pipework inside the cryostat while protium outgases from the warm metallic surfaces facing the cryostat vacuum. Neutron irradiation of epoxy can result in evolution of protium and alkanes. Prior to magnet cool-down, the cryostat has to be pumped down from the crossover pressure of 10 Pa (reached using the mechanical rough pumps) to the nominal operating pressure of 0.1 mPa by the cryostat high vacuum cryopumps. In this operation mode the gas load comprises mainly air and water, the latter outgassing from the ∼ 1300 m2 of vacuum facing epoxy of the poloidal field coils. In order to pump protium and helium at 5 K, the pumping mechanism is cryo-sorption. The sorbent panels have provision for regeneration at three temperature levels, 100 K for helium and protium regeneration, 300 K for regeneration of air-likes and to 475 K for regeneration of water-likes. The last two mentioned have an influence on the sorbent at increasing dose while the amount of helium that can be pumped without regeneration is limited by the sorbent helium capacity. Protium accumulation is limited by the safety requirement to keep the peak regenerated concentration below 1.5 mole/m3, corresponding to a peak deflagration pressure of 0.2 MPa in the event of an air leak into the closed pump prior to or during regeneration. For the cryostat cryopump, adequate total pumping speeds are required for the timely evacuation of water and air during the transient pump-down. Likewise a good helium pumping speed is needed for pumping helium coolant leaks into cryostat vacuum and to obtain an acceptable response time

  13. Experiences on vacuum conditioning in the cryostat of KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The vacuum of the cryostat has been stably maintained during the KSTAR operation. ► The detected cold leak at the PF/CS coils and CS structure. ► The present helium leak makes no issue for the cryostat operation. -- Abstract: Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device has been successfully operated for the plasma experiment from KSTAR 1st campaign to 4th campaign. The main pumping system for the cryostat has to maintain the target pressure below 1.0 × 10−4 mbar at room temperature and 1.0 × 10−5 mbar at extremely low temperature for the plasma experiment against the air leak coming from ports of vessel and/or the helium leak from cooling loops in the cryostat. No leak has been detected at room temperature. Unexpectedly, the cold-leak appeared in the cryostat at temperature around 50 K during the cool-down in the KSTAR 2nd campaign. We carefully analyzed the characteristics of detected cold leak because it can cause the increase of the base pressure in the cryostat. After the cool-down, the leak detection was performed to locate the position and size of the leak by the pressurizing the loops. As a result, it is found that the cold leak was located at cooling loops for PF/CS coils and CS structure. Nevertheless, the vacuum inside the cryostat was well maintained below 6.0 × 10−8 mbar during the entire operation period. The impact of the He-leak in present status on the plasma operation is negligible. However, we have found that the leak rate increases as a function of time. Therefore careful monitoring on cold-leak is an important technical issue for the operation of superconducting tokamak

  14. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  15. LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat design and fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Nicol, T H; Huang, Y; Page, Thomas M

    2002-01-01

    The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to house all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be able to be manufactured at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multilayer insulation system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their...

  16. LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat production, alignment, and performance summary

    CERN Document Server

    Nicol, T H; Kerby, J S; Page, Thomas M; Peterson, Thomas J; Rabehl, Roger Jon

    2004-01-01

    The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to provide all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation system, cryogenic piping, interconnections, and suspension system. While responsibility for the design and manufacture of the main quadrupole elements is divided between Fermilab and KEK, Fermilab alone is responsible for the design and final assembly of the cryostat for the LHC inner triplets. This paper describes the experience gained during fabrication of the first complete Q2 magnets, the alignment operation and results, and the cryogenic performance of the magnet on the test stand at Fermilab. 4 Refs.

  17. A flow cryostat for cooling of eight independent pipe guns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Hansen, J.E.; Sass, B.

    1991-01-01

    A flow cryostat allowing independent cooling of eight pipe guns in a multishot deuterium pellet injector is described. The pipe guns are placed symmetrically around the flow cryostat and with a liquid helium consumption of 4-5 l/h the cooling is sufficient for simultaneous formation of eight...... pellets at 8-9 K with a diameter of 2.1 mm containing up to 8 x 10(20) atoms/pellet. The thermal interaction between the eight pipe guns is sufficiently low to allow successive firing of the guns with time intervals of up to 1 s....

  18. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    affecting public acceptance of the project. In order to solve this problem, a model cryostat was developed consisting of alternating rigid and flexible sections and hydraulic tests were conducted using sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. In the 47 m-long cryostat, containing a full-size HTS cable model, measured......Particulars of 6km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly...

  19. The engineering design and manufacturing of cryostat of EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EAST superconducting tokamak is an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device to be completed successfully at the Institute of Plasma Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The engineering design incorporates the superconducting toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets, the vacuum vessel, the thermal shields, the cryostat and the current leads. The cryostat of EAST Tokamak is a large single walled vessel surrounding the entire Basic Machine with central cylindrical section and two end enclosures, a flat base structure with external reinforcements and dome-shaped lid structure. The main function of EAST cryostat provides the thermal barrier with the base pressure of 5 · 10-4 Pa between the ambient temperature testing hall and the liquid helium cooled superconducting magnet. The base structure was connected with the main support which has eight equally spaced support legs anchored on concrete base. The loads applied to the cryostat are vacuum pressure, the dead weight of vacuum vessel, thermal shield, PFC and magnet which are totally about 360 tons, seismic events and electromagnetic forces driven by plasma disruption. It also provides feed through penetrations for all the connecting elements inside and outside the cryostat. The main material selected for the cryostat is stainless steel 304L. The structural analyses including buckling for the cryostat vessel under the plasma operation condition have been carried out using finite element code. Stress analysis results show that the maximum stress intensity was below the allowable limit, and that the cryostat vessel had buckling safety of over 16. Based on the results, structural robustness of the cryostat vessel has been proved. The engineering design has been finished and the fabrication started and completed in 2002 and 2004 respectively. The Chinese company, Shanghai Boiler Works, Ltd (SBWL) is responsible for manufacture of cryostat vessel. The dished lid was fabricated by

  20. Spanish Minister of Science and Technology visits ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    H.E. Mr Josep Piqué i Camps, Minister for Science and Technology, Spain, pictured in front of a barrel toroid cryostat vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall. The air-core ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system will consist of eight large superconducting coils, each in its own vacuum vessel, built by Spanish company Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas SA under the responsibility of IFAE (Institute for High Energy Physics), Barcelona. Photo 01: The Minister in front of the cryostat vessel. Photo 02: The Minister (right) with H.E. Mr Joaquin Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Spanish Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva. Photo 03: (left to right) Manuel Delfino, leader of the Information Technology division at CERN; Matteo Cavalli-Sforza of CERN; Juan Antonio Rubio, leader of the Education and Technology Transfer division at CERN; The Minister; and Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson.

  1. Majorana One-Tonne Cryostat Cooling Conceptual Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Orrell, John L.; Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2011-02-17

    This report evaluates the conceptual plans for a one-tonne (S4) cryostat cooling design. This document is based upon previous design work and experimental results used to evaluate the current MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) thermal design. A feasibility study of a cooling system for S4 based on the MJD thermosyphon experiment is presented. The one-tonne experiment will be a scaled up version of the MJD. There will be many cryostats for the S4 experiment. In this document a cryostat with up to 19 strings of Germanium crystals is analyzed. Aside from an extra outer ring of crystals, the geometry of both systems’ cryostats is very similar. The materials used in the fabrication of both ultra-low background experiments will be underground electroformed copper. The current MJD uses a two-phase liquid-gas cooling system to ensure constant operating temperature. This document presents a theoretical investigation of a cooling system for the S4 experiment and evaluates the heat transfer performance requirements for such a system.

  2. Cryostat for the SSC 6T magnet option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design has been developed for a SSC 6T option dipole magnet cryostat. The design criteria that defines the basic parameters and performance requirements are discussed. Details of the single phase assembly, suspension, insulation, thermal shields, vacuum vessels and interconnections are presented. Results of the experimental program in support of the design effort are discussed

  3. Safety Analysis Results for Cryostat Ingress Accidents in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, B. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Petti, D. A.

    1997-06-01

    Accidents involving the ingress of air, helium, or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

  4. Alternate design of ITER cryostat skirt support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skirt support of ITER cryostat is a support system which takes all the load of cryostat cylinder and dome during normal and operational condition. The present design of skirt support has full penetration weld joints at the bottom (shell to horizontal plate joint). To fulfill the requirements of tolerances and control the welding distortions, we have proposed to change the full penetration weld into fillet weld. A detail calculation is done to check the feasibility and structural impact due to proposed design. The calculations provide the size requirements of fillet weld. To verify the structural integrity during most severe load case, finite element analysis (FEA) has been done in line with ASME section VIII division 2. By FEA 'Plastic Collapse' and 'Local Failure' modes has been assessed. 5° sector of skirt clamp has been modeled in CATIA V5 R21 and used in FEA. Fillet weld at shell to horizontal plate joint has been modeled and symmetry boundary condition at ± 2.5° applied. 'Elastic Plastic Analysis' has been performed for the most severe loading case i.e. Category IV loading. The alternate design of Cryostat Skirt support system has been found safe by analysis against Plastic collapse and Local Failure Modes with load proportionality factor 2.3. Alternate design of Cryostat skirt support system has been done and validated by FEA. As per alternate design, the proposal of fillet weld has been implemented in manufacturing. (author)

  5. Variable-Temperature Cryostat For Radiation-Damage Testing Of Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Puc, Bernard P.

    1992-01-01

    Variable-temperature cryostats developed to study radiation damage to, and annealing of, germanium gamma-ray detectors. Two styles: one accommodates large single detector and one accommodates two medium-sized detectors. New cryostats allow complete testing of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detectors without breaking cryostat vacuum and removing detectors for annealing.

  6. ITER In-Cryostat inspection and repair feasibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J., E-mail: Jens.Reich@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Cordier, J.-J.; Houtte, D. van [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Evrard, D. [Sogeti High Tech, 180 rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix en Provence (France); Mercier, E. [AREVA CNIM KAH System Engineering Support, CS 50497, 13593 Aix en Provence Cedex 3 (France); Popa, T.; Doshi, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The ITER In-Cryostat maintenance study is an important precondition to guarantee the operation over the ITER lifetime. The ITER operation is subdivided mainly into two phases: 1.Hydrogen phase (non-nuclear operation phase). 2.Deuterium/Tritium phase (nuclear DT phase). The commissioning phase includes the initial phase of assembly. Within the first phase the ITER components will be tested; afterwards they will go into operation. The In-Cryostat maintenance shall facilitate all operations that could be required by In-Cryostat systems and the Cryostat itself. In cases of failures or unlikely events (e.g. earthquakes) it is necessary to provide man and tool access to In-Cryostat components. Overall functions which have to be implemented are: {center_dot}Inspection of components including leak localization (helium, water, air). {center_dot}Repair and replacement of component (instrumentation, parts or complete components). {center_dot}Regulatory inspections. It is presumed that most of component failure would occur at the beginning of the operational phase. This failure rate is expected to be very unlikely when ITER is being operating during the nuclear phase. For maintenance activities it is assumed that: {center_dot}The intervention frequency on each component is limited during its lifetime (e.g. inspections/repair during global shutdown). {center_dot}Most of these interventions will be required during the inactive phase. According to ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) rules maintenance activities will be planned in order to minimize the required human interventions during the active phase. Different tools have to be designed to perform the maintenance actions. As there are quiet all heavy components to be handled and removed, humans cannot perform the work without semi hands-on tools. The required permanent fixtures and tools are considered and pre-designed.

  7. ITER In-Cryostat inspection and repair feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER In-Cryostat maintenance study is an important precondition to guarantee the operation over the ITER lifetime. The ITER operation is subdivided mainly into two phases: 1.Hydrogen phase (non-nuclear operation phase). 2.Deuterium/Tritium phase (nuclear DT phase). The commissioning phase includes the initial phase of assembly. Within the first phase the ITER components will be tested; afterwards they will go into operation. The In-Cryostat maintenance shall facilitate all operations that could be required by In-Cryostat systems and the Cryostat itself. In cases of failures or unlikely events (e.g. earthquakes) it is necessary to provide man and tool access to In-Cryostat components. Overall functions which have to be implemented are: ·Inspection of components including leak localization (helium, water, air). ·Repair and replacement of component (instrumentation, parts or complete components). ·Regulatory inspections. It is presumed that most of component failure would occur at the beginning of the operational phase. This failure rate is expected to be very unlikely when ITER is being operating during the nuclear phase. For maintenance activities it is assumed that: ·The intervention frequency on each component is limited during its lifetime (e.g. inspections/repair during global shutdown). ·Most of these interventions will be required during the inactive phase. According to ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) rules maintenance activities will be planned in order to minimize the required human interventions during the active phase. Different tools have to be designed to perform the maintenance actions. As there are quiet all heavy components to be handled and removed, humans cannot perform the work without semi hands-on tools. The required permanent fixtures and tools are considered and pre-designed.

  8. Odyssey in Calcutta: “A Mystery Unsolved”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Deccan Chronicle Holdings Limited (DCHL, the publishers of Deccan Chronicle in September 2005 approved the acquisition of south based retail chain Odyssey India Limited. Odyssey came with a Specialty Format, having introduced affluent product lines ranging from books to music, leisure, games and gifts. The success stories in all the 13 cities, mostly in the lush, sultry South, resulted in its rapid entry to the so called Culture Capital in July 2008. Odyssey launched one of the large format retail stores in South Calcutta with area coverage of nearly 30000 square feet. In its attempt to redefine leisure shopping experience for Calcutta’s people, they offered world-class ambience for undisturbed and relaxed shopping experiences. Within 10 months of its commencement, Odyssey closed down on 10th May 2009. Approach: The secondary data analysis had been done. The newspaper report, internet had been consulted to get the data. Results: A combination of expansion planned going wrong, high rentals and dipping spends made Mission Calcutta impossible for Odyssey. Within 10 months of its commencement, Odyssey closed down on 10th May 2009. What went wrong in such haste? Conclusion/Recommendations: Further research should be conducted based on the primary data. More conclusive results can be obtained if interviews of some employees of Odyssey Kolkata are conducted. Further a detailed questionnaire highlighting the attributes for estimating utility under conjoint analysis should be done.

  9. Performance of a proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Y; Makida, Y; Kondo, Y; Kawai, M; Aoki, K; Haruyama, T; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Wachi, Y; Mine, S; Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet has been designed and constructed as a collaborative work between KEK and CERN for the ATLAS experiment in the LHC project The solenoid provides an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla at the center of the tracking volume of the ATLAS detector. The solenoid is installed in a common cryostat of a liquid-argon calorimeter in order to minimize the mass of the cryostat wall. The coil is cooled indirectly by using two-phase helium flow in a pair of serpentine cooling line. The cryogen is supplied by the ATLAS cryogenic plant, which also supplies helium to the Toroid magnet systems. The proximity cryogenic system for the solenoid has two major components: a control dewar and a valve unit In addition, a programmable logic controller, PLC, was prepared for the automatic operation and solenoid test in Japan. This paper describes the design of the proximity cryogenic system and results of the performance test. (7 refs).

  10. Configuration control inside the W7-X cryostat: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is a fusion device of the stellarator type with optimized magnetic field geometry and superconducting coils. It is presently under construction at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany. The 3D geometry and tight space within the cryostat of W7-X necessitate a complex and very dense packing of components. In order to ensure collision-free design and operation, dedicated organizational structures, methods for design, configuration space control have been implemented within the project. This paper presents briefly the methods used and the lessons learned during the last five years of design and configuration control of components inside the cryostat of W7X. (authors)

  11. Cryostating of superconducting magnets with a cold magnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryogenic aspects of UNK operation when using magnets with a cold magnetic shield for a design variant, where channels of two-phase and single-phase helium are placed in a ring gap on the boundary between the magnetic shield and a superconducting winding unit, are considered. The parameters of magnet cryostating system for three modes of UNK operation: cooling (heating), cryostating and magnet transition to the normal state - are determined. The results of calculation of pressure growth dynamics in the centre and on the edges of channels of the UNK 6-meter magnet when winding transfers to the normal state, are presented. Tube diameters for helium evacuation and safety valves equal 25 and 35 mm. The calculational results have shown that the magnet structure suggested with cold iron satisfies the requirements of reliable operation of UNK ring superconducting magnet under all cryogenic conditions

  12. Design alternatives for cryogenic beryllium windows in an ICF cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose three backup design options for the cryogenic beryllium windows in a cryostat. The first, a beryllium flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/3 of that in the original design. The second, a fiberglass flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/2 of that in the original design and is also low cost. A third option, replacing the beryllium windows with spherical Mylar caps, would require a development program. Even though Mylar has been used previously at cryogenic temperature, this option is still considered unreliable. The near-zero ductility of beryllium at cryogenic temperature makes the reduction of peak tensile stresses particularly desirable. The orginal window design did function satisfactorily and the backup options were not needed. However, these options remain open for possible incorporation in future cryostat designs

  13. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  14. Initial Component Testing for a Germanium Array Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Seifert, Allen

    2009-06-01

    This report describes progress on the construction of two ultra-low-background cryostats that are part of the NA-22 funded “Radionuclide Laboratories” (RN Labs) project. Each cryostat will house seven high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe). These cryostats are being built from a limited set of materials that are known to have very low levels of radioactive impurities. The RN Labs instrument is designed to take advantage of low background performance, high detection efficiency, and γ-γ coincidence signatures to provide unprecedented gamma spectroscopy sensitivity. The project is focused on improving gamma analysis capabilities for nuclear detonation detection (NDD) applications. The instrument also has the potential for basic nuclear physics research. Section 1 provides the background for the project. Section 2 discusses germanium crystal acceptance testing. Design problems were found after the first delivery of new detectors from the vendor, Canberra Semiconductors. The first four crystals were returned for repair, resulting in a delay in crystal procurement. Section 3 provides an update on copper electroforming. In general, electroforming parts for RN Labs has proceeded smoothly, but there have been recent problems in electroforming three large copper parts necessary for the project. Section 4 describes the first round of testing for the instrument: anti-cosmic scintillator testing, electronics testing, and initial vacuum testing. Section 5 concludes with an overall description of the state of the project and challenges that remain.

  15. The pressure rise simulation when helium pipes are broken in the ITER cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting coil has a potential risk of its cryostat pressure rising as a result of cold helium leaked from coolant pipes. If the cryostat pressure rapidly rises until all inventory helium expands to room temperature in a narrow cryostat space. All components inside of the cryostat must be designed for the saturated pressure. The cryostat pressure rise caused by helium leakage may be slower than ideal heat input to inventory helium. Thus, it is necessary to estimate the case when the pipes are broken in the ITER cryostat as the worst fault for safety aspects. A computer simulation code has been developed to calculate the pressure and temperature rise for the above fault conditions so that safety measures can be adopted

  16. A 5 tesla superconducting magnet and cryostats for an EPR/EMR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Ferromagnetic Resonance (EPR/FMR) spectrometer, using Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) and U-band (40-60 GHz), is built for resonance measurements on among others large magnetic thin films. It has the following features: A superconducting magnet with a homogeneous magnetic field up to 5 tesla. A free rotation of magnet field around the sample. A broad temperature range of the EPR/FMR sample (4 to 300 K). This paper concerns the cryogenic part of the spectrometer, consisting of two cryostats. Firstly, there is a cryostat having a room temperature vertical inlet tube, that gives access to the centre of the magnet. This cryostat can be rotated around the central axis of the inlet tube and enables rotation of the magnetic field around a fixed sample, placed in the center of the magnet. To reduce liquid helium evaporation special care is taken in the construction of the cryostat, by applying helium gas heat exchangers for instance. This cryostat contains a superconducting Helmoholz-like coil. Secondly there is a flow cryostat placed freely in the inlet tube of the first cryostat. This cryostat is used to cool the EPR/FMR sample. Special attention is paid to the construction of both cryostats, as well as to the design-calculations and construction of the superconducting magnet coil. The calculations are compared with experimental data

  17. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer

  18. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dris, Zakaria bin, E-mail: zakariadris@gmail.com [College of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Putrajaya Campus, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Centre for Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Putrajaya Campus, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A. [Centre for Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Putrajaya Campus, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  19. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  20. An original rotating cryostat for the experiment PVLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Marigo, S; Scurlock, R G; Watson, J H P

    1998-01-01

    The polarisation of vacuum, envisaged by Quantum Electrodynamics, has not, so far, been directly measured. An experiment, named PVLAS (Polarizzazione del Vuoto con LASer) has been set-up, at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, which provides the necessary strong magnetic dipole field modulated at about 1 Hz. A special cryostat, 3.1 metres high and 1.3 metres in diameter, has been designed and constructed, which allows insertion, along its longitudinal axis, of a quartz vacuum pipe containing a fixed Fabry-Perot cavity at room temperature. The superconducting dipole magnet, of 2.3 tons and built at CERN, can provide a field of more than 8 Tesla when cooled at 1.8 K with superfluid helium. In order to modulate the field at 1 Hz, the entire cryostat, of the double bath type, has to rotate around its axis maintaining the field, i.e. in permanent current mode and remaining at 1.8 K. The results of the tests performed will be reported as well as the description of the experimental set-up. (4 refs).

  1. Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR high luminosity insertion assembly in its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The picture shows the insertion of the quadrupole magnet active part with its thermal shield into the cryostat. Above the cylindrical part of the cryostat one sees the funnel containing the current leads and the helium feed and exhaust lines. Standing onthe left side is Pierre Pugin. See also 7704022, 7906592X, 7812211,7904252,7702690X.

  2. Fabrication and testing of 2K cryostat for vertical test facility at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has developed a 2K Cryostat for characterization of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities, under Indian Institution Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). A Vertical Test Stand (VTS) is a facility for qualifying bare SRF cavities for their required performance by measuring quality factor and cavity accelerating gradient at a cryogenic temperature of 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture for testing variety of SRF cavities including 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SRF cavities. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Fabrication of Cryostat was carried out in strict accordance with ASME B and PV code under joint supervision of engineers from RRCAT and Fermilab. The paper describes the fabrication and acceptance testing aspects of the VTS cryostat at the vendor location and at RRCAT. (author)

  3. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT(regsign) model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is ∼37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  4. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  5. New target cryostat for experiments with negative muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental set-up, including a cryostat with temperature control and gas supply systems has been developed to study muon catalyzed fusion in mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. The target body is made of aluminium with five kapton windows 55-135 μm thick. The working temperature range of the target is 21-300 K, the pressure is 0-10 atm. The coolant is either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen, according to the experimental conditions. The average consumption of liquid helium at a target temperature of 32 K is 0.6 l/h, providing 0.45 W of cooling power. The temperature control system ensures an accuracy of ±0.05 K in the temperature range 21-70 K. Hydrogen isotopes are purified by molecular sieves (CaA), helium isotopes by intermetallic compound ZrCrFe. (author)

  6. Design Principles and Operational Results of the Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, C; Chalifour, M; Gonidec, G; Passardi, Giorgio; Petit, P; Pezzetti, M; Wicek, F

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter housed in three independent cryostats containing a total argon volume of about 78 m3 has been installed in the underground cavern. The three detectors have been cooled down following stringent temperature gradient limits and have been filled with liquid argon. The cryostats are now in a stable condition for periods going up to almost two years. The temperature uniformity within each of the three detector volumes is found to be within 70 mK rms, while the temperature stability stays below 5 mK rms.

  7. Validation of optical coherence tomography in vivo using cryostat histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambichler, T [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany); Moussa, G [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany); Regeniter, P [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany); Kasseck, C [Ruhr Center of Excellence for Medical Engineering (KMR) Bochum (Germany); Hofmann, M R [Ruhr Center of Excellence for Medical Engineering (KMR) Bochum (Germany); Bechara, F G [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany); Sand, M [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany); Altmeyer, P [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany); Hoffmann, K [Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791 Bochum (Germany)

    2007-03-07

    We aimed to validate for the first time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of epidermal thickness (ET) using cryopreparation for histology. OCT assessments of ET were performed on healthy skin using the algorithms as follows: first, peak-to-valley analysis of the A-scan (ET-OCT-V), second, line-traced image analysis of the B-scan (ET-OCT-IA). Histology was performed using cryostat sections which were also evaluated using the image analysis (ET-Histo). We selected 114 samples, including B-scans and corresponding histology, for method comparison between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo. Forty-two A-scans were available for method comparison between ET-OCT-V and ET-Histo. Bland and Altman plots revealed a marked bias with wide 95% limits of agreement for ET-OCT-V versus ET-Histo. Comparison of ET-OCT-IA versus ET-Histo revealed only a slight bias and narrow 95% limits of agreement. A-scan analysis for ET determination is linked to significant limitations and lacks agreement with histology. By contrast, we observed satisfactory agreement between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo indicating that both methods can be utilized interchangeably. OCT using the line-traced image analysis of the B-scan appears to be a valid and relatively practicable method for the determination of ET in vivo. Furthermore, the comparisons with the in vivo OCT profiles demonstrate that cryostat sectioning provides a better preservation of relative and absolute dimensions of skin layers than paraffin embedding. (note)

  8. ATLAS's superconducting solenoid takes up position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid was moved to its final destination on 16 January. It has taken up position opposite the ATLAS liquid argon barrel cryostat, which will house the electromagnetic calorimeter. All that remains to do now is to slide it into the insulation vacuum, this will be done in the next few weeks. Built by Toshiba, under responsibility of KEK in Japan, the central solenoid is 2.4 metres in diameter, 5.3 metres long and weighs 5.5 tonnes. "It will provide an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla that will deflect particles inside the inner detector," as Roger Ruber, on-site project coordinator, explains. The inner detector, which consists of three sub-detectors, will be installed inside the solenoid later. The solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead travelling crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid argon calorimeter, it will be inserted soon.

  9. Preliminary Design of the Vacuum System for FAIR Super FRS Quadrupole Magnet Cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Super-Conducting Fragment Separator (Super FRS) of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt is a large-acceptance superonducting fragment separator. The separator consists of large dipole, quadrupole and hexapole superconducting magnets. The long quadrupole magnet cryostat houses the helium chamber, which has the magnet iron and NbTi superconducting coil. The magnet weighs about 30 tons. The helium chamber is enclosed in vacuum inside the magnet cryostat. Multilayer Insulation (MLI) will be wrapped around the thermal shield to reduce radiation loss. Polyster of MLI comprises the major component responsible for outgassing. In order to reduce outgassing, pumping at elevated temperatures has to be carried out. In view of the large size and weight of the magnet, a seal off approach might not be operationally feasible. Continuous pumping of the cryostat has also been examined. Pump has been kept at a distance from the magnet considering the effect of stray magnetic fields. Oil free turbo molecular pump and scroll pump combination will be used to pump down the cryostat. The ultimate heat load of the cryostat will be highly dependent on the pressure attained. Radiation and conduction plays an important role in the heat transfer at low temperatures. This paper presents the vacuum design of the long quadrupole magnet cryostat and estimates the heat load of the cryostat.

  10. Reduction of helium loss from a superconducting accelerating cavity during initial cool-down and cryostat exchange by pre-cooling the re-condensing cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Zero-Boil-Off (ZBO) cryostat is designed to realize a compact, stand-alone cryogenic system for the AIST superconducting accelerator (SCA). Under normal operation there is no evaporative helium loss from the cryomodule and therefore operating costs associated with the supply of liquid helium can be eliminated. The only significant loss of helium from the module occurs during the initial cavity cool-down procedure or when the re-condensing cryostat is replaced. It takes about 3 h to cool down the cryostat head from room temperature (300 K) to 4 K. During this time around 100 L of liquid helium is lost due to evaporation. By pre-cooling the cryostat inside a low heat load vacuum tube before transfer to the cryomodule, this evaporative loss could be essentially eliminated, significantly reducing the volume of liquid helium required for the initial cryomodule cool-down. The pre-cooling system also provides an efficient method to test the cryostat prior to use

  11. Note: Simple leak sealing technique for ultra-high vacuum cryostat by using freezable liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seong; Kim, Ji-Ho; Lyo, In-Whan

    2015-05-01

    Here we introduce a simple, low-cost, contamination-free, and highly reliable technique for sealing an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) cryostat by using cryogenically freezable liquid. We demonstrate it by sealing an UHV cryostat with dry leaks in the high vacuum range; ethanol was utilized to fill and block the leakage pathways through the subsequent in situ solidification by LN2. The seal is reversible and can be maintained as long as the cryostat is kept at cryogenic temperature. PMID:26026566

  12. Odyssey: A Public GPU-Based Code for General-Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    General-relativistic radiative transfer (GRRT) calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black holes at the centres of Sgr A^{*} and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a Graphics Processing Unit(GPU)-based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 nanosecond per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time h...

  13. When Prohibition Works: Alternatives to Violence in the Odyssey House Youth Program and in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David F.; Straus, Murray A.

    Physical violence, a factor often associated with drug addiction, must be reduced or eliminated in order for drug dependent individuals to reenter society. To examine the extent to which individual violence associated with drug addiction was controllable by the Odyssey House drug addiction rehabilitation program, the violence potential of 47…

  14. Odyssey: A Public GPU-based Code for General Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  15. Thermodynamic optimization of the cryostat for Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors thermal research

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    NED activity within work package TSQP includes a task to study the thermal behavior of new ceramic electrical insulation. This insulation with good wrapping and excellent thermal resistance during heat treatment would eliminate complex coil fabrication, lower cost and reduce fabrication time. Tests of the insulation's thermal features require a superfluid helium cryostat. The cryostat is constructed at Wroclaw University of Technology in co-operation with CEA and CERN. Heat transfer measurements should be realized in saturated He I (4.2 K), in supercritical He (4.2...5 K, 1...6 bar), and in pressurized He II (1.9 K, 1 bar). The cryostat thermal insulation has been optimized on the basis of the generated entropy minimization method. The total heat flux to the super-fluid helium has been estimated at 3 W. The cryostat, after the tests done at Wroclaw University of Technology, will be delivered to CEA, Saclay to perform thermal measurements of the insulation.

  16. Construction and Testing of a Low-power Cryostat for MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Day, Anthony R.; Fast, James E.; Fuller, Erin S.

    2007-10-01

    A low-power cryostat was designed and built for the Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) project for the purpose of housing a close-packed high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector array of 14 HPGe detectors. The power consumption of the cold mass in the cryostat was measured to be 4.07(11) watts, sufficient for 5.5 days of continuous operation using only 8 liters of liquid nitrogen. Temperatures throughout the cryostat were measured by platinum resistance temperature detectors. These measurements were used to determine the emissivity of the copper used in the floating radiation shield and outer cryostat wall, which was constructed using chemically cleaned and passivated copper metal. Using a PNNL-developed passivation process, an emissivity of 2.5(3)% was achieved for copper.

  17. A 3He Cryostat for Scientific Measurements in Pulsed High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoliang; Li, Liang; Liu, Mengyu; Zuo, Huakun; Peng, Tao

    A top loading 3He cryostat has been developed for scientific experiments with a 60 T pulsed magnetic field facility at Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. The cryostat consists of a 4He bath cryostat, a 3He insert and a closed circulation system for 3He gas handling. To eliminate the eddy current heating during the pulse, the tail of the 3He insert with a vacuum space at the bottom is made from fiberglass tubing coated with epoxy. The 3He bath is separated from the 4He bath with the vacuum space. The 4He bath cryostat provides cooling power to condense 3He gas by a neck tube on top of the tail. Experimental results have shown that the sample can be cooled down to 385 mK and kept cold for more than 150 second by one-shot cooling, which is sufficiently long for an experiment in a pulsed high magnetic field.

  18. Deep Cryogenic Low Power 24 Bits Analog to Digital Converter with Active Reverse Cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turqueti, Marcos; Prestemon, Soren; Albright, Robert

    LBNL is developing an innovative data acquisition module for superconductive magnets where the front-end electronics and digitizer resides inside the cryostat. This electronic package allows conventional electronic technologies such as enhanced metal-oxide-semiconductor to work inside cryostats at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. This is achieved by careful management of heat inside the module that keeps the electronic envelop at approximately 85 K. This approach avoids all the difficulties that arise from changes in carrier mobility that occur in semiconductors at deep cryogenic temperatures. There are several advantages in utilizing this system. A significant reduction in electrical noise from signals captured inside the cryostat occurs due to the low temperature that the electronics is immersed in, reducing the thermal noise. The shorter distance that signals are transmitted before digitalization reduces pickup and cross-talk between channels. This improved performance in signal-to-noise rate by itself is a significant advantage. Another important advantage is the simplification of the feedthrough interface on the cryostat head. Data coming out of the cryostat is digital and serial, dramatically reducing the number of lines going through the cryostat feedthrough interface. It is important to notice that all lines coming out of the cryostat are digital and low voltage, reducing the possibility of electric breakdown inside the cryostat. This paper will explain in details the architecture and inner workings of this data acquisition system. It will also provide the performance of the analog to digital converter when the system is immersed in liquid helium, and in liquid nitrogen. Parameters such as power dissipation, integral non-linearity, effective number of bits, signal-to-noise and distortion, will be presented for both temperatures.

  19. An Open Flow Helium Cryostat for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open flow Helium cryostats, directly blowing a stream of cold gas over the sample, remain an attractive alternative to closed cryostats in a number of cases despite the high Helium cost and often unstable and difficult operation including the growth of ice crystals on the sample: they offer open access to the sample which may be rotated over large angles allowing for large diffraction angles and simultaneous visible optical access for spectroscopy techniques. We have designed and built a new open flow Helium cryostat, making use of the paraphernalia of a commercial cryostat as much as possible. The cryostat has a temperature range from 4.5 up to 100 Kelvin for a liquid Helium consumption of around 2 l/hr when cycled between 5 K and 50 K at constant flow. The use of the new cryostat allows data collection and structure determination below 10 K; at these temperatures it is possible to trap reaction intermediates in proteins in a frozen state, previously only identified spectroscopically. We have successfully carried out X-ray diffraction data collection of murine neuroglobin at 10 K.

  20. The construction and transport of the ATLAS experiment components

    CERN Document Server

    James, D

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS experiment components is taking place in the West Area, Hall 180. The principal parts of the detector are currently under construction, and include components such as the Endcap Cryostats, the Barrel Cryostat, and the Barrel Toroid magnets, amongst other large and delicate components. The day to day handling operations involve complex turning over operations and delicate installation procedures, as well as the day to day work involved in beam maintenance and other transport requests. Once completed, a series of exceptional transports will bring the components to Point 1 where they will be lowered into the pit and installed by specialist handling teams. All these bespoke components have very specific requirements in terms of handling constraints, and great care and planning is required in order that the components arrive at their destination in the same condition as when they leave the construction area.

  1. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  2. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  3. Radiation hard micro-coaxial cables for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Imbert, P; de La Taille, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has chosen for the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and for all the end-cap calorimeters a sampling technique, with liquid argon as the active medium. The read-out electronics and the calibration pulsers are located in boxes outside the cryostats housing the detectors. Signals are transmitted between the detectors and the electronic boxes through custom-designed micro- coaxial cables, which are the subject of this paper. These cables have to satisfy very stringent tolerances in terms of signal transmission, dimensions and radiation hardness. Following a successful pre-series production, these cables have been selected for equipping the ATLAS calorimeter. (16 refs).

  4. The First End-Cap Cryostat is being Tested at Cold

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M

    The integration of the LAr end-cap detector wheels - one electromagnetic calorimeter wheel and two hadronic calorimeter wheels - was finished at the end of 2003 (see Fig. 1). Fig. 1: ECC cryostat after the insertion of the second hadronic end-cap wheel (Dec. 2003), and before the insertion of the forward calorimeter. After the insertion of the forward calorimeter, in summer 2004, the cryostat was closed and welded. Cool-down of the End-Cap C Cryostat: On Nov. 26, 2004, the cool-down of the cryostat started in B180 using forced convection of gaseous N2 in the heat exchangers and He gas in the cryostat (see Fig. 2). The cool-down speed during this time was on average 0.2K/h, hence arriving at a temperature of approximately 120K after about 6 weeks. The speed of the cool down was limited by stringent requirements on the temperature gradients in the detector wheels, which were established from mechanical constraints. The most severe limit was the maximum allowed temperature difference of 6K for the el...

  5. Structural design of cryostat and port penetration of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary structural design of the ITER cryostat and port penetration based on concrete cryostat was conducted and the structural concept compatible with remote handling and nuclear shielding is proposed. The ITER cryostat was mainly composed of side wall, upper cover, upper port, horizontal port, vacuum port, cooling pipe penetration. The upper cover is designed to be fully detachable structure by remote handling for assembling/disassembling the poloidal field coils. In addition, the upper cover provides the biological shield for personal access for the blanket maintenance operation. The upper port is designed to meet the requirements of cooling pipe penetration, blanket maintenance and biological shield. The layout of the cooling pipe is defined by simple thermal stress analysis. There are 16 horizontal ports arranged around the cryostat to provide the access of heating and current drive system, fuel injection, blanket test modules, vacuum pump and remote handling manipulators. Each port should have the biological shield and bellows to prevent an excessive thermal stress due to thermal expansion. These bellows are non-circular cross-section and the reinforced structure to prevent buckling is proposed. A partial model of the seal mechanism applicable to large gate valves connected to the horizontal ports was fabricated and the basic performance under cyclic loading has been investigated. As a whole, the design concept of the cryostat and port penetration has been successfully developed and more detailed analysis and critical technology development will be conducted in the Engineering Design Phase. (author)

  6. Design development for the 50mm Superconducting Super Collider dipole cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryostat of a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet consists of all magnet components except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, provide all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be manufacturable at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shields, multilayer insulation system, cryogenic piping, interconnections, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course their expected operating life. This paper describes the design of the current 50mm SSC collider dipole cryostat and includes discussions on the structural and thermal considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems. Where appropriate, comparisons will be made with the 40mm cryostat. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  7. The Earth and Moon As Seen by 2001 Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    2001 Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) took this portrait of the Earth and its companion Moon, using the infrared camera, one of two cameras in the instrument. It was taken at a distance of 3,563,735 kilometers (more than 2 million miles) on April 19, 2001 as the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft left the Earth. From this distance and perspective the camera was able to acquire an image that directly shows the true distance from the Earth to the Moon. The Earth's diameter is about 12,750 km, and the distance from the Earth to the Moon is about 385,000 km, corresponding to 30 Earth diameters. The dark region seen on Earth in the infrared temperature image is the cold south pole, with a temperature of minus 50 degrees Celsius (minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit). The small bright region above it is warm Australia. This image was acquired using the 9.1 um infrared filter, one of nine filters that the instrument will use to map the mineral composition and temperature of the martian surface. From this great distance, each picture element (pixel) in the image corresponds to a region 900 by 900 kilometers or greater in size or about size of the state of Texas. Once Odyssey reaches Mars orbit each infrared pixel will cover a region only 100 by 100 meters on the surface, about the size of a major league baseball field.

  8. “UNHAPPILY EVER AFTER?” THE PROBLEM OF HELEN IN ODYSSEY 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Doyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Book 4 of Homer’s Odyssey contains two μύθοι (stories which reveal two, different “Helens”: the first “Helen” is a self-portrait, Helen tells her guests a story about her encounter with Odysseus at Troy. The second “Helen” is revealed in a counter story told straight after hers by her husband Menelaus. This counter tale reveals how Helen nearly succeeded in betraying the Greek soldiers hidden in the Trojan horse. In Helen’s story, she saves Odysseus’ life and her silence and complicity result in Trojan losses. In Menelaus’ story she threatens Odysseus’ life as well as those others hidden inside the Horse almost bringing about the downfall of the Greeks and the victory of the Trojans and thus reversing the outcome of the Trojan War.

    The questions to be asked are these: what is the purpose of these two portrayals of Helen? Indeed what is Helen doing in the Odyssey at all, after all, “The Iliad was Helen’s poem; the Odyssey is Penelope’s”?1 Why are we given this glimpse into the unquiet life of the reunited husband and wife and what does it portend, if anything, for the homecoming of Odysseus and his reunion with Penelope? This article examines the House of Sparta episode, and in particular its “Helen” stories, in an attempt to answer the above questions.

  9. Mongolian Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatic atlas dated 1985, in Mongolian, with introductory material also in Russian and English. One hundred eight pages in single page PDFs.

  10. Development of a Compact Eleven Feed Cryostat for the Patriot 12-m Antenna System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher; Kildal, Per-Simon; Yang, Jian; Pantaleev, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    The Eleven antenna has constant beam width, constant phase center location, and low spillover over a decade bandwidth. Therefore, it can feed a reflector for high aperture efficiency (also called feed efficiency). It is equally important that the feed efficiency and its subefficiencies not be degraded significantly by installing the feed in a cryostat. The MIT Haystack Observatory, with guidance from Onsala Space Observatory and Chalmers University, has been working to integrate the Eleven antenna into a compact cryostat suitable for the Patriot 12-m antenna. Since the analysis of the feed efficiencies in this presentation is purely computational, we first demonstrate the validity of the computed results by comparing them to measurements. Subsequently, we analyze the dependence of the cryostat size on the feed efficiencies, and, lastly, the Patriot 12-m subreflector is incorporated into the computational model to assess the overall broadband efficiency of the antenna system.

  11. A portable cryostat for the cold transfer of polarized solid HD targets: HDice-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, C.D., E-mail: bassc@lemoyne.edu [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bade, C. [Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Caracappa, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); D' Angelo, A. [Universita’ di Roma “Tor Vergata” and INFN Sezione di Roma2, 00133 Roma (Italy); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Deur, A.; Dezern, G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Glueckler, H. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Hanretty, C. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ho, D. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Honig, A. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Kageya, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Khandaker, M. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Laine, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, 63177 Aubiere (France); Lincoln, F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lowry, M.M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mahon, J.C. [Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); O' Connell, T. [University of Connecticut, Storrs-Mansfield, CT 06269 (United States); and others

    2014-02-11

    A device has been developed with moveable liquid nitrogen and liquid helium volumes that is capable of reaching over 2 m into the coldest regions of a cryostat or dilution refrigerator and reliably extracting or installing a target of solid, polarized hydrogen deuteride (HD). This Transfer Cryostat incorporates a cylindrical neodymium rare-earth magnet that is configured as a Halbach dipole, which is maintained at 77 K and produces a 0.1 T field around the HD target. Multiple layers provide a hermetic 77 K-shield as the device is used to maintain a target at 2 K during a transfer between cryostats. Tests with frozen-spin HD show very little polarization loss for either H (−1±2%, relative) or D (0±3%, relative) over typical transfer periods. Multiple target transfers with this apparatus have shown an overall reliability of about 95% per transfer, which is a significant improvement over earlier versions of the device.

  12. Design, Manufacturing and Integration of LHC Cryostat Components an Example of Collaboration between CERN and Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Slits, Ivo; Canetti, Marco; Colombet, Thierry; Gangini, Fabrizio; Parma, Vittorio; Tock, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The components for the LHC cryostats and interconnections are supplied by European industry. The manufacturing, assembly and testing of these components in accordance with CERN technical specifications require a close collaboration and dedicated approach from the suppliers. This paper presents the different phases of design, manufacturing, testing and integration of four LHC cryostat components supplied by RIAL Vacuum (Parma, Italy), including 112 Insulation Vacuum Barriers (IVB), 482 Cold-mass Extension Tubes (CET), 121 cryostat vacuum vessel Jumper Elbows (JE) and 10800 Interconnection Sleeves (IS). The Quality Assurance Plan, which the four projects have in common, is outlined. The components are all leak-tight thin stainless steel assemblies (<10-8 mbar l/s), most of them operating at cryogenic temperature (2 K), however each having specific requirements. The particularities of each component are presented with respect to manufacturing, assembly and testing. These components are being integrated ...

  13. Commissioning of the 4 K Outer Cryostat for the CUORE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ferri, E; Biassoni, M; Bucci, C; Ceruti, G; Chiarini, A; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Datskov, V; Dossena, S; Faverzani, M; Franceschi, M A; Gaigher, R; Gorla, P; Guetti, M; Ligi, C; Napolitano, T; Nucciotti, A; Pelosi, A; Perego, M; Previtali, E; Sisti, M; Taffarello, L; Terranova, F

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment. The CUORE detector is an array of 988 TeO crystals arranged in a cylindrical, compact, and granular structure of 19 towers. These detectors will need a base temperature lower than 10 mK in order to meet the performance specifications. To cool the CUORE detector, a large cryogen free cryostat with five pulse tubes and one custom designed high power dilution refrigerator has been designed. The three vessels that form the outer shell of the CUORE cryostat were produced in 2012 and are now assembled in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS). We report here the detailed description of the 4 K outer cryostat for the CUORE experiment together with the results of the validation tests done at the production site in 2012 and of the first commissioning to 4 K at LNGS in 2013.

  14. Visible camera cryostat design and performance for the SuMIRe Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Smee, Stephen A; Golebiowski, Mirek; Hope, Stephen C; Madec, Fabrice; Gabriel, Jean-Francois; Loomis, Craig; Fur, Arnaud Le; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mignant, David Le; Barkhouser, Robert; Carr, Michael; Hart, Murdock; Tamura, Naoyuki; Shimono, Atsushi; Takato, Naruhisa

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the SuMIRe Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) visible camera cryostats. SuMIRe PFS is a massively multi-plexed ground-based spectrograph consisting of four identical spectrograph modules, each receiving roughly 600 fibers from a 2394 fiber robotic positioner at the prime focus. Each spectrograph module has three channels covering wavelength ranges 380~nm -- 640~nm, 640~nm -- 955~nm, and 955~nm -- 1.26~um, with the dispersed light being imaged in each channel by a f/1.07 vacuum Schmidt camera. The cameras are very large, having a clear aperture of 300~mm at the entrance window, and a mass of $\\sim$280~kg. In this paper we describe the design of the visible camera cryostats and discuss various aspects of cryostat performance.

  15. ATLAS superconducting solenoid on-surface test

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, Roger J M Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; ten Kate, H H J; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Makida, Y; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Pavlov, O V; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is presently under construction as one of the five LHC experiment set-ups. It relies on a sophisticated magnet system for the momentum measurement of charged particle tracks. The superconducting solenoid is at the center of the detector, the magnet system part nearest to the proton-proton collision point. It is designed for a 2 Tesla strong axial magnetic field at the collision point, while its thin-walled construction of 0.66 radiation lengths avoids degradation of energy measurements in the outer calorimeters. The solenoid and calorimeter have been integrated in their common cryostat, cooled down and tested on-surface. We review the on-surface set-up and report the performance test results.

  16. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps. The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read...

  17. Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Prototype Lattice Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents the thermal performance of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) prototype cryostats both in steady-state and in transient conditions. LHC will be built in the 27 km LEP tunnel and will provide proton-proton collisions. It will make use of superconducting magnets operating in static bath of superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The thesis is mainly divided in three parts. The first part cont ains three chapters which present a brief overview of the LHC project. Part 1-Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to the LHC design layout and performance. Part 1-Chapter 2 refers to LHC cryogenic s ystem and describes the general architecture of the cryogenic plants, the temperature levels and the heat loads. The 50 m long LHC prototype half-cell contains one twin-bore quadrupole and four twin-a perture dipoles. In Part 1-Chapter 3 the design and construction of the prototype dipole and quadrupole cryostats are presented. The LHC prototype cryostats have integrated cryogenic lines, while the final LHC cryostats hav...

  18. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10-4 Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  19. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  20. Development of a Cryostat to Characterize Nano-scale Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Mathew; Matheny, Matthew; Knudsen, Jasmine

    2016-03-01

    We have designed and constructed a low-noise vacuum cryostat to be used for the characterization of nano-scale superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Such devices are very sensitive to magnetic fields and can measure changes in flux on the order of a single electron magnetic moment. As a part of the design process, we calculated the separation required between the cryogenic preamplifier and superconducting magnet, including a high-permeability magnetic shield, using a finite-element model of the apparatus. The cryostat comprises a vacuum cross at room temperature for filtered DC and shielded RF electrical connections, a thin-wall stainless steel support tube, a taper-sealed cryogenic vacuum can, and internal mechanical support and wiring for the nanoSQUID. The Dewar is modified with a room-temperature flange with a sliding seal for the cryostat. The flange supports the superconducting 3 Tesla magnet and thermometry wiring. Upon completion of the cryostat fabrication and Dewar modifications, operation of the nanoSQUIDs as transported from our collaborator's laboratory in Israel will be confirmed, as the lead forming the SQUID is sensitive to oxidation and the SQUIDs must be shipped in a vacuum container. After operation of the nanoSQUIDs is confirmed, the primary work of characterizing their high-speed properties will begin. This will include looking at the measurement of relaxation oscillations at high bandwidth in comparison to the theoretical predictions of the current model.

  1. Design, fabrication and testing results of vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat of EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) is an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, which has been approved by the Chinese government and being constructed as the Chinese national nuclear fusion Research project. The vacuum vessel as one of the key components for this device can provide ultra-high vacuum and cleanly location of plasma operation. It is a torus with 'D' shaped cross-section, double wall, upper vertical ports, lower vertical ports, horizontal ports and flexible supports. The cryostat is a large single walled vessel surrounding the entire basic machine with central cylindrical section and two end enclosures, a flat base structure with external reinforcements and dome-shaped lid structure. It provides the thermal barrier with the base pressure of 5x10-4 Pa between the ambient temperature testing hall and the liquid helium cooled superconducting magnet. The thermal shields comprise the vacuum vessel thermal shield (VVTS), between the vacuum vessel and the cold Toroidal Field (TF) coil structures, the cryostat thermal shield (CTS), covering the walls of the cryostat, thereby preventing direct line of sight of the room temperature walls to the cold structures, the vacuum port thermal shields (VPTS) that enclose the port connection ducts. This paper is a report of the structure design and stress analyses for the vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat. And also some key R and D and testing results for these components have been presented. (author)

  2. Cryostat design for the Superconducting Super Collider 50mm aperture dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryostat of an SSC dipole magnet consists of all magnet components except the cold mass assembly. It serves to support the cold mass accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, provide all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations and must be manufacturable at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shields, multilayer insulation (MLI) system, cryogenic piping, interconnections, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course their 25 year expected life. This paper describes the design of the current SSC collider dipole magnet cryostat and includes discussions on the thermal, structural, and dynamic considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Majorana One-Tonne Cryostat Cooling Conceptual Feasibility Study Rev 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2011-06-27

    This report evaluates the conceptual plans for a cryostat cooling design for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) one-tonne (S4) experiment. This document is based upon previous design work and experimental results used to evaluate the current MJD thermal design. A feasibility study of a cooling system for S4 based on the MJD thermosiphon experiment is presented. The one-tonne experiment will be a scaled up version of the MJD. There will be many cryostats in the S4 experiment. In this document a cryostat with up to 19 strings of germanium crystals is analyzed. Aside from an extra outer ring of crystals, the geometry of the cryostat for S4 is very similar to that for the MJD thermosiphon experiment. The materials used in the fabrication of both of these ultra-low background experiments will be underground-electroformed copper. The current MJD uses a two-phase liquid-gas cooling system to provide constant operating temperature. This document presents a theoretical investigation of a cooling system for the S4 experiment and evaluates the heat transfer performance requirements for such a system.

  4. A Cryogen-free Cryostat for Scientific Experiment in Pulsed High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoliang; Li, Liang; Zuo, Huakun; Liu, Mengyu; Peng, Tao

    Traditional cryostats for scientific experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields use liquid helium as the cooling source. To reduce the running cost and to increase the operational efficiency, a cryogen-free cryostat based on a GM cryocooler has been developed for a 60 T pulsed field measurement cell at Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. A double layer temperature-control insert was designed to obtain a stable temperature in the sample chamber of the cryostat. In order to eliminate the sample temperature fluctuation caused by the eddy current heating during the pulse, the inner layer is made from a fiberglass tubing with an epoxy coating. Different from the traditional cryostat, the sample and the temperature controller are not immerged in the 4He bath. Instead, they are separated by helium gas under sub-atmospheric pressure, which makes the heat transfer smoother. At the sample position, a resistance heater wound with antiparallel wires is mounted on the inner layer to heat the sample. Using the temperature-control insert, the temperature can be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.01 K in the range of 1.4 K-20 K, and ±0.05 K between 20 K and 300 K.

  5. Rotation of the solenoid magnet of the CMS experiment before the insertion into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    At one side of the 27 km ring of the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the 230 tonne solenoid magnet for the CMS experiment has been rotated through 90° prior to insertion into its cryostat - the jacket that will cool the magnet to 4.2 K (-269° C).

  6. Methods and devices for hyperpolarising and melting NMR samples in a cryostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Axelsson, Oskar H. E.; Golman, Klaes Koppel; Wolber, Jan; Howard, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and method for melting solid polarised sample while retaining a high level of polarisation. In an embodiment of the present invention a sample is polarised in a sample-retaining cup 9 in a strong magnetic field in a polarising means 3a, 3b, 3c in a cryostat...

  7. The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, W.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Drake, D.; Taylor, J.; Waenke, H.

    2004-01-01

    The major scientific objective of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission is to determine the distribution of elements in the near-surface of Mars. Mars Odyssey has been in its mapping orbit since February, 2002, and the GRS boom, which removes the instrument from the gamma-ray background of the spacecraft, was erected in June, 2002. In the 580 days since boom erection, we have accumulated 453 days of mapping data. The difference is due mostly to two times when Odyssey went into safe mode and the instrument warmed up forcing us to anneal out radiation damage that manifests itself after warming. Other data losses are due to simple transmitter data gaps and to intense solar particle events. The data from the GRS is statistical in nature. We have a very low count rate and a very low signal-to-noise ratio. With the exception of K, the most easily mapped elements have a signal/noise ratio on the order of 0.1 (0.5 for K) and the counting rates are on the order of 0.3 to 0.7 counts/min (4 cpm for K). In order to map the distribution of an element, we have to divide the total signal from Mars up into many cells that define the map s spatial resolution (unless the statistics are good enough that the intrinsic spatial resolution of the instrument, about 550 km diameter, dominates). The data for several elements have now achieved a statistical precision that permits us to make meaningful maps.

  8. ATLAS Story

    CERN Multimedia

    Nordberg, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This film produced in July 2012 explains how fundamental research connects to Society and what benefits collaborative way of working can and may generate in the future, using ATLAS Collaboration as a case study. The film is intellectually inspired by the book "Collisions and Collaboration" (OUP) by Max Boisot (ed.), see: collisionsandcollaboration.com. The film is directed by Andrew Millington (OMNI Communications)

  9. Members of the Science and Technology Commission, Spanish Senate visit ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Members of the Science and Technology Commission, Spanish Senate, in front of a barrel toroid cryostat vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall. The air-core ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system will consist of eight large superconducting coils, each in its own vacuum vessel, built by Spanish company Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas SA under the responsibility of IFAE (Institute for High Energy Physics), Barcelona. Standing (left to right): Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson; Dr Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, delegate for Spain to CERN Council; Mrs Mercedes Senen, Lawyer of the Commission; Mr Alonso Arroyo, President of the Commission; Mr Ramon Antonio Socias, Second Vice-President of the Commission; Mr Francisco Xabier Albistur, Senator; H.E. Mr Joaquin Pérez-Villaneuva Y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the Office of the United Nations in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland, Spanish delegate to CERN Council; and Miguel Gomez. Seated (left to right): Mr Adolfo Abejon...

  10. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  11. Final Design and Experimental Validation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Lattice Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Parma, V; Poncet, A; Rohmig, P; Serio, L; Skoczen, Blazej; Tock, J P; Williams, L R

    2004-01-01

    The recent commissioning and operation of the LHC String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the global thermal performance of the LHC lattice cryostat at nominal cryogenic conditions. The cryostat designed to minimize the heat inleak from ambient temperature, houses under vacuum and thermally protects the cold mass, which contains the LHC twin-aperture superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel, such as support posts and insulation vacuum barriers are designed with efficient thermalisations for heat interception to minimise heat conduction. Heat inleak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation (MLI) wrapped around the cold mass and around an aluminium thermal shield cooled to about 60 K. Measurements of the total helium vaporization rate in String 2 gives, after substraction of supplementary heat loads and end effects, an estimate of the total thermal load to a standard LHC cell (107 m) includi...

  12. Series-produced Helium II Cryostats for the LHC Magnets Technical Choices, Industrialisation, Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Poncet, A

    2008-01-01

    Assembled in 8 continuous segments of approximately 2.7 km length each, the He II cryostats for the 1232 cryodipoles and 474 Short Straight Sections (SSS housing the quadrupoles) must fulfil tight technical requirements. They have been produced by industry in large series according to cost-effective industrial production methods to keep expenditure within the financial constraints of the project and assembled under contract at CERN. The specific technical requirements of the generic systems of the cryostat (vacuum, cryogenic, electrical distribution, magnet alignment) are briefly recalled, as well as the basic design choices leading to the definition of their components (vacuum vessels, thermal shielding, supporting systems). Early in the design process emphasis was placed on the feasibility of manufacturing techniques adequate for large series production of components, optimal tooling for time-effective assembly methods, and reliable quality assurance systems. An analytical review of the costs of the cryosta...

  13. Use of vanadium in the production of cryostats and ovens for neutro-crystallographic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattering of neutrons by vanadium is incoherent, and thus this metal is of great interest in the construction of cryostats and ovens. As no diffusion peak is expected at finite angles, the use of vanadium prevents the difference techniques to be used with other materials. Thin vanadium tubes have been manufactured at Saclay which can be soldered or brazed on other metals or alloys. Several techniques of soldering, brazing, etc..., are registered, with which we have obtained non brittle and leak free joints. Description of a cryostat designed to operate at 4 deg. K and of an oven operating between 50 deg. C and 1000 deg. C with very low thermal gradient is given at full length. (authors)

  14. Three-dimensional eddy current analysis of cryostat outer-vessel in superconductive magnetically levitated vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eddy currents on the cryostat outer-vessel of an SCM(superconducting magnet) are investigated taking into account of the non-contact on-board power generator system. Numerical expressions are developed by combining a Fourier series method and an integral equation method. It becomes clear that the 5-th space harmonic field which is due to the ground levitation coils, is a dominant factor in the eddy currents of the outer-vessel, and that a concentration of the currents occurs in the corner on the inner side of the bottom of the cryostat outer-vessel. Designs such as the distance between the two arrays of the ground levitation coils, and the lateral location of the induction coils of the power generator are also discussed

  15. The CUORE Cryostat: A 1-Ton Scale Setup for Bolometric Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ligi, C; Alessandria, F; Biassoni, M; Bucci, C; Caminata, A; Canonica, L; Cappelli, L; Chott, N I; Copello, S; D'Addabbo, A; Dell'Oro, S; Drobizhev, A; Franceschi, M A; Gladstone, L; Gorla, P; Napolitano, T; Nucciotti, A; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J; Pagliarone, C; Pattavina, L; Rusconi, C; Santone, D; Singh, V; Taffarello, L; Terranova, F; Uttaro, S

    2016-01-01

    The cryogenic underground observatory for rare events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment whose detector consists of an array of 988 TeO2 crystals arranged in a cylindrical compact structure of 19 towers. This will be the largest bolometric mass ever operated. The experiment will work at a temperature around or below 10 mK. CUORE cryostat consists of a cryogen-free system based on pulse tubes and a custom high power dilution refrigerator, designed to match these specifications. The cryostat has been commissioned in 2014 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories and reached a record temperature of 6 mK on a cubic meter scale. In this paper, we present results of CUORE commissioning runs. Details on the thermal characteristics and cryogenic performances of the system will be also given.

  16. New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, M.; de Rijk, G.; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Hanzelka, Pavel; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.

    Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics, 2014, s. 229-236. (AIP Conference Proceedings. 1573). ISBN 978-0-7354-1201-9. ISSN 0094-243X. [Transaction of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC. Anchorage, Alaska (US), 17.06.2013-21.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : vertical cryostat * FRESCA2 * eucard * high field magnet Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Design and Tests of the Cryostat with an Experimental Cell for Turbulent Thermal Convection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Pavel; Hanzelka, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Srnka, Aleš; Skrbek, Ladislav

    Praha : Institute of thermomechanics ASCR, v. v. i, 2007, s. 93-94. ISBN 978-80-87012-07-9. [Colloquium Fluid Dynamics 2007. Praha (CZ), 24.10.2007-26.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : turbulent thermal convection * Kraichnan regime * helium cryostat Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  18. Design of a Helium Cryostat for the Study of Turbulent Thermal Convection at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srnka, Aleš; Hanzelka, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Urban, Pavel; Skrbek, Ladislav

    Praha : Icaris Ltd, 2006, s. 661-664. ISBN 978-80-239-8883-3. [International Cryogenic Engineering Conference - ICEC 21. Praha (CZ), 17.07.2006-21.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : helium cryostat * turbulent thermal convection * cryogenic temperatures Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Ultrahigh Vacuum Cryostat System for Extended Low Temperature Space Environment Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dekany, Justin; Johnson, Robert H.; Wilson, Gregory; Evans, Amberly; Dennison, JR

    2014-01-01

    The range of temperature measurements have been significantly extended for an existing space environment simulation test chamber used in the study of electron emission, sample charging and discharge, electrostatic discharge and arcing, electron transport, and luminescence of spacecraft materials. This was accomplished by incorporating a new twostage, closed-cycle helium cryostat which has an extended sample temperature range from 40 K to 450 K, with long-term controlled stability of 0.5 K. Th...

  20. The 4 K outer cryostat for the CUORE experiment: Construction and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external shell of the CUORE cryostat is a large cryogen-free system designed to host the dilution refrigerator and the bolometers of the CUORE experiment in a low radioactivity environment. The three vessels that form the outer shell were produced and delivered to the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories in July 2012. In this paper, we describe the production techniques and the validation tests done at the production site in 2012

  1. The 4 K outer cryostat for the CUORE experiment: construction and quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandria, F; Ceruti, G; Chiarini, A; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Datskov, V; Dossena, S; Faverzani, M; Ferri, E; Nucciotti, A; Perego, M; Previtali, E; Sisti, M; Taffarello, L; Terranova, F

    2013-01-01

    The external shell of the CUORE cryostat is a large cryogen-free system designed to host the dilution refrigerator and the bolometers of the CUORE experiment in a low radioactivity environment. The three vessels that form the outer shell were produced and delivered to the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories in July 2012. In this paper, we describe the production techniques and the validation tests done at the production site in 2012.

  2. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. After a test insertion on 6th February and a few weeks of preparation work it was finally inserted on 27th February. A couple of hectic 24-hours/7-day weeks followed in order to connect all services in the cryostat bulkhead. But last Monday, 15th March, both warm flanges of the cryostat could be closed. In another week's time we expect to finish the connection of the cryogenic cooling lines and the superconducting bus lines with the external services. Then the cool-down and test will commence... ...

  3. Pulse shape analysis of enriched BEGe detectors in vacuum cryostat and liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium diodes of BEGe type (Canberra, Belgium) made from isotopically modified material have been procured for Phase II of Gerda. They will improve the sensitivity of the experiment by additional target mass, improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. The PSD efficiencies of the new enriched BEGe detectors were studied in vacuum cryostats as part of the characterization campaign at the HADES underground laboratory. For a deeper understanding of the pulse shape performance of the enriched BEGe detectors, detailed {sup 241}Am surface scans were performed. Unexpectedly high position-dependence of the pulse shape parameter Amplitude-over-Energy was found for some of the detectors. With further investigation this effect was traced to surface charge effects specific to the operational configuration of the detectors inside the vacuum cryostats. The standard behavior is restored when they are operated in liquid argon in the configuration intended for Gerda Phase II. Finally, five of the enriched BEGe diodes were installed in the Gerda liquid argon cryostat prior to the full upgrade. They show a good performance and are able to reject efficiently multi-site-events as well as β- and α-particles.

  4. A closed cycle-cryostat for high-field Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, A.; Svenconis, G.; Schünemann, V.

    2010-03-01

    A closed cycle-cryostat coupled to a Mössbauer spectrometer has been installed at the University of Kaiserslautern and is in full operation since march 2007. The setup is equipped with a low vibrating two-stage pulse tube cooler and has a cool down time of 48 h. The sample can be top loaded without the need to shut off the refrigerator. With the static helium exchange gas in the variable temperature insert the sample may be cooled down from room temperature to 50 K within several hours. Dynamic exchange gas with external supply of gaseous helium is used to cool the sample down to 2 K. The superconducting self-shielding split-coil generates a magnetic field of up to 5 Tesla and a stray field of ca. 60 mT at the outer cryostat walls. Mössbauer measurements can be performed in perpendicular or parallel field orientations. The sample holder and the Mössbauer drive are rigidly connected to the cryostat. In this way a line width of the two inner α-Fe lines of 0.32 mm/s has been currently achieved.

  5. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to ∼3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of ∼2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors

  6. Analysis on Cooling Process of ITER Toroidal Field In-cryostat Feeder System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER toroidal field (TF) in-cryostat feeder system (ICF) locates in the main cryostat of the Tokamak.It consists of 18 segments, which form a ring by connectors and hang on the corresponding TF coil terminal area. During cooling down the components in the cryostat,the shrinkage of ICF is not synchronous with the TF coil. In this case, relative displacement occurs on the circumferential end surfaces of the neighbor segments, so that the function of displacement compensation is required on the connector. Researching on cooling process of the ITER TF ICF system, finite element method (FEM) was applied on the numerical simulation of the steady-state and transient temperature field in the ICF. The heat load and temperature distributions in ICF were worked out; furthermore, the temperature-time curve and deformation-time curve were also presented. The results show that active cooling is not required on ICF, the heat load and thermal stress is very weak. Meanwhile, the results will provide primary parameters for the design of connector with compensation function. (authors)

  7. The thermal design, characterization, and performance of the SPIDER long-duration balloon cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Dore, O.; Filippini, J. P.; Fraisse, A. A.; Gambrel, A.; Gandilo, N. N.; Hasselfield, M.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Montroy, T. E.; Morford, T. A.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the SPIDER flight cryostat, which is designed to cool six millimeter-wavelength telescopes during an Antarctic long-duration balloon flight. The cryostat, one of the largest to have flown on a stratospheric payload, uses liquid 4 He to deliver cooling power to stages at 4.2 and 1.6 K. Stainless steel capillaries facilitate a high flow impedance connection between the main liquid helium tank and a smaller superfluid tank, allowing the latter to operate at 1.6 K as long as there is liquid in the 4.2 K main tank. Each telescope houses a closed cycle 3 He adsorption refrigerator that further cools the focal planes down to 300 mK. Liquid helium vapor from the main tank is routed through heat exchangers that cool radiation shields, providing negative thermal feedback. The system performed successfully during a 17 day flight in the 2014-2015 Antarctic summer. The cryostat had a total hold time of 16.8 days, with 15.9 days occurring during flight.

  8. The Thermal Design, Characterization, and Performance of the SPIDER Long-Duration Balloon Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Gudmundsson, J E; Amiri, M; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Doré, O; Filippini, J P; Fraisse, A A; Gambrel, A; Gandilo, N N; Hasselfield, M; Halpern, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Megerian, K; Moncelsi, L; Montroy, T E; Morford, T A; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Wiebe, D V; Young, E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the SPIDER flight cryostat, which is designed to cool six millimeter-wavelength telescopes during an Antarctic long-duration balloon flight. The cryostat, one of the largest to have flown on a stratospheric payload, uses liquid helium-4 to deliver cooling power to stages at 4.2 and 1.6 K. Stainless steel capillaries facilitate a high flow impedance connection between the main liquid helium tank and a smaller superfluid tank, allowing the latter to operate at 1.6 K as long as there is liquid in the 4.2 K main tank. Each telescope houses a closed cycle helium-3 adsorption refrigerator that further cools the focal planes down to 300 mK. Liquid helium vapor from the main tank is routed through heat exchangers that cool radiation shields, providing negative thermal feedback. The system performed successfully during a 17 day flight in the 2014-2015 Antarctic summer. The cryostat had a total hold time of 16.8 days, with 15.9 days occurring during flight.

  9. Operating parameters of liquid helium transfer lines used with continuous flow cryostats at low sample temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, N.; Welker, D.; Haberstroh, Ch; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous flow cryostats are used to cool samples to a variable temperature level by evaporating a cryogen, e.g. liquid helium (LHe). For this purpose LHe is usually stored outside the cryostat in a mobile dewar and supplied through a transfer line. In general, the complete setup has to be characterised by the lowest possible consumption of LHe. Additionally, a minimum sample temperature can be favourable from an experimental point of view. The achievement of both requirements is determined by the respective cryostat design as well as by the transfer line. In the presented work operating data, e.g. the LHe consumption during cooldown and steady state, the minimum sample temperature, and the outlet quality are analysed to characterise the performance of a reference transfer line. In addition, an experimental transfer line with built-in pressure sensors has been commissioned to examine the pressure drop along the transfer line, too. During the tests LHe impurities occurred which restricted a steady operation.

  10. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  11. Space odysseys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Antologi om unge danske arkitekter og designere. Udgivet som Arkitektur DK 5/2006 og som selvstændig publikation. Den indledende artikel er af arkitekturteoretisk karakter, de øvrige formidlende.   ...

  12. Design, fabrication and testing results of vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat of EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) is an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, which has been approved by the Chinese government and being constructed as the Chinese national nuclear fusion Research project. Vacuum vessel is the location for the operation of plasma as one of the key component for EAST device. During it operation the vacuum vessel will not only endure the electromagnetic force due to the plasma disruption and Halo current but also the pressure of boride water and the thermal stress owing to the 250 deg C baking out by the hot pressure nitrogen gas or the 100 deg C hot wall during plasma operation. The cryostat is a large single walled vessel surrounding the entire Basic Machine with central cylindrical section and two end enclosures, a flat base structure with external reinforcements and dome-shaped lid structure. It provides the thermal barrier with the base pressure of 5x10-4 Pa between the ambient temperature testing hall and the liquid helium cooled superconducting magnet. The thermal shields comprise the vacuum vessel thermal shield (VVTS), between the vacuum vessel and the cold TF coil structures, the cryostat thermal shield (CTS), covering the walls of the cryostat, thereby preventing direct line of sight of the room temperature walls to the cold structures, the vacuum port thermal shields (VPTS) that enclose the port connection ducts. The thermal shields are made of double-wall panels, sandwich structure consist of two stainless steel panels and weld quadrate cooling pipe in between the total surface of the thermal shields is about 351 m2. This paper is a report of the structure design and mechanical analyses on the vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat. According to the allowable stress criteria of ASME, the maximum integrated stress intensity on these key components is less than the allowable design stress intensity 3 Sm. The fabrication for these components was completed in 2004 and has been

  13. Thermal and flow considerations for the 80 K shield of the SSC magnet cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nominal temperatures in the SSC cryostat range between 4.2 K in the superconducting magnet and 300 K on the cryostat outer wall. To minimize the 4 K heat load, a thermal shield cooled by liquid and vapor nitrogen flows at 84 K and one a 20 K cooled by helium flow are incorporated in the cryostat. Tubes attached to the shields serve as conduits for cryogens. The liquid nitrogen tube in the cryostat is used for cryostat refrigeration and also for liquid distribution around the SSC rings. The second nitrogen line is used to return the vapor to the helium refrigerators for further processing. The nominal GN2 flow from a 4.3-km long cryogenic string (4 sections) to the surface is 64 g/s. The total liquid nitrogen consumption of approximately 5000 g/s will be supplied at one, two or more locations on the surface. The total heat load of the 80 K shield is estimated as 3.2 W/m. About 50% is composed of infrared radiation and remaining 50% by heat conduction through supports, vacuum barriers and other thermal connections between the shield and the 300 K outer wall. The required LN2 flow rate depends on the distribution and circulation schemes. The LN2 temperature will in turn vary depending on the flow rate and on the recooling methods used. For example, with a massflow of 400 g/s of LN2 the temperature rises from 82 K to 86 K between two compact recoolers 1 km apart. This temperature is higher thin desired. The temperature can be reduced by increasing the flow rate of the liquid or by using the continuous recooling. This paper discusses some thermal problems caused by certain mechanical designs of the 80 K shielding the possible improvement by using continuous recooling. In the following, we present results of the 80 K shield temperature distribution analysis, the 20 K shield heat load augmentation resulting from the increased 80 K shield temperatures, the continuous nitrogen recooling scheme and some flow timing related analysis

  14. Solar Particle Events Observed by the Odyssey MARIE Instrument at Mars: Dose and Model Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, T. F.; Saganti, P. B.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary concerns prior to human exploration of Mars is the need to accurately characterize the charged particle radiation environment both for the surface stay, and for the transit period to and from the planet. The Odyssey spacecraft, currently in Mars orbit includes a charged particle radiation detector, MARIE, which can measure particle fluxes with energies above approx. 30 MeV and charges between 1 and 10. Two classes of particles are of particular interest: the Galactic Cosmic Rays, (GCR), and those charged particles associated with Solar Particle Events, (SPE). The GCR are present continuously throughout the solar activity cycle, and their numbers vary inversely with the level of solar activity. They are characteristically more energetic than those particles originating from solar activity, and hence less influences by the solar magnetic field.

  15. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  16. Computational models for electromagnetic transients in ITER vacuum vessel, cryostat and thermal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of detailed computational models are reviewed that covers integrally the system “vacuum vessel (VV), cryostat, and thermal shields (TS)” to study transient electromagnetics (EMs) in the ITER machine. The models have been developed in the course of activities requested and supervised by the ITER Organization. EM analysis is enabled for all ITER operational scenarios. The input data are derived from results of DINA code simulations. The external EM fields are modeled accurate to the input data description. The known magnetic shell approach can be effectively applied to simulate thin-walled structures of the ITER machine. Using an integral–differential formulation, a single unknown is determined within the shells in terms of the vector electric potential taken only at the nodes of a finite-element (FE) mesh of the conducting structures. As a result, the FE mesh encompasses only the system “VV + Cryostat + TS”. The 3D model requires much higher computational resources as compared to a shell model based on the equivalent approximation. The shell models have been developed for all principal conducting structures in the system “VV + Cryostat + TS” including regular ports and neutral beam ports. The structures are described in details in accordance with the latest design. The models have also been applied for simulations of EM transients in components of diagnostic systems and cryopumps and estimation of the 3D effects of the ITER structures on the plasma performance. The developed models have been elaborated and applied for the last 15 years to support the ITER design activities. The finalization of the ITER VV design enables this set of models to be considered ready to use in plasma-physics computations and the development of ITER simulators

  17. Computational models for electromagnetic transients in ITER vacuum vessel, cryostat and thermal shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Arslanova, D.; Belov, A.; Belyakov, V.; Gapionok, E. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gornikel, I. [ALPHYSICA GmbH, Unterreut, 6, D-76135 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gribov, Y.; Ioki, K. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Sychevsky, S., E-mail: sytch@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    A set of detailed computational models are reviewed that covers integrally the system “vacuum vessel (VV), cryostat, and thermal shields (TS)” to study transient electromagnetics (EMs) in the ITER machine. The models have been developed in the course of activities requested and supervised by the ITER Organization. EM analysis is enabled for all ITER operational scenarios. The input data are derived from results of DINA code simulations. The external EM fields are modeled accurate to the input data description. The known magnetic shell approach can be effectively applied to simulate thin-walled structures of the ITER machine. Using an integral–differential formulation, a single unknown is determined within the shells in terms of the vector electric potential taken only at the nodes of a finite-element (FE) mesh of the conducting structures. As a result, the FE mesh encompasses only the system “VV + Cryostat + TS”. The 3D model requires much higher computational resources as compared to a shell model based on the equivalent approximation. The shell models have been developed for all principal conducting structures in the system “VV + Cryostat + TS” including regular ports and neutral beam ports. The structures are described in details in accordance with the latest design. The models have also been applied for simulations of EM transients in components of diagnostic systems and cryopumps and estimation of the 3D effects of the ITER structures on the plasma performance. The developed models have been elaborated and applied for the last 15 years to support the ITER design activities. The finalization of the ITER VV design enables this set of models to be considered ready to use in plasma-physics computations and the development of ITER simulators.

  18. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  19. Low voltage control for the liquid argon hadronic end-cap calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brettel, H; Habring, J; Oberlack, H; Schacht, P

    2002-01-01

    At the ATLAS detector a SCADA system surveys and controls the sub- detectors. The link is realized by PVSS2 software and a CanBus hardware system. The low voltages for the Hadronic Endcaps of the liquid argon calorimeter are produced by DC/DC-converters in the power boxes and split into 320 channels corresponding to the pre- amplifier and summing boards in the cryostat. Six units of a prototype distribution board are currently under test. Each of it contains 2 ELMBs as CanBus interface, a FPGA of type QL3012 for digital control and 30 low voltage regulators for the individual fine adjustments of the outputs.

  20. Liquid Argon Pollution Tests of the ATLAS Detector Materials at IBR-2 Reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Cheplakov, A P; Chumakov, V; Golikov, V; Golovanov, L B; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Kulagin, E; Luschikov, V; Minashkin, V F; Shalyugin, A N; Tsvinev, A P

    1999-01-01

    A cold test facility has been in operation since October 1998 at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. During four measurement campaigns, various samples of the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and hadronic end cap (HEC) calorimeter materials have been exposed to a fast neutron ($E_n \\geq 100$ keV) fluence of about 10$^{16}$~n~cm$^{-2}$. The samples were immersed in a liquid argon cryostat, and an $\\alpha$-cell has been used as purity monitor. Results of the liquid argon pollution study obtained during these measurement campaigns are presented.

  1. Liquid argon pollution tests of the ATLAS detector materials at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cold test facility has been in operation since October 1998 at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. During four measurement campaigns, various samples of the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and hadronic end-cap (HEC) calorimeter materials have been exposed to a fast neutron (En ≥ 100 keV) fluence of about 1016 cm-2. The samples were immersed in a liquid argon cryostat, and an α cell has been used as a purity monitor. Results of the liquid argon pollution study obtained during these measurement campaigns are presented

  2. ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, construction and test of a large scale system

    CERN Document Server

    Tayalati, Y

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS liquid argon presamplers and accordion calorimeters are about to be completed. The first half-length barrel wheel is already installed in the cryostat and assembly of the second wheel is about to be finished. Modules for the first end-cap wheel are ready and the assembly of the first wheel is well under way. From 55000 output channels of the first barrel wheel only four channels are malfunctioning and a very small fraction of high voltage area has showed problems, ~0.15%. After a review of the construction, production, and assembly, results concerning the energy and position resolution are shown.

  3. Electroweak Physics with ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Akhundov, Arif

    2008-01-01

    The precision measurements of electroweak parameters of the Standard Model with the ATLAS detector at LHC are reviewed. An emphasis is put on the bridge connecting the ATLAS measurements with the SM analysis at LEP/SLC and the Tevatron.

  4. Current Lead System of the SuperKEKB Final Focus SC Magnet Cryostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Z. G.; Ohuchi, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Higashi, N.; Yamaoka, H.; Kondou, Y.; Kawai, M.

    To energize the SuperKEKB final focus superconducting (SC) magnets, 110 current leads in total will be equipped in the two service cryostats. For the SC quadrupoles and solenoids, 22 leads are the conventional vapor cooled type and the others for the SC correction coils employ an HTS section at the cold ends. The qualification program on the leads is being carried out at KEK as the cryogenic acceptance test prior to installation. This paper presents the thermal and electrical results of the cryogenic tests.

  5. Activities on cryostats and SRF cavities at the I.P.N. Orsay laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort of the SRF community at Orsay during the last five years was concentrated on the MACSE project (study, construction, assembly and test of 3 cryostats), participation to the TESLA project and R and D activities in close collaboration with the Saclay SRF group. 3 major topics are outlined and briefly discussed: cryogenics, scanning surface thermometers for diagnostics on SRF cavities and thermal behaviour analysis of HOM couplers. The main results obtained in this frame since the 5th SC workshop at Hamburg in 1991 are presented. (authors) 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  6. [Possibility of the morphometry of the neuronal body and nucleus in cryostat sections of nerve tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, I B

    1982-02-01

    A method of fixation by the Carnoy liquid and of gallocyanine staining is proposed in order to obtain clear-cut boundaries of the neuron body, nucleus and nucleolus in cryostat sections of non-fixed frozen nerve tissue, for subsequent morphometry of the body and nucleus of nerve cells. In the resulting sections, the clearness of boundaries of the body and nucleus in a neuron is sufficient for measuring its diameter with the coefficient of variation not exceeding 2.5%. PMID:7041376

  7. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  8. Seasonal CO2 Observations on North and South of Mars as Seen by HEND (Mars Odyssey) and MOLA (MGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of neutron mapping measurements from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft are presented based on observations from the High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND). The HEND instrument is a part of GRS suite responsible for registration of epithermal and fast neutrons originating in the Mars subsurface layer. The gamma ray and neutron spectrometers measure the scattering of fast neutrons from the Martian surface, which is caused by bombardment of primary cosmic rays and is strongly sensitive to the presence of hydrogen atoms. Even several percent subsurface hydrogen significantly depresses the flux of epithermal and fast neutrons. The recent Mars Odyssey observations detected a considerable amount of hydrogen, almost certainly corresponding to water ice, in the shallow near surface of the southern and northern hemispheres of Mars.

  9. Atlases: Complex models of geospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Atlases content composition of maps which are different by projection, scale, format methods, contents, usage and so. Atlases can be classified by multi criteria. Modern classification of atlases by technology of making would be on: 1. classical or traditional (printed on paper and 2. electronic (made on electronic media - computer or computer station. Electronic atlases divided in three large groups: view-only electronic atlases, 2. interactive electronic atlases and 3. analytical electronic atlases.

  10. In-situ measurement of the light attenuation in liquid argon in the GERDA cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Birgit [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    GERDA is an experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. It uses germanium detectors which are enriched in {sup 76}Ge and operates them naked in liquid argon (LAr), which serves both as a coolant and a shield for external radiation. For phase II of GERDA it is planned to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr with a BI of 10{sup -3} cts/(kg . yr . keV). One of the major improvements to further reduce the BI is to instrument the LAr to act as an additional background veto. The attenuation of the scintillation light in LAr creates a constraint on the effective active volume of the LAr veto and is therefore a key parameter to characterize the instrumentation. In order to measure the light attenuation in LAr, a setup was designed that could be deployed directly into the GERDA cryostat. This setup contains a movable beta source and a PMT to detect the scintillation light at different distances. The talk will describe in detail the construction of the setup, its successful deployment in the GERDA cryostat and the consecutive analysis of the acquired data.

  11. In-situ measurement of the light attenuation in liquid argon in the GERDA cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERDA is an experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. It uses germanium detectors which are enriched in 76Ge and operates them naked in liquid argon (LAr), which serves both as a coolant and a shield for external radiation. For phase II of GERDA it is planned to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr with a BI of 10-3 cts/(kg . yr . keV). One of the major improvements to further reduce the BI is to instrument the LAr to act as an additional background veto. The attenuation of the scintillation light in LAr creates a constraint on the effective active volume of the LAr veto and is therefore a key parameter to characterize the instrumentation. In order to measure the light attenuation in LAr, a setup was designed that could be deployed directly into the GERDA cryostat. This setup contains a movable beta source and a PMT to detect the scintillation light at different distances. The talk will describe in detail the construction of the setup, its successful deployment in the GERDA cryostat and the consecutive analysis of the acquired data.

  12. Calculation of radiation fields inside and outside the NET cryostat/biological shield during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations were performed using both the Monte Carlo code MCNP and the 2D discrete ordinates neutron/γ transport code DORT. Consistent nuclear data were used: For the Monte Carlo calculations data were taken from the EFF-1.3 library, for the discrete ordinates calculations data were taken from the MAT175 library. Both libraries are based on the JEF/EFF-1 evaluation. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron- and γ-flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 11 orders of magnitude. Due to precautions in the Monte Carlo calculations the uncertainty in neutron- and γ-flux spectra calculated by MCNP is only small: The uncertainty in the integrated neutron spectrum amounts to approximately 15% at the end of the cryostat. Also the dose-rates as calculated by MCNP and DORT agree well. Differences occur when heating data are compared. This is clearly due to the different way in which nuclear heating is treated in MCNP (direct calculation of heating) and DORT (kerma factors used; including radioactive decay contributions). (orig.)

  13. Detectors and cryostat design for the SuMIRe Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Gunn, James E; Smee, Stephen A; Orndorff, Joe D; Barkhouser, Robert H; Hart, Murdock; Bennett, Charles L; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy; LeFevre, Olivier; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Martin, Laurent; Menard, Brice; Prieto, Eric; Spergel, David; Strauss, Michael A; Ueda, Akitoshi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wyse, Rosemary; Zakamska, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    We describe the conceptual design of the camera cryostats, detectors, and detector readout electronics for the SuMIRe Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) being developed for the Subaru telescope. The SuMIRe PFS will consist of four identical spectrographs, each receiving 600 fibers from a 2400 fiber robotic positioner at the prime focus. Each spectrograph will have three channels covering wavelength ranges 3800 {\\AA} - 6700 {\\AA}, 6500 {\\AA} - 10000 {\\AA}, and 9700 {\\AA} - 13000 {\\AA}, with the dispersed light being imaged in each channel by a f/1.10 vacuum Schmidt camera. In the blue and red channels a pair of Hamamatsu 2K x 4K edge-buttable CCDs with 15 um pixels are used to form a 4K x 4K array. For the IR channel, the new Teledyne 4K x 4K, 15 um pixel, mercury-cadmium-telluride sensor with substrate removed for short-wavelength response and a 1.7 um cutoff will be used. Identical detector geometry and a nearly identical optical design allow for a common cryostat design with the only notable difference being th...

  14. A compact copper nuclear demagnetization cryostat and a search for superfluidity in solid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this thesis is the theoretical and experimental study of matter at low temperatures, and the development of techniques to reach and measure these temperatures. A copper nuclear demagnetization cryostat was developed in order to reach low temperatures. This system distinguishes itself from other cryostats by its compact construction. The lowest temperature recorded by a pulsed Pt-NMR thermometer was 115 μK. This system was used to search for superfluidity in solid 4He. Due to the large zero-point motion of the atoms, 4He remains liquid down to zero temperature; a pressure of 25.3 bar is needed to force the atoms in a lattice. Even in solid state, the 4He atoms remain very mobile, changing lattice sites at a frequency of approximately 107 Hz. It is possible that solid 4He contains vacancies at zero temperature. These zero point vacancies are expected to behave like a gas of bosons, and should Bose-condense at some temperature. From experiments the upper limit to the vacancy concentration is set of 4·10-5. (author). 217 refs.; 46 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. PLC-controlled cryostats for the BlackGEM and MeerLICHT detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Bloemen, Steven; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Roelfsema, Ronald; Groot, Paul; Aerts, Conny

    2016-01-01

    BlackGEM (BG) is an array of telescopes, currently under development at the Radboud University Nijmegen and at NOVA. It targets the detection of the optical counterparts of gravitational waves. The first 3 BG telescopes are planned to be installed in 2018 at the La Silla observatory. A single prototype telescope, named MeerLICHT, will already be commissioned early 2017 in Sutherland to provide an optical complement for the MeerKAT radio array. The BG array consists of, initially, a set of 3 robotic 65-cm wide-field telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a single STA1600 CCD detector with 10.5k x 10.5k 9-mum pixels that covers a 2.7 square degrees field of view. The cryostats for housing these detectors are developed and built at the KU Leuven University. The operational model of BG requires long periods of reliable ands-off operation. Therefore, we designed the cryostats for long vacuum hold time and we make use of a closed-cycle cooling system, based on Polycold PCC Joule-Thomson coolers. A single progr...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Phoenix, AZ Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  17. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Portland, OR Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  18. Response Uniformity of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aharrouche, M; Di Ciaccio, L; El Kacimi, M; Gaumer, O; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Lafaye, R; Laplace, S; Le Maner, C; Neukermans, L; Perrodo, P; Poggioli, L; Prieur, D; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Lanni, F; Lü, L; Ma, H; Rajagopalan, S; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Hakimi, M; Hoummada, A; Gao, Y; Stroynowsk, R; Aleksa, M; Carli, T; Fassnacht, P; Gianotti, F; Hervás, L; Lampl, W; Collot, J; Hostachy, J Y; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Malek, F; Martin, P; Viret, S; Leltchouk, M; Parsons, J A; Simion, S; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; Labarga, L; Oliver, C; Rodier, S; Barrillon, P; Benchouk, C; Djama, F; Hubaut, F; Monnier, E; Pralavorio, P; Sauvage, D; Serfon, C; Tisserant, S; Tóth, J; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandell, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Kotov, K; Maslennikov, A; Pospelov, G; Tikhonov, Yu; Bourdarios, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Kado, M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Sacco, R; Serin, L; Unal, G; Zerwas, D; Dekhissi, B; Derkaoui, J; EL Kharrim, A; Maaroufi, F; Cleland, W; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Nikolic-Audit, I; Schwemling, Ph; Ghazlane, H; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Boonekamp, M; Kerschen, N; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, P; Schwindlingy, J; Lund-Jensen, B

    2007-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter modules is completed and all the modules are assembled and inserted in the cryostats. During the production period four barrel and three endcap modules were exposed to test beams in order to assess their performance, ascertain the production quality and reproducibility, and to scrutinize the complete energy reconstruction chain from the readout and calibration electronics to the signal and energy reconstruction. It was also possible to check the full Monte Carlo simulation of the calorimeter. The analysis of the uniformity, resolution and extraction of constant term is presented. Typical non-uniformities of 0.5% and typical global constant terms of 0.6% are measured for the barrel and end-cap modules.

  19. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  20. The status of the construction and the performance of the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Lund-Jensen, B

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeters is about to be completed The barrel calorimeter and the first end cap are inserted in their cryostats. The quality control performed during the production has resulted in only a very small fraction of malfunctioning channels, ~0.1 %o., and a low constant term in the energy resolution. Several modules of the calorimeter and their corresponding presampler sectors have been tested in electron beams and their energy resolution has been shown to be within the ATLAS requirements. The local constant term is better than 0.4% for all measured cells and the global constant term which includes the cell to cell response variation is less than 0.7%. (3 refs).

  1. Odyssey 2 : A mission toward Neptune and Triton to test General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lenoir, Benjamin; Lévy, Agnès; Foulon, Bernard; Reynaud, Serge; Courty, Jean-Michel; Lamine, Brahim; Dittus, Hansjörg; van Zoest, Tim; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Selig, Hanns; Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie; Biancale, Richard; Métris, Gilles; Sohl, Frank; Wohl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Odyssey 2 will be proposed in December 2010 for the next call of M3 missions for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. This mission, under a Phase 0 study performed by CNES, will aim at Neptune and Triton. Two sets of objectives will be pursued. The first one is to perform a set of gravitation experiments at the Solar System scale. Experimental tests of gravitation have always shown good agreement with General Relativity. There are however drivers to continue testing General Relativity, and to do so at the largest possible scales. From a theoretical point of view, Einstein's theory of gravitation shows inconsistencies with a quantum description of Nature and unified theories predict deviations from General Relativity. From an observational point of view, as long as dark matter and dark energy are not observed through other means than their gravitational effects, they can be considered as a manifestation of a modification of General Relativity at cosmic scales. The scientific objectives are to: (i) test the gravitation law...

  2. Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  3. Thermal and flow considerations for the 80 K shield of the SSC magnet cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nominal temperatures in the SSC magnets range between 4.2 K in the superconducting coils and 300 K on the cryostat outer wall. To minimize the 4 K heat load, one thermal shield cooled by liquid and vapor nitrogen flows at 84 K, and another cooled by helium flow at 20 K are incorporated in the cryostat. Tubes attached to the shields serve as conduits for the cryogens. The liquid nitrogen tube in the cryostat is used for shield refrigeration and also for liquid distribution around the SSC rings. The second nitrogen line is used to return the vapor to the helium refrigerators for helium precooling. The nominal LN2 flow from a 4.3 km long cryogenic string (4 sections) to the surface is 64 g/s. The total liquid nitrogen consumption of approximately 5000 g/s will be supplied at one, two or more locations on the surface. The total heat load of the 80 K shield is estimated as 3.2 W/m: about 50% is composed of infrared radiation; the remaining 50% is by heat conduction through supports, vacuum barriers and other thermal connections between the shield and the 300 K outer wall. The required LN2 flow rate depends on the distribution and circulation schemes. The LN2 temperature will in turn vary depending on the flow rate and on the recooling method used. For example, with a massflow of 400 g/s of LN2 the temperature rises from 82 K to 86 K between two compact recoolers 1 km apart. This temperature is higher than desired. The temperature can be reduced by increasing the flow rate of the liquid or by using the continuous recooling scheme. This paper discusses some thermal problems caused by certain mechanical designs of the 80 K shield and the possible improvement by using continuous recooling. The authors present results of the 80 K shield temperature distribution analysis, the 20 K shield heat load augmentation resulting from the increased 80 K shield temperatures, the continuous nitrogen recooling scheme and some flow timing related analysis

  4. Low-noise current preamplifier for the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is an experiment on the future LHC collider, which seeks new particles, like the Higgs boson, to complete the standard model and develop the supersymmetry model. An important sub-detector in ATLAS is the Liquid Argon calorimeter which measures the energy of electrons and photons. The calorimeter precision is partially limited by the electronic noise of the input preamplifiers, which is then particularly a point of attention. The main study of this thesis is a 'warm' current preamplifier ('0T') placed outside the cryostat, the signal being driven on cables. First, the main characteristics of another type of preamplifier placed in the calorimeter are studied. Then the 0T is modelled, particularly the effects of a cable on the electronic noise and the signal. Different versions are studied, whose measurements are in good agreement with expected values. In the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter conditions the 0T performance are very competitive with a 'cold' preamp, and has the advantage of reliability. Also their location outside the cryostat allows maintenance. But the cable impedance is higher than the input impedance of a cold preamplifier, which is a drawback according to capacitive crosstalk between neighbouring channels. The signal crosstalk is higher, but acceptable. As well, the noise correlation between two channels as a function of cable length is shown as negligible for cable lengths used. The noise autocorrelation function is also studied to optimize a multi-sampling filtering. The model and measurements are in excellent agreement. The 0T has been chosen to equip 200,000 channels of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter. (author)

  5. Energy losses in the D0 β solenoid cryostat caused by current changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed D0 β solenoid is a superconducting solenoid mounted inside an aluminum tube which supports the solenoid winding over it's full length. This aluminum support tube, also called bobbin, is therefore very tightly coupled to magnetic flux changes caused by solenoid current variations. These current changes in the solenoid, will cause answer currents to flow in the resistive bobbin wall and therefore cause heat losses. The insertion of an external dump resistor in the solenoid current loop reduces energy dissipation inside the cryostat during a quench and will shorten the discharge time constant. This note presents a simple electrical model for the coupled bobbin and solenoid and makes it easier to understand the circuit behavior and losses. Estimates for the maximum allowable rate of solenoid current changes, based on the maximum permissible rate of losses can be made using this model

  6. 5cm, no iron SSC dipole 12m model cryostat thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 12 m long model of a 5 cm costheta dipole cryostat has been constructed and its thermal performance measured. The model utilized heat intercepted fiberglass reinforced plastic posts to support the 12 m long, 4.5 K cold mass and the 10 and 80 K thermal shields. A superinsulation blanket system utilizing aluminized polyester with fiberglass mat spacing material was developed and installed on the 10 and 80 K thermal shields. The heat gain to 4.5, 10 and 80 K was measured. We have compared the results with the analytical predicted performance and it shows good agreement. The performance of the multilayer insulation system has been measured under several different system conditions and the results are reported. 6 refs., 5 figs

  7. Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (Ic) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy or YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed. (paper)

  8. Engineering design of bi-cavity horizontal test cryostat at RRCAT for testing 650 MHz SCRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horizontal Test Cryostat, for testing two 650 MHz 'dressed' Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities in a single testing cycle has been designed at RRCAT, in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA (FNAL). This cryostat is the major part of the Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) facility which is being set up to test, 5-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavities, in CW/pulsed regime, for upcoming High Intensity Superconducting Proton Accelerator projects at both countries. Two such HTS facilities, one at RRCAT for Indian Spallation Neutron Source project (ISNS), which is on the horizon, and the other at FNAL, USA for PIP II project are planned. Indian HTS facility will be set up at RRCAT. In order to maximize the utility of this facility, it can also be used to test two dressed 9-cell 1.3 GHz cavities and other similarly-sized devices. This facility will be the third such facility in the world which can test two dressed SCRF cavities in one testing cycle. Design work of HTS cryostat has been completed and now procurement process is in progress. This paper discusses salient features and engineering design of the Horizontal Test Cryostat. (author)

  9. High-stability cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope based on a closed-cycle cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Jason D.; Kislitsyn, Dmitry A.; Beaman, Daniel K.; Nazin, George V., E-mail: gnazin@uoregon.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1253 University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Ulrich, Stefan [RHK Technology, Inc., 1050 East Maple Road, Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We report on the design and operation of a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a closed-cycle cryostat (CCC). The STM is thermally linked to the CCC through helium exchange gas confined inside a volume enclosed by highly flexible rubber bellows. The STM is thus mechanically decoupled from the CCC, which results in a significant reduction of the mechanical noise transferred from the CCC to the STM. Noise analysis of the tunneling current shows current fluctuations up to 4% of the total current, which translates into tip-sample distance variations of up to 1.5 picometers. This noise level is sufficiently low for atomic-resolution imaging of a wide variety of surfaces. To demonstrate this, atomic-resolution images of Au(111) and NaCl(100)/Au(111) surfaces, as well as of carbon nanotubes deposited on Au(111), were obtained. Thermal drift analysis showed that under optimized conditions, the lateral stability of the STM scanner can be as low as 0.18 Å/h. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements based on the lock-in technique were also carried out, and showed no detectable presence of noise from the closed-cycle cryostat. Using this cooling approach, temperatures as low as 16 K at the STM scanner have been achieved, with the complete cool-down of the system typically taking up to 12 h. These results demonstrate that the constructed CCC-coupled STM is a highly stable instrument capable of highly detailed spectroscopic investigations of materials and surfaces at the atomic scale.

  10. High-stability cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope based on a closed-cycle cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design and operation of a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a closed-cycle cryostat (CCC). The STM is thermally linked to the CCC through helium exchange gas confined inside a volume enclosed by highly flexible rubber bellows. The STM is thus mechanically decoupled from the CCC, which results in a significant reduction of the mechanical noise transferred from the CCC to the STM. Noise analysis of the tunneling current shows current fluctuations up to 4% of the total current, which translates into tip-sample distance variations of up to 1.5 picometers. This noise level is sufficiently low for atomic-resolution imaging of a wide variety of surfaces. To demonstrate this, atomic-resolution images of Au(111) and NaCl(100)/Au(111) surfaces, as well as of carbon nanotubes deposited on Au(111), were obtained. Thermal drift analysis showed that under optimized conditions, the lateral stability of the STM scanner can be as low as 0.18 Å/h. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements based on the lock-in technique were also carried out, and showed no detectable presence of noise from the closed-cycle cryostat. Using this cooling approach, temperatures as low as 16 K at the STM scanner have been achieved, with the complete cool-down of the system typically taking up to 12 h. These results demonstrate that the constructed CCC-coupled STM is a highly stable instrument capable of highly detailed spectroscopic investigations of materials and surfaces at the atomic scale

  11. NOTE: Validation of optical coherence tomography in vivo using cryostat histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambichler, T.; Moussa, G.; Regeniter, P.; Kasseck, C.; Hofmann, M. R.; Bechara, F. G.; Sand, M.; Altmeyer, P.; Hoffmann, K.

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to validate for the first time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of epidermal thickness (ET) using cryopreparation for histology. OCT assessments of ET were performed on healthy skin using the algorithms as follows: first, peak-to-valley analysis of the A-scan (ET-OCT-V), second, line-traced image analysis of the B-scan (ET-OCT-IA). Histology was performed using cryostat sections which were also evaluated using the image analysis (ET-Histo). We selected 114 samples, including B-scans and corresponding histology, for method comparison between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo. Forty-two A-scans were available for method comparison between ET-OCT-V and ET-Histo. Bland and Altman plots revealed a marked bias with wide 95% limits of agreement for ET-OCT-V versus ET-Histo. Comparison of ET-OCT-IA versus ET-Histo revealed only a slight bias and narrow 95% limits of agreement. A-scan analysis for ET determination is linked to significant limitations and lacks agreement with histology. By contrast, we observed satisfactory agreement between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo indicating that both methods can be utilized interchangeably. OCT using the line-traced image analysis of the B-scan appears to be a valid and relatively practicable method for the determination of ET in vivo. Furthermore, the comparisons with the in vivo OCT profiles demonstrate that cryostat sectioning provides a better preservation of relative and absolute dimensions of skin layers than paraffin embedding.

  12. Electronic Readout of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Calibration and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The LHC is a proton-proton collider with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The machine has been operated at energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV in 2009 and is expected to reach the energy of 7 TeV in 2010. The LAr calorimeter is designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. It consists of a set of sampling calorimeters with liquid argon as active medium kept into three separate cryostats. The LAr calorimeters are read out via a system of custom electronics. The electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters is divided into a Front End (FE) system of boards mounted in custom crates directly on the cryostat feedthroughs, and a Back End (BE) system of VME-based boards located in an off-detector underground counting room where there is no radiation. The FE system includes Front End boards (FEBs), which perform the readout and dig...

  13. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  15. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  16. 2001: a space Odyssey and the anticipatory function of the symbolic order in the staging of the beating fantasy

    OpenAIRE

    Matthys, Wim; Schrans, David; Geerardyn, Filip

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the representation of violence in Stanley Kubrick’s 2001, A Space Odyssey can be interpreted as a recurrent staging of the fantasy described by Freud in his 1919 article A Child is Being Beaten. A twofold implication of the function of anticipation is retrieved in terms of Lacan’s discussion of the three phased development of the beating fantasy. In Lacan’s reading, the second phase of this fantasy takes up an anticipatory function with regard to the assumption of Symbo...

  17. First Cryogenic Testing of the ATLAS Superconducting Prototype Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Pirotte, O; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroids and the barrel toroid made of eight coils (BT) symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. All these magnets will be individually tested in an experimental area prior to their final installation in the underground cavern of the LHC collider. A dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed and built for this purpose. It mainly consists of a 1'200 W at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit, a cryostat housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps, a distribution valve box and transfer lines. Prior to the start of the series tests of the BT magnets, two model coils are used at this facility. The first one, the so-called B00 of comparatively small size, contains the three different types of superconductors used for the ATLAS magnets which are wound on a cylindrical mandrel. The second magnet, the B0, is a reduced model of basically identical design concept as the...

  18. The ATLAS pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinziani, M.

    2007-01-01

    After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

  19. ATLAS Thesis Awards 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on Thursday 25 February. The winners also presented their work in front of members of the ATLAS Collaboration. Winners: Javier Montejo Berlingen, Barcelona (Spain), Ruth Pöttgen, Mainz (Germany), Nils Ruthmann, Freiburg (Germany), and Steven Schramm, Toronto (Canada).

  20. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  1. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    La Givrine near St Cergue Cross Country Skiing and Fondue at Basse Ruche with M Nordberg, P Jenni, M Nessi, F Gianotti and Co. ATLAS Management Fondu dinner, reviewing state of play of the experiment Many fun scenes from cross country skiing and after 41 minutes of the film starts the fondue dinner in a nice chalet with many persons working for ATLAS experiment

  2. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Budker Nuclear Physics Institute, Novosibirsk Sequence 1 Shots of aircraft factory where machining for ATLAS is done Shots of aircraft Work on components for ATLAS big wheel Discussions between Tikhonov and Nordberg in workshop Sequence 2 Shots of downtown Novosibirsk, including little church which is mid-point of Russian Federation Sequence 3 Interview of Yuri Tikhonov by Andrew Millington

  3. A Slice of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An entire section of the ATLAS detector is being assembled at Prévessin. Since May the components have been tested using a beam from the SPS, giving the ATLAS team valuable experience of operating the detector as well as an opportunity to debug the system.

  4. ATLAS brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  5. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  6. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  7. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  8. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  9. ATLAS brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  10. ATLAS brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  11. Mars Gravity Field and Upper Atmosphere from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA orbital missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have been exploring and monitoring the planet Mars since 1997. MGS executed its mapping mission between 1999 and 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis altitude at ~370 km and the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 pm Local Solar Time (LST). The spacecraft was equipped with onboard instrumentation to acquire radio science data and to measure spacecraft ranges to the Martian surface (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter). These measurements resulted in static and time-varying gravity field and high-resolution global topography of the planet. ODY and MRO are still orbiting about Mars in two different sun-synchronous orbits, providing radio tracking data that indirectly measure both the static and time-varying gravity field and the atmospheric density. The orbit of ODY has its periapsis at ~390 km altitude and descending node at 4-5 pm LST. However, the spacecraft also collected measurements at lower altitudes (~220 km) in 2002 prior to the mapping phase. Since November 2006, MRO is in a low-altitude orbit with a periapsis altitude of 255 km and descending node at 3 pm LST. Radio data from MRO help improve the resolution of the static gravity field and measure the mass distribution of the polar caps, but the atmospheric drag at those altitudes may limit the benefits of these radio tracking observations. We present a combined solution of the Martian gravity field to degree and order 110 and atmospheric density profiles with radio tracking data from MGS, ODY and MRO. The gravity field solution is combined with the MOLA topography yielding an updated map of Mars crustal thickness. We also show our solution of the Love number k2 and time-variable gravity zonal harmonics (C20 and C30, in particular). The recovered atmospheric density profiles may be used in atmospheric models to constrain the long-term variability of the

  12. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  13. ATLAS Virtual Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS Virtual Visits is a project initiated in 2011 for the Education & Outreach program of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Its goal is to promote public appreciation of the LHC physics program and particle physics, in general, through direct dialogue between ATLAS physicists and remote audiences. A Virtual Visit is an IP-based videoconference, coupled with a public webcast and video recording, between ATLAS physicists and remote locations around the world, that typically include high school or university classrooms, Masterclasses, science fairs, or other special events, usually hosted by collaboration members. Over the past two years, more than 10,000 people, from all of the world’s continents, have actively participated in ATLAS Virtual Visits, with many more enjoying the experience from the publicly available webcasts and recordings. We present an overview of our experience and discuss potential development for the future.

  14. Software Validation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS collaboration operates an extensive set of protocols to validate the quality of the offline software in a timely manner. This is essential in order to process the large amounts of data being collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 without complications on the offline software side. We will discuss a number of different strategies used to validate the ATLAS offline software; running the ATLAS framework software, Athena, in a variety of configurations daily on each nightly build via the ATLAS Nightly System (ATN) and Run Time Tester (RTT) systems; the monitoring of these tests and checking the compilation of the software via distributed teams of rotating shifters; monitoring of and follow up on bug reports by the shifter teams and periodic software cleaning weeks to improve the quality of the offline software further.

  15. Dear ATLAS colleagues,

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/news/news_mali.php) many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  16. Performance of thermal shields of LHD cryostat cooled by gaseous helium with parallel paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, S.; Tamura, H.; Yanagi, N.; Sekiguchi, H.; Mito, T.; Satow, T.

    2002-05-01

    The Large Helical Device is the largest cryogenic apparatus for a research of fusion plasma. Thermal shields are installed to reduce heat loads to the superconducting coils. Since the total area is very wide, seamless pipes were adopted to reduce the possibility of helium leakage, and parallel cooling path is indispensable to reduce the pressure drop. Temperature differences between parallel paths will be enlarged with the procedure of cool-down, but the final temperature should be determined uniquely by each heat load in the case of gaseous helium. The number of parallel paths of the thermal shields for the plasma vacuum vessel and the cryostat vessel are set to 20 and 10, respectively, to form the periodic symmetry. The pipes were attached on the segmented plates of SUS316 by metal cleats mechanically and by high conductive epoxy resin thermally. The maximum temperature difference between the outlets of the paths was enlarged with the procedure of cool-down, but it was saturated within 40% of the average temperature rise. This difference is allowable in this system, and the temperature differences are coincide the difference of area due to the irregular shape.

  17. New type liquid He free {sup 3}He Cryostat using Commercial GM refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, T; Sumida, T; Takesaka, T; Kawamura, Y; Kato, H; Matsumura, M [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)], E-mail: nisioka@kochi-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    We have succeeded to construct a novel {sup 3}He cryostat by improving a low cost commercial two stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator whose cooling power is 0.3 W at 4.2 K. This main portion of this system consists of 4 K pot, 1 K pot, heat exchanger and {sup 3}He pot, which are connected to the second cold stage. The main portion is covered with the 1st radiation shield attached to the 1st cold stage and the {sup 3}He pot is covered with the 2nd radiation shield attached to the heat exchanger, where the 1st shield must be further covered with more than five layers of super-insulation films in order to realize {sup 3}He temperature. The achieved temperature is 0.4 K and persists over one day. The temperature oscillation is less than 1 mK below 4 K. The required time to attain the lowest temperature is typically about 8 hours. This system allows us to deal with almost all the low temperature experiments of condensed matter physics without requiring low temperature technique.

  18. Handling and analysis of ices in cryostats and glove boxes in view of cometary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, K.; Eich, G.; Heyl, M.; Kochan, H.; Oehler, A.; Patnaik, A.; Schlosser, W.; Schulz, R.

    1989-01-01

    Comet nucleus sample return mission and other return missions from planets and satellites need equipment for handling and analysis of icy samples at low temperatures under vacuum or protective gas. Two methods are reported which were developed for analysis of small icy samples and which are modified for larger samples in cometary matter simulation experiments (KOSI). A conventional optical cryostat system was modified to allow for transport of samples at 5 K, ion beam irradiation, and measurement in an off-line optical spectrophotometer. The new system consists of a removable window plug containing nozzles for condensation of water and volatiles onto a cold finger. This plug can be removed in a vacuum system, changed against another plug (e.g., with other windows (IR, VIS, VUV) or other nozzles). While open, the samples can be treated under vacuum with cooling by manipulators (cut, removal, sample taking, irradiation with light, photons, or ions). After bringing the plug back, the samples can be moved to another site of analysis. For handling the 30 cm diameter mineral-ice samples from the KOSI experiments an 80x80x80 cm glove box made out of plexiglass was used. The samples were kept in a liquid nitrogen bath, which was filled from the outside. A stream a dry N2 and evaporating gas from the bath purified the glove box from impurity gases and, in particular, H2O, which otherwise would condense onto the samples.

  19. Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Barrel Cryostat Construction and Testing May-June 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    US, ATLAS

    1999-01-01

    Photo 1 - Outer Cold Cryostat showing 'Y' support. Photo 2 - Outer Cold Vessel half showing 'X' and 'Z' stops and 'Y' supports. Photo 3 - Cold Vessel Bulkhead, End 'C'. Photo 4 - Outer Cold Vessel half, showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 5 - End of Outer Cold Vessel showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 6 - Al/SST Transitions for Signal and High Voltage feedthroughs. Test weld blocks shown in background. Photo 7 - Welding of Al/SST Transitions onto Outer Cold Vessel. Photo 8 - Al/SST Transitions, including test pumpouts. Photo 9 - Machining of Inner Cold vessel. Photo 10 - Warm Vessel being assembled for leak testing Photo 11 - Setting up Warm Vessel on test stand. Photo 12 - Warm Vessel assembly for testing complete. Photo 13 - Dial indicators mounted against the Warm Vessel Bulkhead during testing. Photo 14 - Pumping on Warm Vessel. Photo 15 - Pumping on the Warm Vessel. Photo 16 - Checking the Solenoid Chimney. Photo 17 - Leak checking the Inner Warm Vessel/Bulkhead flange in the area of ID co...

  20. Modeling the pressure increase in liquid helium cryostats after failure of the insulating vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure relief system of liquid helium cryostats requires a careful design, due to helium's low enthalpy of vaporization and due to the low operating temperature. Hazard analyses often involve the failure of the insulating vacuum in the worst-case scenario. The venting of the insulating vacuum and the implications for the pressure increase in the helium vessel, however, have not yet been fully analyzed. Therefore, the dimensioning of safety devices often requires experience and reference to very few experimental data. In order to provide a better foundation for the design of cryogenic pressure relief systems, this paper presents an analytic approach for the strongly dynamic process induced by the loss of insulating vacuum. The model is based on theoretical considerations and on differential equation modeling. It contains only few simplifying assumptions, which will be further investigated in future experiments. The numerical solutions of example calculations are presented with regard to the heat flux into the helium vessel, the helium pressure increase and the helium flow rate through the pressure relief device. Implications concerning two-phase flow and the influence of kinetic energy are discussed

  1. Conduction Effect of Thermal Radiation in a Metal Shield Pipe in a Cryostat for a Cryogenic Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Tokunari, Masao; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Okutomi, Akira; Ohashi, Masatake; Kirihara, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Saito, Yoshio; Sato, Nobuaki; Shintomi, Takakazu; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Miyoki, Shinji; YAMAMOTO Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    A large heat load caused by thermal radiation through a metal shield pipe was observed in a cooling test of a cryostat for a prototype of a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector. The heat load was approximately 1000 times larger than the value calculated by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We studied this phenomenon by simulation and experiment and found that it was caused by the conduction of thermal radiation in a metal shield pipe.

  2. Liquid helium vessel thermal heat load calculation and modification of the liquid helium cryostat for improved thermal performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A room temperature bore superconducting (SC) solenoid magnet has been developed at Control Instrumentation Division (CnID) for carrying out liquid PbLi Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) and corrosion experimental studies for ITER TBM. The SC solenoid magnet is designed to generate central bore magnetic field of 4 Tesla in a bore diameter of 300 mm and length of 800 mm with a field uniformity of 0.5% or better. The SC magnet is made up of low temperature NbTi copper composite wire whose critical temperature (Tc) is 9.8 K. The SC magnet needs to be cooled to liquid helium temperature (4.2 K) for its stable operation. Considering the operational requirement, an adiabatically stable SC magnet is under development. The adiabatically cooled SC magnet is completely immersed inside the liquid helium vessel. As the latent heat of vaporisation of liquid helium is less, heat load on liquid helium vessel needs to be reduced. In this paper we discuss about the liquid helium cryostat developed with conduction cooled thermal shield. Various heat loads on the liquid helium cryostat is calculated. Design modification of the existing cryostat to reduce the heat load and improved thermal performance is discussed. (author)

  3. Experimental validation of the thermal performance of the 1.9 K magnet cryostats during the commissioning of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maglioni, C; Poncet, A

    2009-01-01

    The LHC machine, at present in the commissioning phase at CERN, is composed of eight 1.9 K superconducting magnet sectors independently operated. Assembled in 8 continuous segments of approximately 2.7 km length each, the HeII cryostats for the 1232 dipoles magnets and 438 Short Straight Sections (housing the quadrupole magnets) were designed to fulfil tight heat load budgets for an affordable large-scale project. The commissioning of the cryogenic system of the first LHC sectors is under way since January 2007 and 5 sectors have now been operated at their nominal temperatures of 1.9 K. An experimental assessment of the thermal performance of the final machine is therefore possible, allowing comparison with design estimates. After a brief description of the layout of the LHC cryostats, and their associated cryogenic and vacuum sectorisations, calorimetric measurements of the heat loads to the 1.9 K magnets and to the cryostat thermal shielding are presented and discussed.

  4. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-04ER86191 Hydrogen Cryostat for Muon Beam Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-05-07

    The project was to develop cryostat designs that could be used for muon beam cooling channels where hydrogen would circulate through refrigerators and the beam-cooling channel to simultaneously refrigerate 1) high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) magnet coils, 2) cold copper RF cavities, and 3) the hydrogen that is heated by the muon beam. In an application where a large amount of hydrogen is naturally present because it is the optimum ionization cooling material, it was reasonable to explore its use with HTS magnets and cold, but not superconducting, RF cavities. In this project we developed computer programs for simulations and analysis and conducted experimental programs to examine the parameters and technological limitations of the materials and designs of Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) components (magnet conductor, RF cavities, absorber windows, heat transport, energy absorber, and refrigerant).The project showed that although a hydrogen cryostat is not the optimum solution for muon ionization cooling channels, the studies of the cooling channel components that define the cryostat requirements led to fundamental advances. In particular, two new lines of promising development were opened up, regarding very high field HTS magnets and the HS concept, that have led to new proposals and funded projects.

  5. Thermal and structural performance of a single tube support post for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reentrant support post currently incorporated in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole cryostat has been shown to meet the structural and thermal requirements of the cryostat, both in prototype magnet assemblies and through component testing. However, the reentrant post design has two major drawbacks: tight dimensional control on all components, and cost driven by these tolerance constraints and a complex assembly procedure. A single tube support post has been developed as an alternative to the reentrant post design. Several prototype assemblies have been fabricated and subjected to structural testing. Compressive, tensile, and bending forces were applied to each assembly with deflection measured at several locations. A prototype support post has also been thermally evaluated in a heat leak measurement facility. Heat load to 4.2 K was measured with the intermediate post intercept operating at various temperatures while thermometers positioned along the conductive path of the post mapped thermal gradients. Results from these measurements indicate the single tube support post meets the design criteria for the SSC dipole magnet cryostat support system

  6. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  7. ATLAS Forward Detectors and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, N

    2010-01-01

    In this communication I describe the ATLAS forward physics program and the detectors, LUCID, ZDC and ALFA that have been designed to meet this experimental challenge. In addition to their primary role in the determination of ATLAS luminosity these detectors - in conjunction with the main ATLAS detector - will be used to study soft QCD and diffractive physics in the initial low luminosity phase of ATLAS running. Finally, I will briefly describe the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project that currently represents the future of the ATLAS forward physics program.

  8. Long-Term Periodicity of the Mars Exospheric Density from MRO and Mars Odyssey Radio Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have collected more than 11 years of continuous tracking data of spacecraft in orbit around Mars. The radio science data are generally used to determine the static and seasonal gravity field of the central body. However, these two spacecraft are in different sun-synchronous orbits that cover a wide range of altitudes (250-410 km) where investigation of the atmosphere and climate of Mars so far have not been supported by in situ and remote sensing measurements. The drag perturbation acting on the probes provides indirect measurements of the Martian atmospheric density. Therefore, we focused our work on the determination of the long-term periodicity of the atmospheric constituents in the Mars exosphere with Mars Odyssey and MRO radio tracking data. We implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM) -Mars model into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II to adequately reproduce variations in temperature and (partial) density along ODY and MRO trajectories. The recovery of Mars' atmospheric dynamics using Doppler tracking data requires the accurate modeling of all forces acting on the spacecraft. The main non-conservative force, apart from drag, is solar radiation pressure. Spacecraft panel reflectivities and the radiation pressure-scaling factor are not estimated, but we adjusted empirical once-per-revolution along-track periodic accelerations (cosine and sine) over each orbital arc to mitigate solar radiation pressure mismodeling. After converging the orbital data arcs, and editing out all the data during superior conjunctions, we combined the MRO and Mars Odyssey arcs in a global solution where we estimated spacecraft initial states, time-correlated drag scale factors, and annual and semi-annual variability of the major constituents in the Mars upper atmosphere. We will show that the updated DTM-Mars model provides a better prediction of the long-term variability of the dominant species

  9. Mars' gravity field and upper atmosphere with MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO radio science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars exploration program conducted by NASA during the last decade has enabled continuous observations of the planet from orbit with three different missions: the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These spacecraft were equipped with on board instrumentation dedicated to collect radio tracking data in the X-band. The analysis of these data has provided a high-resolution gravity field model of Mars. MGS and ODY were inserted into two separate frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbits with different local times, with their periapsis altitude at ~370 km and ~390 km, respectively. MGS was in orbit around Mars between 1999 and 2006, whereas ODY has been orbiting the planet since January 2002. Using the radio science data of these two spacecraft, gravity models with a maximum resolution of degree and order 95 in spherical harmonics (spatial resolution of 112 km) have been determined. MRO has been orbiting Mars since August 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous orbit with a periapsis at 255 km altitude. Therefore, its radio data helped significantly improve Mars' gravity field model, up to degree and order 110 (spatial resolution of 96 km). However, mismodeling of the atmospheric drag, which is the strongest non-conservative force acting on the spacecraft at MRO's low altitude, compromises the estimation of the temporal variations of the gravity field zonal harmonics that provide crucial information on the seasonal mass of carbon dioxide in the polar caps. For this reason, we implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM)-Mars model (Bruinsma and Lemoine 2002) into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II. We estimated key model parameters to adequately reproduce variations in temperatures and (partial) density along the spacecraft trajectories. Our new model allows us to directly estimate the long-term periodicity of the major constituents at MGS, ODY, and MRO altitudes (~255-450 km). In this

  10. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - EnviroAtlas Community Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas Community. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the...

  11. Near real-time astrometry for spacecraft navigation with the VLBA: A demonstration with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey

    CERN Document Server

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Romney, J D

    2015-01-01

    We present a demonstration of near real-time spacecraft astrometry with the VLBA. We detect the X-band downlink signal from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey with the VLBA and transmit the data over the internet for correlation at the VLBA correlator in near real-time. Quasars near Mars in the plane of the sky are used as position references. In the demonstration we were able to obtain initial position measurements within about 15 minutes of the start of the observation. The measured positions differ from the projected ephemerides by a few milliarcseconds, and the repeatability of the measurement is better than 0.3 milliarcseconds as determined from measurements from multiple scans. We demonstrate that robust and repeatable offsets are obtained even when removing half of the antennas. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of astrometry with the VLBA with a low latency and sub-milliarcsecond repeatability.

  12. ATLAS Event - First Splash of Particles in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2008-01-01

    A simulated event. September 10, 2008 - The ATLAS detector lit up as a flood of particles traversed the detector when the beam was occasionally directed at a target near ATLAS. This allowed ATLAS physicists to study how well the various components of the detector were functioning in preparation for the forthcoming collisions. The first ATLAS data recorded on September 10, 2008 is seen here. Running time 24 seconds

  13. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2006-01-01

    CERN, Building 40 Interview with theorist Mr. Philip Hinchliffe (Berkeley) as well an interview with his wife Mrs. Hinchliffe who is also Physics Department head at Berkeley. They are both working in ATLAS Experiment.

  14. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS Physics Workshop at the University of Roma Tre held from Monday 06 June 2005 to Saturday 11 June 2005. Experts establishing workshop, poster, people milling Shots of Peter Jenni introduction Many audience shots Sequences from various talks

  15. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  16. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  17. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  18. ATLAS Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The poster details the different aspects of the ATLAS Distributed Computing experience after the first year of LHC data taking. We describe the performance of the ATLAS distributed computing system and the lessons learned during the 2010 run, pointing out parts of the system which were in a good shape, and also spotting areas which required improvements. Improvements ranged from hardware upgrade on the ATLAS Tier-0 computing pools to improve data distribution rates, tuning of FTS channels between CERN and Tier-1s, and studying data access patterns for Grid analysis to improve the global processing rate. We show recent software development driven by operational needs with emphasis on data management and job execution in the ATLAS production system.

  19. General Dynamics Atlas family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, James

    Developments concerning the Atlas family of launch vehicles over the last three or four years are summarized. Attention is given to the center of gravity, load factors, acoustics, pyroshock, low-frequency sinusoidal vibration, and high-frequency random vibration.

  20. ATLAS Cavern baseplate

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the incredible amounth of iron used for ATLAS cavern. Please look at the related links and also videos that are concerning the civil engineering where you can see even more detailed cavern excavation work.

  1. The Latest from ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Since November 2008, ATLAS has undertaken detailed maintenance, consolidation and repair work on the detector (see Bulletin of 20 July 2009). Today, the fraction of the detector that is operational has increased compared to last year: less than 1% of dead channels for most of the sub-systems. "We are going to start taking data this year with a detector which is even more efficient than it was last year," agrees ATLAS Spokesperson, Fabiola Gianotti. By mid-September the detector was fully closed again, and the cavern sealed. The magnet system has been operated at nominal current for extensive periods over recent months. Once the cavern was sealed, ATLAS began two weeks of combined running. Right now, subsystems are joining the run incrementally until the point where the whole detector is integrated and running as one. In the words of ATLAS Technical Coordinator, Marzio Nessi: "Now we really start physics." In parallel, the analysis ...

  2. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  3. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  4. ATLAS physics results

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, Vasiliki A

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has been successfully taking data since the end of 2009 in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, and in heavy ion collisions. In these lectures, some of the most recent ATLAS results will be given on Standard Model measurements, the discovery of the Higgs boson, searches for supersymmetry and exotics and on heavy-ion results.

  5. ATLAS Jet Energy Scale

    OpenAIRE

    D. Schouten; Tanasijczuk, A.; Vetterli, M.(Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada); Collaboration, for the ATLAS

    2012-01-01

    Jets originating from the fragmentation of quarks and gluons are the most common, and complicated, final state objects produced at hadron colliders. A precise knowledge of their energy calibration is therefore of great importance at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, while is very difficult to ascertain. We present in-situ techniques and results for the jet energy scale at ATLAS using recent collision data. ATLAS has demonstrated an understanding of the necessary jet energy cor...

  6. ATLAS distributed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, David; Branco, Miguel; Albrand, Solveig; Rybkine, G.; Orellana, F.; Liko, D.; Tan C.L.; Deng, W.; C. KANNAN; Harrison Karl; Fassi, Farida; Fulachier, J.; Chetan, N.; Haeberli, C.; Soroko, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS distributed analysis (ADA) system is described. The ATLAS experiment has more that 2000 physicists from 150 insititutions in 34 countries. Users, data and processing are distributed over these sites. ADA makes use of a collection of high-level web services whose interfaces are expressed in terms of AJDL (abstract job definition language) which includes descriptions of datasets, transformations and jobs. The high-level services are implemented using generic parts...

  7. ATLAS Facility Description Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The ATLAS has the same two-loop features as the APR1400 and is designed according to the well-known scaling method suggested by Ishii and Kataoka to simulate the various test scenarios as realistically as possible. It is a half-height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400. The fluid system of the ATLAS consists of a primary system, a secondary system, a safety injection system, a break simulating system, a containment simulating system, and auxiliary systems. The primary system includes a reactor vessel, two hot legs, four cold legs, a pressurizer, four reactor coolant pumps, and two steam generators. The secondary system of the ATLAS is simplified to be of a circulating loop-type. Most of the safety injection features of the APR1400 and the OPR1000 are incorporated into the safety injection system of the ATLAS. In the ATLAS test facility, about 1300 instrumentations are installed to precisely investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior in simulation of the various test scenarios. This report describes the scaling methodology, the geometric data of the individual component, and the specification and the location of the instrumentations in detail

  8. Giacomo Tripodi (ed., Iliad and Odyssey in the North of Europe - Proceedings of the Workshop “Toija and the roots of European civilisation”, Toija, Finland, August 10th 2007 (Messina: Armando Siciliano Editore, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Loptson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Giacomo Tripodi (ed., Iliad and Odyssey in the North of Europe - Proceedings of the Workshop “Toija and the roots of European civilisation”, Toija, Finland, August 10th 2007 (Messina: Armando Siciliano Editore, 2009

  9. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. The film has original working sound.

  10. Design and fabrication of a cryostat for low temperature mechanical testing for the Mechanical and Materials Engineering group at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles Santillana, I.; Betemps, R.; Gerardin, A.; Guinchard, M.; Langeslag, S. A. E.; Sgobba, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical testing of materials at low temperatures is one of the cornerstones of the Mechanical and Materials Engineering (MME) group at CERN. A long tradition of more than 20 years and a unique know - how of such tests has been developed with an 18 kN double-walled cryostat. Large campaigns of material qualification have been carried out and the mechanical behaviour of materials at 4 K has been vastly studied in sub - size samples for projects like LEP, LHC and its experiments. With the aim of assessing the mechanical properties of materials of higher strength and/or issued from heavy gauge products for which testing standardized specimens of larger cross section might be more adapted, a new 100 kN cryostat capable of hosting different shapes of normalized samples has been carefully designed and fabricated inhouse together with the associated tooling and measurement instrumentation. It has been conceived to be able to adapt to different test frames both dynamic and static, which will be of paramount importance for future studies of fracture mechanics at low temperatures. The cryostat features a double-walled vessel consisting of a central cylindrical section with a convex lower end and a flat top end closure. The transmission of the load is guaranteed by a 4 column system and its precise monitoring is assured by an internal load cell positioned next to the sample in the load train. This innovative approach will be discussed together with other nonconventional instrumentation solutions. A validation of the whole system has been carried out, where bending efforts on instrumented samples have been measured. Additionally, dedicated tooling has been fabricated for the device's optimization. The preliminary results obtained confirm an excellent performance of the system and enhance the analysis of materials under extreme conditions with state of the art instrumentation.

  11. The CERN Cryogenic Test Facility for the Atlas Barrel Toroid Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroidal magnets (ECT) and the barrel toroid magnet (BT) made of eight coils symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. The magnets will be tested individually in a 5000 m2 experimental area prior to their final installation at an underground cavern of the LHC Collider. For the BT magnets, a dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed which is currently under the construction and commissioning phase. A liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit and a 1200 W@4.5K refrigerator will allow flexible operating conditions via a rather complex distribution and transfer line system. Flow of two-phase helium for cooling the coils is provided by centrifugal pumps immersed in a saturated liquid helium bath. The integration of the pumps in an existing cryostat required the adoption of novel mechanical solutions. Tests conducted permitted the validation of the technical design of the cryostat and its ins...

  12. The CERN cryogenic test facility for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroidal magnets (ECT) and the barrel toroid magnet (BT) made of eight coils symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. The magnets will be tested individually in a 5000 m/sup 2/ experimental area prior to their final installation at an underground cavern of the LHC Collider. For the BT magnets, a dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed which is currently under the construction and commissioning phase. A liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit and a 1200 W@4.5K refrigerator will allow flexible operating conditions via a rather complex distribution and transfer line system. Flow of two-phase helium for cooling the coils is provided by centrifugal pumps immersed in a saturated liquid helium bath. The integration of the pumps in an existing cryostat required the adoption of novel mechanical solutions. Tests conducted permitted the validation of the technical design of the cryostat and i...

  13. The Enhancement of Water Ice Content in the Local Area Northeast of Arcadia Planitia: Evidence from Neutron Data from HEND (Mars Odyssey) and Elevation from MOLA (MGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Tretyakov, V.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of neutron mapping measurements from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft revealed enormous hydrogen-rich regions in the southern and northern hemispheres of the Martian crust that imply significant amounts of near surface water ice. The hydrogen-rich areas of the southern and northern regions appear generally comparable in spatial extent and water ice content. This observation is interesting in light of topography measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, which shows a significant difference in elevation between northern lowlands and southern highlands that could imply a difference in seasonal CO2 condensation. In this study we correlate the high energy neutron flux observed by HEND (Mars Odyssey) and surface elevation measured by MOLA in order to interpret the seasonal change in epithermal neutron flux in terms near-surface water ice content.

  14. 4-D Model of CO2 Deposition at North and South of Mars from HEND/Odyssey and MOLA/MGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.

    2003-01-01

    The first 1.5 year of neutron mapping measurements onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft are presented based on High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) observations. HEND instrument is a part of GRS suite responsible for registration of epithermal and fast neutrons originating in Mars subsurface layer. The scattering of fast neutrons in Mars surface caused by primary cosmic rays is strongly sensitive to presence of hydrogen atoms. Even several percents of subsurface water significantly depress epithermal and fast neutron flux. It turns orbit neutron spectroscopy into one of most efficient methods for finding distribution of subsurface water. The Mars Odyssey observations revealed huge water- ice regions above 60N and 60S latitudes. It was founded that distribution of subsurface water has layered structure at these regions. It is thought that more than 50% wt water ice covered by relatively dry layer with different thickness.

  15. Liquid argon pollution tests of ATLAS detector materials at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Merkulovm L; Minashkin, V F; Golikov, V V; Kulagin, E N; Luschikov, V; Golovanov, L B; Borzunov, Yu T; Chumakov, V; Tsvinev, A P; Shalyugin, A N

    2002-01-01

    aA cold irradiation test facility operated at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna, is used to investigate the behaviour under neutron and gamma irradiations of samples of materials and equipments to be used in the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and the hadronic end cap (HEC) liquid argon calorimeters. The samples under study are immersed in a liquid argon cryostat and exposed to fast neutron (E/sub n/ >or= 100 keV) fluences of about 10/sup 16/ n cm/sup -2/ equivalent to the neutron fluence accumulated in FCAL during ten years of LHC operation. An alpha -cell is used to check for possible outgassing due to irradiation of the samples immersed in liquid argon and to monitor the liquid argon purity. The results of various irradiation tests performed at this facility are reported. (6 refs).

  16. ATLAS Review Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Szeless, B

    The ATLAS internal reviews, be it the mandatory Production Readiness Reviews, the now newly installed Production Advancement Reviews, or the more and more requested different Design Reviews, have become a part of our ATLAS culture over the past years. The Activity Systems Status Overviews are, for the time being, a one in time event and should be held for each system as soon as possible to have some meaning. There seems to a consensus that the reviews have become a useful project tool for the ATLAS management but even more so for the sub-systems themselves making achievements as well as possible shortcomings visible. One other recognized byproduct is the increasing cross talk between the systems, a very important ingredient to make profit all the systems from the large collective knowledge we dispose of in ATLAS. In the last two months, the first two PARs were organized for the MDT End Caps and the TRT Barrel Modules, both part of the US contribution to the ATLAS Project. Furthermore several different design...

  17. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  18. Distributed analysis in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, A.; Legger, F.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment accumulated more than 140 PB of data during the first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The analysis of such an amount of data is a challenging task for the distributed physics community. The Distributed Analysis (DA) system of the ATLAS experiment is an established and stable component of the ATLAS distributed computing operations. About half a million user jobs are running daily on DA resources, submitted by more than 1500 ATLAS physicists. The reliability of the DA system during the first run of the LHC and the following shutdown period has been high thanks to the continuous automatic validation of the distributed analysis sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters. During the LHC shutdown, the ATLAS computing model has undergone several changes to improve the analysis workflows, including the re-design of the production system, a new analysis data format and event model, and the development of common reduction and analysis frameworks. We report on the impact such changes have on the DA infrastructure, describe the new DA components, and include recent performance measurements.

  19. Distributed analysis in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment accumulated more than 140 PB of data during the first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The analysis of such an amount of data for the distributed physics community is a challenging task. The Distributed Analysis (DA) system of the ATLAS experiment is an established and stable component of the ATLAS distributed computing operations. About half a million user jobs are daily running on DA resources, submitted by more than 1500 ATLAS physicists. The reliability of the DA system during the first run of the LHC and the following shutdown period has been high thanks to the continuous automatic validation of the distributed analysis sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters. During the LHC shutdown, the ATLAS computing model has undergone several changes to improve the analysis workflows, including the re-design of the production system, a new analysis data format and event model, and the development of common reduction and analysis frameworks. We r...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Austin, TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). The layers in this...

  1. Design and fabrication of a cryostat for low temperature mechanical testing for the Mechanical and Materials Engineering group at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles Santillana, I; Gerardin, A; Guinchard, M; Langeslag, S A E; Sgobba, S

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical testing of materials at low temperatures is one of the cornerstones of the Mechanical and Materials Engineering (MME) group at CERN. A long tradition of more than 20 years and a unique know - how of such tests has been developed with an 18 kN double-walled cryostat. Large campaigns of material qualification have been carried out and the mechanical behaviour of materials at 4 K has been vastly studied in sub - size samples for projects like LEP, LHC and its experiments. With the aim of assessing the mechanical properties of materials of higher strength and/or issued from heavy gauge products for which testing standardized specimens of larger cross section might be more adapted, a new 100 kN cryostat capable of hosting different shapes of normalized samples has been carefully designed and fabricated inhouse together with the associated tooling and measurement instrumentation. It has been conceived to be able to adapt to different test frames both dynamic and static, which will be of paramount importa...

  2. Does One Need a 4.5 K Screen in Cryostats of Superconducting Accelerator Devices Operating in Superfluid Helium? Lessons from the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Ph; Tavian, L

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large proj...

  3. The ATLAS Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The Level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a Level-2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The ATLAS experiment has taken data with high efficiency continuously over entire running periods from 2010 to 2012, for which sophisticated triggers to guard the highest physics output while reducing effectively the event rate were mandatory. The ATLAS muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment. The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving ...

  4. The ATLAS tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Casado, MP; Benslama, K; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sfyrla, A; Shamin, M; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of a trigger for hadronically decaying tau leptons at the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC) is challenging due to the high background rate, on the other hand it increases tremendously the discovery potential of ATLAS in searches for Standard Model (SM) or Supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs or other more exotic final states. In this paper we describe the ATLAS tau trigger system, focusing on the early data taking period, and present results from studies based on GEANT 4 simulated events, including trigger rates and the acceptance of tau leptons from SM processes. In order to cope with the rate and optimize the efficiency of important physics channels, the results of the current simulation studies indicate that ATLAS tau triggers should include either relatively high transverse momentum single tau signatures, or low transverse momentum tau signatures in combination with other signatures, such as missing transverse energy, leptons, or jets.

  5. The ATLAS metadata interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMI was chosen as the ATLAS dataset selection interface in July 2006. It is the main interface for searching for ATLAS data using physics metadata criteria. AMI has been implemented as a generic database management framework which allows parallel searching over many catalogues, which may have differing schema. The main features of the web interface will be described; in particular the powerful graphic query builder. The use of XML/XLST technology ensures that all commands can be used either on the web or from a command line interface via a web service. We also describe the overall architecture of ATLAS metadata and the different actors and granularity involved, and the place of AMI within this architecture. We discuss the problems involved in the correlation of metadata of differing granularity, and propose a solution for information mediation

  6. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Showing excellence in mechanics, electronics and cryogenics, three industries are honoured for their contributions to the ATLAS experiment. Representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony. For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Close interaction with CERN was a key factor in the selection of each rewarded company, in addition to the high-quality products they delivered to the experiment. Alu Menziken Industrie AG, of Switzerland, was honoured for the production of 380,000 aluminium tubes for the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). As Giora Mikenberg, the Muon System Project Leader stressed, the aluminium tubes were delivered on time with an extraordinary quality and precision. Between October 2000 and Jan...

  7. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  8. The ATLAS tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a trigger for hadronically decaying tau leptons at the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC) is challenging due to the high background rate, on the other hand it increases tremendously the discovery potential of ATLAS in searches for Standard Model (SM) or Supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs or other more exotic final states. In this paper we describe the ATLAS tau trigger system, focusing on the early data taking period, and present results from studies based on GEANT 4 simulated events, including trigger rates and the acceptance of tau leptons from SM processes. In order to cope with the rate and optimize the efficiency of important physics channels, the results of the current simulation studies indicate that ATLAS tau triggers should include either relatively high transverse momentum single tau signatures, or low transverse momentum tau signatures in combination with other signatures, such as missing transverse energy, leptons, or jets.

  9. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  10. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  11. Atlas Tier 3

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS has built a powerful system for computing activities on top of three major grid infrastructures. As expected, with data finally arriving physicists need dedicated resources for analysis activities. In contrast to the existing grid infrastructure, there is a strong need to provide users with data control and high-performance (quasi) interactive data access. The ATLAS Tier3 solution is targeted to provide efficient and manageable analysis computing at each member institution. For most of sites only a small fraction of a physicist or student can be diverted for computing support. Transformative technologies have been chosen and integrated with the existing ATLAS tools. The result is a site which is substantially simpler to maintain and which is essentially operated by client tools and extensive use of caching technologies. Most promising new technologies we are using are: xroot and Lustre (distributed storage); CVMFS (experiment software distribution and condition files). We believe that this experience ha...

  12. Two ATLAS suppliers honoured

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recognised the outstanding contribution of two firms to the pixel detector. Recipients of the supplier award with Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN Secretary-General.At a ceremony held at CERN on 28 November, the ATLAS collaboration presented awards to two of its suppliers that had produced sensor wafers for the pixel detector. The CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik of Erfurt in Germany has supplied 655 sensor wafers containing a total of 1652 sensor tiles and the firm ON Semiconductor has supplied 515 sensor wafers (1177 sensor tiles) from its foundry at Roznov in the Czech Republic. Both firms have successfully met the very demanding requirements. ATLAS’s huge pixel detector is very complicated, requiring expertise in highly specialised integrated microelectronics and precision mechanics. Pixel detector project leader Kevin Einsweiler admits that when the project was first propo...

  13. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies. PMID:9148878

  14. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Becerici, Neslihan; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dushkin, Andrei; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hashemi, Kevan; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issakov, Vladimir; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kalinowski, Artur; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Vine, Micheal; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shumin; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Luisa, Luca; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martini, Agnese; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mladenov, Dimitar; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, John; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Ottersbach, John; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parker, Sherwood; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Patwa, Abid; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poffenberger, Paul; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Popule, Jiri; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potekhin, Maxim; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Potter, Keith; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puigdengoles, Carles; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qi, Ming; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renkel, Peter; Rescia, Sergio; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richards, Ronald; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Roa Romero, Diego Alejandro; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sanny, Bernd; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savine, Alexandre; Savinov, Vladimir; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Sluka, Tomas; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yuri; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soluk, Richard; Sondericker, John; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spencer, Edwin; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stastny, Jan; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Su, Dong; Soh, Dart-yin; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Yu; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szymocha, Tadeusz; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Ryan P.; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thomson, Evelyn; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomasek, Michal; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuggle, Joseph; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasilyeva, Lidia; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Villa, Mauro; Villani, Giulio; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vudragovic, Dusan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Manuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Dennis; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xu, Da; Xu, Neng; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zambrano, Valentina; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  15. ATLAS PHd Grants 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS PHd Grants - We are excited to announce the creation of a dedicated grant scheme (thanks to a donation from Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni following their award from the Fundamental Physics Prize foundation) to encourage young and high-caliber doctoral students in particle physics research (including computing for physics) and permit them to obtain world class exposure, supervision and training within the ATLAS collaboration. This special PhD Grant is aimed at graduate students preparing a doctoral thesis in particle physics (incl. computing for physics) to spend one year at CERN followed by one year support also at the home Institute.

  16. ATLAS/CMS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Horii, Yasuyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Precision studies of the Standard Model (SM) and the searches of the physics beyond the SM are ongoing at the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A luminosity upgrade of LHC is planned, which provides a significant challenge for the experiments. In this report, the plans of the ATLAS and CMS upgrades are introduced. Physics prospects for selected topics, including Higgs coupling measurements, Bs,d -> mumu decays, and top quark decays through flavor changing neutral current, are also shown.

  17. The Herschel ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, S; Clements, D; Cooray, A R; De Zotti, G; Dye, S; Ivison, R; Jarvis, M; Lagache, G; Maddox, S; Negrello, M; Serjeant, S; Thompson, M A; Van Kampen, E; Amblard, A; Andreani, P; Baes, M; Beelen, A; Bendo, G J; Benford, D; Bertoldi, F; Bock, J; Bonfield, D; Boselli, A; Bridge, C; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Carlberg, R; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Christopher, N; Coles, P; Cortese, L; Dariush, A; Da Cunha, E; Dalton, G; Danese, L; Dannerbauer, H; Driver, S; Dunlop, J; Fan, L; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Frenk, C; Geach, J; Gardner, J; Gomez, H; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Griffin, M; Hardcastle, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Herranz, D; Hughes, D; Ibar, E; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Lacey, C; Lapi, A; Lee, M; Leeuw, L; Liske, J; Lopez-Caniego, M; Müller, T; Nandra, K; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Patanchon, G; Peacock, J; Pearson, C; Phillipps, S; Pohlen, M; Popescu, C; Rawlings, S; Rigby, E; Rigopoulou, M; Rodighiero, G; Sansom, A; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, D J B; Sibthorpe, B; Smail, I; Stevens, J; Sutherland, W; Takeuchi, T; Tedds, J; Temi, P; Tuffs, R; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Van der Werf, P; Verma, A; Vieria, J; Vlahakis, C; White, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 510 square degrees of the extragalactic sky, four times larger than all the other Herschel surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimetre bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multi-wavelength datasets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programmes we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimetre survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wavebands.

  18. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karsten Köneke; on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is recording data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV since the spring of 2010. The integrated luminosity has grown nearly exponentially since then and continues to rise fast. The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking). Hints of potentially interesting physics signals obtained this way are followed up by physics groups.

  19. ATLAS Jet Energy Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Schouten, D; Vetterli, M

    2012-01-01

    Jets originating from the fragmentation of quarks and gluons are the most common, and complicated, final state objects produced at hadron colliders. A precise knowledge of their energy calibration is therefore of great importance at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, while is very difficult to ascertain. We present in-situ techniques and results for the jet energy scale at ATLAS using recent collision data. ATLAS has demonstrated an understanding of the necessary jet energy corrections to within \\approx 4% in the central region of the calorimeter.

  20. ATLAS forward physics program

    CERN Document Server

    HELLER, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The variety of forward detectors installed in the vicinity of the ATLAS experiment allows to look over a wide range of forward physics topics. They ensure a good information about rapidity gaps, and the installation of very forward detectors (ALFA and AFP) will allow to tag the leading proton(s) remaining from the different processes studied. Most of the studies have to be done at low luminosity to avoid pile-up, but the AFP project offers a really exiting future for the ATLAS forward physics program. We also present how these forward detectors can be used to measure the relative and absolute luminosity.

  1. Improving ATLAS reprocessing software

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    For my CERN Summer Student programme I have been working with ATLAS reprocessing group. Data taken at ATLAS experiment is not only processed after being taken, but is also reprocessed multiple times afterwards. This allows applying new alignments, calibration of detector and using improved or faster algorithms. Reprocessing is usually done in campaigns for different periods of data or for different interest groups. The idea of my project was to simplify the definition of tasks and monitoring of their progress. I created a LIST configuration files generator script in Python and a monitoring webpage for tracking current reprocessing tasks.

  2. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CAMERA ON TOROID The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The video is about the slow lowering of the toroid down to the cavern of ATLAS. It is very demanding task. The camera is placed on top of the toroid.

  3. HIGGS RESULTS FROM ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the most recent ATLAS results on the searches for additional heavy scalars, which could confirm the existence of an extended Higgs sector. The new results include searches for charged as well as for neutral heavy Higgs bosons, decaying to a variety of final states. All analyses are performed using the 2015 LHC pp collision data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1 recorded with the ATLAS detector.

  4. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  5. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  6. ATLAS magnet common cryogenic, vacuum, electrical and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Miele, P; Delruelle, N; Geich-Gimbel, C; Haug, F; Olesen, G; Pengo, R; Sbrissa, E; Tyrvainen, H; ten Kate, H H J

    2004-01-01

    The superconducting Magnet System for the ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN comprises a Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid with overall dimensions of 20 m diameter by 26 m length and a stored energy of 1.6 GJ. Common proximity cryogenic and electrical systems for the toroids are implemented. The Cryogenic System provides the cooling power for the 3 toroid magnets considered as a single cold mass (600 tons) and for the CS. The 21 kA toroid and the 8 kA solenoid electrical circuits comprise both a switch-mode power supply, two circuit breakers, water cooled bus bars, He cooled current leads and the diode resistor ramp-down unit. The Vacuum System consists of a group of primary rotary pumps and sets of high vacuum diffusion pumps connected to each individual cryostat. The Magnet Safety System guarantees the magnet protection and human safety through slow and fast dump treatment. The Magnet Control System ensures control, regulation and monitoring of the operation of the magnets. The update...

  7. A thermosiphon for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2013-01-01

    A new thermosiphon cooling system, designed for the ATLAS silicon detectors by CERN’s EN-CV team in collaboration with the experiment, will replace the current system in the next LHC run in 2015. Using the basic properties of density difference and making gravity do the hard work, the thermosiphon promises to be a very reliable solution that will ensure the long-term stability of the whole system.   Former compressor-based cooling system of the ATLAS inner detectors. The system is currently being replaced by the innovative thermosiphon. (Photo courtesy of Olivier Crespo-Lopez). Reliability is the major issue for the present cooling system of the ATLAS silicon detectors. The system was designed 13 years ago using a compressor-based cooling cycle. “The current cooling system uses oil-free compressors to avoid fluid pollution in the delicate parts of the silicon detectors,” says Michele Battistin, EN-CV-PJ section leader and project leader of the ATLAS thermosiphon....

  8. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  9. Prime wires for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In an award ceremony on 3 September, ATLAS honoured the French company Axon Cable for its special coaxial cables, which were purpose-built for the Liquid Argon calorimeter modules. Working for CERN since the 1970s, Axon' Cable received the ATLAS supplier award last week for its contribution to the liquid argon calorimeter cables of ATLAS (LAL/Orsay, France and University of Victoria, Canada), started in 1996. Its two sets of minicoaxial cables, called harnesses "A" and "B", are designed to function in the harsh conditions in the liquid argon (at 90 Kelvin or -183°C) and under extreme radiation (up to several Mrads). The cables are mainly used for the readout of the calorimeters, and are connected to the outside world by 114 signal feedthroughs with 1920 channels each. The signal from the detectors is transmitted directly without any amplification, which imposes tight restrictions on the impedance and on the signal propagation time of the cables. Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, gives the award for best s...

  10. An Icelandic wind atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  11. HWW in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, Pere; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The H-->WW channel plays an important role in Higgs boson property measurements, searches for rare decay modes, and searches for possible extended Higgs sectors. In this talk the latest H-->WW results from ATLAS will be briefly summarised.

  12. Atlas of NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas provides basic information about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Formed in response to growing concern for the security of Western Europe after World War II, NATO is a vehicle for Western efforts to reduce East-West tensions and the level of armaments. NATO promotes political and economic collaboration as well as military…

  13. Top physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Naranjo, Roger

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the latest measurements on top production, top properties and searches using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed on $pp$ collision data with a center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 7, 8$ and $13$ TeV.

  14. Exotic searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Turra, Ruggero; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has collected 3.2 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV centre of mass energy during the 2015 LHC run. A selected review of the recent result are presented in the context of the direct search for BSM, not SUSY, not BSM Higgs.

  15. SUPERSYMMETRY SEARCHES IN ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Adam, Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This contribution summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles with the LHC Run 1 data at √s = 8 TeV. A sensitivity study for the √s = 13 TeV data is also briefly presented.

  16. ATLAS Experiment Brochure

    CERN Multimedia

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  17. ATLAS "Splash event" 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    "Splash events": As the LHC was being tuned up on 10 September 2008, beam was initially directed at beam collimators just outside the detector, so that a splash of particles would fill much of the detector allowing ATLAS experimenters to prepare the detector for actual running.

  18. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    2000-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. When passing throw the walls the succeeding can be heard and seen. The film has original working sound.

  19. Taking ATLAS to new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo, ATLAS experiment

    2013-01-01

    Earlier this month, 51 members of the ATLAS collaboration trekked up to the highest peak in the Atlas Mountains, Mt. Toubkal (4,167m), in North Africa.    The physicists were in Marrakech, Morocco, attending the ATLAS Overview Week (7 - 11 October), which was held for the first time on the African continent. Around 300 members of the collaboration met to discuss the status of the LS1 upgrades and plans for the next run of the LHC. Besides the trek, 42 ATLAS members explored the Saharan sand dunes of Morocco on camels.  Photos courtesy of Patrick Jussel.

  20. A 2.8 K cryogen-free cryostat with compact optical geometry for multiple photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in solid scintillators down to liquid helium temperature and below has grown recently, fuelled by searches for exotic processes in particle physics. We describe a closed-cycle optical cryostat with a 2.8 K base temperature and a compact optical geometry for multiple photon counting. The large numerical aperture achieved, of the order of 0.79 from the optical center to each of the two windows and amounting to 40% of the total solid angle, allows a significant gain in the efficiency of photon collection. This and the relatively big sample size that can be used facilitate the study of scintillators under γ irradiation. These features should be an asset for multiple photon counting techniques at low temperatures.

  1. The cryostat of the CUORE Project, a 1-ton scale cryogenic experiment for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CUORE is a new generation of 1-ton scale cryogenic detector for rare-events physics. CUORE, a detector to search Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 130Te, is an array of 988 TeO2 crystals of a mass of 750 g each. To build the cryogenic system, where the CUORE detector will be installed in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, is really a challenge. It is a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by pulse tubes and by a high power dilution refrigerator. To avoid radioactive background, about 10000 kg of lead will be cooled to below 1 K and only few construction materials are acceptable. the detector will have a total mass of about 1500 kg and must be cooled to less than 10 mK in a vibration-free environment.

  2. The cryostat of the CUORE Project, a 1-ton scale cryogenic experiment for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, David; Nucciotti, Angelo [Dip. di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Univ and INFN Sez di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Alessandria, Franco [INFN Sez di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ardito, Raffaele [Dip. di Ingegneria Strutturale, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Barucci, Marco; Risegari, Lara; Ventura, Guglielmo [Dip. di Fisica, Univ di Firenze and INFN Sez di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bucci, Carlo [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Frossati, Giorgio [Leiden Cryogenics, Leiden (Netherlands); Olcese, Marco [INFN Sez di Genova, Genova (Italy); Waard, Arlette de [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: david.schaeffer@mib.infn.it

    2009-02-01

    CUORE is a new generation of 1-ton scale cryogenic detector for rare-events physics. CUORE, a detector to search Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of {sup 130}Te, is an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} crystals of a mass of 750 g each. To build the cryogenic system, where the CUORE detector will be installed in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, is really a challenge. It is a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by pulse tubes and by a high power dilution refrigerator. To avoid radioactive background, about 10000 kg of lead will be cooled to below 1 K and only few construction materials are acceptable. the detector will have a total mass of about 1500 kg and must be cooled to less than 10 mK in a vibration-free environment.

  3. Dutch supplier rewarded for manufacture of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS end-cap toroids

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has presented an award for outstanding supplier performance to Dutch firm Schelde Exotech. Based on a design by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, Schelde Exotech manufactured under a NIKHEF contract the two 500 m3 large vacuum vessels for the cryostats of the ATLAS end-cap toroids. These 11-metre diameter castellated aluminium vessels with stainless-steel bore tube are essentially made up of 40-mm-thick plates for the shells, 75-mm-thick plates for the endplates, and 150-mm-thick bars for the flanges. Because of transport constraints, the vessels were made in halves, temporarily sealed and vacuum tested at the works, then transported to CERN for final assembly and acceptance tests. Both vessels were vacuum-tight and the meticulous and clean way of working ensured that a high vacuum was obtained within a few days of pumping. The delivery to CERN was completed in July 2002. Representatives of Schelde Exotech are seen here receiving their award in the ATLAS assembly hall. In the backgro...

  4. Brain templates and atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan C; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Baillet, Sylvain

    2012-08-15

    The core concept within the field of brain mapping is the use of a standardized, or "stereotaxic", 3D coordinate frame for data analysis and reporting of findings from neuroimaging experiments. This simple construct allows brain researchers to combine data from many subjects such that group-averaged signals, be they structural or functional, can be detected above the background noise that would swamp subtle signals from any single subject. Where the signal is robust enough to be detected in individuals, it allows for the exploration of inter-individual variance in the location of that signal. From a larger perspective, it provides a powerful medium for comparison and/or combination of brain mapping findings from different imaging modalities and laboratories around the world. Finally, it provides a framework for the creation of large-scale neuroimaging databases or "atlases" that capture the population mean and variance in anatomical or physiological metrics as a function of age or disease. However, while the above benefits are not in question at first order, there are a number of conceptual and practical challenges that introduce second-order incompatibilities among experimental data. Stereotaxic mapping requires two basic components: (i) the specification of the 3D stereotaxic coordinate space, and (ii) a mapping function that transforms a 3D brain image from "native" space, i.e. the coordinate frame of the scanner at data acquisition, to that stereotaxic space. The first component is usually expressed by the choice of a representative 3D MR image that serves as target "template" or atlas. The native image is re-sampled from native to stereotaxic space under the mapping function that may have few or many degrees of freedom, depending upon the experimental design. The optimal choice of atlas template and mapping function depend upon considerations of age, gender, hemispheric asymmetry, anatomical correspondence, spatial normalization methodology and disease

  5. Calibration and Initial Analysis of Multispectral Images of Mars from the VIS Subsystem on the Mars Odyssey THEMIS Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Wolff, M. J.; Christensen, P. R.; Mehall, G.; Malin, M.; Caplinger, M.; Ravine, M.; Cherednik, L. L.; Bender, K. C.; Murray, K.; THEMIS Team

    2002-12-01

    The Visible Imaging Subsystem (VIS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft THEMIS instrument is a 5-color, 1024x1024 interline transfer CCD camera that is currently acquiring high spatial resolution multispectral images from Mars orbit. The five VIS filters have central bandpasses of 425, 540, 654, 749, and 860 nm, bandwidths of approximately 50 nm, and are bonded in 1000x200 pixel strips directly onto the VIS CCD. Odyssey is in a near-polar orbit, traveling southward on the dayside of the planet, and VIS acquires multispectral images by using along-track motion to step the ground footprint through each desired filter. Nominal ground surface resolution is approximately 18 meters per pixel, and summing modes are available that can provide 36 m or 72 m resolution for increased surface coverage. As of early September, just over 1.1% of the surface of Mars has been imaged by VIS during daytime (between about 3:00 pm to 4:15 pm local solar time), with about 80% of that coverage at 18 m/pixel and 20% of that coverage at 36 or 72 m/pixel. About 55% of the VIS image sequences are monochrome (650 nm) for geomorphology studies; the rest are multispectral sequences in 2 to 5 colors. VIS data are calibrated using a combination of pre-flight radiometric calibration measurements and in-flight flatfield and bias data. We have developed a VIS calibration pipeline that performs a bias subtraction, removes CCD frame transfer smear, and applies a flatfield correction for pixel-to-pixel nonuniformities. In addition, raw VIS data contain a substantial stray light component that is modeled and removed as part of our pipeline process using data collected in flight. VIS images corrected for these instrumental effects are then converted to radiances using pre-flight integrating sphere measurements. Division by the solar spectrum at Mars convolved to the VIS bandpasses results in a set of PDS-format image cubes calibrated to radiance factor (I/F). We validate our derived radiances by comparing

  6. 17 April 2008 - Head of Internal Audit Network meeting visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN ATLAS Team Leader P. Fassnacht, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Resources Manager M. Nordberg.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    17 April 2008 - Head of Internal Audit Network meeting visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN ATLAS Team Leader P. Fassnacht, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Resources Manager M. Nordberg.

  7. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, A.; Bailey, D.; Belanger, G.; Cadabeschi, M.; Chen, T.-Y.; Epshteyn, V.; Gorbounov, P.; Joo, K. K.; Khakzad, M.; Khovanskiy, V.; Krieger, P.; Loch, P.; Mayer, J.; Neuheimer, E.; Oakham, F. G.; O'Neill, M.; Orr, R. S.; Qi, M.; Rutherfoord, J.; Savine, A.; Schram, M.; Shatalov, P.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Stairs, G.; Strickland, V.; Tompkins, D.; Tsukerman, I.; Vincent, K.

    2008-02-01

    Forward calorimeters, located near the incident beams, complete the nearly 4π coverage for high pT particles resulting from proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Both the technology and the deployment of the forward calorimeters in ATLAS are novel. The liquid argon rod/tube electrode structure for the forward calorimeters was invented specifically for applications in high rate environments. The placement of the forward calorimeters adjacent to the other calorimeters relatively close to the interaction point provides several advantages including nearly seamless calorimetry and natural shielding for the muon system. The forward calorimeter performance requirements are driven by events with missing ET and tagging jets.

  8. Teaching atlas of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The illustrated case reports in this teaching atlas cover practically the entire range of possible pathological changes and are based on in-patient case material and 80,000 screening documents. The two basic approaches, - detection and analysis of changes -, are taught comprehensively and in great detail. A systematic procedure for analysing the mammographies, in order to detect even the very least changes, and its practical application is explained using mammographies showing unclear findings at first sight. A system of coordinates is presented which allows precise localisation of the changes. Exercises for practising the technique of identifying the pathological changes round up the methodolical chapters. Additional imaging technical enhancements and detail enlargements are of great help in interpreting the findings. The specific approach adopted for this teaching atlas is a 'reverse procedure', which leaves the beaten track and starts with analysing the mammographies and evaluating the radiographic findings, in order to finally derive the diagnosis. (orig./CB)

  9. The ATLAS ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranfield, R; Crone, G [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Francis, D; Gorini, B; Joos, M; Petersen, J; Tremblet, L; Unel, G [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Green, B; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J; Teixeira-Dias, P [Royal Holloway University of London, London (United Kingdom); Kieft, G; Vermeulen, J [FOM - Institute SAF and University of Amsterdam/Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kugel, A; Mueller, M; Yu, M [University of Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Perera, V; Wickens, F [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kugel@ti.uni-mannheim.de

    2008-01-15

    The ATLAS readout subsystem is the main interface between {approx} 1600 detector front-end readout links and the higher-level trigger farms. To handle the high event rate (up to 100 kHz) and bandwidth (up to 160 MB/s per link) the readout PCs are equipped with four ROBIN (readout buffer input) cards. Each ROBIN attaches to three optical links, provides local event buffering for approximately 300 ms and communicates with the higher-level trigger system for data and delete requests. According to the ATLAS baseline architecture this communication runs via the PCI bus of the host PC. In addition, each ROBIN provides a private Gigabit Ethernet port which can be used for the same purpose. Operational monitoring is performed via PCI. This paper presents a summary of the ROBIN hardware and software together with measurements results obtained from various test setups.

  10. Electroweak Physics at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Various electroweak measurements have already been performed at the ATLAS experiment since the start of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A review of the latest results in $W/Z$ and diboson physics will be given here. The $W/Z$ physics results include the measurement of the high-mass Drell-Yan di-lepton production cross section, the $Wb(b)$ production cross section and the study of the transverse momentum of $Z/\\gamma^*$. The latest $WW$, $WZ$, $ZZ$, $W\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma$ production cross sections will be summarized, including updated $WW$ and $ZZ$ results. In particular, the $ZZ^*$ channel has been added. The ATLAS diboson results are also used to set limits on charged triple gauge couplings ($WWZ$, $WW\\gamma$) and on neutral triple gauge couplings ($Z\\gamma\\gamma$, $ZZ\\gamma$, $ZZZ$).

  11. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  12. Electron isolation at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will face the challenge of efficiently selecting interesting candidate events in pp collisions at 14 TeV centre-of-mass energy, whilst rejecting the enormous number of background events. Many of these interesting candidate events have isolated leptons in the final state, like for example events with a gauge boson or SUSY. On top of the standard ATLAS electron identification an isolation criterion has been developed using a likelihood as multivariate approach with several discriminating variables. The likelihood is constructed by selecting electrons from Z decays for the signal and for the background electrons from b quark jets. Results for the example of the associated Higgs boson production with top quarks and subsequent decay into a pair of W bosons are presented. In addition first results of a likelihood to discriminate against jets are given and a possible extension for muons is discussed

  13. ATLAS-1 Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The primary payload for the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, launched March 24, 1992, was the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1)which was mounted on nondeployable Spacelab pallets in the orbiter cargo bay. Eight countries, th U.S., France, Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Japan, provided 12 instruments designed to perform 14 investigations in four fields. Atmospheric science instruments/investigations: Atmospheric Lyman-Alpha Emissions (ALAE); Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS); Grille Spectrometer (GRILLE); Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO); Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS). Solar Science: Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM); Measurement of the Solar Constant (SOLCON); Solar Spectrum from 180 to 3,200 Nanometers (SOLSPEC); Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM). Space Plasma Physics: Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI); Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC). Ultraviolet astronomy: Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST). This is the logo or emblem that was designed to represent the ATLAS-1 payload.

  14. Recent ATLAS Detector Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    de Nooij, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    During the recent LHC shutdown period, ATLAS performed vital maintenance and improvements on the various sub-detectors. For the calorimeters, repairs were carried out on front-end electronics and power supplies to recover detector coverage that had been lost since the last maintenance period. The ALFA luminosity detector was installed along the beam line and is currently being commissioned. Smaller scale repairs were needed on the Inner Detector. Maintenance on the muon system included repairs on the readout as well as updates and leak checks in the gas systems. Six TGC chambers were also replaced. This poster summarizes the repairs and their expected improvement for physics performance and reliability of ATLAS for the upcoming LHC run.

  15. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months ago at their headquarters in Japan.

  16. ATLAS: civil engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. Nice view from the surface to the cavern from the pit side - all the big machines looked very small. The film has original working sound.

  17. Lowering the first ATLAS toroid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN will consist of eight toroid magnets, the first of which was lowered into the cavern in these images on 26 October 2004. The coils are supported on platforms where they will be attached to form a giant torus. The platforms will hold about 300 tonnes of ATLAS' muon chambers and will envelop the inner detectors.

  18. The ATLAS Forward Physics Program

    OpenAIRE

    Royon, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We describe the ATLAS Forward Physics Program at low luminosity using the rapidity gap method and a dedicated detector called ALFA to tag the protons. We also describe the physics topics of the ATLAS Forward Physics Project at high instantaneous luminosity.

  19. L'esperimento ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach Committee

    2000-01-01

    This award winning film gives a glimpse behind the scenes of building the ATLAS detector. This film asks: Why are so many physicists anxious to build this apparatus? Will they be able to answer fundamental questions such as: Where does mass come from? Why does the Universe have so little antimatter? Are there extra dimensions of space that are hidden from our view? Is there an underlying theory to find? Major surprises are likely in this unknown part of physics.

  20. El experimento ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach Committee

    2000-01-01

    This award winning film gives a glimpse behind the scenes of building the ATLAS detector. This film asks: Why are so many physicists anxious to build this apparatus? Will they be able to answer fundamental questions such as: Where does mass come from? Why does the Universe have so little antimatter? Are there extra dimensions of space that are hidden from our view? Is there an underlying theory to find? Major surprises are likely in this unknown part of physics.

  1. The ATLAS Experiment Movie

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach Committee

    2000-01-01

    This award winning film gives a glimpse behind the scenes of building the ATLAS detector. This film asks: Why are so many physicists anxious to build this apparatus? Will they be able to answer fundamental questions such as: Where does mass come from? Why does the Universe have so little antimatter? Are there extra dimensions of space that are hidden from our view? Is there an underlying theory to find? Major surprises are likely in this unknown part of physics.

  2. Higgs results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The updated Higgs measurements in various search channels with ATLAS Run 1 data are reviewed. Both the Standard Model (SM) Higgs results, such as $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma,ZZ,WW,\\tau\\tau,\\mu\\mu,b\\bar{b}$, and Beyond Standard Model (BSM) results, such as the charged Higgs, Higgs invisible decay and tensor couplings, are summarized. Prospects for future Higgs searches are briefly discussed.

  3. ATLAS support rails

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    These supports will hold the 7000 tonne ATLAS detector in its cavern at the LHC. The huge toroid will be assembled from eight coils that will house some of the muon chambers. Supported within the toroid will be the inner detector, containing tracking devices, as well as devices to measure the energies of the particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

  4. SUSY Searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Xuai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, with focus on those obtained using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV using 2015+2016 data. The searches with final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons will be presented.

  5. SUSY Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, Jeanette; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV, delivered by the LHC and recorded by the ATLAS detector in Run 2, various SUSY searches for gluinos, stops and sbottoms were pursued. The analyses focus on simple and robust analyses techniques and are optimized for specific benchmark signatures. Stringent limits significantly superseding the Run 1 limits are obtained.

  6. Atlas of duplex scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the first atlas devoted entirely to duplex scanning. It details the uses of this important ''up-and-coming'' diagnostic tool for vascular and general surgeons and radiologists. It also covers scanning of the extremities, as well as the carotoids. The topics also covered are correlative line drawings elaborate and clarify the excellent scan images; the principles of duplex scanning or arteries and veins, techniques, and results; pictures normal anatomy; venous thromboses, arterial occlusion, true and false aneurysms, graft stenoses

  7. ATLAS/CMS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Horii, Yasuyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Precise Higgs measurements and new physics searches are planned at LHC (HL-LHC) with integrated luminosity of 300 fb^{-1} (3000 fb^{-1}). An increased peak luminosity provides a significant challenge for the experiments. In this presentation, the plans for the ATLAS and CMS upgrades are introduced. Physics prospects for some topics related with ‘flavour’, e.g Higgs couplings, B_{s, d}->mumu, and FCNC top decays, are also shown.

  8. Hybrid Atlas Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ichiba, Tomoyuki; Banner, Adrian; Karatzas, Ioannis; Fernholz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study Atlas-type models of equity markets with local characteristics that depend on both name and rank, and in ways that induce a stability of the capital distribution. Ergodic properties and rankings of processes are examined with reference to the theory of reflected Brownian motions in polyhedral domains. In the context of such models, we discuss properties of various investment strategies, including the so-called growth-optimal and universal portfolios.

  9. The Genome Atlas Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Qureshi, Matloob; Rotenberg, Eva; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Hansson, Lena; Ussery, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. The Genome Atlas is a resource for addressing the challenges of synchronising prokaryotic genomic sequence data from multiple public repositories. This resource can integrate bioinformatic analyses in various data format and quality. Existing open source tools have been used together with scripts and algorithms developed in a variety of programming languages at the Centre for Biological Sequence Analysis in order to create a three-tier software application for genome analysis. The r...

  10. Supersymmetry Searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Adam, Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.

  11. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  12. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders. PMID:20418338

  13. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  14. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  15. ATLAS overview week highlights

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Froidevaux

    2005-01-01

    A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

  16. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  17. ATLAS DQ2 DELETION SERVICE

    CERN Document Server

    Oleynik, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Campana, S

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS DQ2 Deletion service is a sub system of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management (DDM) project DQ2. DDM DQ2 responsible for the replication, access and bookkeeping of ATLAS data across more than 130 distributed grid sites. It also enforces data management policies decided on by the collaboration and defined in the ATLAS computing model. Responsibility of ATLAS DQ2 Deletion service is serving deletion requests on the grid by interacting with grid middleware and the DQ2 catalogues. Furthermore, it also takes care of retry strategies, check-pointing transactions, load management and fault tolerance. In this talk special attention is paid to the technical details, which are used to achieve the high performance of service, accomplished without overloading either site storage, catalogues or other DQ2 components. Also specialty of database backend implementation will be described. Special section will be devote to the deletion monitoring service that allows operators a detailed view of the working system.

  18. ATLAS Award for Difficult Task

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Two Russian companies were honoured with an ATLAS Award, for supply of the ATLAS Inner Detector barrel support structure elements, last week. On 23 March the Russian company ORPE Technologiya and its subcontractor, RSP Khrunitchev, were jointly presented with an ATLAS Supplier Award. Since 1998, ORPE Technologiya has been actively involved in the development of the carbon-fibre reinforced plastic elements of the ATLAS Inner Detector barrel support structure. After three years of joint research and development, CERN and ORPE Technologiya launched the manufacturing contract. It had a tight delivery schedule and very demanding specifications in terms of mechanical tolerance and stability. The contract was successfully completed with the arrival of the last element of the structure at CERN on 8 January 2004. The delivery of this key component of the Inner Detector deserves an ATLAS Award given the difficulty of manufacturing the end-frames, which very few companies in the world would have been able to do at an ...

  19. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions. PMID:22917036

  20. Developing Planetary Protection Technology: Microbial Diversity of the Mars Orbiter "Odyssey" and the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, M. T.; Chen, F.; Baker, A.; Koukol, R. C.; Kern, R. G.; Venkateswaran, K. J.

    2001-12-01

    Sampling the surfaces of both spacecraft and their clean-room assembly facilities is crucial in monitoring the microbial burden associated with these pseudo-sterile, oligotrophic environments. Here, we present the results of a study in which several surface samples, retrieved from both the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF-II), were processed and evaluated by both molecular and traditional culture-based methods for microbial diversity. The findings of this study improve our current understanding of the microbial community structure, diversity, and dispersal in a spacecraft assembly facility, as well as physically associated with co-located spacecraft. Surfaces of 25 cm2 (spacecraft) or 0.4 m2 (SAEF-II) were swabbed or wiped, respectively, and were examined for total heterotrophic aerobes and spore-formers. Samples were further subjected to nucleic acid extraction, and 16S rDNA fragments were PCR amplified with eubacterial biased universal primers and cloned. Approximately 30 isolates grown by traditional culture-based techniques were included for 16S rDNA sequencing. For the most part, the population dynamics remained consistent when compared between the spacecraft and assembly facility libraries. Predominant microbes, as indicated by molecular methods, included members of the genera Variovorax and Aquaspirillum. Members of the Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Enterococcus, Ralstonia, and Bacillus genera were also found to span the various libraries but in less abundance. Traditional culture-based techniques validated the presence of Bacillus and Ralstonia, while illuminating a larger diversity in revealing the presence of Staphylococcus, Comamonas, Microbacterium, and Actinomycetales. The bulk of these findings make sense, since species of Ralstonia, Rhizobium, Variovorax, and Bacillus are known to frequently inhabit rhizospheric environments, like that surrounding the KSC facility, and

  1. ATLAS status and physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ATLAS detector will observe proton collisions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is scheduled for commissioning in 2007. When operational the LHC will collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV with nominally 2 X 108 collisions per second at each of four beam-crossing points. ATLAS has been optimised for the detection of the hypothesised Higgs Boson, the only missing component of the otherwise experimentally well-verified electro-weak theory. In addition ATLAS is also sensitive to many other physics processes including QCD, b-physics, heavy ion interactions and those that could provide first evidence for super-symmetry. The current status of the LHC and the various aspects of the ATLAS detector will be discussed as well as the ability of ATLAS to observe new physics. The Australian contributions to the ATLAS project will also be described. These include: 1. Development and implementation of components of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which provides spatial information for charged particles traversing the ATLAS inner detector. 2. Fast algorithms for simulating electromagnetic events in the calorimeter. 3. Development and application of fast reconstruction algorithms within the ATLAS software framework. 4. Analysis of Monte-Carlo data produced using simulated models of the ATLAS detector. The information provided will determine the most efficient strategies in searching for new physics once collisions at the LHC commence. 5. Advances in grid computing to handle the storage, transfer and offline processing of data amassed by LHC experiments, which totals over 2.4 P-bytes per annum. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  2. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  3. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  4. Electrons and Photons at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Heim, Sarah; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the reconstruction, calibration and identification of electrons and photons with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is a key component to realize the ATLAS full physics potential, both in the searches for new physics and in precision measurements. The algorithms used for the reconstruction and identification of electrons and photons with the ATLAS detector during LHC run 2 are presented. Measurements of the identification efficiencies are derived from data. The results from the 2015 pp collision data set at sqrt(s)=13 TeV are reported. The electron and photon energy calibration procedure and its performance are also discussed.

  5. Immunohistochemical demonstration of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in gastric adenocarcinoma: comparison of cryostat and paraffin wax sections and effect of fixation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, K.Y.; Loke, S L; Ho, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of fixation on the immunohistochemical demonstration of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein using paraffin wax and cryostat sections; to compare c-erbB-2 expression in non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric tissues. METHODS--Adjacent blocks of tumour and non-neoplastic tissue from four gastrectomy specimens were put into a panel of 10 fixatives including acetone, B5, Bouin's fluid, Carnoy's fluid, buffered formalin, formol dichromate, zinc formalin, 4% paraformaldehyde, perio...

  6. Improved double immunohistochemical staining method for cryostat and paraffin wax sections, combining alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase and indirect immunofluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Q.; Srivastava, G; Loke, S L; Chan, E. Y.; Ho, F C

    1994-01-01

    Aims - To develop an immunohistochemical staining method for cryostat and paraffin wax sections so that two different antigens in the same section of tissues could be detected by combining immunoenzyme and immunofluorescence techniques. Methods - This double immunohistochemical staining method combines alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) using New Fuchsin as a chromogen and indirect immunofluorescence. Results - APAAP staining for one antigen of this double immunohistochemi...

  7. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  8. ATLAS software packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  9. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2005-01-01

    CPPM Laboratory Marseille Starting with the Workshop- adding modules to the strip 00:09:19 Exterior-entering the lab site by car, Sascha Rosanov and a PR lady walking, Lab sign on building -Physique des Particules de Marseille 00:20:00 Interviews of the ATLAS pixel work for bio-mediacal research 00:34:00 Interview of Roy Aleksov, Head of CPPM Laboratory, Working in international team, working with CERN and GRID The rest of the film inclusdes lab testingand some exterior shots.

  10. Supersymmetry Searches with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Ewan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the best motivated and studied theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. This document summarises recent ATLAS results of searches for supersymmetric particles using LHC proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ and 8 TeV. Weak and strong production Supersymmetry scenarios are considered, with particular attention to direct production of third generation supersymmetric particles. The searches involve final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, leptons, and long-lived particles. Sensitivity projections for the $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV data are also presented.

  11. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Budker Nuclear Physics Institute, Novosibirsk Sequence 1 Reception for Markus Nordberg and Andrew Millington by about 20 physicists from the Budker Nuclear Physics Institute Host: Yuri Tikhonov Various short talks and exchanges, with coffee Sequence 2 Visit to BINP Facilities Tikhonov and Nordberg walking and talking Visit to electron accelerator, old solar detector Sequence 3 Visit to BNIP workshops Work on big wheel segments shots over-exposed Work on Atlas coils LHC Magnets Men playing chess, exterior shots of Tikhonov, Nordberg arriving Sequence 4 Shots from car of journey from workshop to main BNIP building.

  12. Atlas of liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This atlas is an outcome of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme. In addition to Japan, nine other Asian countries participated in the project and 293 liver scintigrams (116 from Japanese institutions and 177 from seven Asian countries) were evaluated by physicians from the participating Asian countries. The computer analysis of the scan findings of the individual physicians was carried out and individual scores have been separately tabulated for: (a) scan abnormality; (b) space occupying lesions; (c) cirrhosis and (d) diffuse liver diseases like hepatitis. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuwertz, Emma Sian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, including those those tagged as originating from b-quark decays, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. An overview of the constraints on supersymmetry from the run1 results is presented, as well as sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015.

  14. The ATLAS Simulation Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the status of the ATLAS Simulation Project. Recent detector description improvements have focussed on commissioning layouts, implementation of inert material, and comparisons to the as-built detector. Core Simulation is reviewed with a focus on parameter optimizations, physics list choices, visualization, large-scale production, and validation. A fast simulation is also briefly described, and its performance is evaluated with respect to the full Simulation. Digitization, the last step of the Monte Carlo chain, is described, including developments in pile up and data overlay.

  15. QCD Measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents recent QCD related measurements from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC at CERN. The results on the total inelastic cross- section, charged particle production, jet production, photon production, and W-, Z-bosons productions are briefly summarized. The measurments are performed at different center-of-mass energies sqrt(s) = 7, 8, and 13 TeV. The measured cross-sections are generally found to be in agreement with the expectations from the Standard Model within the estimated uncertainties.

  16. ATLAS Exotic Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousson Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the outstanding performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC that delivered more than 2 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, the ATLAS experiment has been able to explore a wide range of exotic models trying to address the questions unanswered by the Standard Model of particle physics. Searches for leptoquarks, new heavy quarks, vector-like quarks, black holes, hidden valley and contact interactions are reviewed in these proceedings.

  17. ATLAS Exotic Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Bousson, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the outstanding performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that delivered more than 2 fb^-1 of proton-proton collision data at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, the ATLAS experiment has been able to explore a wide range of exotic models trying to address the questions unanswered by the Standard Model of particle physics. Searches for leptoquarks, new heavy quarks, vector-like quarks, black holes, hidden valley and contact interactions are reviewed in these proceedings.

  18. Top Physics at ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Barisonzi, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider LHC is a top quark factory: due to its high design luminosity, LHC will produce about 200 millions of top quarks per year of operation. The large amount of data will allow to study with great precision the properties of the top quark, most notably cross-section, mass and spin. The Top Physics Working Group has been set up at the ATLAS experiment, to evaluate the precision reach of physics measurements in the top sector, and to study the systematic effects of the ATLA...

  19. Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meloni, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This document summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric particles using LHC proton-proton collision data. Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. We consider both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios. The searches involve final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. Sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015 are also presented.

  20. Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meloni, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. Sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015 are also presented.

  1. Quarkonium production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Price, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The production of quarkonium is an important testing ground for QCD calculations. The J/psi and Upsilon production cross-sections are measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Differential cross-sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are presented. The fraction of J/psi produced in B-hadron decays is also measured and the differential production cross-sections of prompt and non-prompt J/psi production determined separately. Results are compared to recent predictions from perturbative QCD calculations.

  2. Dark Matter in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Results of Dark Matter searches in mono-X analysis with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. The data were collected in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb-1. A description of the main characteristics of each analysis and how the main backgrounds are estimated is shown. The observed data are in agreement with the expected Standard Model backgrounds for all analysis described. Exclusion limits are presented for Dark Matter models including pair production of dark matter candidates.

  3. Dark Matter in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An overview of Dark Matter searches with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is shown. Results of Mono-X analyses requiring large missing transverse momentum and a recoiling detectable physics object (X) are reported. The data were collected in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The observed data are in agreement with the expected Standard Model backgrounds for all analyses described. Exclusion limits are presented for Dark Matter models including pair production of Dark Matter candidates.

  4. Exotics searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the latest searches for (non-SUSY) Beyond Standard Model phenomena performed with the ATLAS detector. The searches have been performed with the data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV collected in 2010 and 2011. Various experimental signatures have been studied involving reconstruction and measurement of leptons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, as well as reconstruction of top quarks. For most of the signatures, the experimental reach is significantly increased with respect to previous results.

  5. The Genome Atlas Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azam Qureshi, Matloob; Rotenberg, Eva; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. The Genome Atlas is a resource for addressing the challenges of synchronising prokaryotic genomic sequence data from multiple public repositories. This resource can integrate bioinformatic analyses in various data format and quality. Existing open source tools have been used together...... with scripts and algorithms developed in a variety of programming languages at the Centre for Biological Sequence Analysis in order to create a three-tier software application for genome analysis. The results are made available via a web interface developed in Java, PHP and Perl CGI. User...

  6. Shaft Cryostat on the Basis of a Closed-Circuit Refrigerator for Neutron Powder Diffraction Studies in the Temperature Range 6-300 K

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, A N; Kolkhidashvili, M P; Trunov, V A; Ulyanov, V A; Zhuravlev, V V; Petersburg Univ. Petersburg. Nuclear Physics InstitutePetersburg

    2005-01-01

    A description of a cryostat on the basis of the closed cycle refrigerator CoolPower 5/100T for operation in the temperature range 6.2-300 K is presented. The cryostat is intended for a sample up to 18~mm in diameter and up to 100~mm of length. The reload of the sample placed into the ampoule, which is made of TiZr alloy, is performed at any temperature of the refrigerator with the help of an insert. Thermal connection between the sample and the heat exchanger of the refrigerator second step is performed with the help of heat exchange gas helium-4. The minimal temperature of the sample is 6.2~K at the accuracy of the temperature stabilization of the sample 0.1~K. Measurement and temperature stabilization is performed by a controller connected with a computer. Dependences of temperature measurements on time at cooling and heating are presented. The shaft cryostat was developed to carry out the experiments on neutron diffraction from powder samples.

  7. CERN Open Days 2013, Point 1 - ATLAS: ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photolab

    2013-01-01

    Stand description: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN is one of the largest and most complex scientific endeavours ever assembled. The detector, located at collision point 1 of the LHC, is designed to explore the fundamental components of nature and to study the forces that shape our universe. The past year’s discovery of a Higgs boson is one of the most important scientific achievements of our time, yet this is only one of many key goals of ATLAS. During a brief break in their journey, some of the 3000-member ATLAS collaboration will be taking time to share the excitement of this exploration with you. On surface no restricted access  The exhibit at Point 1 will give visitors a chance to meet these modern-day explorers and to learn from them how answers to the most fundamental questions of mankind are being sought. Activities will include a visit to the ATLAS detector, located 80m below ground; watching the prize-winning ATLAS movie in the ATLAS cinema; seeing real particle tracks in a cloud chamber and discussi...

  8. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  9. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  10. Wheels lining up for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 30 October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year.

  11. ATLAS online data quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration; Hadavand, H; Ilchenko, Y; Kolos, S; Slagle, K; Taffard, A

    2010-01-01

    Every minute the ATLAS detector is taking data, the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in providing quick feedback to the subsystems about the functioning and performance of the different parts of ATLAS by providing a configurable easy and fast visualization of all this information. The Data Quality Monitoring Display (DQMD) is a visualization tool for the automatic data quality assessment of the ATLAS experiment. It is the interface through which the shift crew and experts can validate the quality of the data being recorded or processed, be warned of problems related to data quality, an...

  12. Lyon - Atlas topographique Lyon antique

    OpenAIRE

    LENOBLE, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Code INSEE de la commune : 69123Lien Atlas (MCC) :http://atlas.patrimoines.culture.fr/atlas/trunk/index.php?ap_theme=DOM_2.01.02&ap_bbox=4.772;45.707;4.899;45.808 Le programme collectif de recherche « Atlas topographique de Lyon antique » a atteint fin 2013 sa treizième année de fonctionnement. Rattaché à l’UMR 5138 (http://www.archeometrie.mom.fr/PCRAtlas.html), le groupe de recherche comprend 30 chercheurs appartenant aux diverses institutions archéologiques impliquées dans l’archéologie ly...

  13. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  14. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    2001-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1: zone of the ATLAS experiment 14-02-2001Realising anchorage, isolations and scaffoldings at UX 15 18-04-2001Concreting the arch and posing the metal reinforcements at UX 15

  15. Two new wheels for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Juergen Zimmer (Max Planck Institute), Roy Langstaff (TRIUMF/Victoria) and Sergej Kakurin (JINR), in front of one of the completed wheels of the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. A decade of careful preparation and construction by groups in three continents is nearing completion with the assembly of two of the four 4 m diameter wheels required for the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. The first two wheels have successfully passed all their mechanical and electrical tests, and have been rotated on schedule into the vertical position required in the experiment. 'This is an important milestone in the completion of the ATLAS End Cap Calorimetry' explains Chris Oram, who heads the Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter group. Like most experiments at particle colliders, ATLAS consists of several layers of detectors in the form of a 'barrel' and two 'end caps'. The Hadronic Calorimeter layer, which measures the energies of particles such as protons and pions, uses two techniques. The barrel part (Tile Calorimeter) cons...

  16. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  17. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  18. Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For more than 20 years, the Dartmouth Atlas Project has documented glaring variations in how medical resources are distributed and used in the United States. The...

  19. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  20. The ATLAS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Vandelli, W; Battaglia, A; Beck, H P; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W; Haberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, B; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    2008-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three-level trigger system, which, at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2), reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz to $sim$3~kHz. At this rate, the Event Builder collects the data from the readout system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the Event Filter (EF). The EF is the third trigger level and its aim is to achieve a further rate reduction to $sim$200~Hz on the permanent storage. The Event Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via a Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs, and substantial fractions of the Event Builder and Event Filter PCs have been installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which is capable of going beyond the required data rates and bandwidths for Event Building for the ATLAS experiment.

  1. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  2. ATLAS construction schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    Kotamaki, M

    The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....

  3. ATLAS Physicist in Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Bengt Lund-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    On December 9, the former ATLAS physicist Christer Fuglesang was launched into space onboard the STS-116 Space Shuttle flight from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Christer worked on the development of the accordion-type liquid argon calorimeter and SUSY simulations in what eventually became ATLAS until summer 1992 when he became one out of six astronaut trainees with the European Space Agency (ESA). His selection out of a very large number of applicants from all over the ESA member states involved a number of tests in order to choose the most suitable candidates. As ESA astronaut Christer trained with the Russian Soyuz programme in Star City outside of Moscow from 1993 until 1996, when he moved to Houston to train for space shuttle missions with NASA. Christer belonged to the backup crew for the Euromir95 mission. After additional training in Russia, Christer qualified as ‘Soyuz return commander’ in 1998. Christer rerouting cables during his second space walk. (Photo: courtesy NASA) During...

  4. Atlas Distributed Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Hoz, Santiago Gonzalez; Ruiz, Luis March; Liko, Dietrich

    2008-06-01

    The ATLAS production system has been successfully used to run production of simulation data at an unprecedented scale. Up to 10000 jobs were processed in one day. The experiences obtained operating the system on several grid flavours was essential to perform a user analysis using grid resources. First tests of the distributed analysis system were then performed. In the preparation phase data was registered in the LHC File Catalog (LFC) and replicated in external sites. For the main test, few resources were used. All these tests are only a first step towards the validation of the computing model. The ATLAS management computing board decided to integrate the collaboration efforts in distributed analysis in only one project, GANGA. The goal is to test the reconstruction and analysis software in a large scale Data production using Grid flavors in several sites. GANGA allows trivial switching between running test jobs on a local batch system and running large-scale analyses on the Grid; it provides job splitting and merging, and includes automated job monitoring and output retrieval.

  5. ATLAS Distributed Analysis Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Liko, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS production system has been successfully used to run production of simulation data at an unprecedented scale. Up to 10000 jobs were processed in one day. The experiences obtained operating the system on several grid flavours was essential to perform a user analysis using grid resources. First tests of the distributed analysis system were then performed. In the preparation phase data was registered in the LHC File Catalog (LFC) and replicated in external sites. For the main test, few resources were used. All these tests are only a first step towards the validation of the computing model. The ATLAS management computing board decided to integrate the collaboration efforts in distributed analysis in only one project, GANGA. The goal is to test the reconstruction and analysis software in a large scale Data production using Grid flavors in several sites. GANGA allows trivial switching between running test jobs on a local batch system and running large-scale analyses on the Grid; it provides job splitting a...

  6. ATLAS Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  7. The ATLAS tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimized for efficiency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial luminosity of 1031 cm-2s-1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run stand-alone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signatures. During the collection of a large sample of cosmic ray events in Autumn 2008, the tau trigger was operated as an integrated part of the ATLAS trigger system. This allowed the commissioning of technical aspects of the tau trigger.

  8. The ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system. The tracking precision is in fact important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, a well as to distinguish the contributions coming from many contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, the track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, full reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 KHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a specific processor: the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronic, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker information. Patte...

  9. ATLAS Christmas lunch

    CERN Multimedia

    Francois Butin; Markus Nordberg

    The end of the year ATLAS pit lunch is now a well established tradition: the 4th edition took place in the most prestigious place at CERN; the "Globe de l'innovation", or simply "the Globe". This end-of-year event is the opportunity to thank all those working so hard at Point 1. The first event took place in December 2003. At that time, there was no Globe yet, and the party took place in SX1 building, at the top of the shafts leading to the ATLAS cavern, with some 100 guests. In December 2004, we had the privilege to be the first to organize a lunch in the Globe with some 200 guests. Since then, many have followed our example! Well, almost: we were requested to refrain from serving "Tartiflette" again in there (a Savoyard specialty, using vast amounts of Reblochon, a smelly cheese...). It was said to have left a poignant odour for following events throughout 2004... Long queues formed for this special event. In December 2005, we were authorized to party in the Globe again (once we promised we would b...

  10. The PeptideAtlas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    PeptideAtlas is a multi-species compendium of peptides observed with tandem mass spectrometry methods. Raw mass spectrometer output files are collected from the community and reprocessed through a uniform analysis and validation pipeline that continues to advance. The results are loaded into a database and the information derived from the raw data is returned to the community via several web-based data exploration tools. The PeptideAtlas resource is useful for experiment planning, improving g...

  11. SLHC and ATLAS, Initial Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Nessi, M

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments in the plans and scenarios proposed by the LHC machine experts towards the SLHC, have triggered various concerns and reserves in the ATLAS community. In particular the eventual need to insert dipoles, quadrupoles and protection elements inside the detector creates major concerns, because of its complex logistics and the risk of reducing the effectiveness of the ATLAS internal radiation shielding. Justifications and constraints on how to best use this space are given.

  12. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  13. ATLAS Overview Week 2009 Barcelona

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    From October 5th to October 9th about 400 physicists from the ATLAS Collaboration met in Barcelona (Catalonia) to discuss the status of the experiment. The event was organized by the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), a member of the ATLAS Collaboration. Besides the Scientific program, few social events were organized, such as Reception at the Palau de Pedralbes, a visit to the Fundacio Joan Miro and a social dinner at Maremagnunm hall.

  14. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    2000-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The film is about the excavation work in the cavern and tunnels of ATLAS experiment in the point 1. You can see people working for iron mounting at the side of the pit where the parts of the detector will be lowered in the future. Partly the film concentrates the USA 15 and the work done there.

  15. Equity valuation : Atlas Copco AB

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ricardo Manuel Castro Lopes Alba

    2016-01-01

    This Dissertation presents a literature review of some of the most appraised theories on equity valuation models. A thoughtful analysis is made, presenting the main advantages and restrictions of each model and setting the path for a discussion about improvements to be made on this field of study. A practical implementation follows, proposing a fair value estimation of Atlas Copco AB shares. Atlas Copco is a Swedish-based capital goods company, operating across four differen...

  16. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Memphis, TN

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Portland, OR EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  19. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  20. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Austin, TX EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  1. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), the system designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  2. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), the system designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  3. Methodology of Lithuanian climate atlas mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiukas Donatas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate atlases summarize large sets of quantitative and qualitative data and are results of complex analytical cartographic work. These special geographical publications summarize long term meteorological observations, provide maps and figures which characterise different climate elements. Visual information is supplemented with explanatory texts. A lot of information on short and long term changes of climate elements were provided in published Lithuanian atlases (Atlas of Lithuanian SDR, 1981; Climate Atlas of Lithuania, 2013, as well as in prepared but unpublished Lithuanian Atlas (1989 and in upcoming new national atlas publications (National Atlas of Lithuania. 1st part, 2014. Climate atlases has to be constantly updated to be relevant and to describe current climate conditions. Comprehensive indicators of Lithuanian climate are provided in different cartographic publications. Different time periods, various data sets and diverse cartographic data analysis tools and visualisation methods were used in these different publications.

  4. Forward Physics at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Poster summarize forward physics at the ATLAS experiment. It aims to AFP project which is the project to install forward detectors at 220m (AFP220) and 420m (AFP420) around ATLAS for measurements at high luminosity.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  6. ATLAS : civil engineering at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Portland, ME

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Phoenix, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in these web...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Paterson, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in these web...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Pittsburgh, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in these web...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Tampa, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Milwaukee, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (http://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in these web...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Woodbine, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Durham, NC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ). The layers in these web...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Paterson, NJ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Fresno, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Portland, OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in these web...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Pittsburgh, PA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  19. ATLAS Award for Shield Supplier

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS technical coordinator Dr. Marzio Nessi presents the ATLAS supplier award to Vojtech Novotny, Director General of Skoda Hute.On 3 November, the ATLAS experiment honoured one of its suppliers, Skoda Hute s.r.o., of Plzen, Czech Republic, for their work on the detector's forward shielding elements. These huge and very massive cylinders surround the beampipe at either end of the detector to block stray particles from interfering with the ATLAS's muon chambers. For the shields, Skoda Hute produced 10 cast iron pieces with a total weight of 780 tonnes at a cost of 1.4 million CHF. Although there are many iron foundries in the CERN member states, there are only a limited number that can produce castings of the necessary size: the large pieces range in weight from 59 to 89 tonnes and are up to 1.5 metres thick.The forward shielding was designed by the ATLAS Technical Coordination in close collaboration with the ATLAS groups from the Czech Technical University and Charles University in Prague. The Czech groups a...

  20. A computerized adjustable brain atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized brain atlas, adjustable to the patients anatomy, has been developed. It is primarily intended for use in positron emission tomography, but may also be employed in other fields utilizing neuro imaging, such as sterotactic surgery, transmission computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The atlas is based on anatomical information obtained from digitized cryosectioned brains. It can be adjusted to fit a wide range of images from individual brains with normal anatomy. The corresponding transformation is chosen so that the modified atlas agrees with a set of CT or NMR images of the patient. The computerized atlas can be used to improve the quantification and evaluation of PET data by: Aiding and improving the selection of regions of interests. Facilitating comparisons of functional image data from different individuals or groups of individuals. Facilitating the comparison of different examinations of the same patient, thus reducing the need of reproducible fixation systems. Providing external a priori anatomical information to be used in the image reconstruction. Improving the attenuation and scatter corrections. Aiding in selecting a suitable patient orientation during the PET study. By applying the inverse atlas transformation to PET data set it is possible to relate the PET information to the anatomy of the reference atlas. Reformatted PET data from different patients can thus be averaged, and averages from different categories of patients can be compared. The method will facilitate the identification of statistically significant differences in the PET information from different groups of patients. (orig.)

  1. ATLAS cloud R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R and D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  2. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  3. Odyssey of Auxin

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Steffen; Theologis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    The history of plant biology is inexorably intertwined with the conception and discovery of auxin, followed by the many decades of research to comprehend its action during growth and development. Growth responses to auxin are complex and require the coordination of auxin production, transport, and perception. In this overview of past auxin research, we limit our discourse to the mechanism of auxin action. We attempt to trace the almost epic voyage from the birth of the hormonal concept in pla...

  4. 2011: the scurvy Odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino, V R; Mendes-Bastos, Pedro; Noronha, Carla; Henriques, Celia Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 50-year-old alcoholic man with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, who presented to the emergency department with fever and exuberant ecchymoses and petechiae on both legs. After a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the not-so-obvious hypothesis of scurvy was disclosed. Simply with vitamin C replacement and nutritional advice, a dramatic improvement in his condition was observed. In modern societies, a generalised access to food renders scurvy as ...

  5. A Mathematician's Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In this overview of my research, I have aimed to give the background as to how I came to be involved in my various areas of interest, with an emphasis on the early phases of my career, which largely determined my future directions. I had the enormous good fortune to have worked under two of the most outstanding scientists of the twentieth century, R.A. Fisher and Joshua Lederberg. From mathematics and statistics, I went to population genetics and the early use of computers for modeling and simulation. Molecular biology took me into the laboratory and eventually to somatic cell genetics and human gene mapping. One chance encounter led me into the HLA field and another led me into research on cancer, especially colorectal cancer. On the way, I became a champion of the Human Genome Project and of the need for scientists to help promote the public understanding of science. PMID:25939053

  6. DIALECT ATLASES / AĞIZ ATLASLARI

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Erdoğan BOZ

    2008-01-01

    Dialect atlases provide characteristics of dialects spoken in acountry in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax, and also includesatisfactory information about vocabulary. Interpreted in the light ofthis knowledge, dialect atlases provide important inferences with respectto both sociocultural and political matters. Despite many developedcountries in the world completed their dialect atlases, such a work hasn'tstarted in Turkey yet. Preparing Turkey Turkish's dialect atlas beforedisappeara...

  7. ATLAS experiment : mapping the secrets of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2010-01-01

    This 4 page color brochure describes ATLAS and the LHC, the ATLAS inner detector, calorimeters, muon spectrometer, magnet system, a short definition of the terms "particles," "dark matter," "mass," "antimatter." It also explains the ATLAS collaboration and provides the ATLAS website address with some images of the detector and the ATLAS collaboration at work.

  8. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  9. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: ajainfph@iitr.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario-L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  10. The ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dunford, Monica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    In particle physics experiments, the discovery of increasingly more massive particles has brought deep understanding of the basic constituents of matter and of the fundamental forces among them. In order to explore Nature in its deepest elementary secrets, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was built at CERN, Geneva. The LHC provides the highest energy collisions in a laboratory, at very high rates to allow one to study very rare reactions. Two independent sophisticated huge instruments, called ATLAS and CMS detectors, are operated to explore in a most broad way the physics of these collisions. In addition to these two general-purpose detectors, smaller specialized experiments (LHCb, ALICE and some others) are collecting collision data as well.

  11. Quarkonium production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Darren D

    2012-01-01

    The production of quarkonium is an important testing ground for QCD calculations. The J/\\psi\\ and \\Upsilon\\ production cross-sections are measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7~TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Differential cross-sections are presented as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity. The fraction of J/\\psi\\ produced in B-hadron decays is also measured and the differential cross-sections of prompt and non-prompt J/\\psi\\ production determined separately. Measurements of the fiducial production cross-section of the \\Upsilon(1S) and observation of the \\chi_{c,bJ} states are also discussed.

  12. The ATLAS Computing Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS computing model was constructed to exploit the opportunities of the Grid in handling the large volumes of data from the Large Hadron Collider and to allow easy and relatively local access to data for all of its collaborators worldwide. Despite delays with collision data, the model has now been tested with beam-related and cosmic ray data, and much has been learned. The model has retained its overall design, but with adjustments for the actual functionality of the delivered Grid middleware and services, and for the realities of data access. While much has still to be learned, the model has worked effectively. This presentation will cover the roles of the various Tiers, the resources required and the expected workflows. (author)

  13. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  14. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  15. ATLAS Inner Detector developments

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three layers of silicon pixels, four double layers of silicon microstrips and a Transition Radiation Tracker (straw tubes). The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch ($50 \\times 300~\\mu$m) and low occupancy ($<3 \\times 10^{-4}$ at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors, and of the good tracking capabilities of the SCT and the TRT. The full detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between $b$-jets and jets produced by light quarks.

  16. Balkan environmental atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekić Nikola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out an extremely delicate urbarchitectonic-environemental drama, with innumerable global complex situations. There seems to be little hope for improvement in the actual living environment where the condition, in the developmental sense of the term, grows less and less sustainable. Very frequent conferences organized at all quarters of the world, with important declarations and recommendation do not manage to curb the increasingly evident crisis. The author points out to the need to create new action conditions in the Balkans and argues for the creation of a singular coordinated, environmental Atlas of the Balkans, an important document, with bases of key data, so that a better quality of life in micro and macro ambience units could be achieved. Therefore, striving for a different, new reality which will not be based on the declarative principles, but on the scientific research and academic education.

  17. THE PLOT OF HUSBAND’S RETURN TO HIS WIFE’S WEDDING IN "THE ODYSSEY" BY HOMER AND IN THE SLAVIC AND RUSSIAN EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Malchukova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the plot of husband’s return to his wife’s wedding embodied both in the millenary Ancient epic literature represented by the "Odyssey" of Homer, and in the Russian and Slavic epic. The study of Homer’s epic heritage, conducted over the years, includes a huge number of works of scientists around the world. Comparative-historical, comparative-genetic and comparative-typological studies found a link between oral folk tradition and epic poetry written by an author. The current international science is developing the hypothesis that professionally individual Homeric poems, which are at least 850 years old, were created in the ancient, oral poetry improvisation in a precise format of hexameter. The study of the Russian epic has less history, but the researches in this field have revealed the presence of Late Antiquity elements in the Slavic environment. These elements along with paganism and Christianity became the source of the people’s spiritual culture. The plot "the return of her husband", which is analyzed in the article, is widely-spread in folklore of many nations, and appeared rudimentarily in "The Odyssey". The western and eastern variants of this theme are diverse in genre structure and stylistic features. In Russian tradition the plot is presented in a large thematic variety "Dobrynya and Alyosha", which evolves into the epic genre due to contamination, small inserts in the epic genre. As a result, the great volume brings together the olden time and the ancient epic, creating intermediate forms comparable with the author’s imitations.

  18. The Origin of the Term 'Atlas'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin of the term 'atlas', as a bound collection of maps, is considered. It is usually thought to derive from the name of the Titan, Atlas, who was punished by being forced to bear the entire celestial sphere or universe on his shoulders. However, on the basis of research into and translation of the original Preface of Mercator's Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mvndi et fabricati figvra, it has been determined that Mercator did not refer to this legend, but named his atlas for the completely different characteristics, such as wisdom, erudition and humanity, of another Atlas.

  19. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  20. ATLAS Maintenance and Operation management system

    CERN Multimedia

    Copy, B

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance and operation of the ATLAS detector will involve thousands of contributors from 170 physics institutes. Planning and coordinating the action of ATLAS members, ensuring their expertise is properly leveraged and that no parts of the detector are understaffed or overstaffed will be a challenging task. The ATLAS Maintenance and Operation application (referred to as Operation Task Planner inside the ATLAS experiment) offers a fluent web based interface that combines the flexibility and comfort of a desktop application, intuitive data visualization and navigation techniques, with a lightweight service oriented architecture. We will review the application, its usage within the ATLAS experiment, its underlying design and implementation.

  1. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; Benjamin, D; DiGirolamo, A; Gable, I; Hendrix, V; Hover, J; Kucharczuk, K; Medrano LLamas, R; Love, P; Ohman, H; Paterson, M; Sobie, R; Taylor, R; Walker, R; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained...

  2. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legger, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  3. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  4. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  5. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Des Moines, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). The layers in this...

  7. ATLAS DQ2 Deletion Service

    CERN Document Server

    OLEYNIK, D; The ATLAS collaboration; GARONNE, V; CAMPANA, S

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management project DQ2 is responsible for the replication, access and bookkeeping of ATLAS data across more than 100 distributed grid sites. It also enforces data management policies decided on by the collaboration and defined in the ATLAS computing model. The DQ2 Deletion Service is one of the most important DDM services. This distributed service interacts with 3rd party grid middleware and the DQ2 catalogues to serve data deletion requests on the grid. Furthermore, it also takes care of retry strategies, check-pointing transactions, load management and fault tolerance. In this paper special attention is paid to the technical details which are used to achieve the high performance of service, accomplished without overloading either site storage, catalogues or other DQ2 components. Special attention is also paid to the deletion monitoring service that allows operators a detailed view of the working system.

  8. ATLAS DQ2 Deletion Service

    CERN Document Server

    OLEYNIK, D; The ATLAS collaboration; GARONNE, V; CAMPANA, S

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management project DQ2 is responsible for the replication, access and bookkeeping of ATLAS data across more than 100 distributed grid sites. It also enforces data management policies decided on by the collaboration and defined in the ATLAS computing model. The DQ2 deletion service is one of the most important DDM services. This distributed service interacts with 3rd party grid middleware and the DQ2 catalogs to serve data deletion requests on the grid. Furthermore, it also takes care of retry strategies, check-pointing transactions, load management and fault tolerance. In this paper special attention is paid to the technical details which are used to achieve the high performance of service (peaking at more than 4 millions files deleted per day), accomplished without overloading either site storage, catalogs or other DQ2 components. Special attention is also paid to the deletion monitoring service that allows operators a detailed view of the working system.

  9. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  10. New ATLAS Software & Computing Organization

    CERN Multimedia

    Barberis, D

    Following the election by the ATLAS Collaboration Board of Dario Barberis (Genoa University/INFN) as Computing Coordinator and David Quarrie (LBNL) as Software Project Leader, it was considered necessary to modify the organization of the ATLAS Software & Computing ("S&C") project. The new organization is based upon the following principles: separation of the responsibilities for computing management from those of software development, with the appointment of a Computing Coordinator and a Software Project Leader who are both members of the Executive Board; hierarchical structure of responsibilities and reporting lines; coordination at all levels between TDAQ, S&C and Physics working groups; integration of the subdetector software development groups with the central S&C organization. A schematic diagram of the new organization can be seen in Fig.1. Figure 1: new ATLAS Software & Computing organization. Two Management Boards will help the Computing Coordinator and the Software Project...

  11. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  12. ATLAS Online Data Quality Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first events have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also as a means to perform a general commissioning of system. A highly scalable distributed monitoring framework assesses the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. Every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in ...

  13. ATLAS online data quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first events have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also as a means to perform a general commissioning of system. A highly scalable distributed monitoring framework assesses the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. Every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in ...

  14. Atlas topographique de Lyon antique

    OpenAIRE

    LENOBLE, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Date de l'opération : 2001 - 2007 (PC) L’atlas topograpique de Lyon antique a été mis en œuvre en 2001 dans le cadre d’un PCR. L’équipe est composée d’une vingtaine de chercheurs d’institutions diverses (INRAP, CNRS, Ville de Lyon, université, département du Rhône, DRAC-SRA, étudiants et bénévoles). L’atlas est réalisé selon les normes et la méthodologie initiées par et pour les atlas topographiques des villes de Gaule méridionale (Urbs antiqua) et pour lesquels Fréjus et Aix-en-Provence ont ...

  15. Two ATLAS trackers become one

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector barrel comes one step closer to completion as the semiconductor tracker is merged with the transition radiation tracker. ATLAS collaborators prepare for the insertion of the semiconductor tracker (SCT, behind) into the transition radiation tracker (TRT, in front). Some had hoped it would fall on Valentine's Day. But despite the slight delay, Friday 17 February was lovingly embraced as 'Conception Day,' when dozens of physicists and engineers from the international collaboration gathered to witness the insertion of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker into the transition radiation tracker, a major milestone in the assembly of the experiment's inner detector. With just millimeters of room for error, the cylindrical trackers were slid into each other as inner detector integration coordinator Heinz Pernegger issued commands and scientists held out flashlights, lay on their backs and stood on ladders to take careful measurements. Each tracker is the result of about 10 years of international ...

  16. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  17. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  18. ATLAS-1 Video News Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Allen Kenitzer, from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), narrates this NASA Kennedy Space Center video presenting a MSFC-Television news release describing the overall scientific objectives of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications in Science-1 (ATLAS-1) Spacelab mission. Byron Lichtenberg (NASA Science Astronaut) and Anthony O'Neil (ATLAS-1 Mission Manager) explain that the 13 sophisticated and complementary instruments carried in shuttle Atlantis' payload bay are designed to identify the chemical species in our atmosphere, to measure the Sun's energy falling on and entering the atmosphere, to study the behavior of charged particles in the electric and magnetic fields surrounding the earth, and to gather ultraviolet light from stars and galaxies. ATLAS-1 is the first Spacelab flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mission to Planet Earth.

  19. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  20. The ATLAS Glasgow Overview Week

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Hawkings

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Overview Weeks always provide a good opportunity to see the status and progress throughout the experiment, and the July week at Glasgow University was no exception. The setting, amidst the traditional buildings of one of the UK's oldest universities, provided a nice counterpoint to all the cutting-edge research and technology being discussed. And despite predictions to the contrary, the weather at these northern latitudes was actually a great improvement on the previous few weeks in Geneva. The meeting sessions comprehensively covered the whole ATLAS project, from the subdetector and TDAQ systems and their commissioning, through to offline computing, analysis and physics. As a long-time ATLAS member who remembers plenary meetings in 1991 with 30 people drawing detector layouts on a whiteboard, the hardware and installation sessions were particularly impressive - to see how these dreams have been translated into 7000 tons of reality (and with attendant cabling, supports and services, which certainly...

  1. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...... database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases will be...

  2. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  3. ATLAS computing on CSCS HPC

    CERN Document Server

    Hostettler, Michael Artur; The ATLAS collaboration; Haug, Sigve; Walker, Rodney; Weber, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The Piz Daint Cray XC30 HPC system at CSCS, the Swiss National Supercomputing centre, was in 2014 the highest ranked European system on TOP500, also featuring GPU accelerators. Event generation and detector simulation for the ATLAS experiment have been enabled for this machine. We report on the technical solutions, performance, HPC policy challenges and possible future opportunities for HEP on extreme HPC systems. In particular a custom made integration to the ATLAS job submission system has been developed via the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware. Furthermore, some GPU acceleration of the Geant4 detector simulations has been implemented to justify the allocation request for this machine.

  4. ATLAS computing on CSCS HPC

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Weber, Michele; Walker, Rodney; Hostettler, Michael Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Piz Daint Cray XC30 HPC system at CSCS, the Swiss National Supercomputing centre, is in 2014 the highest ranked European system on TOP500, also featuring GPU accelerators. Event generation and detector simulation for the ATLAS experiment has been enabled for this machine. We report on the technical solutions, performance, HPC policy challenges and possible future opportunities for HEP on extreme HPC systems. In particular a custom made integration to the ATLAS job submission system has been developed via the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware. Further, some GPU acceleration of the Geant4 detector simulations were implemented to justify the allocation request for this machine.

  5. The ATLAS Forward Physics Program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, J L

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS forward physics program is discussed in the light of the future detector upgrades under study. These developments will enhance the overall physics potential of the experiment. The physics topics presented include: luminosity determination using the LUCID and ALFA detectors; diffractive measurements that should be possible with early data; and, the AFP project which plans to deploy proton taggers at 220 and 420 m from the ATLAS IP. The AFP program includes such physics topics as hard diffraction; diffractive Higgs production,two photon physics; and, new physics in the forward region.

  6. Recent electroweak results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of multi-boson production processes involving combinations of $W$, $Z$ and isolated photons are summarized. Production processes sensitive to vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering such as electroweak production of single vector bosons associated with two forward jets and the di-boson production at $8{\\mathrm{\\ Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions are also presented. Measurements of the cross section and branching ratio for $Z$ to four leptons are described. Standard Model parameters, such as the weak mixing angle, are measured with high precision by ATLAS and are compared to world averages. Prospects at HL-LHC are discussed as an outlook.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - EnviroAtlas Community Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Des Moines, IA EnviroAtlas Community. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the...

  8. The effect of morphometric atlas selection on multi-atlas-based automatic brachial plexus segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to measure the effect of a morphometric atlas selection strategy on the accuracy of multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation using the commercially available software package ADMIRE® and to determine the optimal number of selected atlases to use. Autosegmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all generated automatic BP segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard segmentations that were developed using cadavers. Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases were included in the study. One atlas was selected as a patient in ADMIRE®, and multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation was first performed with a group of morphometrically preselected atlases. In this group, the atlases were selected on the basis of similarity in the shoulder protraction position with the patient. The number of selected atlases used started at two and increased up to eight. Subsequently, a group of randomly chosen, non-selected atlases were taken. In this second group, every possible combination of 2 to 8 random atlases was used for multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation. For both groups, the average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Jaccard index (JI) and Inclusion index (INI) were calculated, measuring the similarity of the generated automatic BP segmentations and the gold standard segmentation. Similarity indices of both groups were compared using an independent sample t-test, and the optimal number of selected atlases was investigated using an equivalence trial. For each number of atlases, average similarity indices of the morphometrically selected atlas group were significantly higher than the random group (p < 0,05). In this study, the highest similarity indices were achieved using multi-atlas autosegmentation with 6 selected atlases (average DSC = 0,598; average JI = 0,434; average INI = 0,733). Morphometric atlas selection on the basis of the protraction position of the patient significantly improves multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation accuracy

  9. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton (pp) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5 < |η| < 4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5 K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and timing boards. In the first three years of LHC operation, approximately 27 fb−1 of pp collision data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Throughout this period, the calorimeter consistently operated with performances very close to specifications, with high data-taking efficiency. This is in large part due to a sophisticated data monitoring procedure designed to quickly identify issues that would degrade the detector performance, to ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. After a description of the detector design, main characteristics and operation principles, this paper details the data quality assessment procedures developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, when more than 98% of the luminosity recorded by ATLAS had high quality LAr calorimeter data suitable for physics analysis

  10. ATLAS Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Woudstra, MJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest energy proton-proton collider, providing also the highest instantaneous luminosity as a hadron collider. Bunch crossings occurred every 50 ns in 2012 runs. Amongst of which the online event selection system should reduce the event recording rate down to a few 100 Hz, while events are in a harsh condition with many overlapping proton-proton collisions occurring in a same bunch crossing. Muons often provide an important and clear signature of physics processes that are searched for, for instance as in the discovery of Higgs particle in year 2012. The ATLAS experiment deploys a three-levels processing scheme at online. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filte...

  11. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  12. Diphoton searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Delmastro, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Searches for new resonances decaying into two photons in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are described. The analysis is based on $pp$ collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV recorded in 2015. Two different searches are performed, one targeted for a spin-2 particle, using Randall-Sundrum graviton states as a benchmark model, and one optimized for a spin-0 particle. The most significant deviation from the background predictions is observed at a diphoton invariant mass around 750 GeV with local significances of 3.6 and 3.9 standard deviations in the searches optimized for a spin-2 and spin-0 particle, respectively. The global significances are estimated to be 1.8 and 2.0 standard deviations. The consistency between the data collected at 13 TeV and 8 TeV is also evaluated. Limits on the production cross-section for the two benchmark resonances are reported.

  13. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  14. Electroweak Physics at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Various electroweak measurements have already been performed at ATLAS since the start of the LHC. These allow for precision tests of the electroweak dynamics of the Standard Model, but also challenge next-to-next-to-leading-order predictions. Differences between measurements and SM predictions could prove evidence for new phenomena. A review of the latest results in W/Z and diboson physics will be given. Those consist of the measurement of the high-mass drell-yan differential cross section, the Wb(b) production cross section and the study of the transverse momentum of the Z/$\\gamma*$ using the $\\phi*$ variable, with 5fb$^{-1}$ of 2011 data. The latest diboson WW, WZ, ZZ, W$\\gamma$ and Z$\\gamma$ production cross sections will be summarized, including new WW and ZZ results. In particular, the ZZ* channel has been added. The diboson processes are an important source of background to Higgs production decaying into vector boson pairs, such as H$\\rightarrow$WW and H$\\rightarrow$ZZ, and also to other new physics pro...

  15. ATLAS TRT 2002 Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Capeans, M.

    Starting on 17th May, the ATLAS TRT 2002 Workshop was organised by Ken MacFarlane and his team at Hampton University, Virginia, USA. During a welcome break in the very dense workshop programme, the group enjoyed a half-day long boat trip along the waterways, offering a first-hand look at the history and heritage of this part of America. The attendance during the six-day workshop was about 50 people representing most of the collaborating institutes, although many Russian colleagues had stayed in their institutes to pursue the start-up of end-cap wheel production at PNPI and DUBNA. The meeting clearly showed that, during the year 2002, the TRT community is focusing on final design issues and module/wheel construction, while moving at the same time towards acceptance testing and integration, including the front-end electronics. The two main topics treated at the workshop were the preparation for beginning full production of the FE electronics, and the wire-joint problem that the US barrel colleagues have been fa...

  16. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m **2 and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 cm**-**2 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degree C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary radhard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminiutn/Kapton tapes and cooled by C//3F//8 evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected flue...

  17. ATLAS Muon Endcap Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Bensinger, J R

    2005-01-01

    To align the endcap muon chambers of the ATLAS experiment, an optical grid is set up between aluminum “alignment bars” nested in each layer of chambers. Optical lines are made of laser diodes and CCD cameras that form an alignment grid. The alignment bars are self-aligning. They are then carefully measured using a large coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The subsequent shape changes of the bar are determined by calculations that are corrected by the readings of the internal monitors. The relationship between the bars is then established by a network of sensors that measure the bearing angle of light sources on the other parts of the system. The system is over-determined and the location and orientation of each bar is determined using a fitting program. Chambers are then referenced to the alignment grid using proximity sensors. This information is used to provide corrections to the nominal chamber positions before calculating track momentum. The performance of the system has been validated in a test beam ...

  18. The constellation observing Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Privett, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Designed for anyone who wishes to learn the constellations or observe the best and brightest deep sky objects and double stars, this book contains an alphabetical list of constellations complete with star maps, historical background, and highlights of deep sky objects. Each entry contains position and physical information on enough stars to support astronomers in star-hopping, swinging the telescope from star to star to star to arrive at a faint target. It provides a carefully selected list of accessible and rewarding deep sky objects. Full-color maps show the constellations, with star types (spectral and physical) indicated by the colors used on the map. Extended objects such as galaxies and nebulae are shown with the approximate apparent size in the sky. With unmatched thoroughness and accessibility, this is a constellation atlas that makes the ideal companion to a night's telescope viewing, for novices and expert amateur astronomers alike. Easy to navigate and refer to, it is the key that unlocks the do...

  19. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  20. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...