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Sample records for atlas cryostat odyssey

  1. 2001, the ATLAS Cryostat Odyssey

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    After a journey of several thousand kilometres, over sea and land, by canal and highway, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter finally arrived at CERN last week. Installed in Hall 180, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will be fitted out to take the central superconducting solenoid and the electromagnetic calorimeter. On Monday 2 July, different French police units and EDF officials were once again keeping careful watch around the hairpin bends of the road twisting down from the Col de la Faucille: a special load weighing 100 tonnes, 7 metres high, 5.8 metres wide and 7.2 metres long was being brought down into the Pays de Gex to the Meyrin site of CERN. This time the destination was the ATLAS experiment. A huge blue tarpaulin cover concealed the cryogenics barrel of the experiment's liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter. The cryostat consists of a vacuum chamber, a cylinder that is 5.5 metres in diameter, 7 metres long, and a concentric cold chamber ...

  2. Inside the ATLAS solenoid cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Scientists are seen working on the inside of the ATLAS cryostat, which will be used to cool liquid argon to 90 K in the electromagnetic calorimeter. Thin lead plates immersed in the cooled liquid will produce electromagnetic showers of particles when an electron, positron or photon enter the detector. This causes the argon to glow, allowing the initial particle energy to be measured.

  3. The ATLAS cryostat comes into the lime-light

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Aubert, director of IN2P3, addresses the teams involved in the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. At the rear, the barrel cryostat being equipped. In response to an invitation from IN2P3, the French national institute for nuclear and particle physics, the ATLAS experiment teams have celebrated progress made in the construction of their Liquid Argon Detector. In particular they wanted to salute the arrival of the cryostat for one of the end-caps, built by the company Simic in Italy. The second is expected at the end of January 2003. The cryostats are the fruit of a collaboration between IN2P3, the Max Planck Institute in Munich and the German Ministry for education and research (BMBF). The barrel cryostat arrived from Japan last year. The three cryostats will contain four types of different detectors made by the collaboration. They will contain in total nearly 400 modules including electromagnetic modules. More than half the modules for one of the two electromagnetic calorimeter barrels have bee...

  4. Design of the LHC US ATLAS Barrel Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Rehak, M L; Farah, Y; Grandinetti, R; Müller, T; Norton, S; Sondericker, J

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the ATLAS Liquid Argon detector. The Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat is part of the United States contribution to the LHC project and its design is presented here. The device is made up of four concentric cylinders: the smallest and largest of which form a vacuum vessel enclosing a cold vessel cryostat filled with liquid argon. The Cryostat serves as the housing for an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, supports and provides space in vacuum for a solenoid magnet while the toroidal opening furnishes room for a tracker detector. Design requirements are determined by its use in a collider experiment: the construction has to be compact, the material between the interaction region and the calorimeter has to be minimal and made of aluminum to reduce the amount of absorbing material. The design complies with code regulations while being optimized for its use in a physics environment. (2 refs).

  5. Cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Fujita, Jun-ya.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a rational structural member of a cryostat of a thermonuclear reactor or a thermonuclear device. Namely, the cryostat comprises a cylindrical body structural member and a lid structural member covering the upper end opening thereof. The lid structural member comprises (1) a lid bottom plate for vacuum sealing, comprising a flat board mounted substantially horizontally to the upper end opening of the body structural member, (2) lid reinforcing ribs comprising linear beams mounted integrally to the surface of the lid bottom plate and (3) neutron shielding concretes disposed on the surface of the lid bottom plate. With such a constitution, curving fabrication of the lid bottom plate and bending fabrication for the lid reinforcing ribs which have been conducted in an existent construction method are made unnecessary. In addition, an outer lid plate (lid top plate) which has been required for a lid structural member of an existent plate-type structure is also made unnecessary. As a result, the number of structural parts can be reduced, the structure can be simplified and the number of construction steps can be reduced. (I.S.)

  6. Arrival of the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Oberlack, H

    On Wednesday, 4th June the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter (end-cap A) arrived at CERN and was immediately unloaded from the truck in building 180 (see Figures 1 and 2), where the integration of the LAr calorimeters into their cryostats takes place. The transport from the Italian company SIMIC, where both end-cap calorimeters have been produced took longer than expected due to delays because of the G8 summit. Thanks to the great effort by the CERN Host State office and the French-German steering group that supplies the end-cap cryostat as an in-kind contribution to the LAr collaboration, an exceptional convoy was finally available and the cryostat could make its way to CERN. Fig.1 (left): Truck with the end-cap cryostat. Fig.2 (right): Unloading the cryostat in bldg. 180. Each end-cap cryostat will contain an electromagnetic calorimeter wheel, two wheels of a hadronic calorimeter, and a forward calorimeter. The design of the cryostat as a double vessel structure made of Aluminum fulfills t...

  7. An ATLAS inner detector end-cap is placed in its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation housed inside the inner end-cap must be kept cool to avoid thermal noise. This cooling is achieved on ATLAS by placing the end-cap inside a liquid argon cryostat. The end-cap measures particles that are produced close to the direction of the beam pipe and would otherwise be missed.

  8. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  9. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-05-01

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  10. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  11. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  12. Cryostat Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, V [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to give non-expert engineers and scientists working in the domain of accelerators a general introduction to the main disciplines and technologies involved in the design and construction of accelerator cryostats. Far from being an exhaustive coverage of these topics, an attempt is made to provide simple design and calculation rules for a preliminary design of cryostats. Recurrent reference is made to the Large Hadron Collider magnet cryostats, as most of the material presented is taken from their design and construction at CERN.

  13. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  14. Cosmic odyssey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidmann, J.

    1989-01-01

    The immensity of the cosmos, the richness of the universe, the limits of space and time: these are the themes of Cosmic Odyssey, which takes the reader on imaginary journeys through the past, present and future of our universe. After a first look at the starry night sky, the enigmas posed since ancient times by the universe are reviewed. There then follows a broadbrush view of the universe as we understand it today. Following this, a trio of chapters take us to ultimate questions about its nature. The author explores in turn the relativistic universe, the quantum universe and the inflationary universe. Finally the journey returns to questions that touch on our own presence in the universe. Cosmology, the science of understanding the nature of the universe as a whole, has gone through an extraordinary revolution in its approach. This book explains in detail the link between particle physics and cosmology, the very early universe, the significance of Grand Unified Theory and superstrings, the magical qualities of the inflationary universe, and the seemingly bleak scenarios for the farthest future. (author)

  15. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  16. Manufactured by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd of Harima, in Japan, the cryostat of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel underwent very strict cryogenic tests before being shipped to Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The cryostat consists of a vacuum chamber, a cylinder that is 5.5 metres in diameter, 7 metres long, and a concentric cold chamber to be filled with liquid argon that will house the detector. The whole unit is made out of aluminium 5083 and will weigh 210 tonnes when put together with the detector.

  17. He3 cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novichkova, L.G.; Kulikov, Yu.V.; Stashkova, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    An effective cryostat featuring a one-cycle He 3 refrigerator with a cryosorption pump is described. Gaseous He 3 in contained in a low-pressure vessel having a common wall with a liquid N 2 bath. Due to this, the gas is cooled before sorption and the sorption rate increases approximately by a factor of ten. The cryostat is provided with a needle valve which cuts off the ballast volume of the pipelines from the refrigerator. As a result, the pressure of He 3 vapours increases before condensation and with refrigerator dimensions selected properly, the liquefaction coefficient reaches approximately 80%. Test results of the cryostat and its specifications are presented. (Author)

  18. Cryostats for SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, O.A.; Locatelli, M.

    1982-05-01

    A non metallic and non magnetic cryostat, with a very low thermal budget and a container type autonomy was developed, to condition S.Q.U.I.D. magnetometers which maximum sensitivity reaches 10 -14 Tesla Hertzsup(-1/2). This instrumentation puts in hand new concepts of composite materials, thermal shock and vibration resistant, multilayer thermal radiative insulation also to the prouve of vibrations with thermal equivalent emissivity lower than 10 -3

  19. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  20. Cryostat for TRISTAN superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsunobu, S.; Furuya, T.; Hara, K.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting cavities generate rather high heat load of hundreds watts in one cryostat and have high sensitivity for pressure. We adopted usual pool-boiling type cooling for its stable pressure operation. Two 5-cell Nb cavities were installed in one flange type cryostat. Tuning mechanics actuated by a pulse-motor and a Piezo-electric element are set at outside of vacuum end flange. The design and performance of the cryostat for TRISTAN superconducting cavities are described. (author)

  1. The TPX Cryostat Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, D.; Posey, A.; Heitzenroeder, P.

    1993-01-01

    The TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) will be the first tokamak to employ both superconducting TF (toroidal field) and PF (poloidal field) magnets. Consequently, the entire device is located within an evacuated cryostat to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the ambient temperature test cell and the magnets that are cooled by supercritical liquid helium at 5 degrees K. This paper describes the cryostat design requirements, design concepts, and the cryostat fabrication and installation

  2. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  3. [An unconscious odyssey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H

    2008-12-01

    A 76-year-old ex-manager of a shipping company with preexisting pneumopathy suffered from massive pulmonary embolism after an operation in Germany and had to be mechanically ventilated. His wife requested a transportation by helicopter to the intensive care unit of a smaller hospital in the Engadin, Grisons, Switzerland, where he was later tracheotomized. Weeks later, the wife insisted on a transfer to another, even smaller hospital in the area. During that stay an emergency pericardiocentesis had to be performed. Thereafter, he was transferred to the intensive care unit of our hospital. The last journey was again by request of his wife against medical advices a flight back to his home in Germany, what he survived only for a few hours and was followed by the suicide of his wife. Why could nobody prevent or stop this insane odyssey?

  4. Development of the Facet Cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A.; Shields, P.; Jirmanus, M.

    1999-01-01

    A proof of concept prototype cryostat has been developed to demonstrate the ability to accommodate low temperature science investigations within the constraints of the Hitchhiker siderail carrier on the Space Shuttle.

  5. Cryostatic stability equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoriak, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Although criteria for cryostatic stability of superconducting magnets cooled by pool boiling of liquid helium have been widely discussed the same cannot be said for magnets cooled by natural convection or forced flow boiling in channels. Boiling in narrow channels is shown to be qualitatively superior to pool boiling because the recovery heat flux equals the breakaway flux for narrow channels, whereas the two are markedly different in pool boiling. A second advantage of channel boiling is that it is well understood and calculable; pool peak nucleate boiling heat flux has been adequately measured only for boiling from the top of an immersed heated body. Peak boiling from the bottom is much less and (probably) depends strongly on the extent of the bottom surface. Equations are presented by which one can calculate the critical boiling heat flux for parallel wall vertical channels subject to either natural convection or forced flow boiling, with one or both walls heated. The one-heated-wall forced flow equation is discussed with regard to design of a spiral wound solenoid (pancake magnet) having a slippery insulating tape between the windings

  6. Cryostat with Foil and MLI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Peter K.F.; Gung, Chen-yu

    2005-10-06

    Induction cores are used to accelerate heavy ion beam array, which are built around the outer diameter of the cryostat housing the superconducting quadruple array. Compact cryostat is highly desirable to reduce the cost of the induction cores. Recent experiences in fabrication of a cryostat for single beam transport revealed that it is possible to reduce the spacing in the cryostat vacuum jacket by using low-emissivity thermal insulation material instead of conventional MLI. However, it is labor-intensive to install the new type of insulation as compared with using MLI. It is promising to build a cost-effective compact cryostat for quadruple magnet array for heavy ion beam array transport by using low-emissivity material combined with conventional MLI as radiation insulation. A matrix of insulation designs and tests will be performed as the feasibility study and for the selection of the optimal thermal insulation as the Phase I work. The selected mixed insulation will be used to build prototype compact cryostats in the Phase II project, which are aiming for housing quadruple doublet array. In this STTR phase I study, a small cryostat has been designed and built to perform calorimetric characterization of the heat load in a liquid helium vessel insulated with a vacuum layer with a nominal clearance of 3.5 mm. The vacuum clearance resembled that used in the warm-bore beam tube region in a prototype cryostat previously built for the heavy ion beam transport experiment. The vacuum clearance was geometrically restricted with a heater shell with the temperature controlled at near 300 K. Various combinations of radiation and thermal shields were installed in the tight vacuum clearance for heat load measurements. The measured heat loads are reported and compared with previous test result using a compact vacuum layer. Further developments of the thermal insulations used in the present study are discussed. The compact cryostat with foil and MLI insulation may be used in the

  7. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  8. ATLAS rewards two Japanese suppliers of major detector components.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS supplier award in recognition of excellence has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced the liquid-argon barrel cryostat. Kawasaki received its award in Hall 189 on the Meyrin site, where the cryostat is currently located. Toshiba Corporation's award for the superconducting central solenoid was presented two months ago at the Toshiba headquarters in Japan. Photo 01: P. Pailler, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon cryostats, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 04: H. Oberlack, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon system, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 11: P. Jenni (left), ATLAS Collaboration spokesperson, presenting the ATLAS supplier award for the barrel cryostat for the liquid-argon calorimeter to Mr. S. Nose, General Manager of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. Photo 18: J. Sondericker (left), liquid-argon barrel cryostat project engineer (BNL), presenting Mr. Nose (Kawasaki) an award from Brookhaven for the barrel cryostat for the ATLAS liquid-argo...

  9. Conceptual design of JT-60SA cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibama, Y.K.; Sakurai, S.; Masaki, K.; Sukekawa, A.M.; Kaminaga, A.; Sakasai, A.; Matsukawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of cryostat for the JT-60SA, which is a research device for the commercial production of electricity from the controlled fusion reaction in the future. JT-60SA is designed to be a fully superconducting device and cryostat is one of the main components to allow the normal operation. Cryostat covers up the tokamak device, which is 15 m of total height and 7 m of radius, and supports the total weight of 25 MN. Cryostat components consist of vessel body, gravity support and auxiliary systems, such as 80 K thermal shield and vacuum exhaust. The functions required of cryostat are these three, thermal insulation for superconducting magnets, gravity support for the tokamak device, and bio-shielding. The design conditions for each cryostat component are outlined and the features of auxiliary systems such as capacity of vacuum exhaust related to 80 K thermal shield design are summarized

  10. HFE and Spherical Cryostats MC Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    The copper vessel containing the nEXO TPC is surrounded by a buffer of HFE, a liquid refrigerant with very low levels of radioactive element contamination. The HFE is contained within the cryostat's inner vessel, which is in turn inside the outer vessel. While some HFE may be necessary for stable cooling of nEXO, it is possible that using substantially more than necessary for thermal reasons will help reduce backgrounds originating in the cryostats. Using a larger amount of HFE is accomplished by making the cryostat vessels larger. By itself, increasing the cryostat size somewhat increases the background rate, as the thickness of the cryostat wall must increase at larger sizes. However, the additional space inside the cryostat will be filled with HFE which can absorb gamma rays headed for the TPC. As a result, increasing the HFE reduces the number of backgrounds reaching the TPC. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between HFE thickness and background rate. Ultimately, this work should support choosing a cryostat and HFE size that satisfies nEXO's background budget. I have attempted to account for every consequence of changing the cryostat size, although naturally this remains a work in progress until a final design is achieved. At the moment, the scope of the study includes only the spherical cryostat design. This study concludes that increasing cryostat size reduces backgrounds, reaching neglible backgrounds originating from the cryostat at the largest sizes. It also shows that backgrounds originating from the inherent radioactivity of the HFE plateau quickly, so may be considered essentially fixed at any quantity of HFE.

  11. ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from Brookhaven have played...

  12. Development of a cryostat for physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Futang

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the structure and performances of a cryostat for physics research on hybrid magnet or water-cooled magnet. The cryostat can provide a wide temperature range from 1 K to room temperature. The temperature stability (above 4.2 K) is very convenient for replacing samples

  13. Special Cryostats for Lithium Compensated Germanium Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Malmsten, B; Rosencrantz, B

    1968-05-15

    In many applications of Ge(Li) detectors an extreme design of the cryostat is desirable. One example is a coincidence or anticoincidence setup where the Ge(Li) detector is surrounded by one or several other detectors, usually Nal(Tl) crystals or plastic scintillators. To be usable in this arrangement the part of the cryostat containing the Ge(Li) detector should have the form of a long hood, with the detector placed at its very end. The diameter of the hood should be as small as detector dimensions permit. Excellent energy resolution and reasonably low liquid nitrogen consumption must be retained. Two cryostats fulfilling these conditions will be described. For the first cryostat emphasis lay on the reduction of the hood diameter to an absolute minimum; for the other incorporation of a device regulating the temperature of the cryostat surface was required. The difficulties encountered will be discussed; they were primarily connected with the necessity of combining minimum temperature loss at the detector position with extreme cryostat compactness and cold finger length. The incorporation of a cooled FET transistor in the cryostat will also be described. The gamma spectrometers using the cryostats gave resolutions down to 2.8 keV FWHM for the 1173 keV gamma line from Co 60 and 1.2 keV FWHM for the 122 keV line from Co 57.

  14. A new cryostat for precise temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Zhou, G.; Liu, L. Q.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, L. Y.; Li, Q.

    2013-09-01

    Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocoolers are often used in cryostat as cold sources. It has advantages of simple structure and low operating cost as well as disadvantages of vibration and temperature oscillation, which are fatal for some applications that are very sensitive to temperature stability at low temperature. To solve the problem, a thermal analysis model which is used to simulate heat transfer in the cryostat is built and discussed. According to the analysis results, a cryostat that can provide variable temperature (4-20 K) for the accurate temperature control experiments is designed and manufactured. In this cryostat, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet is used as a thermal damper to reduce the temperature oscillation, with which, the temperature oscillation of the sample cooling holder is less than 4 mK at the 20 K region.

  15. Design and manufacturing of the MRI cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeon Wook; Lee, Eon Yong; Kil, Kwon Young; Ryu, Kang Sik [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Choong Sik; Kwon, Oh Bum [Shin Sung World Co. (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hong Ju; Lee, Hai Sung [Dyung Sung Chemical Co. (Korea, Republic of); Fukui, K; Komosita, K [CryoVac Co. (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A superconducting 2 tesla MRI magnet for the animal magnetic resonance imaging has been developed as a basic model for the application of the precise superconducting magnet technology. MRI cryostat with 210 mm room temperature bore was designed and manufactured for this magnet. The cryostat was designed basically not only to extract the principal design parameters at the performance test but also for the convenience of the manufacturing. The most extinct fracture of the cryostat is that it does not have LN{sub 2} tank and the 77 K thermal shield is cooled by circling LN{sub 2} through copper pipe which is welded around the shield plate. It results in reduction of the total cryostat size(about 30%). (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  17. Overview and status of ITER Cryostat manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil K., E-mail: anil.bhardwaj@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Gupta, Girish; Prajapati, Rajnikant; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gourav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish; Shukla, Dileep [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Iyer, Ganesh; Jadhav, Pandurang; Goyal, Dipesh; Desai, Anish [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India); Sekachev, I.; Vitupier, Guillaume [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing status of one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world (ITER Cryostat). • Overview of manufacturing stages and its segmentation. • Overview of manufacturing procedures and assembly and installation. - Abstract: One of ITER-India's commitments to the ITER Organization is procurement of the ITER Cryostat. It is a large vacuum vessel (∼29 m dia. and ∼29 m height), which is made up of 304/304 L dual marked stainless steel and has a total mass over 3500 t. The thickness of the vessel wall varies from 50 mm to 190 mm. It is one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world which provides vacuum thermal insulation for the superconducting magnets operating at 4.5 K and for the thermal shield operating at 80 K. It also mechanically supports the magnet system along with the vacuum vessel (VV). The cryostat is designed and constructed according to ASME Section-VIII Division-2 with additional ITER Vacuum Handbook requirements and it is classified as protection important component (PIC-2). Manufacturing of cryostat segments is ongoing in India; sub-assembly of four major sections of the cryostat from the segments will be done at the ITER site in a temporary workshop building and the final assembly will be done in the pit of the tokamak building, the final location. The cryostat manufacturing contract has been awarded to Larsen and Toubro Limited in August 2012 after completion of design [4] and signing of Procurement Arrangement [1] with ITER Organization. Manufacturing of the cryostat was started in January 2014 after approval of the manufacturing drawings and procedures. The temporary workshop of 44 m × 110 m × 26 m in height has been completed in November 2014 at the ITER site with a 200 t crane installed. This paper gives an overview and the status of the cryostat manufacturing.

  18. Old women in the Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Skafte Jensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being a heroic epic, the Odyssey is peopled by male protagonists in their prime. Nevertheless, the poem gives attention also to humbler figures, among them old women. They are few, but important. A couple of them belong to the highest stratum of society, the rest are slaves. Especially, they are trophoi, nurses, and the impression given is that such nurses are an indispensable part of any big household. The most impressive of them is Odysseus’ nurse Eurycleia, who has a role to play all the way through the poem. When her story is traced from beginning to end it unfolds as a poem inside the poem, with its own inner coherence. Her character is ambiguous: in some scenes she is the quintessence of care and kindness, in others she is brutal, so much so as to make of her one of the scariest characters in the poem. What has made her so full of hatred? the hard life as a slave. She has accustomed herself to her fate and shows unbroken solidarity with her masters, only to feel all the more offended by the amount of work the feasting suitors have caused. Besides, a traditional fairy tale pattern runs as an undercurrent through the epic, with Penelope and Eurycleia filling in the same tale role so that good and bad is split between them.

  19. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  20. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

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Livan, M; Rimoldi, A; Vercesi, V; Ayad, R; Mastroberardino, A; Ciapetti, G; Luminari, L; Rescigno, M; Santonico, R; Salamon, A; Del papa, C; Kurashige, H; Homma, Y; Tomoto, M; Horii, Y; Sugaya, Y; Hanagaki, K; Bobbink, G; Kluit, P M; Koffeman, E N; Van eijk, B; Lee, H; Eigen, G; Dorholt, O; Strandlie, A; Strzempek, P B; Dita, S; Stoicea, G; Chitan, A; Leven, S S; Moa, T; Brenner, R; Ekelof, T J C; Olshevskiy, A; Roumiantsev, V; Chlachidze, G; Zimine, N; Gusakov, Y; Grigalashvili, N; Mineev, M; Potrap, I; Barashkou, A; Shoukavy, D; Shaykhatdenov, B; Pikelner, A; Gladilin, L; Ammosov, V; Abramov, A; Arik, M; Sahinsoy, M; Uysal, Z; Azizi, K; Hotinli, S C; Zhou, S; Berger, E; Blair, R; Underwood, D G; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-sciveres, M A; Siegrist, J L; Kipnis, I; Dahl, O; Holland, S; Barbaro galtieri, A; Smith, P T; Parua, N; Franklin, M; Mercurio, K M; Tong, B; Pod, E; Cole, S G; Hopkins, W H; Guest, D H; Severini, H; Marsicano, J J; Abbott, B K; Wang, Q; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Takai, H; Rajagopalan, S; Protopopescu, S D; Snyder, S S; Undrus, A; Popescu, R N; Begel, M A; Blocker, C A; Amelung, C; Mandic, I; Macek, B; Tucker, B H; Citterio, M; Troncon, C; Orestano, D; Taccini, C; Romeo, G L; Dova, M T; Taylor, G N; Gesualdi manhaes, A; Mcpherson, R A; Sobie, R; Taylor, R P; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Slovak, R; Sopko, B; Vacek, V; Sanders, M P; Hertenberger, R; Meineck, C; Becks, K; Kind, P; Sandhoff, M; Cantero garcia, J; De la torre perez, H; Castillo gimenez, V; Ros, E; Hernandez jimenez, Y; Chadelas, R; Santoni, C; Washbrook, A J; O'brien, B J; Wynne, B M; Mehta, A; Vossebeld, J H; Landon, M; Teixeira dias castanheira, M; Cerrito, L; Keates, J R; Fassouliotis, D; Chardalas, M; Manousos, A; Grachev, V; Seliverstov, D; Sedykh, E; Cakir, O; Ciftci, R; Edson, W; Prell, S A; Rosati, M; Stroman, T; Jiang, H; Neal, H A; Li, X; Gan, K K; Smith, D S; Kruse, M C; Ko, B R; Leung fook cheong, A M; Cole, B; Angerami, A R; Greene, Z S; Kroll, J I; Van berg, R P; Forbush, D A; Lubatti, H; Raisher, J; Shupe, M A; Wolin, S; Oshita, H; Gaudio, G; Das, R; Konig, A C; Croft, V A; Harvey, A; Maaroufi, F; Melo, I; Greenwood jr, Z D; Shabalina, E; Mchedlidze, G; Drechsler, E; Rieger, J K; Blackston, M; Colombo, T

    2002-01-01

    % ATLAS \\\\ \\\\ ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for recording proton-proton collisions at LHC. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 144 participating institutions (June 1998) with more than 1750~physicists and engineers (700 from non-Member States). The detector design has been optimized to cover the largest possible range of LHC physics: searches for Higgs bosons and alternative schemes for the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism; searches for supersymmetric particles, new gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and quark and lepton compositeness indicating extensions to the Standard Model and new physics beyond it; studies of the origin of CP violation via high-precision measurements of CP-violating B-decays; high-precision measurements of the third quark family such as the top-quark mass and decay properties, rare decays of B-hadrons, spectroscopy of rare B-hadrons, and $ B ^0 _{s} $-mixing. \\\\ \\\\The ATLAS dectector, shown in the Figure includes an inner tracking detector inside a 2~T~solenoid providing an axial...

  1. Diachronic Homer and a Cretan Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Nagy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the kaleidoscopic world of Homer and Homeric poetry from a combined diachronic and synchronic perspective. Linguists refer to “synchronic” as a given structure that exists in a given time and space, and “diachronic” as a structure that evolves through time. Nagy argues that from a diachronic perspective, the structure known as Homeric poetry can be viewed as an “evolving medium.” From a diachronic perspective, Homeric poetry is not only an evolving medium of oral poetry, but it is also a medium that actually views itself diachronically. In other words, Homeric poetry demonstrates aspects of its own evolution. A case in point is “the Cretan _Odyssey_”—or, better, “a Cretan _Odyssey_”—as reflected in the “lying tales” of Odysseus in the _Odyssey_. The author claims that these tales give the medium an opportunity to open windows into an _Odyssey_ that is otherwise unknown. In the alternate universe of this “Cretan _Odyssey_,” the adventures of Odysseus take place in the exotic context of Minoan-Mycenaean civilization.

  2. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  3. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  4. Conceptual design of JT-60SA cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibama, Y.K.; Sakurai, S.; Masaki, K.; Sukekawa, A.M.; Kaminaga, A.; Yoshida, K.; Matsukawa, M.

    2007-01-01

    JT-60U modification program to fully superconducting device has been proceeded, namely ''JT-60SA'', toward early realization of fusion energy based on tokamak concept. The design of JT-60SA cryostat is expected to achieve a vacuum thermal insulation for super conducting coils, a bio-shielding boundary and structural gravity support. The cryostat is required to cover JT-60SA tokamak device, which is 15 m of total height and 7 m of radius, but there is geometrical limit due to surrounding devices reutilized. Although the cryostat consists of vessel body and gravity support, and the structural material is low cobalt 304 stainless steel (Co: 2 , and the design of the leaf spring is considered to reduce thermal stress, and to withstand the mechanical loads of plasma disruption and seismic loads. The coolant is 80 K gas helium and both sides of panel are covered with multi-layers super insulation (SI) to reduce heat load (radiation) up to 1/100. Fraction of non-covered region is assumed to be 2% due to many port-joints and supports for the vacuum vessel. Total heat load for inner surface of cryostat (600 m 2 ) is 9kW and the heat load for the port-joints (-300 m 2 ) is assumed up to 9 kW. The operational pressure of the cryostat is required to keep less than 10 -2 Pa and about 100,000 m 2 of structural surfaces is considered for exhaust system specification. Another role of the cryostat is the radiation protection. Biological shielding up to 10 micro-Sv/h (for maintenance acceptance) is required of the cryostat surface after the 10 years operation. Thus the cryostat consists of boron (2 wt%) doped concrete of 220 mm thickness and structural SS304 of total 40 mm thickness. The concrete reduces the air activation (41Ar) in the torus hall by 90% rather than the normal one by the thermal neutron absorption of boron. (orig.)

  5. LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Darve, Ch.; Huang, Y.; Page, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to house all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be able to be manufactured at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their expected operating lifetime. This paper describes the current LHC IR inner triplet quadrupole magnet cryostats being designed and manufactured at Fermilab as part of the US-LHC collaboration, and includes discussions on the structural and thermal considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems

  6. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN 2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  7. Evaluating cryostat performance for naval applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, David; Willen, Dag; Fesmire, James; Johnson, Wesley; Smith, Jonathan; Meneghelli, Barry; Demko, Jonathan; George, Daniel; Fowler, Brian; Huber, Patti

    2012-06-01

    The Navy intends to use High Temperature Superconducting Degaussing (HTSDG) coil systems on future Navy platforms. The Navy Metalworking Center (NMC) is leading a team that is addressing cryostat configuration and manufacturing issues associated with fabricating long lengths of flexible, vacuum-jacketed cryostats that meet Navy shipboard performance requirements. The project includes provisions to evaluate the reliability performance, as well as proofing of fabrication techniques. Navy cryostat performance specifications include less than 1 Wm-1 heat loss, 2 MPa working pressure, and a 25-year vacuum life. Cryostat multilayer insulation (MLI) systems developed on the project have been validated using a standardized cryogenic test facility and implemented on 5-meterlong test samples. Performance data from these test samples, which were characterized using both LN2 boiloff and flow-through measurement techniques, will be presented. NMC is working with an Integrated Project Team consisting of Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Surface Warfare Center-Carderock Division, Southwire Company, nkt cables, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ASRC Aerospace, and NASA Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) to complete these efforts. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This material is submitted with the understanding that right of reproduction for governmental purposes is reserved for the Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia 22203-1995.

  8. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  9. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan

    2012-01-01

    affecting public acceptance of the project. In order to solve this problem, a model cryostat was developed consisting of alternating rigid and flexible sections and hydraulic tests were conducted using sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. In the 47 m-long cryostat, containing a full-size HTS cable model, measured....... A flexible dummy HTS cable was inserted into this cryostat and sub-cooled liquid nitrogen was circulated in the annulus between the dummy cable surface and the inner cryostat surface. In the paper details are presented of the cryostat, of the measurement setup, of the experiment and of the results....

  10. Design of the Cryostat for HT-7U Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Wu, Song-tao; Song, Yun-tao; Weng, Pei-de

    2002-06-01

    The cryostat of HT-7U tokamak is a large vacuum vessel surrounding the entire basic machine with a cylindrical shell, a dished top and a flat bottom. The main function of HT-7U cryostat is to provide a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature test hall and a liquid helium-cooled superconducting magnet. The loads applied to the cryostat are from sources of vacuum pressure, dead weight, seismic events and electromagnetic forces originated by eddy currents. It also provides feed-through penetrations for all the connecting elements inside and outside the cryostat. The main material selected for the cryostat is stainless steel 304L. The structural analyses including buckling for the cryostat vessel under the plasma operation condition have been carried out by using a finite element code. Stress analysis results show that the maximum stress intensity was below the allowable value. In this paper, the structural analyses and design of HT-7U cryostat are emphasized.

  11. Conceptual design and structural analysis of the CFETR cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: wangzhen@ipp.ac.cn; Yang, Qingxi; Xu, Hao

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The CFETR cryostat is a large vacuum container surrounding the tokamak basic machine. • Two conceptual design schemes of CFETR cryostat were proposed. • A series of structural analyses were performed for cryostat cylinder. • The design of base section is feasible for cryostat. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is a new tokamak device, one important component of which is cryostat and it is now under designing by China national integration design group. The CFETR cryostat is a large single-wall vacuum-tight container surrounding the tokamak basic machine, which consists of top dome-shape lid, two cylindrical sections with circumferential stiffening ribs and bottom flat head. It shall provide a vacuum environment (10{sup −4} Pa) for the operation of the superconducting coils and all the loads that derive from cryostat itself and inner components should be transferred to the floor of tokamak pit. In this paper, two schemes of cryostat were proposed and then the structural analyses including seismic response analysis, elastic stress analysis and buckling analysis were performed to validate the conceptual design of CFETR cryostat. Based on the analysis results, it can be inferred that the cryostat II has a higher stiffness and stability. The structure of cryostat I needs to be improved against buckling and it is more difficult to manufacture for cryostat II due to its complex curved surface compared with cryostat I. Finally, the structural analysis for base section was performed and the design of main support was proved to be feasible. The design of CFETR cryostat has not been finalized and structural optimization still need to be proceeded based on the analysis results.

  12. Conceptual design and structural analysis of the CFETR cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Yang, Qingxi; Xu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The CFETR cryostat is a large vacuum container surrounding the tokamak basic machine. • Two conceptual design schemes of CFETR cryostat were proposed. • A series of structural analyses were performed for cryostat cylinder. • The design of base section is feasible for cryostat. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is a new tokamak device, one important component of which is cryostat and it is now under designing by China national integration design group. The CFETR cryostat is a large single-wall vacuum-tight container surrounding the tokamak basic machine, which consists of top dome-shape lid, two cylindrical sections with circumferential stiffening ribs and bottom flat head. It shall provide a vacuum environment (10 −4 Pa) for the operation of the superconducting coils and all the loads that derive from cryostat itself and inner components should be transferred to the floor of tokamak pit. In this paper, two schemes of cryostat were proposed and then the structural analyses including seismic response analysis, elastic stress analysis and buckling analysis were performed to validate the conceptual design of CFETR cryostat. Based on the analysis results, it can be inferred that the cryostat II has a higher stiffness and stability. The structure of cryostat I needs to be improved against buckling and it is more difficult to manufacture for cryostat II due to its complex curved surface compared with cryostat I. Finally, the structural analysis for base section was performed and the design of main support was proved to be feasible. The design of CFETR cryostat has not been finalized and structural optimization still need to be proceeded based on the analysis results

  13. Mechanical design of ISABELLE magnet cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassner, D.

    1977-01-01

    It has been proposed to construct an intersecting storage ring accelerator, ISABELLE, at BNL, consisting of two concentric rings of magnets containing counter-rotating beams of charged particles. Each ring contains 216 dipole magnets and 138 quadrupoles. All magnets are superconducting and operate at a temperature of 4.3 K. A description of the design of the cryostats, including the internal supports, heat shield superinsulation system and the vacuum vessel is given. Details of fabrication techniques are also included

  14. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Figure 1: Some members of the solenoid and liquid argon teams proudly pose in front of the barrel cryosat, complete with detector and magnet. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. Figure 2: The alignment survey by Dirk Mergelkuhl and Aude Wiart. (EST-SU) At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. Figure 3: The solenoid on the insertion stand, with Akira Yamamoto the solenoid designer and project leader. Figure 4: Taka Kondo, ATLAS Japan spokesperson, and Shoichi Mizumaki, Toshiba project engineer for the ATLAS solenoid, celebrate the insertion. Aft...

  15. Conceptual design of the cryostat for the new high luminosity (HL-LHC) triplet magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D.; Parma, V.; Moretti, M.; Eymin, C.; Todesco, E.; Van Weelderen, R.; Prin, H.; Berkowitz Zamora, D.

    2017-12-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a project to upgrade the LHC collider after 2020-2025 to increase the integrated luminosity by about one order of magnitude and extend the physics production until 2035. An upgrade of the focusing triplets insertion system for the ATLAS and CMS experiments is foreseen using superconducting magnets operating in a pressurised superfluid helium bath at 1.9 K. This will require the design and construction of four continuous cryostats, each about sixty meters in length and one meter in diameter, for the final beam focusing quadrupoles, corrector magnets and beam separation dipoles. The design is constrained by the dimensions of the existing tunnel and accessibility restrictions imposing the integration of cryogenic piping inside the cryostat, thus resulting in a very compact integration. As the alignment and position stability of the magnets is crucial for the luminosity performance of the machine, the magnet support system must be carefully designed in order to cope with parasitic forces and thermo-mechanical load cycles. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of the cryostat and discuss the approach to address the stringent and often conflicting requirements of alignment, integration and thermal aspects.

  16. Analysis of EAST tokamak cryostat anti-seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Kong Xiaoling; Liu Sumei; Ni Xiaojun; Wang Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model for EAST tokamak cryostat is established by using ANSYS. On the basis of the modal analysis, the seismic response of the EAST tokamak cryostat structure is calculated according to an input of the design seismic response spectrum referring to code for seismic design of nuclear power plants. Calculation results show that EAST cryostat displacement and stress response is small under the action of earthquake. According to the standards, EAST tokamak cryostat structure under the action of design seismic can meet the requirements of anti-seismic design intensity, and ensure the anti-seismic safety of equipment. (authors)

  17. Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

  18. NIF target fill, transport and insertion cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1994-01-01

    A cryostat to support the fielding of a cryogenic target within the NIF is described. The present design is predicated upon fuel layer symmetry being achieved with the β layering process and modifications needed for other fuel symmetrization processes are discussed. These include the vertically differentially heated capsule with a uniform liquid layer stabilized by a surface tension gradient, foam supported liquid layers and solid D 2 or HD layers symmetrized by bulk irradiation from a laser source. The cold sinks to be incorporated in these techniques could, in principal, be cooled with the high pressure helium envisioned for the heat sink rings of the present design. Supplementary laser access would be provided for differential heating of the capsule for surface tension gradient stabilization of a liquid layer or bulk heating of a solid layer. The cryostat in each of these cases would look substantially the same as in the present case with the only significant differences being in the details of the design in the immediate vicinity of the target

  19. A flow cryostat for cooling of eight independent pipe guns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Hansen, J.E.; Sass, B.

    1991-01-01

    A flow cryostat allowing independent cooling of eight pipe guns in a multishot deuterium pellet injector is described. The pipe guns are placed symmetrically around the flow cryostat and with a liquid helium consumption of 4-5 l/h the cooling is sufficient for simultaneous formation of eight...

  20. Sealed liquid helium cryostats for mobile superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhall, B.E.; Rhodes, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The predicted behaviour of the sealed cryostat system, which has been designed for the niobium-titanium superconducting coils of the on-board refrigerator of the small Wolfson electrodynamically levitated vehicle now under development, is summarized. Calculations suggest that the time taken by a sealed liquid helium cryostat to reach a specified final temperature is reasonably insensitive to the level of initial filling. Moreover, with a sufficiently large initial fill (for example, 70%) two or possibly three such temperature cycles, separated by the simple process of gas recovery, should be possible before replenishment of the helium is necessary. The useful time of operation of the cryostat between transfers of liquid helium is then not very much less than can be obtained with a freely boiling bath of liquid. For the low pressures involved the sealed cryostat is probably not much heavier or more complex than the open cryostat, and thus is ideal for a mobile application. (U.K.)

  1. LHC IRQ cryostat support mechanical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darve, C.; Nicol, T.; Knauf, A.

    1999-01-01

    The LHC Interaction Region Quadrupoles (IRQ) will be shipped from Fermilab to CERN. The IRQ magnets are supported by glass fiber supports. A prototype cryostat support has been tested under various mechanical forces in order to check its mechanical behavior. These measurements have been made in order to validate a numerical model. A large range of mechanical loads simulates loads due to the shipment of the device, the weight of the cold mass as well as the cool down conditions. Its mechanical properties are measured by means of a dedicated arrangement operating at room temperature. This study appears to be essential to optimize the design of the support. The purpose of this note is to summarize the first measurements related to mechanical tests performed with the support

  2. Modeling Reaction Control System Effects on Mars Odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanna, Jill

    2002-01-01

    ...) simulations to determine rotational motion of the spacecraft. The main objective of this study was to assess the reaction control system models and their effects on the atmospheric flight of Odyssey...

  3. European standardization activities on safety of liquid helium cryostats

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk gives a general overview on the challenges of designing safety units for liquid helium cryostats with regard to existing industry standards. It reviews the work of a national working group that published the technical guideline DIN SPEC 4683 in April 2015, which is dedicated to the particular conditions in liquid helium cryostats. Based on both this guideline and equivalent documents from e.g. CEA, CERN, a working group is being formed at the European Committee for Standardization, associated to CEN/TC 268, which will work on a European standard on safety of liquid helium cryostats. The actual status and the schedule of this project are presented.

  4. A second-generation superconducting undulator cryostat for the APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A second-generation cryocooler-based cryostat has been designed and built to support a new helically wound superconducting undulator (SCU) magnet for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design represents an evolution of existing SCU cryostats currently in operation in the APS storage ring. Value engineering and lessons learned have resulted in a smaller, cheaper, and simpler cryostat design compatible with existing planar magnets as well as the new helically wound device. We describe heat load and quench response results, design and operational details, and the “build-to-spec” procurement strategy.

  5. A compact and versatile dynamic flow cryostat for photon science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Peter J. E. M.; Moretti Sala, Marco; Henriquet, Christian; Rossi, Matteo; Ohgushi, Kenya; Fauth, François; Simonelli, Laura; Marini, Carlo; Fraga, Edmundo; Murray, Claire; Potter, Jonathan; Krisch, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a helium gas flow cryostat for use on synchrotron tender to hard X-ray beamlines. Very efficient sample cooling is achieved because the sample is placed directly in the cooling helium flow on a removable sample holder. The cryostat is compact and easy to operate; samples can be changed in less than 5 min at any temperature. The cryostat has a temperature range of 2.5-325 K with temperature stability better than 0.1 K. The very wide optical angle and the ability to operate in any orientation mean that the cryostat can easily be adapted for different X-ray techniques. It is already in use on different beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility (ALBA), and Diamond Light Source (DLS) for inelastic X-ray scattering, powder diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained at these beamlines are presented here.

  6. Horizontal cryostat for polarized proton targets; Cryostat horizontal pour cibles de protons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubeau, P M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    Continuously fed horizontal cryostat to be used for polarized proton targets; includes: 1 standard storage dewar commercially available; 2 shifting of dewar requiring 10 minutes, without any warming of the target; 3 no conventional nitrogen cooled shield but rather taking advantage of the cold helium vapours evaporated in the transfer line and/or the helium evaporated to cool the polarized crystal; 4 a heat exchanger which reduces by a factor of two the consumption of helium lowering in the same ratio the transfer line and/or the helium evaporated to cool the polarized crystal; 5 regulation of the temperature by means of a needle valve included in the superfluid helium line. This cryostat, used in conjunction with a 1000 l/s pump allows one to maintain at 1.06 deg. K a target, in which is dissipated 1 watt hyper frequency power, with an helium consumption of 40 litres/day (measured directly in the storage dewar). (author) [French] Description d'un cryostat horizontal, a alimentation continue, pour cible de protons polarises, presentant les caracteristiques suivantes: 1 utilisation de vases de stockage de modele commercial; 2 echange de vase en 10 minutes sans rechauffement; 3 absence d'azote liquide remplace par les vapeurs froides de l'helium evapore dans la canalisation de transfert et/ou les vapeurs de l'helium evapore pour refroidir le cristal polarise; 4 utilisation d'un echangeur qui aboutit a reduire de moitie la consommation d'helium, donc la pression d'evaporation, et qui permet, pour une pompe donnee, d'abaisser la temperature de fonctionnement de 0.1 degre environ; 5 reglage de la temperature au moyen d'une vanne a aiguille placee sur le circuit d'helium prerefroidi (superfluide). Ce cryostat, utilise avec une pompe de 1000 l/s permet de maintenir a une temperature de 1.06 deg. K une cible dans laquelle est dissipee une puissance d'hyperfrequence de 1 watt, moyennant une consommation d'helium de 40 litres/jour (mesuree dans le vase de stockage). (auteur)

  7. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  8. The design of the new LHC connection cryostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Craen, A.; Barlow, G.; Eymin, C.; Moretti, M.; Parma, V.; Ramos, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the frame of the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC, improved collimation schemes are needed to cope with the superconducting magnet quench limitations due to the increasing beam intensities and particle debris produced in the collision points. Two new TCLD collimators have to be installed on either side of the ALICE experiment to intercept heavy-ion particle debris. Beam optics solutions were found to place these collimators in the continuous cryostat of the machine, in the locations where connection cryostats, bridging a gap of about 13 m between adjacent magnets, are already present. It is therefore planned to replace these connection cryostats with two new shorter ones separated by a bypass cryostat allowing the collimators to be placed close to the beam pipes. The connection cryostats, of a new design when compared to the existing ones, will still have to ensure the continuity of the technical systems of the machine cryostat (i.e. beam lines, cryogenic and electrical circuits, insulation vacuum). This paper describes the functionalities and the design solutions implemented, as well as the plans for their construction.

  9. FE simulation of the Wendelstein 7-X cryostat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, A.; Bykov, V.; Schauer, F.; Ye, M.Y.; Weissflog, S.; Andreeva, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Wendelstein 7-X cryostat is to thermally insulate the magnet system (operating at cryo-temperature) by high vacuum and super insulation, to provide and enclose the working space for the plasma, and to serve as a bearing structure for the system components that have to be placed in the immediate vicinity of the plasma, such as the first wall, the divertor and some of the diagnostic devices. Concerning structural components only, the cryostat is composed of the plasma vessel, the outer vessel and the ports that interconnect the vessels. The cryostat together with the machine base comprises the so called cryostat system, and this is the system that is under consideration in this paper. Due to both the geometrical complexity and the complexity of loading, individual subsystems of the cryostat system could not be analyzed separately. For that reason, a global finite element model of the whole cryostat system had to be created. The paper presents an overview of finite element modeling, simulations with ANSYS performed on this system, and the corresponding calculation results.

  10. Conceptual study of the cryostats for the cold powering system for the triplets of the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, A.; Giannelli, S.; Jacquemod, A.; Leclercq, Y.; Ortiz Ferrer, C.; Parma, V.

    2017-12-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a project aiming to upgrade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) after 2020-2025 in order to increase the integrated luminosity by about one order of magnitude and extend the operational capabilities until 2035. The upgrade of the focusing triplet insertions for the Atlas and CMS experiments foresees using superconducting magnets operating in a pressurised superfluid helium bath at 1.9 K. The increased radiation levels from the particle debris produced by particle collisions in the experiments require that the power converters are placed in radiation shielded zones located in a service gallery adjacent to the main tunnel. The powering of the magnets from the gallery is achieved by means of MgB2 superconducting cables in a 100-m long flexible cryostat transfer line, actively cooled by 4.5 K to 20 K gaseous helium generated close to the magnets. At the highest temperature end, the helium flow cools the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads before being recovered at room temperature. At the magnet connection side, a dedicated connection box allows connection to the magnets and a controlled boil-off production of helium for the cooling needs of the powering system. This paper presents the overall concept of the cryostat system from the magnet connection boxes, through the flexible cryostat transfer line, to the connection box of the current leads.

  11. Experiences on vacuum conditioning in the cryostat of KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo, E-mail: kpkim@nfri.er.ke [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, I.S.; Chang, Y.B.; Kwag, S.W.; Song, N.H.; Bang, E.N.; Hong, J.S.; Chu, Y.; Park, K.R. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The vacuum of the cryostat has been stably maintained during the KSTAR operation. ► The detected cold leak at the PF/CS coils and CS structure. ► The present helium leak makes no issue for the cryostat operation. -- Abstract: Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device has been successfully operated for the plasma experiment from KSTAR 1st campaign to 4th campaign. The main pumping system for the cryostat has to maintain the target pressure below 1.0 × 10{sup −4} mbar at room temperature and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mbar at extremely low temperature for the plasma experiment against the air leak coming from ports of vessel and/or the helium leak from cooling loops in the cryostat. No leak has been detected at room temperature. Unexpectedly, the cold-leak appeared in the cryostat at temperature around 50 K during the cool-down in the KSTAR 2nd campaign. We carefully analyzed the characteristics of detected cold leak because it can cause the increase of the base pressure in the cryostat. After the cool-down, the leak detection was performed to locate the position and size of the leak by the pressurizing the loops. As a result, it is found that the cold leak was located at cooling loops for PF/CS coils and CS structure. Nevertheless, the vacuum inside the cryostat was well maintained below 6.0 × 10{sup −8} mbar during the entire operation period. The impact of the He-leak in present status on the plasma operation is negligible. However, we have found that the leak rate increases as a function of time. Therefore careful monitoring on cold-leak is an important technical issue for the operation of superconducting tokamak.

  12. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance was attributed on 2nd September 2002 during a ceremony in Hall 180 to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months before at their headquarters in Japan. The ATLAS experiment will become a reality thanks to a large international collaboration partnership. The industrial suppliers for the components all over the world play a major role in the construction of this gigantic jigsaw for the LHC. And sometimes they perform so well, that their work deserves specially to be recognised. This is the case for Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Toshiba Corporation, producers of the Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat and of the Superconducting Central Solenoid, respectively. With these awards, the ATLAS Collaboration wants to congratulate Kawasaki and Toshiba for fulfilling the hi...

  13. Cryostat for an well logging probe using a semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapphorn, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    This invention proposes to construct an well logging tool of the type comprising a semiconductor radiation detector devoid of the defects usually observed. This aim is attained by means of a cryostat to cool a semiconductor radiation detector in a restricted space where the temperature is high. It includes a long box dimensioned to pass through a bore hole, a cryogenic chamber housed in the box, a vacuum chamber thermally insulating the cryogenic chamber and placed around it, a semiconductor radiation detector housed in the vacuum chamber in thermal contact with the cryogenic chamber and an active vacuum pump fitted in the box and connected to the vacuum chamber to maintain a vacuum in it. In an improved version, the vacuum pump is fitted outside the cryostat so that it operates independently of the temperature conditions in the cryostat. If the pump needs to be cooled to reduce the gas discharge, it can be fitted inside the cryostat and connected to the cryogenic chamber or a second cryostat can also be provided to cool the pump. The vacuum pump is designed to maintain the vacuum in the thermal insulation vacuum chamber at a desired figure, preferably 10 -4 Torr or under, in order to preserve the integrity of the thermal insulation layer around the cryogenic chamber and thereby extending the efficient operating period of the detector. The cryogenic material used is preferably of fusion resistant type such as Freon 22 [fr

  14. First scientific application of the membrane cryostat technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Baller, Bruce R.; Barger, Robert K.; Chi, Edward C.; Davis, Ronald P.; Johnson, Bryan D.; Kubinski, Bob M.; Najdzion, John J.; Rucinski, Russel A.; Schmitt, Rich L.; Tope, Terry E. [Particle Physics Division, Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Mahoney, Ryan; Norris, Barry L.; Watkins, Daniel J. [Technical Division, Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); McCluskey, Elaine G. [LBNE Project, Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Stewart, James [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Uptown, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    We report on the design, fabrication, performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with IHI Corporation (IHI). Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon, and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the purity requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation and using only a controlled gaseous argon purge; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon during filling, purification, and maintenance mode using mole sieve and copper filters from the Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator (LAPD) R and D project. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion oxygen equivalent. This paper gives the requirements, design, construction, and performance of the LBNE membrane cryostat prototype, with experience and results important to the development of the LBNE detector.

  15. Conceptual design of the inner cryostat support and jack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, V.; Petereit, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Endcap Cryostat will be supported by the End Barrel Tilecalorimeter at four points. The outer support points will be carried by a structure that is external to the End Barrel modules while the inner support points will be directly on the modules. This paper concerns the design of these inner support points. The design parameters for the inner support points are: (1) must be able to support twice the front load from the Endcap Cryostat (70 tons); (2) the support point must make contact on the inner radius surface provided on the Endcap Cryostat; (3) vertical adjust must be allowed of up to ± 6mm; (4) the support must be a simple support; (5) the support must be contained within the envelope of one End Barrel submodule

  16. Thermal Performance of the LHC Short Straight Section Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Bergot, J B; Nielsen, L; Parma, Vittorio; Rohmig, P; Roy, E

    2002-01-01

    The LHC Short Straight Section (SSS) cryostat houses and thermally protects in vacuum the cold mass which contains a twin-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnet and superconducting corrector magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. In addition to mechanical requirements, the cryostat is designed to minimize the heat in-leak from the ambient temperature to the cold mass. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel such as support posts and an insulation vacuum barrier are designed to have minimum heat conductivity with efficient thermalisations for heat interception. Heat in-leak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation wrapped around the cold mass and an actively cooled aluminium thermal shield. The recent commissioning and operation of two SSS prototypes in the LHC Test String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the thermal performance of the SSS cryostat in nominal operating conditions. Temperature sensors mounted in critical locations provide a...

  17. Superconducting super collider second generation dipole magnet cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1988-12-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider, a planned colliding beam particle physics research facility, requires /approximately/10,000 superconducting devices for the control of high energy particle beams. The /approximately/7,500 collider ring superconducting dipole magnets require cryostats that are functional, cryogenically efficient, mass producible and cost effective. A second generation cryostat design has been developed utilizing the experiences gained during the construction, installation and operation of several full length first generation dipole magnet models. The nature of the cryostat improvements is presented. Considered are the connections between the magnet cold mass and its supports, cryogenic supports, cold mass axial anchor, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. The details of the improvements are enumerated and the abstracted results of available component and system evaluations are presented. 8 refs., 11 figs

  18. The Odyssey Approach for Optimizing Federated SPARQL Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Gabriela; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Hose, Katja

    2017-01-01

    . Nevertheless, these plans may still exhibit a high number of intermediate results or high execution times because of heuristics and inaccurate cost estimations. In this paper, we present Odyssey, an approach that uses statistics that allow for a more accurate cost estimation for federated queries and therefore...

  19. Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Accidents involving the ingress of air or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits

  20. Structural analysis of the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botija, José, E-mail: jose.botija@ciemat.es [Association EURATOM – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Javier; Fernández, Pilar; Medrano, Mercedes; Ramos, Francisco; Rincon, Esther; Soleto, Alfonso [Association EURATOM – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Davis, Sam; Di Pietro, Enrico; Tomarchio, Valerio [Fusion for Energy, JT-60SA European Home Team, 85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Masaki, Kei; Sakasai, Akira; Shibama, Yusuke [JAEA – Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Institute, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Structural analysis to validate the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body design. ► Design code ASME 2007 “Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section VIII”. ► First buckling mode: load multiplier of 10.644, higher than the minimum factor 4.7. ► Elastic and elastic–plastic stress analysis meets ASME against plastic collapse. ► Bolted fasteners have been analyzed showing small gaps closed by strong welding. -- Abstract: The JT-60SA cryostat is a stainless steel vacuum vessel (14 m diameter, 16 m height) which encloses the Tokamak providing the vacuum environment (10{sup −3} Pa) necessary to limit the transmission of thermal loads to the components at cryogenic temperature. It must withstand both external atmospheric pressure during normal operation and internal overpressure in case of an accident. The paper summarizes the structural analyses performed in order to validate the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body design. It comprises several analyses: a buckling analysis to demonstrate stability under the external pressure; an elastic and an elastic–plastic stress analysis according to ASME VIII rules, to evaluate resistance to plastic collapse including localized stress concentrations; and, finally, a detailed analysis with bolted fasteners in order to evaluate the behavior of the flanges, assuring the integrity of the vacuum sealing welds of the cryostat vessel body.

  1. Superconducting magnet and cryostat for a space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, W. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Smith, L. H.; Taylor, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the design concepts, development, and testing of a superconducting coil and cryostat for an orbiting superconducting magnetic spectrometer. Several coils were subject to overall thermal performance and coil charging tests. The coils have low but persistent currents and have proven themselves to be rugged and reliable for mobile balloon flights. Satellite experiments will be conducted on a new, similar design.

  2. Alternate design of ITER cryostat skirt support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Manish Kumar; Gupta, Girish Kumar; Bhardwaj, Anil Kumar; Jha, Saroj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The skirt support of ITER cryostat is a support system which takes all the load of cryostat cylinder and dome during normal and operational condition. The present design of skirt support has full penetration weld joints at the bottom (shell to horizontal plate joint). To fulfill the requirements of tolerances and control the welding distortions, we have proposed to change the full penetration weld into fillet weld. A detail calculation is done to check the feasibility and structural impact due to proposed design. The calculations provide the size requirements of fillet weld. To verify the structural integrity during most severe load case, finite element analysis (FEA) has been done in line with ASME section VIII division 2. By FEA 'Plastic Collapse' and 'Local Failure' modes has been assessed. 5° sector of skirt clamp has been modeled in CATIA V5 R21 and used in FEA. Fillet weld at shell to horizontal plate joint has been modeled and symmetry boundary condition at ± 2.5° applied. 'Elastic Plastic Analysis' has been performed for the most severe loading case i.e. Category IV loading. The alternate design of Cryostat Skirt support system has been found safe by analysis against Plastic collapse and Local Failure Modes with load proportionality factor 2.3. Alternate design of Cryostat skirt support system has been done and validated by FEA. As per alternate design, the proposal of fillet weld has been implemented in manufacturing. (author)

  3. A new cryostat for 'in situ' radiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, Y.; Radhakrishnan, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    Conventional cryostats to study properties of materials between 4deg K and 300deg K base their designs either on continuous flow or bath type. A new cryostat which incorporates the advantages of both these has been designed and fabricated. This essentially has three chambers isolated from each other by poor thermal links. These are enclosed in a vacuum chamber and the whole assembly is immersed in a 4 He bath. The lowermost chamber is kept in good thermal contact with the bath. The second chamber can be maintained between 4deg K and 77deg K by circulation of cold 4 He vapour. The uppermost chamber can be maintained between 77deg K and 300deg K by circulating cold nitrogen vapours. There is a through axial hole in the centre, through which the sample can be moved up and down by means of a thin walled stainless steel tube. This comes out from the top of the cryostat through a Wilson seal. Thus the specimen can be anchored in any of the three chambers. This cryostat can be used to study the radiation damages caused by α-particles the sample being kept at 4.2deg K. There is provision for isolating the sample from the radiation zone. Isothermal and isochronal annealing of the damage caused can also be studied. Provision for taking out electrical leads from both inside and outside the sample chamber are also there. (auth.)

  4. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  5. ITER In-Cryostat inspection and repair feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.; Cordier, J.-J.; Houtte, D. van; Evrard, D.; Mercier, E.; Popa, T.; Doshi, B.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER In-Cryostat maintenance study is an important precondition to guarantee the operation over the ITER lifetime. The ITER operation is subdivided mainly into two phases: 1.Hydrogen phase (non-nuclear operation phase). 2.Deuterium/Tritium phase (nuclear DT phase). The commissioning phase includes the initial phase of assembly. Within the first phase the ITER components will be tested; afterwards they will go into operation. The In-Cryostat maintenance shall facilitate all operations that could be required by In-Cryostat systems and the Cryostat itself. In cases of failures or unlikely events (e.g. earthquakes) it is necessary to provide man and tool access to In-Cryostat components. Overall functions which have to be implemented are: ·Inspection of components including leak localization (helium, water, air). ·Repair and replacement of component (instrumentation, parts or complete components). ·Regulatory inspections. It is presumed that most of component failure would occur at the beginning of the operational phase. This failure rate is expected to be very unlikely when ITER is being operating during the nuclear phase. For maintenance activities it is assumed that: ·The intervention frequency on each component is limited during its lifetime (e.g. inspections/repair during global shutdown). ·Most of these interventions will be required during the inactive phase. According to ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) rules maintenance activities will be planned in order to minimize the required human interventions during the active phase. Different tools have to be designed to perform the maintenance actions. As there are quiet all heavy components to be handled and removed, humans cannot perform the work without semi hands-on tools. The required permanent fixtures and tools are considered and pre-designed.

  6. ITER In-Cryostat inspection and repair feasibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J., E-mail: Jens.Reich@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Cordier, J.-J.; Houtte, D. van [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Evrard, D. [Sogeti High Tech, 180 rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix en Provence (France); Mercier, E. [AREVA CNIM KAH System Engineering Support, CS 50497, 13593 Aix en Provence Cedex 3 (France); Popa, T.; Doshi, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The ITER In-Cryostat maintenance study is an important precondition to guarantee the operation over the ITER lifetime. The ITER operation is subdivided mainly into two phases: 1.Hydrogen phase (non-nuclear operation phase). 2.Deuterium/Tritium phase (nuclear DT phase). The commissioning phase includes the initial phase of assembly. Within the first phase the ITER components will be tested; afterwards they will go into operation. The In-Cryostat maintenance shall facilitate all operations that could be required by In-Cryostat systems and the Cryostat itself. In cases of failures or unlikely events (e.g. earthquakes) it is necessary to provide man and tool access to In-Cryostat components. Overall functions which have to be implemented are: {center_dot}Inspection of components including leak localization (helium, water, air). {center_dot}Repair and replacement of component (instrumentation, parts or complete components). {center_dot}Regulatory inspections. It is presumed that most of component failure would occur at the beginning of the operational phase. This failure rate is expected to be very unlikely when ITER is being operating during the nuclear phase. For maintenance activities it is assumed that: {center_dot}The intervention frequency on each component is limited during its lifetime (e.g. inspections/repair during global shutdown). {center_dot}Most of these interventions will be required during the inactive phase. According to ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) rules maintenance activities will be planned in order to minimize the required human interventions during the active phase. Different tools have to be designed to perform the maintenance actions. As there are quiet all heavy components to be handled and removed, humans cannot perform the work without semi hands-on tools. The required permanent fixtures and tools are considered and pre-designed.

  7. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  8. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  9. Vertical cryostat for guidance and propulsion of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, H.; Arima, K.

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle requires two types of magnet: one for levitation, and one for guidance and propulsion (linear synchronous motor). Cryostats for these magnets have to satisfy three fundamental conditions; lightness, small heat leak, and enough strength to ensure the electromagnetic forces. A prototype vertical cryostat was designed for research into on-board cryostats for guidance and propulsion. A small refrigerator can be connected to the cryostat, to facilitate testing of the fundamental refrigeration system on board. The performance of the cryostat, and the test results, are reported in this paper. (author)

  10. Zero Energy Building Pays for Itself: Odyssey Elementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Odyssey Elementary is a large public school in an area of Utah with a growing population. Created as a prototype for the Davis School District, Odyssey is a zero energy building whose design has already been copied for two other new schools, both of which are targeting zero energy. It has a unique design with four 'houses' (or classroom wings) featuring generously daylit classrooms. This design contributes to the school's energy efficiency. In an effort to integrate positive messages about fitness into the learning environment, each house has a different take on the theme of 'bodies in motion' in the natural world. In a postoccupancy survey of parents, students, and teachers, more than 87% were satisfied with the building overall.

  11. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  12. Secondary containment system for a high tritium research cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugawa, R.T.; Fearon, D.; Souers, P.C.; Hickman, R.G.; Roberts, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A 4.2- to 300-K liquid helium cryostat has been constructed for cryogenic samples of D--T containing up to 4 x 10 14 dis/s (10,000 Ci) of tritium radioactivity. The cryostat is enclosed in a secondary box, which acts as the ultimate container in case of a tritium release. Dry argon is flushed through the box, and the box atmosphere is monitored for tritium, oxygen, and water vapor. A rupture disk and abort tank protect the box atmosphere in case the sample cell breaks. If tritium breaks into the box, a powdered uranium getter trap reduces the 4 x 10 14 dis/s (10,000 Ci) to 4 x 10 9 dis/s (0.1 Ci) in 24 h. A backup palladium--zeolite getter system goes into operation if an overabundance of oxygen contaminates the uranium getter

  13. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  14. Deformation mechanism of the Cryostat in the CADS Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Bai, Feng; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Thermal contraction and expansion of the Cryostat will affect its reliability and stability. To optimize and upgrade the Cryostat, we analyzed the heat transfer in a cryo-vacuum environment from the theoretical point first. The simulation of cryo-vacuum deformation based on a finite element method was implemented respectively. The completed measurement based on a Laser Tracker and a Micro Alignment Telescope was conducted to verify its correctness. The monitored deformations were consistent with the simulated ones. After the predictable deformations in vertical direction have been compensated, the superconducting solenoids and Half Wave Resonator cavities approached the ideal "zero" position under liquid helium conditions. These guaranteed the success of 25 MeV@170 uA continuous wave protons of Chinese accelerator driven subcritical system Injector II. By correlating the vacuum and cryo-deformation, we have demonstrated that the complete deformation was the superposition effect of the atmospheric pressure, gravity and thermal stress during both the process of cooling down and warming up. The results will benefit to an optimization for future Cryostat's design.

  15. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter Construction, commissioning and elected test beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Hervás, L

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been completed and commissioning is in progress to prepare the cryostats for lowering into the ATLAS pit. After a brief description of the detector, its construction and readout electronics, this paper summarizes results of quality checks (electrical, connectivity) carried out during the integration of the calorimeter wheels into the cryostats. We present also selected results of its performance, such as linearity, energy resolution, timing resolution, uniformity of the energy response, obtained in beam tests with several series modules. 16 Refs.

  16. Spanish Minister of Science and Technology visits ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    H.E. Mr Josep Piqué i Camps, Minister for Science and Technology, Spain, pictured in front of a barrel toroid cryostat vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall. The air-core ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system will consist of eight large superconducting coils, each in its own vacuum vessel, built by Spanish company Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas SA under the responsibility of IFAE (Institute for High Energy Physics), Barcelona. Photo 01: The Minister in front of the cryostat vessel. Photo 02: The Minister (right) with H.E. Mr Joaquin Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Spanish Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva. Photo 03: (left to right) Manuel Delfino, leader of the Information Technology division at CERN; Matteo Cavalli-Sforza of CERN; Juan Antonio Rubio, leader of the Education and Technology Transfer division at CERN; The Minister; and Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson.

  17. The structure analysis of ITER cryostat based on the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chao; Ye, M.Y.; Yao, D.M.; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Z.B.; Xu, Teijun; Wang Jian

    2013-01-01

    In the ITER project the cryostat is one of the most important components. Cryostat shall transfer all the loads that derive from the TOKAMAK inner basic machine, and from the cryostat itself, to the floor of the TOKAMAK pit (during the normal and off-normal operational regimes, and at specified accidental conditions). This paper researches the dynamic structure strength of the ITER cryostat during the operation of TOKAMAK. Firstly the paper introduces the types of loads and the importance of every type load to the research. Then it gives out the method of building model and principle of simplified model, boundary conditions and the way of applying loads on the cryostat. Finally the author discussed the analysis result and the strength questions of cryostat, also, the author pointed out the opinions according to the analysis results.

  18. A variable temperature cryostat that produces in situ clean-up germanium detector surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Cork, C.P.; Landis, D.A.; Xing, J.S.; Friesel, D.L.

    1988-11-01

    Variable temperature cryostats that can maintain germanium detectors at temperatures from 82 K to about 400 K while the thermal shield surrounding the detectors remains much colder when the detectors are warmed have been developed. Cryostats such as these offer the possibility of cryopumping material from the surface of detectors to the colder thermal shield. The diode characteristics of several detectors have shown very significant improvement following thermal cycles up to about 150 K in these cryostats. Important applications for cryostats having this attribute are many. 4 figs

  19. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dris, Zakaria bin, E-mail: zakariadris@gmail.com [College of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Putrajaya Campus, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Centre for Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Putrajaya Campus, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A. [Centre for Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Putrajaya Campus, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  20. Design for a low temperature ion implantation and luminescence cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Kirkpatrick, C.G.; Myers, D.R.; Streetman, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Several simple design changes of a conventional liquid helium optical Dewar can significantly improve the cryostat's versatility for use in low temperature particle irradiation. A bellows assembly provides precise sample positioning and allows convenient access for electrical connections. A heat exchanger consisting of thin walled tubing with a 'goose neck' bend provides a simple, effective means of cooling the sample as well as excellent thermal isolation of the sample holder from the coolant reservoir during controlled anneals. The addition of a vane-type vacuum valve, optical windows, and a rotatable tailpiece facilitates the study of optical properties of materials following low temperature ion implantation. (author)

  1. Second generation superconducting super collider dipole magnet cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1988-12-01

    The SSC Magnet Development Program is developing accelerator dipole magnets in successive iterations. The initial iteration is complete with six full length model magnets and a thermal model having been built and tested. This initial experience along with the evolving SSC Magnet System Requirements have resulted in the second generation magnet cryostat design. It is this configuration that will be employed for the near term ongoing magnetic, thermal, string and accelerated life testing and will be the design considered for Phase I; i.e., Technology Orientation, of the SSC Magnet Industrialization Program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Direct liquid content measurement applicable for He II space cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, M.

    1988-01-01

    A direct calorimetric method for content measurement in the He II cryostat ISO was assessed. A well defined heat pulse into the He II bath causes a small temperature increase which can be measured and directly correlated to the liquid mass through the He II specific heat. To study this method under the potential zero gravity constraints of disconnected liquid volumes a setup was established for investigating heat transfer between separated liquid volumes. The results for different fluid configurations confirm that even for completely disconnected volumes the heat is almost immediately distributed throughout the whole liquid by evaporation and recondensation

  3. Assembly work and transport of JT-60SA cryostat base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Fuminori; Masaki, Kei; Yagyu, Jun-ichi; Shibama, Yusuke; Sakasai, Akira; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Nishiyama, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency started to construct a fully superconducting tokamak experiment device, JT-60SA, to support the ITER since January, 2013 at the Fusion Research and Development Directorate in Naka, Japan. The JT-60SA will be constructed with enhancing the previous JT-60 infrastructures, in the JT-60 torus hall, where the ex-JT-60 machine was disassembled. The JT-60SA Cryostat Base, for base of the entire tokamak structure, were assembly as the first step of this construction. The Cryostat Base (CB, 250tons) is consists of 7 main components made of stainless steel, in 12 m diameter and 3 m height. The CB was built in the Spain and transported to the Naka site, via Hitachi port. After pre-assembly work including preliminary measurements and sole plate adjustments of its height/flatness, the JT-60SA CB was carefully set on the sole plate. JT-60SA CB was assembled with high accuracy by using a laser tracker. The CB was adjusted in the height and flatness against the assembly reference position and determined by the absolute coordinates. This report introduces the concrete result of assembly work and transport of JT-60SA CB. (author)

  4. Performance of a proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Y; Makida, Y; Kondo, Y; Kawai, M; Aoki, K; Haruyama, T; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Wachi, Y; Mine, S; Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet has been designed and constructed as a collaborative work between KEK and CERN for the ATLAS experiment in the LHC project The solenoid provides an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla at the center of the tracking volume of the ATLAS detector. The solenoid is installed in a common cryostat of a liquid-argon calorimeter in order to minimize the mass of the cryostat wall. The coil is cooled indirectly by using two-phase helium flow in a pair of serpentine cooling line. The cryogen is supplied by the ATLAS cryogenic plant, which also supplies helium to the Toroid magnet systems. The proximity cryogenic system for the solenoid has two major components: a control dewar and a valve unit In addition, a programmable logic controller, PLC, was prepared for the automatic operation and solenoid test in Japan. This paper describes the design of the proximity cryogenic system and results of the performance test. (7 refs).

  5. Update of the ITER MELCOR model for the validation of the Cryostat design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, M.; Labarta, C.; Terrón, S.; Izquierdo, J.; Perlado, J.M.

    2015-07-01

    Some transients can compromise the vacuum in the Cryostat of ITER and cause significant loads. A MELCOR model has been updated in order to assess this loads. Transients have been run with this model and its result will be used in the mechanical assessment of the cryostat. (Author)

  6. Design of the multilayer insulation system for the Superconducting Super Collider 50mm dipole cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1991-03-01

    The development of the multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm collider dipole cryostat is an ongoing extension of work conducted during the 40 mm cryostat program. While the basic design of the MLI system for the 50 mm cryostat resembles that of the 40 mm cryostat, results from measurements of MLI thermal performance below 80K have prompted a re-design of the MLI system for the 20K thermal radiation shield. Presented is the design of the MLI system for the 50 mm collider dipole cryostat, with discussion focusing on system performance, blanket geometry, cost-effective fabrication techniques, and built-in quality control measures that assure consistent thermal performance throughout the SSC accelerator. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Cryostat for superconducting radio-frequency cavity program at VECC Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Bajirao, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Nandi, C.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Som, S.; Pal, G.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    A cryostat is being designed for testing superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity. The cryostat has an inner helium vessel where the SCRF cavity will be immersed in a pool of liquid helium. A liquid nitrogen shield surrounds the liquid helium vessel. The liquid helium vessel and liquid nitrogen shield shall be enclosed inside a vacuum chamber to reduce heat load. Different designs for the test cryostat have been evaluated. The thickness of inner vessel, outer vessel, head and all the flanges for test cryostat have been calculated for external and internal pressure and for bolt load required for sealing. Garlock Helicoflex spring energized seal are planned to be used for sealing the flanges at 4.5 K. Thermal calculations have been carried out to access the heat leak in the designs. The paper presents the structural and thermal design of the test cryostat. (author)

  8. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  9. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-01-01

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT(reg s ign) model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is ∼37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  10. The couple's odyssey: Hollywood's take on love relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Psychiatrists need to be aware of how their individual clients are impacted by issues they may be having in their intimate relationships and how couples issues, in turn, impact and are impacted by emotional and mental disorders. In addition, psychiatrists need to be able to offer sound advice to individuals in troubled relationships, know how to make referrals to trained marriage therapists and know how medications they prescribe may impact couples. Over the past twenty years, there have been significant advances in couple research to assist health professionals in offering insight to couples struggling with communication, conflict resolution, affairs, addictions and many other aspects of the couple's odyssey. Movie clips offer an effective way of teaching psychiatrists about common issues in coupling and couple therapy. The use of movies for teaching health professionals is well documented in previous articles and books on cinemeducation. This paper highlights movies and movie clips which are useful for educating psychiatrists about common clinical issues in couple therapy.

  11. Validation of optical coherence tomography in vivo using cryostat histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambichler, T; Moussa, G; Regeniter, P; Kasseck, C; Hofmann, M R; Bechara, F G; Sand, M; Altmeyer, P; Hoffmann, K

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to validate for the first time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of epidermal thickness (ET) using cryopreparation for histology. OCT assessments of ET were performed on healthy skin using the algorithms as follows: first, peak-to-valley analysis of the A-scan (ET-OCT-V), second, line-traced image analysis of the B-scan (ET-OCT-IA). Histology was performed using cryostat sections which were also evaluated using the image analysis (ET-Histo). We selected 114 samples, including B-scans and corresponding histology, for method comparison between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo. Forty-two A-scans were available for method comparison between ET-OCT-V and ET-Histo. Bland and Altman plots revealed a marked bias with wide 95% limits of agreement for ET-OCT-V versus ET-Histo. Comparison of ET-OCT-IA versus ET-Histo revealed only a slight bias and narrow 95% limits of agreement. A-scan analysis for ET determination is linked to significant limitations and lacks agreement with histology. By contrast, we observed satisfactory agreement between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo indicating that both methods can be utilized interchangeably. OCT using the line-traced image analysis of the B-scan appears to be a valid and relatively practicable method for the determination of ET in vivo. Furthermore, the comparisons with the in vivo OCT profiles demonstrate that cryostat sectioning provides a better preservation of relative and absolute dimensions of skin layers than paraffin embedding. (note)

  12. On the operation of a cryostat for Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; L'vov, A.N.

    1974-01-01

    Operating experience with cryostats for Ge(Li) detectors developed at the FTI of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, and used in several laboratories for 5 years is reported. It is shown that the spectrometric properties of all cryostat-mounted detectors operating since 1969 have not been affected and up to now the detectors are operating successfully. Nitrogen consumption has not increased and is at a level of 0.5 l/d. During five-year continuous operation the cryostat pressure has varied from 6.10 -7 to 8.10 -6 torr

  13. Dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat for measurements at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahirul; Das, Ritesh K.; Weinstein, Roy

    2015-04-14

    A method and a dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat apparatus are provided for implementing enhanced measurements at high magnetic fields. The dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat system includes a trapped-flux magnet (TFM). A sample, for example, a single crystal, is adjustably positioned proximate to the surface of the TFM, using a translation stage such that the distance between the sample and the surface is selectively adjusted. A cryostat is provided with a first separate thermal stage provided for cooling the TFM and with a second separate thermal stage provided for cooling sample.

  14. Comparison of methods for cryostating superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son Zun Gan; Filippov, Yu.P.; Zinchenko, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to refine basic parameters of the UNK cryogenic system with account of real characteristics of horizontal two-phase helium flows and to project ways of optimizing these parameters. The method 1 where liquid helium in the state close to saturation is supplied to the chain of magnets and removes heat releasing in coils and coming from environment at the expense of phase transformation and it leaves the chain as vapour-liquid mixture, is compared with the method 2 where magnet cooling is arranged at the expense of heat transfer from one-phase direct flow to two-phase helium counter flow. The results of calculations are presented as dependences of maximum temperatures of coils on the length of magnetic path. It is shown that at the length of chain of about 300-400 m both methods are practically equivalent by temperature criterion, but the method 1 is preferable due to simpler design of the cryostat and lesser helium quantity in the system

  15. Model SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet cryostat assembly at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) magnet development program includes the design, fabrication and testing of full length model dipole magnets. A result of the program has been the development of a magnet cryostat design. The cryostat subsystems consist of cold mass connection-slide, suspension, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. Design details are presented along with model magnet production experience. 6 refs., 13 figs

  16. Deep Cryogenic Low Power 24 Bits Analog to Digital Converter with Active Reverse Cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turqueti, Marcos; Prestemon, Soren; Albright, Robert

    LBNL is developing an innovative data acquisition module for superconductive magnets where the front-end electronics and digitizer resides inside the cryostat. This electronic package allows conventional electronic technologies such as enhanced metal-oxide-semiconductor to work inside cryostats at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. This is achieved by careful management of heat inside the module that keeps the electronic envelop at approximately 85 K. This approach avoids all the difficulties that arise from changes in carrier mobility that occur in semiconductors at deep cryogenic temperatures. There are several advantages in utilizing this system. A significant reduction in electrical noise from signals captured inside the cryostat occurs due to the low temperature that the electronics is immersed in, reducing the thermal noise. The shorter distance that signals are transmitted before digitalization reduces pickup and cross-talk between channels. This improved performance in signal-to-noise rate by itself is a significant advantage. Another important advantage is the simplification of the feedthrough interface on the cryostat head. Data coming out of the cryostat is digital and serial, dramatically reducing the number of lines going through the cryostat feedthrough interface. It is important to notice that all lines coming out of the cryostat are digital and low voltage, reducing the possibility of electric breakdown inside the cryostat. This paper will explain in details the architecture and inner workings of this data acquisition system. It will also provide the performance of the analog to digital converter when the system is immersed in liquid helium, and in liquid nitrogen. Parameters such as power dissipation, integral non-linearity, effective number of bits, signal-to-noise and distortion, will be presented for both temperatures.

  17. Design of horizontal test cryostat for testing two 650 MHz cavities: cryogenic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, P.; Gilankar, S.; Kush, P. K.; Lakshminarayanan, A.; Choubey, R.; Ghosh, R.; Jain, A.; Patel, H.; Gupta, P. D.; Hocker, A.; Ozelis, J. P.; Geynisman, M.; Reid, C.; Poloubotko, V.; Mitchell, D.; Peterson, T. J.; Nicol, T. H.

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal Test Cryostat has been designed for testing two 650 MHz "dressed" Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities in a single testing cycle at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, India (RRCAT) in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA (FNAL). This cryostat will facilitate testing of two 5-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavities, in CW or pulsed regime, for upcoming High Intensity Superconducting Proton Accelerator projects at both countries. Two such HTS facilities are planned, one at RRCAT for Indian Spallation Neutron Source project (ISNS), which is on the horizon, and the other at FNAL, USA. A test cryostat, a part of horizontal test stand-2 (HTS-2) will be set up at RRCAT for Indian project. In order to maximize the utility of this facility, it can also be used to test two dressed 9-cell 1.3 GHz cavities and other similarly-sized devices. The facility assumes, as an input, the availability of liquid nitrogen at 80 K and liquid helium at 4.5 K and 2 K, with a refrigeration capacity of approximately 50 W at 2 K. Design work of cryostat has been completed and now procurement process is in progress. This paper discusses salient features of the cryostat. It also describes different design calculations and ANSYS analysis for cool down of few subsystems like cavity support system and liquid nitrogen cooled thermal radiation shield of horizontal test cryostat..

  18. Design of the fill/transfer station cryostat for the OMEGA cryogenic target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.R.; Charmin, C.M.; Del Bene, J.V.; Hoffmann, E.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Anteby, I.

    1997-09-01

    General Atomics is designing, testing and fabricating a system for supplying cryogenic targets for the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser system. A prototype system has demonstrated the filling of 1 mm diameter, 3 microm wall plastic spheres to 111 MPa (1,100 atm) with deuterium and then cooling to 18 K to condense the fuel. The production design must be capable of routinely filling and cooling targets with a 50/50 mix of deuterium and tritium and transferring them to a device which places the targets into the focus of 60 laser beams. This paper discusses the design and analysis of the production Fill/Transfer Station cryostat. The cryostat has two major components, a fixed base and a removable dome. The joint between the base and the dome is similar to a bayonet fitting and is sealed by a room temperature elastomeric o-ring. Since the cryostat must be housed in a glovebox, its design is driven strongly by maintenance requirements. To reach the equipment inside the cryostat, the dome is simply unbolted and lifted. The inside of the cryostat is maintained at 16 K by a closed loop helium flow system. Gaseous helium at about 1.4 MPa (200 psi) flows through tubes which are brazed to the inner walls. Cooling is provided by several cryocoolers which are located external to the cryostat. Liquid nitrogen is used as a heat intercept and to precool the helium gas

  19. ATLAS's superconducting solenoid takes up position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid was moved to its final destination on 16 January. It has taken up position opposite the ATLAS liquid argon barrel cryostat, which will house the electromagnetic calorimeter. All that remains to do now is to slide it into the insulation vacuum, this will be done in the next few weeks. Built by Toshiba, under responsibility of KEK in Japan, the central solenoid is 2.4 metres in diameter, 5.3 metres long and weighs 5.5 tonnes. "It will provide an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla that will deflect particles inside the inner detector," as Roger Ruber, on-site project coordinator, explains. The inner detector, which consists of three sub-detectors, will be installed inside the solenoid later. The solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead travelling crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid argon calorimeter, it will be inserted soon.

  20. Ultimate Performance of the ATLAS Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, R; Kawai, M; Kondo, Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; Kate, H ten; Kondo, T; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2007-01-01

    A 2 tesla, 7730 ampere, 39 MJ, 45 mm thin superconducting solenoid with a 2.3 meters warm bore and 5.3 meters length, is installed in the center of the ATLAS detector and successfully commissioned. The solenoid shares its cryostat with one of the detector's calorimeters and provides the magnetic field required for the inner detectors to accurately track collision products from the LHC at CERN. After several years of a stepwise construction and test program, the solenoid integration 100 meters underground in the ATLAS cavern is completed. Following the on-surface acceptance test, the solenoid is now operated with its final cryogenic, powering and control system. A re-validation of all essential operating parameters is completed. The performance and test results of underground operation are reported and compared to those previously measured.

  1. Y2K+1: Technology, Community-College Students, the Millennium, and Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Considers how screening Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" in a sophomore film class shows modern community-college students that millennial anxiety existed well before late 1999, the time of "Y2K" fears. Presents an assignment that examines "2001: A Space Odyssey" in the context of its time and in 2001. (SG)

  2. The First End-Cap Cryostat is being Tested at Cold

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M

    The integration of the LAr end-cap detector wheels - one electromagnetic calorimeter wheel and two hadronic calorimeter wheels - was finished at the end of 2003 (see Fig. 1). Fig. 1: ECC cryostat after the insertion of the second hadronic end-cap wheel (Dec. 2003), and before the insertion of the forward calorimeter. After the insertion of the forward calorimeter, in summer 2004, the cryostat was closed and welded. Cool-down of the End-Cap C Cryostat: On Nov. 26, 2004, the cool-down of the cryostat started in B180 using forced convection of gaseous N2 in the heat exchangers and He gas in the cryostat (see Fig. 2). The cool-down speed during this time was on average 0.2K/h, hence arriving at a temperature of approximately 120K after about 6 weeks. The speed of the cool down was limited by stringent requirements on the temperature gradients in the detector wheels, which were established from mechanical constraints. The most severe limit was the maximum allowed temperature difference of 6K for the el...

  3. A simple continuous flow cryostat for low temperature experiments in pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Hideharu; Tamura, Takaaki; Tabata, Yoneho

    1978-01-01

    A conventional liquid bath type cryostat connected with a helium refrigerator has been used for the irradiation at very low temperatures in a fast neutron source reactor, YAYOI. In order to start the experiments with the cryostat, it takes 4 to 6 hours to cool down and get ready for irradiation. Furthermore, it was not possible to transfer irradiated samples from the cryostat for irradiation to the other for measurements of electron spin resonance and resistivity, keeping the temperature of liquid helium. Accordingly a simple and convenient cryostat which is capable of providing a wide range of temperatures from liquid helium to 300K, as well as transferring samples with less complexity had been required. In this paper, the design and fabrication of a simple continuous flow cryostat to meet our requirements mentioned above is reported. Cooling time and the consumption rate of liquid helium during the operation at 4.2K under an output of the nuclear reactor of 500W are designed to be less than 30 minutes and less than 7 litres/hour, respectively. (author)

  4. A simple continuous flow cryostat for low temperature experiments in pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Hideharu; Tamura, Takaaki; Tabata, Yoneho

    1978-01-01

    A conventional liquid bath type cryostat connected with a helium refrigerator has been used for the irradiation at very low temperatures in a fast neutron source reactor, YAYOI. In order to start the experiments with the cryostat, it takes 4 to 6 hours to cool down and get ready for irradiation. Furthermore, it was not possible to transfer irradiated samples from the cryostat for irradiation to the other for measurements of electron spin resonance and resistivity keeping the temperature of liquid helium. Accordingly a simple and convenient cryostat which is capable of providing a wide range of temperatures from liquid helium to 300K, as well as transfering samples with less complexity had been required. In this paper, the design and fabrication of a simple continuous flow cryostat to meet our requirements mentioned above is reported. Cooling time and the consumption rate of liquid helium during the operation at 4.2K under a output of the nuclear reactor of 500W are designed to be less than 30 minutes and less than 7 litres/hour, respectively. (author)

  5. Geometrical position of the Large Hadron Collider main dipole inside the cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M; Gubello, G; Hauviller, Claude; Scandale, Walter; Todesco, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting dipole of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a cylindrical structure made of a shrinking cylinder containing iron laminations and collared coils. This 15 m long structure, weighing about 28 t, is horizontally bent by 5 mrad. Its geometrical shape should be preserved, from the assembly phase to the operational condition at cryogenic temperature. When inserted in its cryostat, the dipole cold mass is supported by three posts also providing the thermal insulation. Sliding interfaces should minimize the interference between the dipole and the cryostat during cooling down and warming up. Indeed, a possible non-linear response of the sliding interface can detrimentally affect the final dipole shape. This paper presents the results of dedicated tests investigating interferences and of specific simulations with a 3D finite element model (FEM) describing the mechanical behaviour of the dipole inside the cryostat. Comparison between measurements and FEM simulations is also discussed.

  6. Design, Manufacturing and Integration of LHC Cryostat Components an Example of Collaboration between CERN and Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Slits, Ivo; Canetti, Marco; Colombet, Thierry; Gangini, Fabrizio; Parma, Vittorio; Tock, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The components for the LHC cryostats and interconnections are supplied by European industry. The manufacturing, assembly and testing of these components in accordance with CERN technical specifications require a close collaboration and dedicated approach from the suppliers. This paper presents the different phases of design, manufacturing, testing and integration of four LHC cryostat components supplied by RIAL Vacuum (Parma, Italy), including 112 Insulation Vacuum Barriers (IVB), 482 Cold-mass Extension Tubes (CET), 121 cryostat vacuum vessel Jumper Elbows (JE) and 10800 Interconnection Sleeves (IS). The Quality Assurance Plan, which the four projects have in common, is outlined. The components are all leak-tight thin stainless steel assemblies (<10-8 mbar l/s), most of them operating at cryogenic temperature (2 K), however each having specific requirements. The particularities of each component are presented with respect to manufacturing, assembly and testing. These components are being integrated ...

  7. Commissioning of the 4 K Outer Cryostat for the CUORE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ferri, E; Biassoni, M; Bucci, C; Ceruti, G; Chiarini, A; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Datskov, V; Dossena, S; Faverzani, M; Franceschi, M A; Gaigher, R; Gorla, P; Guetti, M; Ligi, C; Napolitano, T; Nucciotti, A; Pelosi, A; Perego, M; Previtali, E; Sisti, M; Taffarello, L; Terranova, F

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment. The CUORE detector is an array of 988 TeO crystals arranged in a cylindrical, compact, and granular structure of 19 towers. These detectors will need a base temperature lower than 10 mK in order to meet the performance specifications. To cool the CUORE detector, a large cryogen free cryostat with five pulse tubes and one custom designed high power dilution refrigerator has been designed. The three vessels that form the outer shell of the CUORE cryostat were produced in 2012 and are now assembled in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS). We report here the detailed description of the 4 K outer cryostat for the CUORE experiment together with the results of the validation tests done at the production site in 2012 and of the first commissioning to 4 K at LNGS in 2013.

  8. Manufacturing and assembly of the plasma- and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Hein@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Cardella, Antonio; Hermann, Dieter; Hansen, Andreas [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, Franz; Binni, Andreas; Segl, Juergen [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE Deggendorf, Werftstrasse 17, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Wendelstein 7-X is an advanced helical stellarator, which is presently under construction at the Greifswald branch of IPP. A set of 70 superconducting coils arranged in five modules provides a twisted shaped magnetic cage for the plasma and allows steady state operation. Operation of the magnet system at cryogenic temperatures requires a cryostat which provides thermal protection and gives access to the plasma. The main components of the cryostat are the plasma vessel, the outer vessel, the ports, and the thermal insulation. The German company, MAN Diesel and Turbo SE Deggendorf (former MAN DWE GmbH Deggendorf), is responsible for the manufacture and assembly of the plasma vessel, the outer vessel and the thermal insulation. This paper describes the manufacturing and assembly technology of the plasma and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X.

  9. Manufacturing and assembly of the plasma- and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Bernd; Cardella, Antonio; Hermann, Dieter; Hansen, Andreas; Leher, Franz; Binni, Andreas; Segl, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an advanced helical stellarator, which is presently under construction at the Greifswald branch of IPP. A set of 70 superconducting coils arranged in five modules provides a twisted shaped magnetic cage for the plasma and allows steady state operation. Operation of the magnet system at cryogenic temperatures requires a cryostat which provides thermal protection and gives access to the plasma. The main components of the cryostat are the plasma vessel, the outer vessel, the ports, and the thermal insulation. The German company, MAN Diesel and Turbo SE Deggendorf (former MAN DWE GmbH Deggendorf), is responsible for the manufacture and assembly of the plasma vessel, the outer vessel and the thermal insulation. This paper describes the manufacturing and assembly technology of the plasma and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X.

  10. ODYSSEY: A PUBLIC GPU-BASED CODE FOR GENERAL RELATIVISTIC RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN KERR SPACETIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Hung-Yi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yun, Kiyun; Yoon, Suk-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Younsi, Ziri [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge–Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey-Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  11. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  12. Design of a horizonal liquid helium cryostat for refrigerating a flying superconducting magnet in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a horizontal liquid helium cryostat for refrigerating a flying superconducting magnet in a wind tunnel is presented. The basic principles of magnetic suspension theory are described and theoretical calculations of the superconducting magnet are provided. The experimental results of the boil-off of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium in the cryostat are reported.

  13. Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Prototype Lattice Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents the thermal performance of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) prototype cryostats both in steady-state and in transient conditions. LHC will be built in the 27 km LEP tunnel and will provide proton-proton collisions. It will make use of superconducting magnets operating in static bath of superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The thesis is mainly divided in three parts. The first part cont ains three chapters which present a brief overview of the LHC project. Part 1-Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to the LHC design layout and performance. Part 1-Chapter 2 refers to LHC cryogenic s ystem and describes the general architecture of the cryogenic plants, the temperature levels and the heat loads. The 50 m long LHC prototype half-cell contains one twin-bore quadrupole and four twin-a perture dipoles. In Part 1-Chapter 3 the design and construction of the prototype dipole and quadrupole cryostats are presented. The LHC prototype cryostats have integrated cryogenic lines, while the final LHC cryostats hav...

  14. A low temperature cryostat with a refrigerator for studying electron-irradiation effects on solids, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshio; Shono, Yoshihiko

    1978-01-01

    A convenient cryostat with a small cryogenic refrigerator for studying electron-irradiation effects on solids is reported. The lowest temperature at the sample room is about 10 K or less. In a temperature region below 80 K, the sample temperature can be controlled within 0.05 K. (auth.)

  15. Design and assembly technology for the thermal insulation of the W7-X cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risse, K., E-mail: konrad.risse@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Nagel, M.; Pietsch, M.; Braatz, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Binni, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Dpt. OSA, Werftstrasse 17, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Posselt, H. [Linde AG Engineering Div., Dr.-Carl-von-Linde-Strasse 6-14, D-82049 Hoellriegelskreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Greifswald is building up the stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). To operate the superconducting magnet system the vacuum and the cold structures are protected by a thermal insulated cryostat. The plasma vessel forms the inner cryostat wall, the outer wall is realised by a thermal insulated outer vessel. In addition 254 thermal insulated ports are fed through the cryogenic vacuum to allow the access to the plasma vessel for heating systems, supply lines or plasma diagnostics. The thermal insulation is being manufactured and assembled by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Germany). It consists of a multi-layer insulation (MLI) made of aluminized Kapton with a silk like fibreglass spacer and a thermal shield covering the inner cryostat surfaces. The shield on the plasma vessel is made of fibreglass reinforced epoxy resin with integrated copper meshes. The outer vessel insulation is made of brass panels with an average size of 3.3 x 2.0 m{sup 2}. Cooling loops made of stainless steel are connected via copper strips to the brass panels. Especially the complex 3 D shape of the plasma vessel, the restricted space inside the cryostat and the consideration of the operational component movements influenced the design work heavily. The manufacturing and the assembly has to fulfil stringent geometrical tolerances e.g. for the outer vessel panels +3/-2 mm.

  16. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  17. Autometallographic silver enhancement of zinc sulfide crystals created in cryostat sections from human brain biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Juhl, S; Stoltenberg, M

    1997-01-01

    samples containing zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, are frozen in liquid nitrogen or by CO2 gas immediately after removal. The tissue blocks are cut in a cryostat and the sections placed on glass slides. The slides are transferred to an H2S exposure chamber placed in a -15 C freezer. After 1-24 hr of gas...

  18. Design and assembly technology for the thermal insulation of the W7-X cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, K.; Nagel, M.; Pietsch, M.; Braatz, A.; Binni, A.; Posselt, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Greifswald is building up the stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). To operate the superconducting magnet system the vacuum and the cold structures are protected by a thermal insulated cryostat. The plasma vessel forms the inner cryostat wall, the outer wall is realised by a thermal insulated outer vessel. In addition 254 thermal insulated ports are fed through the cryogenic vacuum to allow the access to the plasma vessel for heating systems, supply lines or plasma diagnostics. The thermal insulation is being manufactured and assembled by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Germany). It consists of a multi-layer insulation (MLI) made of aluminized Kapton with a silk like fibreglass spacer and a thermal shield covering the inner cryostat surfaces. The shield on the plasma vessel is made of fibreglass reinforced epoxy resin with integrated copper meshes. The outer vessel insulation is made of brass panels with an average size of 3.3 x 2.0 m 2 . Cooling loops made of stainless steel are connected via copper strips to the brass panels. Especially the complex 3 D shape of the plasma vessel, the restricted space inside the cryostat and the consideration of the operational component movements influenced the design work heavily. The manufacturing and the assembly has to fulfil stringent geometrical tolerances e.g. for the outer vessel panels +3/-2 mm.

  19. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10 -4 Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  20. A 5 tesla superconducting magnet and cryostats for an EPR/FMR spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvekamp, E.M.C.M.; Gerritsma, G.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the cryogenic part of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer using Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) and U-band (40-60 GHz) frequencies for resonance measurements on large magnetic thin-films. The unit has two cryostats; the first has a

  1. Design and Fabrication of Cryostat Interface and Electronics for High Performance Antimatter Trap (HI-PAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    Included in Appendix I to this report is a complete set of design and assembly schematics for the high vacuum inner trap assembly, cryostat interfaces and electronic components for the MSFC HI-PAT. Also included in the final report are summaries of vacuum tests, and electronic tests performed upon completion of the assembly.

  2. ATHENA X-IFU 300 K-50 mK cryochain demonstrator cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouvé, T.; Duval, J. M.; Charles, I.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Tokoku, C.; Yamamoto, R.; Minami, Y.; Le Du, M.; Andre, J.; Daniel, C.; Linder, M.

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the ESA X-ray mission ATHENA, scheduled for launch in 2028, an ESA Core Technology Program (CTP) was started in 2016 to build a flight like cryostat demonstrator in parallel with the phase A studies of the ATHENA/X-IFU instrument [1,2]. As part of this CTP, called the Detector Cooling System (DCS), design, manufacturing and test of a cryostat including existing space coolers will be done. In addition to the validation of thermal performance, a Focal Plan Assembly (FPA) demonstrator using Transition Edge Sensors (TES) detector technology will be also integrated and its performance characterized versus the environment provided by the cryostat. This is a unique opportunity to validate many crucial issues of the cryogenic part of such a sensitive instrument. A dedicated activity within this CTP-DCS is the demonstration of the 300 K-50 mK cooling chain in a Ground System Equipment (GSE) cryostat. The studies are focused on the operation of the space coolers, which is made possible by the use of a ground cooler for cooling cryogenic shields and mechanical supports. Thanks to the modularity of the cryostat, several cooling chains could be tested. In the base line configuration described here, the low temperature stage is the CEA hybrid sorption/ADR 50 mK cooler with thermal interfaces at 4 K and 2 K. 4 K cooling is accomplished by a 4 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler and its Stirling precooler provided by JAXA. Regarding the 2 K stage, at first a 2 K JT from JAXA will be used. Alternatively, a 2 K JT cooler from RAL could replace the JAXA 2 K JT. In both cases new prototype(s) of a 2 K JT will be implemented, precooled by the EM 15 K pule tube cooler from Air Liquide. This test program is also the opportunity to validate the operation of the cryochain with respect to various requirements, such as time constant and temperature stabilities. This would bring us valuable inputs to integrate the cryochain in DCS cryostat or for the X-IFU phase A studies

  3. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  4. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  5. SU-F-J-149: Beam and Cryostat Scatter Characteristics of the Elekta MR-Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duglio, M; Towe, S; Roberts, D [Elekta Limited, Crawley, West Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Elekta MR-Linac combines a digital linear accelerator system with a 1.5T Philips MRI machine. This study aimed to determine key characteristic information regarding the MR-Linac beam and in particular it evaluated the effect of the MR cryostat on the out of field scatter dose. Methods: Tissue phantom ratios, profiles and depth doses were acquired in plastic water with an IC-profiler or with an MR compatible water tank using multiple system configurations (Full (B0= 1.5T), Full (B0=0T) and No cryostat). Additionally, an in-house CAD based Monte Carlo code based on Penelope was used to provide comparative data. Results: With the cryostat in place and B0=0T, the measured TPR for the MR Linac system was 0.702, indicating an energy of around 7MV. Without the cryostat, the measured TPR was 0.669. For the Full (B0=0T) case, out of field dose at a depth of 10 cm in the isocentric plane, 5 cm from the field edge was 0.8%, 3.1% and 5.4% for 3×3 cm{sup 2}, 10×10 cm{sup 2} and 20×20 cm{sup 2} fields respectively.The out of field dose (averaged between 5 cm and 10 cm beyond the field edges) in the “with cryostat” case is 0.78% (absolute difference) higher than without the cryostat for clinically relevant field sizes (i.e. 10×10 cm{sup 2}) and comparable to measured conventional 6MV treatment beams at a depth of 10 cm (within 0.1% between 5 cm and 6 cm from field edge). At dose maximum and at 5 cm from the field edge, the “with cryostat” out of field scatter for a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field is 1.5% higher than “without cryostat', with a modest increase (0.9%) compared to Agility 6MV in the same conditions. Conclusion: The study has presented typical characteristics of the MR-Linac beam and determined that out of field dose is comparable to conventional treatment beams. All authors are employed by Elekta Ltd., who are developing an MR-Linac.

  6. Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector: Another Win for Warden s Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    the aircraft aimed at armoured vehicles just outside Benghazi. At night, US Navy ships and Royal Navy submarine HMS Triumph launched 112 Tomahawk...the vicinity of Zintan: 3 tanks, 1 anti-aircraft weapon system and 1 armoured vehicles were destroyed. In the vicinity of Brega: 1 building was... demographic groups) to be sympathetic and helpful in a variety of ways.”95 For Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector, the objective was

  7. Mongolian Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatic atlas dated 1985, in Mongolian, with introductory material also in Russian and English. One hundred eight pages in single page PDFs.

  8. Characterisation of a cryostat using simultaneous, single-beam multiple-surface laser vibrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissinger, Thomas; Charrett, Thomas O. H.; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P., E-mail: r.p.tatam@cranfield.ac.uk [Engineering Photonics, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Adams, Alvin; Twin, Andrew [Oxford Instruments Nanoscience, Tubney Woods, Abingdon, Oxon, OX13 5QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-28

    A novel range-resolved interferometric signal processing technique that uses sinusoidal optical frequency modulation is applied to multi-surface vibrometry, demonstrating simultaneous optical measurements of vibrations on two surfaces using a single, collimated laser beam, with a minimum permissible distance of 3.5 cm between surfaces. The current system, using a cost-effective laser diode and a fibre-coupled, downlead insensitive setup, allows an interferometric fringe rate of up to 180 kHz to be resolved with typical displacement noise levels of 8 pm · Hz{sup −05}. In this paper, the system is applied to vibrometry measurements of a table-top cryostat, with concurrent measurements of the optical widow and the sample holder target inside. This allows the separation of common-mode vibrations of the whole cryostat from differential vibrations between the window and the target, allowing any resonances to be identified.

  9. Dynamic deuteron polarization measurements performed in a new type of horizontal dilution cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Althoff, K.H.; Kaul, O.; Riechert, H.; Schilling, E.

    1982-05-01

    We have reached 31% deuteron polarization in D- ammonia (ND 3 ) and 27% in D- butanol (C 4 D 10 O). The dynamic polarization experiments were performed at a magnetic field of 2.5 T in a new type of horizontal dilution cryostat. This dilution cryostat, built for target asymmetry measurements with a photon beam, was developed with special regard to fast cool-down and easy loading of the target material. The cooling power is 5 mW at 0.2 K, 20 mW at 0.3 K and 34 mW at 0.4 K. Starting from room temperature the lowest temperature of 165 mK is reached in about 2 h including the loading of the target material. (orig.)

  10. Three-dimensional eddy current analysis of cryostat outer-vessel in superconductive magnetically levitated vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Veno, T.

    1987-01-01

    The eddy currents on the cryostat outer-vessel of an SCM(superconducting magnet) are investigated taking into account of the non-contact on-board power generator system. Numerical expressions are developed by combining a Fourier series method and an integral equation method. It becomes clear that the 5-th space harmonic field which is due to the ground levitation coils, is a dominant factor in the eddy currents of the outer-vessel, and that a concentration of the currents occurs in the corner on the inner side of the bottom of the cryostat outer-vessel. Designs such as the distance between the two arrays of the ground levitation coils, and the lateral location of the induction coils of the power generator are also discussed

  11. Pressure relief protection in cryostats: CERN’s experience on LHC and HIE Isolde

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Cryostats contain large cold surfaces, cryogenic fluids, and sometimes large stored energy (e.g. energized magnets), with the potential risk of sudden liberation of energy through thermodynamic transformations of the fluids, which can be uncontrolled and lead to a dangerous increase of pressure inside the cryostat envelopes. The consequence, in the case of a rupture of the envelopes, may be serious for personnel (injuries from deflagration, burns, and oxygen deficiency hazard) as well as for the equipment. Performing a thorough risk analysis is an essential step to identify and understand risk hazards that may cause a pressure increase and in order to assess consequences, define mitigation actions, and design adequate safety relief devices to limit pressure accordingly. Lessons learnt from real cases are essential for improving safety awareness for future projects: LHC and HIE Isolde are amongst these examples.

  12. Combined He3 cryostats and He3-He4 dilution refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, L.; Balla, J.

    1974-07-01

    A modular set of equipment was designed, which consists of a 4 He Dewar vessel with a very low evaporation rate, having a pumped 4 He bath in which either a 3 He cryostat or a dilution refrigerator within removable inserts can be placed. Any of them can be simply and rapidly connected to the versatile Dewar, auxiliary 4 He-, vacuum; and 3 He- 4 He systems. Two such sets have already been completed and can be used at temperatures from 1.5K to 0.05K for thermodynamic and neutron diffraction measurements. The performance of all inserts was stable and reliable, differences between the cryostats and runs were small - nearly all within the accuracy of temperature determination. The construction of a lot of parts is identical, allowing rapid manufacture. Assembling and repairs are simple, all parts are easily accessible. (K.A.)

  13. Series-produced Helium II Cryostats for the LHC Magnets Technical Choices, Industrialisation, Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Poncet, A

    2008-01-01

    Assembled in 8 continuous segments of approximately 2.7 km length each, the He II cryostats for the 1232 cryodipoles and 474 Short Straight Sections (SSS housing the quadrupoles) must fulfil tight technical requirements. They have been produced by industry in large series according to cost-effective industrial production methods to keep expenditure within the financial constraints of the project and assembled under contract at CERN. The specific technical requirements of the generic systems of the cryostat (vacuum, cryogenic, electrical distribution, magnet alignment) are briefly recalled, as well as the basic design choices leading to the definition of their components (vacuum vessels, thermal shielding, supporting systems). Early in the design process emphasis was placed on the feasibility of manufacturing techniques adequate for large series production of components, optimal tooling for time-effective assembly methods, and reliable quality assurance systems. An analytical review of the costs of the cryosta...

  14. Cryostat insert with gas loading capabilities for use in neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, C. F. III; Larese, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a versatile insert for use with the ''Standard Orange cryostat'' commonly found at neutron scattering facilities worldwide. Its design permits condensable gases to be introduced into a low-temperature sample cell through a vacuum-insulated, fill-line capillary. It also allows the top-flange-to-sample-cell distance to be easily adjusted and provides for auxillary heating of the fill-line capillary. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Cryostat insert with gas loading capabilities for use in neutron diffraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C. F. III [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Larese, J. Z. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a versatile insert for use with the ''Standard Orange cryostat'' commonly found at neutron scattering facilities worldwide. Its design permits condensable gases to be introduced into a low-temperature sample cell through a vacuum-insulated, fill-line capillary. It also allows the top-flange-to-sample-cell distance to be easily adjusted and provides for auxillary heating of the fill-line capillary. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  16. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. (author)

  17. Optimization of the outer support in the ITER lower cryostat thermal shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, C.H., E-mail: chnoh@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W., E-mail: whchung@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J., E-mail: jongmin.lim@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.C., E-mail: bclee@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Design methodology for the ITER lower cryostat thermal shield support is described. • Design optimization is performed using the kriging meta-model. • Single plate support design is proposed as an alternative design. • Proposed design has 24% reduced weight compared with the initial design. - Abstract: ITER Lower Cryostat Thermal Shield (LCTS) is fixed to the cryostat floor by a thin flexible plate support. Double plate made of titanium alloy is adopted as a reference design. Double plate is effective to get structural reliability for the high inertia load and buckling load. Thin plate with titanium alloy has good flexibility to the thermal movement and reduces conduction heat load from cryostat floor to the thermal shield. Double plate support has enough structural margin. In addition, titanium alloy requires high cost for fabrication. Design optimization is required to save manufacturing expenses. In addition to the mass minimization, design modification from double plate to single plate is proposed, because welding of double plate is difficult due to narrow gap between two plates. In this paper, design process to find optimal design of LCTS support is described. The sensitivities of the design variables such as thickness, height, width and gap between two plates are investigated. Optimal design solution is obtained by Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm based on the meta-model developed by randomly selected experimental samples. Through the design optimization process, optimal designs of the LCTS support are obtained. The weight of the support plates can be reduced to 24% compared with the initial design.

  18. Optimization of the outer support in the ITER lower cryostat thermal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, C.H.; Chung, W.; Lim, J.; Lee, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design methodology for the ITER lower cryostat thermal shield support is described. • Design optimization is performed using the kriging meta-model. • Single plate support design is proposed as an alternative design. • Proposed design has 24% reduced weight compared with the initial design. - Abstract: ITER Lower Cryostat Thermal Shield (LCTS) is fixed to the cryostat floor by a thin flexible plate support. Double plate made of titanium alloy is adopted as a reference design. Double plate is effective to get structural reliability for the high inertia load and buckling load. Thin plate with titanium alloy has good flexibility to the thermal movement and reduces conduction heat load from cryostat floor to the thermal shield. Double plate support has enough structural margin. In addition, titanium alloy requires high cost for fabrication. Design optimization is required to save manufacturing expenses. In addition to the mass minimization, design modification from double plate to single plate is proposed, because welding of double plate is difficult due to narrow gap between two plates. In this paper, design process to find optimal design of LCTS support is described. The sensitivities of the design variables such as thickness, height, width and gap between two plates are investigated. Optimal design solution is obtained by Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm based on the meta-model developed by randomly selected experimental samples. Through the design optimization process, optimal designs of the LCTS support are obtained. The weight of the support plates can be reduced to 24% compared with the initial design.

  19. Combination closed-cycle refrigerator/liquid-He4 cryostat for e- damage of bulk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    A closed-cycle refrigerator/cryostat system for use in ultrasonic studies of electron irradiation damaged bulk specimens is described. The closed-cycle refrigerator provides a convenient means for long-term (several days) sample irradiation at low temperatures. A neon filled ''thermal diode'' is employed to permit efficient cooling, via liquid helium, of the sample below the base temperature of the refrigerator

  20. A cryostatic setup for the low-temperature measurement of thermal diffusivity with the photothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Liakhou, G.; Li Voti, R.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Sparvieri, N.

    1995-01-01

    A cryostatic setup is described to perform photothermal deflection measurements from room temperature to 77 K. The setup uses gaseous nitrogen as a medium where the photodeflection is produced. The ability of the system to work is demonstrated presenting some measurements of thermal diffusivity of high-temperature superconductor samples and of yttrium-iron garnets with variable aluminum content. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. The liquid helium system of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Starting in 1978 with one small refrigerator and distribution line, the LHe system of ATLAS has gradually grown into a complex network, as required by several enlargements of the superconducting linac. The cryogenic system now comprises 3 refrigerators, 11 helium compressors, /approximately/340 ft. of coaxial LHe transfer line, 3 1000-l dewars, and /approximately/76 LHe valves that deliver steady-state flowing LHe to 16 beam-line cryostats. In normal operation, the 3 refrigerators are linked so as to provide cooling where needed. LHe heat exchangers in distribution lines play an important role. This paper discusses design features of the system, including the logic of the controls that permit the coupled refrigerators to operate stably in the presence of large and sudden changes in heat load. 8 refs., 3 figs

  2. ATLAS superconducting solenoid on-surface test

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, Roger J M Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; ten Kate, H H J; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Makida, Y; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Pavlov, O V; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is presently under construction as one of the five LHC experiment set-ups. It relies on a sophisticated magnet system for the momentum measurement of charged particle tracks. The superconducting solenoid is at the center of the detector, the magnet system part nearest to the proton-proton collision point. It is designed for a 2 Tesla strong axial magnetic field at the collision point, while its thin-walled construction of 0.66 radiation lengths avoids degradation of energy measurements in the outer calorimeters. The solenoid and calorimeter have been integrated in their common cryostat, cooled down and tested on-surface. We review the on-surface set-up and report the performance test results.

  3. Pulse shape analysis of enriched BEGe detectors in vacuum cryostat and liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium diodes of BEGe type (Canberra, Belgium) made from isotopically modified material have been procured for Phase II of Gerda. They will improve the sensitivity of the experiment by additional target mass, improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. The PSD efficiencies of the new enriched BEGe detectors were studied in vacuum cryostats as part of the characterization campaign at the HADES underground laboratory. For a deeper understanding of the pulse shape performance of the enriched BEGe detectors, detailed {sup 241}Am surface scans were performed. Unexpectedly high position-dependence of the pulse shape parameter Amplitude-over-Energy was found for some of the detectors. With further investigation this effect was traced to surface charge effects specific to the operational configuration of the detectors inside the vacuum cryostats. The standard behavior is restored when they are operated in liquid argon in the configuration intended for Gerda Phase II. Finally, five of the enriched BEGe diodes were installed in the Gerda liquid argon cryostat prior to the full upgrade. They show a good performance and are able to reject efficiently multi-site-events as well as β- and α-particles.

  4. Structural design of vacuum bulkheads in piping penetration for the cryostat base of JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Shibama, Yusuke K.; Masaki, Kei

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the structure of the boundary box that is capable of installing the cryostat base of JT-60SA in a narrow space. Since other devices stand close in the neighborhood, it was designed to fit within a limited space to avoid interference. Spatial limitation and generated stress caused by each load were used as design conditions. From the calculation results of the generated stress with respect to each load, the maximum stress is generated by the displacement of the pipeline associated with the displacement of the vacuum container at the time of earthquake and 200degC baking, so bellows were designed to absorb the displacement of the piping. It was confirmed through 3-D finite element analysis that this generated stress is less than the allowable stress and there is no problem in structural integrity. This paper explained the composition of major equipment of JT-60SA and the structure of cryostat base. In the structural analysis of the boundary box, consideration was given to the pressure difference during vacuum closure or abnormal events, temperature distribution, pipe displacement associated with the deformation of vacuum vessel, and seismic load. As a result of finite element analysis, it was confirmed that the displacement amount and temperature distribution during plasma operation and baking were within the allowable range. In addition, the maximum stress during cryostat helium leak was also within the allowable range. (A.O.)

  5. Final Design and Experimental Validation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Lattice Cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcey, N.; Capatina, O.; Parma, V.; Poncet, A.; Rohmig, P.; Serio, L.; Skoczen, B.; Tock, J.-P.; Williams, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    The recent commissioning and operation of the LHC String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the global thermal performance of the LHC lattice cryostat at nominal cryogenic conditions. The cryostat designed to minimize the heat inleak from ambient temperature, houses under vacuum and thermally protects the cold mass, which contains the LHC twin-aperture superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel, such as support posts and insulation vacuum barriers are designed with efficient thermalisations for heat interception to minimise heat conduction. Heat inleak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation (MLI) wrapped around the cold mass and around an aluminium thermal shield cooled to about 60 K.Measurements of the total helium vaporization rate in String 2 gives, after substraction of supplementary heat loads and end effects, an estimate of the total thermal load to a standard LHC cell (107 m) including two Short Straight Sections and six dipole cryomagnets. Temperature sensors installed at critical locations provide a temperature mapping which allows validation of the calculated and estimated thermal performance of the cryostat components, including efficiency of the heat interceptions

  6. Final Design and Experimental Validation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Lattice Cryostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcey, N.; Capatina, O.; Parma, V.; Poncet, A.; Rohmig, P.; Serio, L.; Skoczen, B.; Tock, J.-P.; Williams, L. R.

    2004-06-01

    The recent commissioning and operation of the LHC String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the global thermal performance of the LHC lattice cryostat at nominal cryogenic conditions. The cryostat designed to minimize the heat inleak from ambient temperature, houses under vacuum and thermally protects the cold mass, which contains the LHC twin-aperture superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel, such as support posts and insulation vacuum barriers are designed with efficient thermalisations for heat interception to minimise heat conduction. Heat inleak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation (MLI) wrapped around the cold mass and around an aluminium thermal shield cooled to about 60 K. Measurements of the total helium vaporization rate in String 2 gives, after substraction of supplementary heat loads and end effects, an estimate of the total thermal load to a standard LHC cell (107 m) including two Short Straight Sections and six dipole cryomagnets. Temperature sensors installed at critical locations provide a temperature mapping which allows validation of the calculated and estimated thermal performance of the cryostat components, including efficiency of the heat interceptions.

  7. A closed cycle-cryostat for high-field Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoschka, A; Schuenemann, V; Svenconis, G

    2010-01-01

    A closed cycle-cryostat coupled to a Moessbauer spectrometer has been installed at the University of Kaiserslautern and is in full operation since march 2007. The setup is equipped with a low vibrating two-stage pulse tube cooler and has a cool down time of 48 h. The sample can be top loaded without the need to shut off the refrigerator. With the static helium exchange gas in the variable temperature insert the sample may be cooled down from room temperature to 50 K within several hours. Dynamic exchange gas with external supply of gaseous helium is used to cool the sample down to 2 K. The superconducting self-shielding split-coil generates a magnetic field of up to 5 Tesla and a stray field of ca. 60 mT at the outer cryostat walls. Moessbauer measurements can be performed in perpendicular or parallel field orientations. The sample holder and the Moessbauer drive are rigidly connected to the cryostat. In this way a line width of the two inner α-Fe lines of 0.32 mm/s has been currently achieved.

  8. Cryostat for mechanical testing of materials at 4.2 K [Paper No. : VII-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsakumar, M.C.; Kannan, N.; Radhakrishnan, T.S.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid helium cryostat has been fabricated to be coupled to a Instron Model 1195 Universal Testing Machine for mechanical testing of materials at low temperatures. The sample is held between two grip assemblies, the top one being connected to the load cell by a long pull-rod. The bottom grip is connected to a tube, co-axial to the pull-rod, which in turn is attached to the moving cross-head. Studies with this set-up give information about the yield characteristics at room temperature, 77 K and at 4.2 K. With a manostat, the temperature ranges can be extended to 64-80 K and 1-5 K. The effect of magnetic field on yield characteristics, especially due to the viscous drag of dislocations by electron cloud, can be studied by a 10 kG superconducting magnet around the sample. The cryostat has been tested to the load capacity which is 5 KN. Results of tests done on annealed copper with this set-up are in agreement with the literature. Temperature stability at liquid nitrogen temperature makes it possible to do stress relaxation experiments for a duration of 15 minutes. The cryostat has a liquid helium consumption of about 3 litres per test. (author)

  9. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, J.G.; Hertrich, T.; Drury, O.B.; Hohne, J.; Friedrich, S.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to ∼3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of ∼2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors

  10. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. After a test insertion on 6th February and a few weeks of preparation work it was finally inserted on 27th February. A couple of hectic 24-hours/7-day weeks followed in order to connect all services in the cryostat bulkhead. But last Monday, 15th March, both warm flanges of the cryostat could be closed. In another week's time we expect to finish the connection of the cryogenic cooling lines and the superconducting bus lines with the external services. Then the cool-down and test will commence... ...

  11. Computational models for electromagnetic transients in ITER vacuum vessel, cryostat and thermal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.; Arslanova, D.; Belov, A.; Belyakov, V.; Gapionok, E.; Gornikel, I.; Gribov, Y.; Ioki, K.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Sugihara, M.; Sychevsky, S.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A set of detailed computational models are reviewed that covers integrally the system “vacuum vessel (VV), cryostat, and thermal shields (TS)” to study transient electromagnetics (EMs) in the ITER machine. The models have been developed in the course of activities requested and supervised by the ITER Organization. EM analysis is enabled for all ITER operational scenarios. The input data are derived from results of DINA code simulations. The external EM fields are modeled accurate to the input data description. The known magnetic shell approach can be effectively applied to simulate thin-walled structures of the ITER machine. Using an integral–differential formulation, a single unknown is determined within the shells in terms of the vector electric potential taken only at the nodes of a finite-element (FE) mesh of the conducting structures. As a result, the FE mesh encompasses only the system “VV + Cryostat + TS”. The 3D model requires much higher computational resources as compared to a shell model based on the equivalent approximation. The shell models have been developed for all principal conducting structures in the system “VV + Cryostat + TS” including regular ports and neutral beam ports. The structures are described in details in accordance with the latest design. The models have also been applied for simulations of EM transients in components of diagnostic systems and cryopumps and estimation of the 3D effects of the ITER structures on the plasma performance. The developed models have been elaborated and applied for the last 15 years to support the ITER design activities. The finalization of the ITER VV design enables this set of models to be considered ready to use in plasma-physics computations and the development of ITER simulators

  12. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  13. Activities on cryostats and SRF cavities at the I.P.N. Orsay laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelher, S.; Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Junquera, T.

    1993-01-01

    The main effort of the SRF community at Orsay during the last five years was concentrated on the MACSE project (study, construction, assembly and test of 3 cryostats), participation to the TESLA project and R and D activities in close collaboration with the Saclay SRF group. 3 major topics are outlined and briefly discussed: cryogenics, scanning surface thermometers for diagnostics on SRF cavities and thermal behaviour analysis of HOM couplers. The main results obtained in this frame since the 5th SC workshop at Hamburg in 1991 are presented. (authors) 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  14. A low temperature cryostat with a refrigerator for studying electron irradiation effects on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshio; Kitagawa, Michiharu; Yanai, Masayoshi

    1976-01-01

    A low temperature cryostat with a small cryogenic refrigerator is described which is convenient for studying irradiation effects of the energetic electrons on solids. It allows a sample to be kept about 12 K without irradiation and 15 K under the irradiation at a heating rate of 1.5 w. The sample temperature can be changed up to room temperature by adjusting the power of an attached heater and the pressure of a compressor for the refrigerator. The optical and electrical properties of the sample can be measured under and after irradiation. (auth.)

  15. Two-channel cryostat for investigation of optical absorption on the UR-20 spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanovich, N.S.; Kozlov, Yu.I.; Rodkin, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    A construction of two-channel cryostat for analysing absorption spectra in solids at 300 and 77 K is described. Measurements are made by the differential method. A specimen to be studied is placed in one of the channels and a reference specimen of the same thickness in the other. A spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient of Si alloyed with S has been obtained. Changes in the absorption are due to phototransitions of electrons from various levels of sulphur to the conduction band as the temperature is lowered from 300 to 77 K

  16. PLC-controlled cryostats for the BlackGEM and MeerLICHT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Morren, Johan; Pessemier, Wim; Bloemen, Steven; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Roelfsema, Ronald; Groot, Paul; Aerts, Conny

    2016-08-01

    BlackGEM is an array of telescopes, currently under development at the Radboud University Nijmegen and at NOVA (Netherlands Research School for Astronomy). It targets the detection of the optical counterparts of gravitational waves. The first three BlackGEM telescopes are planned to be installed in 2018 at the La Silla observatory (Chile). A single prototype telescope, named MeerLICHT, will already be commissioned early 2017 in Sutherland (South Africa) to provide an optical complement for the MeerKAT radio array. The BlackGEM array consists of, initially, a set of three robotic 65-cm wide-field telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a single STA1600 CCD detector with 10.5k x 10.5k 9-micron pixels that covers a 2.7 square degrees field of view. The cryostats for housing these detectors are developed and built at the KU Leuven University (Belgium). The operational model of BlackGEM requires long periods of reliable hands-off operation. Therefore, we designed the cryostats for long vacuum hold time and we make use of a closed-cycle cooling system, based on Polycold PCC Joule-Thomson coolers. A single programmable logic controller (PLC) controls the cryogenic systems of several BlackGEM telescopes simultaneously, resulting in a highly reliable, cost-efficient and maintenance-friendly system. PLC-based cryostat control offers some distinct advantages, especially for a robotic facility. Apart of temperature monitoring and control, the PLC also monitors the vacuum quality, the power supply and the status of the PCC coolers (compressor power consumption and temperature, pressure in the gas lines, etc.). Furthermore, it provides an alarming system and safe and reproducible procedures for automatic cool down and warm up. The communication between PLC and higher-level software takes place via the OPC-UA protocol, offering a simple to implement, yet very powerful interface. Finally, a touch-panel display on the PLC provides the operator with a user-friendly and robust

  17. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. Additional measurements of mechanical stability under RF operation (frequency variation with He pressure, Lorentz detuning) and cryogenic and electric measurements of power dissipation are presented. (author)

  18. Members of the Science and Technology Commission, Spanish Senate visit ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Members of the Science and Technology Commission, Spanish Senate, in front of a barrel toroid cryostat vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall. The air-core ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system will consist of eight large superconducting coils, each in its own vacuum vessel, built by Spanish company Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas SA under the responsibility of IFAE (Institute for High Energy Physics), Barcelona. Standing (left to right): Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson; Dr Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, delegate for Spain to CERN Council; Mrs Mercedes Senen, Lawyer of the Commission; Mr Alonso Arroyo, President of the Commission; Mr Ramon Antonio Socias, Second Vice-President of the Commission; Mr Francisco Xabier Albistur, Senator; H.E. Mr Joaquin Pérez-Villaneuva Y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the Office of the United Nations in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland, Spanish delegate to CERN Council; and Miguel Gomez. Seated (left to right): Mr Adolfo Abejon...

  19. Residual gas analysis of a cryostat vacuum chamber during the cool down of SST - 1 superconducting magnet field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P.; Joshi, K.S.; Thankey, P.L.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important feature of Steady state Superconducting Tokamak -1 (SST-l) is the Nb-Ti superconducting magnet field coils. The coils will be kept in a high vacuum chamber (Cryostat) and liquid Helium will be flown through it to cool it down to its critical temperature of 4.5K. The coil along with its hydraulics has four types of joints (1) Stainless Steel (S.S.) to Copper (Cu) weld joints (2) S. S. to S. S. weld joints (3) Cu to Cu brazed joints and (4) G-10 to S. S. joints with Sti-cast as the binding material. The joints were leak tested with a Helium mass spectrometer leak detector in vacuum as well as in sniffer mode. However during the cool-down of the coil, these joints may develop leaks. This would deteriorate the vacuum inside the cryostat and coil cool-down would subsequently become more difficult. To study the effect of cooling on the vacuum condition of the Cryostat, a dummy Cryostat chamber was fabricated and a toroidal Field (TF) magnet was kept inside this chamber and cooled down to 4.5 K.A residual gas analyzer (RGA) was connected to the Cryostat chamber to study the behaviour of major gases inside this chamber with temperature. An analysis of the RGA data acquired during the coo-down has been presented in this chamber. (author)

  20. Validation and implementation of sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint in the base section of ITER Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Rajnikant, E-mail: rajnikant@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Bhardwaj, Anil K.; Gupta, Girish; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gaurav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Jadhav, Pandurang; Desai, Hemal [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER Cryostat base section sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint is qualified through mock-up. • Established welding sequence was successfully implemented on all six sectors of cryostat base section. • Each layer liquid penetrant examination has been carried out for these weld joints and found satisfactory. - Abstract: Cryostat is a large stainless steel vacuum vessel providing vacuum environment to ITER machine components. The cryostat is ∼30 m in diameter and ∼30 m in height having variable thickness from 25 mm to 180 mm. Sandwich structure of cryostat base section withstands vacuum loading and limits the deformation under service conditions. Sandwich structure consists of top and bottom plates internally strengthened with radial and circular ribs. In current work, sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint has been designed with full penetration joint as per ITER Vacuum Handbook requirement considering nondestructive examinations and welding feasibility. Since this joint was outside the scope of ASME Section VIII Div. 2, it was decided to validate through mock-up of bottom plate to rib joint. Welding sequence was established to control the distortion. Tensile test, macro-structural examination and layer by layer LPE were carried out for validation of this weld joint. However possibility of ultrasonic examination method was also investigated. The test results from the welded joint mock-up were found to confirm all code and specification requirements. The same was implemented in first sector (0–60°) of base section sandwich structure.

  1. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  2. Correlative light and immuno-electron microscopy of retinal tissue cryostat sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Thomas; Lane, Amelia; Laughlin, William E.; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful technique allowing localisation of specific macromolecules within fluorescence microscopy (FM) images to be mapped onto corresponding high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) images. Existing methods are applicable to limited sample types and are technically challenging. Here we describe novel methods to perform CLEM and immuno-electron microscopy (iEM) on cryostat sections utilising the popular FM embedding solution, optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound. Utilising these approaches, we have (i) identified the same phagosomes by FM and EM in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of retinal tissue (ii) shown the correct localisation of rhodopsin on photoreceptor outer segment disc like-structures in iPSC derived optic cups and (iii) identified a novel interaction between peroxisomes and melanosomes as well as phagosomes in the RPE. These data show that cryostat sections allow easy characterisation of target macromolecule localisation within tissue samples, thus providing a substantial improvement over many conventional methods that are limited to cultured cells. As OCT embedding is routinely used for FM this provides an easily accessible and robust method for further analysis of existing samples by high resolution EM. PMID:29315318

  3. In-situ measurement of the light attenuation in liquid argon in the GERDA cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Birgit [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    GERDA is an experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. It uses germanium detectors which are enriched in {sup 76}Ge and operates them naked in liquid argon (LAr), which serves both as a coolant and a shield for external radiation. For phase II of GERDA it is planned to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr with a BI of 10{sup -3} cts/(kg . yr . keV). One of the major improvements to further reduce the BI is to instrument the LAr to act as an additional background veto. The attenuation of the scintillation light in LAr creates a constraint on the effective active volume of the LAr veto and is therefore a key parameter to characterize the instrumentation. In order to measure the light attenuation in LAr, a setup was designed that could be deployed directly into the GERDA cryostat. This setup contains a movable beta source and a PMT to detect the scintillation light at different distances. The talk will describe in detail the construction of the setup, its successful deployment in the GERDA cryostat and the consecutive analysis of the acquired data.

  4. Measurements of Bremsstrahlung radiation and X-ray heat load to cryostat on SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.Y.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W.H.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhu, Y.H.; Li, X.X.; Xie, D.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of Bremsstrahlung radiation from ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) plasma can yield certain information about the ECR heating process and the plasma confinement, and more important it can give a plausible estimate of the X-ray heat load to the cryostat of a superconducting ECR source. To better understand the additional heat load to the cryostat due to Bremsstrahlung radiation, the axial Bremsstrahlung measurements have been conducted on SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) with different source parameters. In addition, the heat load induced by intense X-ray or even γ-ray was estimated in terms of liquid helium consumption. The relationship between these two parameters is presented here. Thick-target Bremsstrahlung, induced by the collision of hot electrons with the wall or the source electrode, is much more intensive compared with the radiation produced in the plasma and, consequently, much more difficult to shield off. In this paper the presence of the thick-target Bremsstrahlung is correlated with the magnetic confinement configuration, specifically, the ratio of B(last) to B(ext). And possible solutions to reduce the X-ray heat load induced by Bremsstrahlung radiation are proposed and discussed. It appears that by choosing an appropriate ratio of B(last) to B(ext) the thick-target Bremsstrahlung radiation can be avoided effectively. The paper is followed by the associated poster

  5. Calculation of radiation fields inside and outside the NET cryostat/biological shield during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Verschuur, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    The calculations were performed using both the Monte Carlo code MCNP and the 2D discrete ordinates neutron/γ transport code DORT. Consistent nuclear data were used: For the Monte Carlo calculations data were taken from the EFF-1.3 library, for the discrete ordinates calculations data were taken from the MAT175 library. Both libraries are based on the JEF/EFF-1 evaluation. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron- and γ-flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 11 orders of magnitude. Due to precautions in the Monte Carlo calculations the uncertainty in neutron- and γ-flux spectra calculated by MCNP is only small: The uncertainty in the integrated neutron spectrum amounts to approximately 15% at the end of the cryostat. Also the dose-rates as calculated by MCNP and DORT agree well. Differences occur when heating data are compared. This is clearly due to the different way in which nuclear heating is treated in MCNP (direct calculation of heating) and DORT (kerma factors used; including radioactive decay contributions). (orig.)

  6. A compact copper nuclear demagnetization cryostat and a search for superfluidity in solid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, P.G. van de.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the theoretical and experimental study of matter at low temperatures, and the development of techniques to reach and measure these temperatures. A copper nuclear demagnetization cryostat was developed in order to reach low temperatures. This system distinguishes itself from other cryostats by its compact construction. The lowest temperature recorded by a pulsed Pt-NMR thermometer was 115 μK. This system was used to search for superfluidity in solid 4 He. Due to the large zero-point motion of the atoms, 4He remains liquid down to zero temperature; a pressure of 25.3 bar is needed to force the atoms in a lattice. Even in solid state, the 4 He atoms remain very mobile, changing lattice sites at a frequency of approximately 10 7 Hz. It is possible that solid 4 He contains vacancies at zero temperature. These zero point vacancies are expected to behave like a gas of bosons, and should Bose-condense at some temperature. From experiments the upper limit to the vacancy concentration is set of 4·10-5. (author). 217 refs.; 46 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Space odysseys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologi om unge danske arkitekter og designere. Udgivet som Arkitektur DK 5/2006 og som selvstændig publikation. Den indledende artikel er af arkitekturteoretisk karakter, de øvrige formidlende.   ...

  8. ATLAS Outreach Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS outreach team is very active, promoting particle physics to a broad range of audiences including physicists, general public, policy makers, students and teachers, and media. A selection of current outreach activities and new projects will be presented. Recent highlights include the new ATLAS public website and ATLAS Open Data, the very recent public release of 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data.

  9. ATLAS Thesis Award 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on 22 February, 2018. They are pictured here with Karl Jakobs (ATLAS Spokesperson), Max Klein (ATLAS Collaboration Board Chair) and Katsuo Tokushuku (ATLAS Collaboration Board Deputy Chair).

  10. Thermal and flow considerations for the 80 K shield of the SSC magnet cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, S.; Yuecel, A.; Demko, J.; Thirumaleshwar, M.

    1994-01-01

    The nominal temperatures in the SSC magnets range between 4.2 K in the superconducting coils and 300 K on the cryostat outer wall. To minimize the 4 K heat load, one thermal shield cooled by liquid and vapor nitrogen flows at 84 K, and another cooled by helium flow at 20 K are incorporated in the cryostat. Tubes attached to the shields serve as conduits for the cryogens. The liquid nitrogen tube in the cryostat is used for shield refrigeration and also for liquid distribution around the SSC rings. The second nitrogen line is used to return the vapor to the helium refrigerators for helium precooling. The nominal LN2 flow from a 4.3 km long cryogenic string (4 sections) to the surface is 64 g/s. The total liquid nitrogen consumption of approximately 5000 g/s will be supplied at one, two or more locations on the surface. The total heat load of the 80 K shield is estimated as 3.2 W/m: about 50% is composed of infrared radiation; the remaining 50% is by heat conduction through supports, vacuum barriers and other thermal connections between the shield and the 300 K outer wall. The required LN2 flow rate depends on the distribution and circulation schemes. The LN2 temperature will in turn vary depending on the flow rate and on the recooling method used. For example, with a massflow of 400 g/s of LN2 the temperature rises from 82 K to 86 K between two compact recoolers 1 km apart. This temperature is higher than desired. The temperature can be reduced by increasing the flow rate of the liquid or by using the continuous recooling scheme. This paper discusses some thermal problems caused by certain mechanical designs of the 80 K shield and the possible improvement by using continuous recooling. The authors present results of the 80 K shield temperature distribution analysis, the 20 K shield heat load augmentation resulting from the increased 80 K shield temperatures, the continuous nitrogen recooling scheme and some flow timing related analysis

  11. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  12. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  13. Stand up for epilepsy San Diego photo-shoot: a personal odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Kaufman, Nathaniel D

    2013-06-01

    Stigma towards epilepsy results in barriers to social integration, education, employment, and marriage, with increased divorce rates. There is a societal need to realise that many persons with epilepsy (PWE) lead normal lives and can be highly educated with effective employment. Integration of PWE into sports is therapeutic both for PWE (decreased seizure frequency, decreased comorbid conditions, and increased psychosocial skills) and society. Stand Up For Epilepsy (SUFE), overseen by the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy, is an international project in which action photographs with PWE were taken as a means to destigmatise epilepsy. This autobiographical narrative describes how SUFE initiated effective athlete-PWE interactions with positive PWE, athlete, and parent responses. Expansion of SUFE is recommended to further destigmatise epilepsy. Participation in SUFE can serve as a personal odyssey for PWE.

  14. Climate Odyssey: Resources for Understanding Coastal Change through Art, Science, and Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate Odyssey (climateodyssey.org) is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both intuitively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. Over the 2015 - 2016 academic year, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, blog, and series of K16 lesson plans. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both a piece of art and an engaging education tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we have now finalized our multi-media resources and are working to share these with the public via libraries, galleries, and K16 classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the series of K16 lesson plans that provide educators an easy-to-use way to introduce and utilize the material in the artist's book, digital map, and online blog. Through this, we hope to both discuss climate-focused education and engagement strategies, as well as showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science education and communication community that is focused on climate literacy in the U.S. and beyond.

  15. The effects of storage on the retention of enzyme activity in cryostat sections. A quantitative histochemical study on rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Ouwerkerk, I. J.; Bosch, K. S.; Marx, F.; Kooij, A.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of storage of unfixed cryostat sections from rat liver for 4 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days at -25 degrees C was studied on the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidoreductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (all demonstrated

  16. Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M; Muralidhar, M; Suzuki, K; Fukumoto, Y; Ishihara, A; Akasaka, T; Kobayashi, Y

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (I c ) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y or YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed. (paper)

  17. The New Superfluid Helium Cryostats for the Short Straight Sections of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, W; Kurtyka, T; Parma, Vittorio; Renaglia, T; Rifflet, J M; Rohmig, P; Skoczen, Blazej; Tortschanoff, Theodor; Trilhe, P; Védrine, P; Vincent, D

    1998-01-01

    The lattice of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains 364 Short Straight Section (SSS) units, one in every 53 m long half-cell. An SSS consists of three major assemblies: the standard cryostat section, the cryogenic service module, and the jumper connection. The standard cryostat section of an SSS contains the twin aperture high-gradient superconducting quadrupole and two pairs of superconducting corrector magnets, operating in pressurized helium II at 1.9 K. Components for isolating cryostat insulation vacuum, and the cryogenic supply lines, have to be foreseen. Special emphasis is given to the design changes of the SSS following adoption of an external cryogenic supply line (QRL). A jumper connection connects the SSS to the QRL, linking all the cryogenic tubes necessary for the local full-cell cooling loop [at every second SSS]. The jumper is connected to one end of the standard cryostat section via the cryogenic service module, which also houses beam diagnostics, current feedthroughs, and instrument...

  18. Energy losses in the D0 β solenoid cryostat caused by current changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-11-01

    The proposed D0 β solenoid is a superconducting solenoid mounted inside an aluminum tube which supports the solenoid winding over it's full length. This aluminum support tube, also called bobbin, is therefore very tightly coupled to magnetic flux changes caused by solenoid current variations. These current changes in the solenoid, will cause answer currents to flow in the resistive bobbin wall and therefore cause heat losses. The insertion of an external dump resistor in the solenoid current loop reduces energy dissipation inside the cryostat during a quench and will shorten the discharge time constant. This note presents a simple electrical model for the coupled bobbin and solenoid and makes it easier to understand the circuit behavior and losses. Estimates for the maximum allowable rate of solenoid current changes, based on the maximum permissible rate of losses can be made using this model

  19. Subcooled Liquid Oxygen Cryostat for Magneto-Archimedes Particle Separation by Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. K.; Celik, D.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2008-03-01

    An instrument for the separation of particles by density (sorting) is being developed that uses the magneto-archimedes effect in liquid oxygen. With liquid oxygen strongly paramagnetic, the magneto-archimedes effect is an extension of diamagnetic levitation in the sense of increasing the effective buoyancy of a particle. The instrument will be able to separate ensembles of particles from 100 μm to 100 nm in size, and vertically map or mechanically deliver the separated particles. The instrument requires a column of liquid oxygen that is nearly isothermal, free of thermal convection, subcooled to prevent nucleate boiling, and supported against the strong magnetic field used. Thus, the unique cryostat design that meets these requirements is described in the present article. It consists in part of a column of liquid nitrogen below for cooling the liquid oxygen, with the liquid oxygen pressurized by helium gas to prevent nucleate boiling.

  20. Assembly and Quality Control of the LHC Cryostats at CERN Motivations, Means, Results and Lessons Learnt

    CERN Document Server

    Poncet, A; Parma, V; Strubin, P; Tock, JP; Tommasini, D

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the project management decided to perform at CERN the final assembly of the LHC superconducting magnets with cryostat parts and cold masses produced by European Industry in large series. This industrial-like production has required a very significant investment in tooling, production facilities, engineering and quality control efforts, in contractual partnership with a consortium of firms. This unusual endeavour of a limited lifetime represented more than 850,000 working hours spanning over five years, the work being done on a result-oriented basis by the contractor. This paper presents the reasons for having conducted this project at CERN, summarizes the work breakdown structure, the production means and methods, the infrastructure specially developed, the tooling, logistics and quality control aspects of the work performed and the results achieved, in analytical form. Finally, the lessons learnt are outlined.

  1. A 1.5 MJ cryostatic stable superconducting ohmic-heating coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    As early as FY 1975, ANL had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and proposed a five-year pulsed coil and power supply development program to ERDA. With modest funding made available by ERDA in FY 1977 and the use of substantial equipment inventory at ANL, a small but agressive development program was advanced to the construction of a 1.5 MJ model coil. The principle objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil with a dB/dt ranging from 2 T/s up to 14 T/s. The results of basic cable development and tests will be described. The design and construction of a prototype 1.5 MJ cryostable pulsed coil and its nonmetallic cryostat will be presented. (author)

  2. The Insulation Vacuum Barrier for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Magnet Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, M; Parma, Vittorio; Skoczen, Blazej; Trilhe, P

    2000-01-01

    The sectorisation of the insulation vacuum of the LHC magnet cryostats, housing the superconducting magnets, which operate in a 1.9 K superfluid helium bath, is achieved by means of vacuum barriers. Each vacuum barrier is a leak-tight austenitic stainless steel thin-wall structure, mainly composed of large diameter (between 0.6 m and 0.9 m) bellows and concentric corrugated cylinders. It is mounted in the Short Straight Section (SSS) [1], between the magnet helium enclosure and the vacuum vessel. This paper presents the design of the vacuum barrier, concentrating mostly on its expected thermal performance, to fulfil the tight LHC heat in-leak budgets. Pressure and leak test results, confirming the mechanical design of two prototypes manufactured in industry, and the preparation of one of these vacuum barriers for cryogenic testing in an SSS prototype, are also mentioned.

  3. A wide temperature range irradiation cryostat for reasearch on solid state targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Scott; Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Runkel, Stefan; Voge, Thomas [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To qualitatively improve the data obtained in asymmetry measurements of scattering experiments the figure of merit (FOM) plays a major role and can reduce the data acquisition time when a certain precision in the measurement is needed. One of the defining factors for the improvement of the polarised experiment lies in the target choice and preparation, in particular the method employed to introduce the paramagnetic defects for the use of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP). To this end the Polarized Target Group in Bonn has developed a wide range temperature cryostat for the irradiation of potential target materials in which materials can be irradiated to varying doses at specified temperatures. The stable irradiation temperature of the materials can be controlled to within {+-}1 K over a range of 90 K

  4. ATLAS End Cap Toroid Magnets cold mass design and manufacturing status

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Carr, F S; Densham, C J; Holtom, E; Morrow, D; Towndrow, E F; Luijckx, G; Geerinck, J

    2004-01-01

    The End Cap Toroid Magnets for the ATLAS experiment at LHC, CERN will contain eight racetrack coils mounted as a single cold mass in a cryostat vessel of approximately 10 m diameter. This paper presents the engineering design of the cold mass and gives the status of the industrial production. The cold mass mechanical structure consisting of 8 coils and keystone boxes is described. Coil fabrication from component assembly, coil winding to final impregnation will be reviewed. The design and industrial manufacture of the keystone box elements is given. The cold mass assembly methods and status are described. 3 Refs.

  5. Progress in the construction of the B0 model of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Acerbi, E; Ambrosio, G; Baccaglioni, G; Broggi, F; Rossi, L; Sorbi, M; Volpini, G

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS Barrel Toroid air-core magnet (BT) will be composed by 8 superconducting coils, each one 25 m long and 5 m wide. In order to validate the technologies and manufacturing processes, a smaller model (9 m long) of one BT coil, named B0, is now under construction. This paper presents a general overview of the B0 project status, with special regard to the components for which the LASA Lab. is responsible: (a) the aluminium-clad NbTi conductor; (b) the double coils winding and impregnation; (c) the components of the cryostat (vacuum chamber, thermal shield and suspension rod). (6 refs).

  6. Low voltage control for the liquid argon hadronic end-cap calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brettel, H; Habring, J; Oberlack, H; Schacht, P

    2002-01-01

    At the ATLAS detector a SCADA system surveys and controls the sub- detectors. The link is realized by PVSS2 software and a CanBus hardware system. The low voltages for the Hadronic Endcaps of the liquid argon calorimeter are produced by DC/DC-converters in the power boxes and split into 320 channels corresponding to the pre- amplifier and summing boards in the cryostat. Six units of a prototype distribution board are currently under test. Each of it contains 2 ELMBs as CanBus interface, a FPGA of type QL3012 for digital control and 30 low voltage regulators for the individual fine adjustments of the outputs.

  7. High-stability cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope based on a closed-cycle cryostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Jason D; Kislitsyn, Dmitry A; Beaman, Daniel K; Ulrich, Stefan; Nazin, George V

    2014-10-01

    We report on the design and operation of a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a closed-cycle cryostat (CCC). The STM is thermally linked to the CCC through helium exchange gas confined inside a volume enclosed by highly flexible rubber bellows. The STM is thus mechanically decoupled from the CCC, which results in a significant reduction of the mechanical noise transferred from the CCC to the STM. Noise analysis of the tunneling current shows current fluctuations up to 4% of the total current, which translates into tip-sample distance variations of up to 1.5 picometers. This noise level is sufficiently low for atomic-resolution imaging of a wide variety of surfaces. To demonstrate this, atomic-resolution images of Au(111) and NaCl(100)/Au(111) surfaces, as well as of carbon nanotubes deposited on Au(111), were obtained. Thermal drift analysis showed that under optimized conditions, the lateral stability of the STM scanner can be as low as 0.18 Å/h. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements based on the lock-in technique were also carried out, and showed no detectable presence of noise from the closed-cycle cryostat. Using this cooling approach, temperatures as low as 16 K at the STM scanner have been achieved, with the complete cool-down of the system typically taking up to 12 h. These results demonstrate that the constructed CCC-coupled STM is a highly stable instrument capable of highly detailed spectroscopic investigations of materials and surfaces at the atomic scale.

  8. Thermal structural analysis of SST-1 vacuum vessel and cryostat assembly using ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Prosenjit; Bedakihale, Vijay; Ranganath, Tata

    2009-01-01

    Steady state super-conducting tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium sized tokamak, which has been designed to produce a 'D' shaped double null divertor plasma and operate in quasi steady state (1000 s). SST-1 vacuum system comprises of plasma chamber (vacuum vessel, interconnecting rings, baking and cooling channels), and cryostat all made of SS 304L material designed to meet ultra high vacuum requirements for plasma generation and confinement. Prior to plasma shot and operation the vessel assembly is baked to 250/150 deg. C from room temperature and discharge cleaned to remove impurities/trapped gases from wall surfaces. Due to baking the non-uniform temperature pattern on the vessel assembly coupled with atmospheric pressure loading and self-weight give rise to high thermal-structural stresses, which needs to be analyzed in detail. In addition the vessel assembly being a thin shell vessel structure needs to be checked for critical buckling load caused by atmospheric and baking thermal loads. Considering symmetry of SST-1, 1/16th of the geometry is modeled for finite element (FE) analysis using ANSYS for different loading scenarios, e.g. self-weight, pressure loading considering normal operating conditions, and off-normal loads coupled with baking of vacuum vessel from room temperature 250 deg. C to 150 deg. C, buckling and modal analysis for future dynamic analysis. The paper will discuss details about SST-1 vacuum system/cryostat, solid and FE model of SST-1, different loading scenarios, material details and the stress codes used. We will also present the thermal structural results of FE analysis using ANSYS for various load cases being investigated and our observations under different loading conditions.

  9. High-stability cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope based on a closed-cycle cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Jason D.; Kislitsyn, Dmitry A.; Beaman, Daniel K.; Nazin, George V., E-mail: gnazin@uoregon.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1253 University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Ulrich, Stefan [RHK Technology, Inc., 1050 East Maple Road, Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We report on the design and operation of a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a closed-cycle cryostat (CCC). The STM is thermally linked to the CCC through helium exchange gas confined inside a volume enclosed by highly flexible rubber bellows. The STM is thus mechanically decoupled from the CCC, which results in a significant reduction of the mechanical noise transferred from the CCC to the STM. Noise analysis of the tunneling current shows current fluctuations up to 4% of the total current, which translates into tip-sample distance variations of up to 1.5 picometers. This noise level is sufficiently low for atomic-resolution imaging of a wide variety of surfaces. To demonstrate this, atomic-resolution images of Au(111) and NaCl(100)/Au(111) surfaces, as well as of carbon nanotubes deposited on Au(111), were obtained. Thermal drift analysis showed that under optimized conditions, the lateral stability of the STM scanner can be as low as 0.18 Å/h. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements based on the lock-in technique were also carried out, and showed no detectable presence of noise from the closed-cycle cryostat. Using this cooling approach, temperatures as low as 16 K at the STM scanner have been achieved, with the complete cool-down of the system typically taking up to 12 h. These results demonstrate that the constructed CCC-coupled STM is a highly stable instrument capable of highly detailed spectroscopic investigations of materials and surfaces at the atomic scale.

  10. Development of a cryostat for the 4-cell 352 MHz sc accelerating cavities at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierlin, R.

    1988-01-01

    The upgrading of LEP by s.c. cavities will require installation and operation of a few hundred 350 MHz, 4-cell cavities in the accelerator tunnel. It is at present anticipated to install eight cavities per rf-cell which have a length of ∼ 24 m. A tunnel slope of up to 1.5% and a tunnel diameter of 4.4 m have to be accommodated. For the design of adequate cryostats the following guiding lines were considered: up to eight cavities with their He tank could be housed in a common insulation vacuum. Cryostats should be modular and allow installation of individual cavities or groups of two cavities (with a total length not exceeding 6 m thus enabling normal transport inside the access pits and machine tunnel). A high accessibility to all critical parts like couplers, tuners and beam tube connections should be guaranteed. This requirement dictates a lateral access through the vacuum tank and thermal radiation shield which should also permit the removal and replacement of any one 4-cell cavity without disturbing the neighboring units. Cavity connections to the beam vacuum system as well as repairs should be possible under reasonably clean and dust-free conditions, particularly when keeping cavities under a slight overpressure of dry, dust-free protective gas. A test program was launched and a 1/5 scale model vacuum tank was constructed and tested. The main feature of this model was a frame and sealing skin design which offers complete accessibility to the inside of the vessel. The results obtained prompted the design and construction of a full size model which was completed in 1985 and proved the feasibility of the new concepts. A thin copper radiation shield mechanically clamped to the piping carrying the refrigerant and thus easily removable to meet the requirement of accessibility also proved adequate to intercept and evacuate the heat radiated by the vacuum tank. 4 references, 6 figures

  11. SSC 50 MM collider dipole cryostat single tube support post conceptual design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet cold masses are connected to the cryostat vacuum vessel at five places equally spaced along their length. Five supports limit sag of the cold assembly due to its own weight to a level consistent with the final magnet alignment specifications. The design essentially consists of two composite tubes nested within each other as a means of maximizing the thermal path length. In addition it provides an ideal way to utilize materials best suited for the temperature range over which they must operate. Filament wound S-glass is used between 300K and 80K. Filament wound graphite fiber is used between 80K and 20K and between 20K and 4.5K. S-glass is a better thermal performer above approximately 40K. Graphite composites are ideally suited for operation below 40K. The designs for the 50 mm reentrant supports are well documented in the literature. The current design of the reentrant support has two major drawbacks. First, it requires very tight dimensional control on all components; composite tubes and metal attachment parts. Second, it is expensive, with cost being driven by both the tolerance constraints and by a complex assembly procedure. It seems clear that production magnets will require a support structure which is considerably less expensive than that which is currently used. It seems clear that a design alternate for reentrant support posts will be required for production dipoles primarily due to their cost. It seems less clear that injection molded composite materials are the ideal choice. This report describes the conceptual design for a support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design, which requires very few modifications to surrounding cryostat components, is thermally equivalent to the current 50 mm support post, and is nearly equivalent structurally

  12. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter C Modules at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Loch, P.

    All three modules of the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter (FCal) for the Liquid Argon Endcap C Cryostat arrived at CERN in July 2002. The modules, which were shipped from Tucson, Arizona, USA (electromagnetic FCal1C), Toronto, Canada (first hadronic FCal2C), and Ottawa, Canada (second hadronic FCal3C), were then cabled in CERN's North Area clean room. Several thousand so-called interconnect boards were mounted on the modules to connect groups of four, six, or nine electrodes in FCal1C, FCal2C and FCal3C, respectively, to one cold signal cable. Great care was taken during this process to avoid electrical shorts in the electrodes. More or less constant testing for shorts and of the connectivity between the interconnect boards and the electrodes, followed by immediate repairs, assured that all three modules were without any electrical problems by the beginning of November 2002. At that time the modules were moved to the H6C cryostat at the end of the H6 beam line in the North Area, and cooled down for the first time to...

  13. EnviroAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  14. Berliner Philarmoniker ATLAS visit

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Berliner Philarmoniker in on tour through Europe. They stopped on June 27th in Geneva, for a concert at the Victoria Hall. An ATLAS visit was organised the morning after, lead by the ATLAS spokesperson Karl Jakobs (welcome and overview talk) and two ATLAS guides (AVC visit and 3D movie).

  15. Seasonal and Static Gravity Field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k 2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k 2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k 2 of 0.1697 +/-0.0027 (3- sigma). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C 30 and, for the first time, C 50 . Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C 30 for approx.1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics ( l = 60–80) than previous solutions.

  16. El asunto del “Nuestra señora de la Mercedes” (Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jesús Carrera Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye, básicamente, una valoración del informe emitido en Estados Unidos por el Juez Pizzo en el que ya podemos calificar como asunto del “Nuestra Señora de La Mercedes”, iniciado hace dos años tras las actividades de expolio desarrolladas por la empresa Odyssey en aguas del Atlántico próximas al Estrecho de Gibraltar. Se trata de un caso que afecta directamente a los intereses españoles en relación con el patrimonio cultural submarino situado en zonas próximas a nuestras costas. De convertirse en jurisprudencia, estaremos dando un paso más en aras de la protección del patrimonio cultural, soslayando la aplicación de legislaciones ancladas enla aplicación de principios de salvamento y hallazgos a bienes que poseen un valor arqueológico, histórico o cultural, y que se encuentran en santuarios de nuestros antepasados.

  17. The effectiveness of experiential environmental education: O'Neill Sea Odyssey program case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneman, Lauren E.

    Environmental education programs aim to develop participant awareness, sensitivity, and understanding of their affective relationship to the natural environment through conceptual knowledge and personal experiences. Previous findings have suggested that participation in environmental education programs leads to short-term positive increases in environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, and intentions to act in environmentally responsible behaviors; however, few studies have included long-term, follow-up assessment. This research provided an analysis of the effectiveness of the O'Neill Sea Odyssey (OSO) education program in fostering a long-term awareness of personal responsibility about ocean pollution among student participants. A survey administered to 261 students from the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California was used to explore 7th through 10 th grade students' conceptions about the connection between ocean pollution and stewardship behaviors. The study revealed that 75% of 86 former OSO participants retained a high level of awareness of the connection between non-point source pollution and personal behaviors two to five years after the program, regardless of differences in sex, language, grade level, and community setting. These results indicate that OSO participants retained a long-term conceptual awareness about environmental stewardship behaviors taught during the OSO program.

  18. Low-noise current preamplifier for the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, Yves

    1997-12-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is an experiment on the future LHC collider, which seeks new particles, like the Higgs boson, to complete the standard model and develop the supersymmetry model. An important sub-detector in ATLAS is the Liquid Argon calorimeter which measures the energy of electrons and photons. The calorimeter precision is partially limited by the electronic noise of the input preamplifiers, which is then particularly a point of attention. The main study of this thesis is a 'warm' current preamplifier ('0T') placed outside the cryostat, the signal being driven on cables. First, the main characteristics of another type of preamplifier placed in the calorimeter are studied. Then the 0T is modelled, particularly the effects of a cable on the electronic noise and the signal. Different versions are studied, whose measurements are in good agreement with expected values. In the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter conditions the 0T performance are very competitive with a 'cold' preamp, and has the advantage of reliability. Also their location outside the cryostat allows maintenance. But the cable impedance is higher than the input impedance of a cold preamplifier, which is a drawback according to capacitive crosstalk between neighbouring channels. The signal crosstalk is higher, but acceptable. As well, the noise correlation between two channels as a function of cable length is shown as negligible for cable lengths used. The noise autocorrelation function is also studied to optimize a multi-sampling filtering. The model and measurements are in excellent agreement. The 0T has been chosen to equip 200,000 channels of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter. (author)

  19. Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Barrel Cryostat Construction and Testing May-June 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    US, ATLAS

    1999-01-01

    Photo 1 - Outer Cold Cryostat showing 'Y' support. Photo 2 - Outer Cold Vessel half showing 'X' and 'Z' stops and 'Y' supports. Photo 3 - Cold Vessel Bulkhead, End 'C'. Photo 4 - Outer Cold Vessel half, showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 5 - End of Outer Cold Vessel showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 6 - Al/SST Transitions for Signal and High Voltage feedthroughs. Test weld blocks shown in background. Photo 7 - Welding of Al/SST Transitions onto Outer Cold Vessel. Photo 8 - Al/SST Transitions, including test pumpouts. Photo 9 - Machining of Inner Cold vessel. Photo 10 - Warm Vessel being assembled for leak testing Photo 11 - Setting up Warm Vessel on test stand. Photo 12 - Warm Vessel assembly for testing complete. Photo 13 - Dial indicators mounted against the Warm Vessel Bulkhead during testing. Photo 14 - Pumping on Warm Vessel. Photo 15 - Pumping on the Warm Vessel. Photo 16 - Checking the Solenoid Chimney. Photo 17 - Leak checking the Inner Warm Vessel/Bulkhead flange in the area of ID co...

  20. In-situ measurement of the light attenuation in liquid argon in the GERDA cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Birgit [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    GERDA is an experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. It operates the enriched germanium detectors bare in liquid argon (LAr), which serves both as a coolant and a shield for external radiation. Phase II of GERDA aims for an exposure of 100 kg . yr with a background index (BI) of 10{sup -3} cts/(kg . yr . keV). One of the major improvements to further reduce the BI comes from the instrumentation of the LAr to readout its scintillation light. The attenuation of the scintillation light in LAr limits the effective active volume of the LAr veto and is therefore a key parameter to characterize the instrumentation. In order to measure the light attenuation in LAr, a setup was designed that could be deployed directly into the GERDA cryostat. This setup contains a movable beta source and a PMT to detect the scintillation light at different distances. The talk will present the acquired data as well as a detailed description of the performed analysis technique and the current results.

  1. A Dual Operational Refrigerator/Flow Cryostat with Wide Bore Medium Field Magnet for Application Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Yang, Y.; Chappell, S.; Twin, A.

    Since stand alone cryocooler systems have become more widely available, there has been increased commercial interest in superconductor applications in the temperature range intermediate to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. There are however few facilities that have large in-field bore size with variable temperatures. A large bore system can reduce costs associated with full scale demonstration magnets by testing smaller coils and qualify medium length (up to meters) conductors. A 5 T, wide bore, (170 mm) Nb3Sn Oxford Instrument magnet has been integrated into a custom built dual mode refrigerator/helium flow cryostat with 600A HTS current leads. In one mode the system can be used with zero field without cost of liquid helium relying for cooling on a Sumitomo GM cryocooler with 1.5W at 4.2K: (no He) this can be used either as the sole characterisation method, or as a preliminary check before more expensive and extensive measurements are taken. The first measurements using MgB2 wire from 10 to 20K were made using a transient current step of ∼5s duration, as opposed to a DC measurement. This has the advantage of not requiring thermal equilibrium to be achieved at nominal current. The feasibility of this technique for determining critical transport properties is discussed.

  2. A liquid-He cryostat for structural and thermal disorder studies by X-ray absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamrane, F; Ribbens, M; Fonda, E; Adjouri, C; Traverse, A

    2003-07-01

    A new device operating from 4.2 to 300 K is now installed on the hard X-ray station of the DCI ring in LURE in order to measure absorption coefficients. This liquid-He bath device has three optical windows. One allows the incident beam to impinge on the sample, one located at 180 degrees with respect to the sample allows transmitted beams to be detected, and another located at 90 degrees is used to detect emitted photons. Total electron yield detection mode is also possible thanks to a specific sample holder equipped with an electrode that collects the charges created by the emitted electrons in the He gas brought from the He bath around the sample. The performance of the cryostat is described by measurements of the absorption coefficients versus the temperature for Cu and Co foils. For comparison, the absorption coefficient is also measured for Cu clusters. As expected from dimension effects, the Debye temperature obtained for the clusters is lower than that of bulk Cu.

  3. Irradiation cryostat for LiH and LiD polarized solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, S.

    1991-01-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized nucleon targets are an important tool to understand the nuclear spin structure. Pion photoproduction experiments on polarized protrons and neutrons as well as measurements of the neutron and deuteron formfactors will be performed at ELSA. 7 LiH and 6 LiD seem to be attractive target materials for these experiments, because they offer high proton and deuteron polarisation, respectively. Expecially 6 LiD has further very important advantages compared to the common deuteron target materials as d-Butanol and ND 3 . This work describes the mechanism of DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) in LiH and LiD and gives a view on the nature of the so-called paramagnetic impurities in these materials. In order to maximize the nuclear polarization, the production of these radicals have to take place under well defined temperature conditions. Therefore the first version of an irradiation cryostat was built and tested in regard to its cooling power and temperature adjustment. (orig.)

  4. New Vertical Cryostat with the new HiLumi Model MQXF5

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC has given rise to the High Luminosity (HL) LHC project. HL-LHC relies on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 Tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconducting cavities for beam rotation, and 300-metre-long high-power superconducting links with zero energy dissipation. The most technically challenging aspects of the LHC upgrade cannot be done by CERN alone and requires a strong collaboration involving external expertise and modernization of existing CERN Test Facility infrastructure as in the SM18 . The SM18 hall was originally optimized for the NbTi LHC magnet testing, but with the High Luminosity LHC upgrade coming up (http://hilumilhc.web.cern.ch/), a major upgrade of the test facility was done. The images shows the new cryostat called “Cluster D” and its associated electrical circuit while testing the first quadrupole model magnet for the Q2 series.

  5. A flying superconducting magnet and cryostat for magnetic suspension of wind-tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, C.; Goodyer, M. J.; Scurlock, R. G.; Wu, Y. Y.

    1984-01-01

    The engineering practicality of a persistent high-field superconducting solenoid cryostat as a magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) for wind-tunnel testing of aircraft and missile models is examined. The test apparatus is a simple solenoid of filamentary NbTi superconductor with a cupronickel matrix. The apparatus, with a length-to-diameter ratio of 6 to 1 and a radius of 32 mm, used a 0.25 mm wire with a critical current of 27 A in an external field of 6 T. The total heat inleak of 150 mW was achieved. Helium boiloff rates were tested over a range of operating conditions, including pitch attitudes from 10 deg nose down to 90 deg nose up; the rate was estimated as low, but the aerodynamic acceptability of venting gaseous helium has not been determined. It is shown that the effectiveness of the concept increases with increasing scale, and performance in excess of that of conventional ferromagnets is achievable with reduction in size and costs, and with aptness to transonic wind-tunnel testing. Detailed specifications and schematics are included.

  6. Remote refilling of LN2 cryostats for high sensitivity astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    l'Allemand, J. L. Lizon a.

    2017-12-01

    The most sensitive observation mode of the ESO VLT (European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope) is the interferometric mode, where the 4 Units Telescopes are directed to the same stellar object in order to operate as a gigantic interferometer. The beam is then re-combined in the main interferometry laboratory and fed into the analyzing instruments. In order not to disturb the performance of the Interferometer, this room is considered as a sanctuary where one enters only in case of extreme need. A simple opening of the door would create air turbulences affecting the stability for hours. Any cold spot in the room could also cause convection which might change the optical path by fraction of a micron. Most of the instruments are operating at cryogenic temperatures using passive cooling based on LN2 bath cryostat. For this reason, dedicated strategy has been developed for the transfer of LN2 to the various instruments. The present document describes the various aspects and care taken in order to guarantee the very high thermal and mechanical environmental stability.

  7. Modeling the pressure increase in liquid helium cryostats after failure of the insulating vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidt, C.; Grohmann, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Engler-Bunte (Germany); Süßer, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    The pressure relief system of liquid helium cryostats requires a careful design, due to helium's low enthalpy of vaporization and due to the low operating temperature. Hazard analyses often involve the failure of the insulating vacuum in the worst-case scenario. The venting of the insulating vacuum and the implications for the pressure increase in the helium vessel, however, have not yet been fully analyzed. Therefore, the dimensioning of safety devices often requires experience and reference to very few experimental data. In order to provide a better foundation for the design of cryogenic pressure relief systems, this paper presents an analytic approach for the strongly dynamic process induced by the loss of insulating vacuum. The model is based on theoretical considerations and on differential equation modeling. It contains only few simplifying assumptions, which will be further investigated in future experiments. The numerical solutions of example calculations are presented with regard to the heat flux into the helium vessel, the helium pressure increase and the helium flow rate through the pressure relief device. Implications concerning two-phase flow and the influence of kinetic energy are discussed.

  8. Report to users of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains discussing in the following areas: Status of the Atlas accelerator; highlights of recent research at Atlas; concept for an advanced exotic beam facility based on Atlas; program advisory committee; Atlas executive committee; and Atlas and ANL physics division on the world wide web

  9. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Herr

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: Atlas Physics Workshop 6-11 June 2005 June 2005 ATLAS Week Plenary Session Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  10. Thermal and structural performance of a single tube support post for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    The reentrant support post currently incorporated in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole cryostat has been shown to meet the structural and thermal requirements of the cryostat, both in prototype magnet assemblies and through component testing. However, the reentrant post design has two major drawbacks: tight dimensional control on all components, and cost driven by these tolerance constraints and a complex assembly procedure. A single tube support post has been developed as an alternative to the reentrant post design. Several prototype assemblies have been fabricated and subjected to structural testing. Compressive, tensile, and bending forces were applied to each assembly with deflection measured at several locations. A prototype support post has also been thermally evaluated in a heat leak measurement facility. Heat load to 4.2 K was measured with the intermediate post intercept operating at various temperatures while thermometers positioned along the conductive path of the post mapped thermal gradients. Results from these measurements indicate the single tube support post meets the design criteria for the SSC dipole magnet cryostat support system

  11. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-04ER86191 Hydrogen Cryostat for Muon Beam Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    The project was to develop cryostat designs that could be used for muon beam cooling channels where hydrogen would circulate through refrigerators and the beam-cooling channel to simultaneously refrigerate (1) high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) magnet coils, (2) cold copper RF cavities, and (3) the hydrogen that is heated by the muon beam. In an application where a large amount of hydrogen is naturally present because it is the optimum ionization cooling material, it was reasonable to explore its use with HTS magnets and cold, but not superconducting, RF cavities. In this project we developed computer programs for simulations and analysis and conducted experimental programs to examine the parameters and technological limitations of the materials and designs of Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) components (magnet conductor, RF cavities, absorber windows, heat transport, energy absorber, and refrigerant). The project showed that although a hydrogen cryostat is not the optimum solution for muon ionization cooling channels, the studies of the cooling channel components that define the cryostat requirements led to fundamental advances. In particular, two new lines of promising development were opened up, regarding very high field HTS magnets and the HS concept, that have led to new proposals and funded projects

  12. Conceptual & Engineering Design of Plug-in Cryostat Cylinder for Super-Conducting Central Solenoid of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prabal; Santra, Prosenjit; Vasava, Kirit; Jayswal, Snehal; Parekh, Tejas; Chauhan, Pradeep; Patel, Hitesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1, country’s first indigenously built steady state super-conducting tokamak is planned to be equipped with an Nb3Sn based superconducting central solenoid, which will replace the existing copper conductor TR1 coil for the purpose of Ohmic breakdown. This central solenoid (CS) of four layers with each layer having 144 turns with an OD of 573 mm, ID of 423 mm length of 2483 mm will be housed inside a high vacuum, CRYO compatible plug-in cryostat thin shell having formed from SS 304L plate duly rolled and welded to form cylinder along with necessary accessories like LN2 bubble panel, current lead chamber, coil and cylinder support structure etc. This paper will present the design drivers, material selection, advantages and constraints of the plug-in cryostat concept, sub-systems of plug-in cryostat, its conceptual and engineering design, CAD models, finite element analysis using ANSYS, safety issues and diagnostics, on-going works about fabrication, quality assurance/control and assembly/integration aspects with in the existing SST-1 machine bore.

  13. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  14. ERCP atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Schrameyer, B.

    1989-01-01

    Endoscopic-retrograde cholangio-pancreatography is a diagnostic tool that has become a routine method also in medical centres other than those specializing in the field of gastroenterology. It is estimated that there are about 1000 hospitals in the Federal Republic of Germany applying cholangio-pancreatography as a diagnostic method. Frequently, data interpretation is difficult, because imaging of subsequently detected lesions is found to have been insufficiently differential, or incomplete. The experienced examiner, who knows the pathological processes involved and hence to be expected, will perform the ERCP examination in a specific manner, i.e. purposefully. The ERCP atlas now presents a selection of typical, frequently found conditions, and of rarely encountered lesions. The material has been chosen from a total of 15 000 retrograde cholangio-pancreatographies. The introductory text is relatively short, as it is not so much intended to enhance experienced readers' skill in endoscopic diagnostics, - there is other literature for this purpose -, but rather as a brief survey for less experienced readers. (orig./MG) With 280 figs [de

  15. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  16. Critical current measurements of high Tc superconductors in a scanning low temperature cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telschow, K.L.; O'Brien, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Maintaining uniformity of properties over long distances is one of the fabrication problems encountered with the new high T c superconductors. Uniform properties are crucial in long tapes or wires with high critical current since local nonuniformities can limit the current carrying capacity of the whole piece. Transport critical currents in high T c superconductors are conventionally measured with the contact 4-point probe DC current-voltage technique. This technique requires contact with the sample and and spatially averages over the region between the two voltage contacts. Two techniques have been used to infer the critical state model. The first uses the net magnetization of a suitably shaped sample in an external magnetic field. The second combines a DC magnetic field with AC induced currents to infer spatial flux profiles. The AC magnetization technique offers an advantage in that it is noncontacting; however, it also averages the measurement over a large area and requires that the sample be shaped and positioned such that it exhibits zero demagnetizing factor. This paper describes a measurement technique and a scanning cryostat assembly that are capable of determining local critical current in a tape or wire with high resolution and without any direct sample electrical contact. A small compensated coil was used to induce AC currents in slab-shaped samples. The coil was situated near the surface on one side of the slab. With this method, the AC probe can be used as a noncontacting dissipation probe, replacing the voltage probe in the 4-point contact method, when an externally driven transport current is used, or by itself as a local critical state generator and dissipation detector. The results are shown to be meaningful even when the internal magnetic field is not uniform due to shape demagnetizing effects. 10 refs., 5 figs

  17. Superconducting magnets, cryostats, and cryogenics for the interaction region of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.J.; Abramovich, S.; Zhmad, A.

    1993-10-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) has two counterrotating 20-TeV proton beams that will be made to collide at specific interaction points to carry out high energy physics experiments. The Collider ring has two sites, West and East, for such Interaction Regions (IRs), and the conceptual design of the East Interaction Region is underway. The East IR, in the present stage of design, has two interaction points, the requirements for which have been specified in terms of distance L* to the nearest magnet and the beam luminosity. Based on these requirements, the optics for transition from arc regions or utility regions to the IR and for focusing the beams have been obtained. The optical arrangement consists of a tuning section of quadrupoles, the strength of which is adjusted to obtain the required beta squeeze; a pair of bending dipoles to reduce the beam separation from the nominal 900 mm to 450 mm; an achromat section of quadrupoles, which consist of two cold masses in one cryostnother pair of dipoles to bring the beams together at the required crossing angle; and a set of final focus quads facing the interaction point. The optics is symmetric about the interaction point, and the two interaction points are separated by a hinge region consisting of superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles similar to the arc region. In the regions where the beams are vertically bent and straightened out by dipoles, the beam traverses warm regions provided for placing beam collimators. The superconducting magnets, including the final focus quadrupoles, operate with supercritical He at 4 atm and a nominal temperature of 4.15 K. In this paper, descriptions of the magnets, the cryostats, and cryo bypasses around the warm region and interaction points are provided. Also discussed are the cooling requirements and design for the final focus quadrupole, which receives significant heat load from beam radiation

  18. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  19. Whole exome sequencing in neurogenetic odysseys: An effective, cost- and time-saving diagnostic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Córdoba

    Full Text Available Diagnostic trajectories for neurogenetic disorders frequently require the use of considerable time and resources, exposing patients and families to so-called "diagnostic odysseys". Previous studies have provided strong evidence for increased diagnostic and clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing in medical genetics. However, specific reports assessing its utility in a setting such as ours- a neurogeneticist led academic group serving in a low-income country-are rare.To assess the diagnostic yield of WES in patients suspected of having a neurogenetic condition and explore the cost-effectiveness of its implementation in a research group located in an Argentinean public hospital.This is a prospective study of the clinical utility of WES in a series of 40 consecutive patients selected from a Neurogenetic Clinic of a tertiary Hospital in Argentina. We evaluated patients retrospectively for previous diagnostic trajectories. Diagnostic yield, clinical impact on management and economic diagnostic burden were evaluated.We demonstrated the clinical utility of Whole Exome Sequencing in our patient cohort, obtaining a diagnostic yield of 40% (95% CI, 24.8%-55.2% among a diverse group of neurological disorders. The average age at the time of WES was 23 (range 3-70. The mean time elapsed from symptom onset to WES was 11 years (range 3-42. The mean cost of the diagnostic workup prior to WES was USD 1646 (USD 1439 to 1853, which is 60% higher than WES cost in our center.WES for neurogenetics proved to be an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for the molecular diagnosis of this heterogeneous and complex group of patients.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  1. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  2. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  3. Future ATLAS Higgs Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will prove a challenging environment to work in, with for example $=200$ expected. It will however also provide great opportunities for advancing studies of the Higgs boson. The ATLAS detector will be upgraded, and Higgs prospects analyses have been performed to assess the reach of ATLAS Higgs studies in the HL-LHC era. These analyses are presented, as are Run-2 ATLAS di-Higgs analyses for comparison.

  4. First Cryogenic Testing of the ATLAS Superconducting Prototype Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Pirotte, O; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroids and the barrel toroid made of eight coils (BT) symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. All these magnets will be individually tested in an experimental area prior to their final installation in the underground cavern of the LHC collider. A dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed and built for this purpose. It mainly consists of a 1'200 W at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit, a cryostat housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps, a distribution valve box and transfer lines. Prior to the start of the series tests of the BT magnets, two model coils are used at this facility. The first one, the so-called B00 of comparatively small size, contains the three different types of superconductors used for the ATLAS magnets which are wound on a cylindrical mandrel. The second magnet, the B0, is a reduced model of basically identical design concept as the...

  5. Construction of an ultra low temperature cryostat and transverse acoustic spectroscopy in superfluid helium-3 in compressed aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathi, Pradeep

    An ultra low temperature cryostat is designed and implemented in this work to perform experiments at sub-millikelvin temperatures, specifically aimed at understanding the superfluid phases of 3He in various scenarios. The cryostat is a combination of a dilution refrigerator (Oxford Kelvinox 400) with a base temperature of 5.2 mK and a 48 mole copper block as the adiabatic nuclear demagnetization stage with a lowest temperature of ≈ 200 muK. With the various techniques implemented for limiting the ambient heat leak to the cryostat, we were able to stay below 1 mK for longer than 5 weeks. The details of design, construction and performance of the cryostat are presented. We measured high frequency shear acoustic impedance in superfluid 3He in 98% porosity aerogel at pressures of 29 bar and 32 bar in magnetic fields upto 3 kG with the aerogel cylinder compressed along the symmetry axis to generate global anisotropy. With 5% compression, there is an indication of a supercooled A-like to B-like transition in aerogel in a wider temperature width than the A phase in the bulk, while at 10% axial compression, the A-like to B-like transition is absent on cooling down to ≈ 300 muK in zero magnetic field and in magnetic fields up to 3 kG. This behavior is in contrast to that in 3He in uncompressed aerogels, in which the supercooled A-like to B-like transitions have been identified by various experimental techniques. Our result is consistent with theoretical predictions. To characterize the anisotropy in compressed aerogels, optical birefringence is measured in 98% porosity silica aerogel samples subjected to various degrees of uniaxial compression up to 15% strain, with wavelengths between 200 to 800 nm. Uncompressed aerogels exhibit no or a minimal degree of birefringence, indicating the isotropic nature of the material over the length scale of the wavelength. Uniaxial compression of aerogel introduces global anisotropy, which produces birefringence in the material. We

  6. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Facco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety (DA can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation, effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and

  7. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone

    2017-01-01

    Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum ) and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius) in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation), effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and hypnosis are no

  8. Report to users of Atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1996-06-01

    This report contains the following topics: Status of the ATLAS Accelerator; Highlights of Recent Research at ATLAS; Program Advisory Committee; ATLAS User Group Executive Committee; FMA Information Available On The World Wide Web; Conference on Nuclear Structure at the Limits; and Workshop on Experiments with Gammasphere at ATLAS

  9. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Goldfarb, S

    2005-01-01

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: Atlas Software Week Plenary 6-10 December 2004 North American ATLAS Physics Workshop (Tucson) 20-21 December 2004 (17 talks) Physics Analysis Tools Tutorial (Tucson) 19 December 2004 Full Chain Tutorial 21 September 2004 ATLAS Plenary Sessions, 17-18 February 2005 (17 talks) Coming soon: ATLAS Tutorial on Electroweak Physics, 14 Feb. 2005 Software Workshop, 21-22 February 2005 Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  10. ATLAS Brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  11. ATLAS brochure (Italian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  12. ATLAS brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  13. ATLAS brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  14. ATLAS brochure (Danish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  15. ATLAS Thesis Awards 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on Thursday 25 February. The winners also presented their work in front of members of the ATLAS Collaboration. Winners: Javier Montejo Berlingen, Barcelona (Spain), Ruth Pöttgen, Mainz (Germany), Nils Ruthmann, Freiburg (Germany), and Steven Schramm, Toronto (Canada).

  16. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  17. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  18. ATLAS Colouring Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  19. ATLAS brochure (Catalan version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  20. ATLAS Brochure (french version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  1. ATLAS brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  2. ATLAS brochure (Norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter. Français

  3. ATLAS Brochure (german version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  4. ATLAS Brochure (english version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  5. ATLAS brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  6. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  7. A Slice of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    An entire section of the ATLAS detector is being assembled at Prévessin. Since May the components have been tested using a beam from the SPS, giving the ATLAS team valuable experience of operating the detector as well as an opportunity to debug the system.

  8. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  9. ATLAS Open Data project

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The current ATLAS model of Open Access to recorded and simulated data offers the opportunity to access datasets with a focus on education, training and outreach. This mandate supports the creation of platforms, projects, software, and educational products used all over the planet. We describe the overall status of ATLAS Open Data (http://opendata.atlas.cern) activities, from core ATLAS activities and releases to individual and group efforts, as well as educational programs, and final web or software-based (and hard-copy) products that have been produced or are under development. The relatively large number and heterogeneous use cases currently documented is driving an upcoming release of more data and resources for the ATLAS Community and anyone interested to explore the world of experimental particle physics and the computer sciences through data analysis.

  10. Dear ATLAS colleagues,

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/news/news_mali.php) many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  11. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  12. Software Validation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, Mark; Seuster, Rolf; Simmons, Brinick; Sherwood, Peter; Rousseau, David

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration operates an extensive set of protocols to validate the quality of the offline software in a timely manner. This is essential in order to process the large amounts of data being collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 without complications on the offline software side. We will discuss a number of different strategies used to validate the ATLAS offline software; running the ATLAS framework software, Athena, in a variety of configurations daily on each nightly build via the ATLAS Nightly System (ATN) and Run Time Tester (RTT) systems; the monitoring of these tests and checking the compilation of the software via distributed teams of rotating shifters; monitoring of and follow up on bug reports by the shifter teams and periodic software cleaning weeks to improve the quality of the offline software further.

  13. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  14. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  15. Does One Need a 4.5 K Screen in Cryostats of Superconducting Accelerator Devices Operating in Superfluid Helium? Lessons from the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Ph; Tavian, L

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large proj...

  16. Design and fabrication of a cryostat for low temperature mechanical testing for the Mechanical and Materials Engineering group at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles Santillana, I; Gerardin, A; Guinchard, M; Langeslag, S A E; Sgobba, S

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical testing of materials at low temperatures is one of the cornerstones of the Mechanical and Materials Engineering (MME) group at CERN. A long tradition of more than 20 years and a unique know - how of such tests has been developed with an 18 kN double-walled cryostat. Large campaigns of material qualification have been carried out and the mechanical behaviour of materials at 4 K has been vastly studied in sub - size samples for projects like LEP, LHC and its experiments. With the aim of assessing the mechanical properties of materials of higher strength and/or issued from heavy gauge products for which testing standardized specimens of larger cross section might be more adapted, a new 100 kN cryostat capable of hosting different shapes of normalized samples has been carefully designed and fabricated inhouse together with the associated tooling and measurement instrumentation. It has been conceived to be able to adapt to different test frames both dynamic and static, which will be of paramount importa...

  17. Study of shielding options for lower ports for mitigation of neutron environment and shutdown dose inside the ITER cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampin, Raul; Suarez, Alejandro; Arnould, Anne; Casal, Natalia; Juarez, Rafael; Martin, Alex; Moro, Fabio; Mota, Fernando; Polunovskiy, Eduard; Sabourin, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mitigation of the radiation environment inside the cryostat needed to reduce ITER coil heating and occupational exposure. • Cryopump and diagnostics lower ports are significant contributors, shielding options for both are explored. • Shielding performance studied in terms of neutron transmission and nuclear heating to coils for a range of options. • Benefits/constraints discussed together with other engineering parameters. - Abstract: Mitigation of the neutron environment inside the cryostat, and of the subsequent decay gamma dose field from activated materials, is necessary in order to reduce heating of coils and occupational exposure, thereby facilitating smooth operation and maintenance of ITER. Several lines of action are currently being explored to mitigate crucial contributions, such as the leakage through the lower ports. Results are presented here for the two types of lower ports in ITER: cryopump ports and remote-handling ports. Different shielding configurations and material options are investigated and compared in terms of neutron attenuation, coil heating and shutdown dose rate reduction, whilst also considering other engineering constraints such as weight or pumping power. Results enable informed decision-making of best compromise solutions for subsequent design and integration.

  18. Study of shielding options for lower ports for mitigation of neutron environment and shutdown dose inside the ITER cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin, Raul, E-mail: raul.pampin@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Suarez, Alejandro; Arnould, Anne; Casal, Natalia [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Juarez, Rafael [UNED, Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Martin, Alex [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mota, Fernando [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Polunovskiy, Eduard; Sabourin, Flavien [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mitigation of the radiation environment inside the cryostat needed to reduce ITER coil heating and occupational exposure. • Cryopump and diagnostics lower ports are significant contributors, shielding options for both are explored. • Shielding performance studied in terms of neutron transmission and nuclear heating to coils for a range of options. • Benefits/constraints discussed together with other engineering parameters. - Abstract: Mitigation of the neutron environment inside the cryostat, and of the subsequent decay gamma dose field from activated materials, is necessary in order to reduce heating of coils and occupational exposure, thereby facilitating smooth operation and maintenance of ITER. Several lines of action are currently being explored to mitigate crucial contributions, such as the leakage through the lower ports. Results are presented here for the two types of lower ports in ITER: cryopump ports and remote-handling ports. Different shielding configurations and material options are investigated and compared in terms of neutron attenuation, coil heating and shutdown dose rate reduction, whilst also considering other engineering constraints such as weight or pumping power. Results enable informed decision-making of best compromise solutions for subsequent design and integration.

  19. Simplified Methodology to Estimate the Maximum Liquid Helium (LHe) Cryostat Pressure from a Vacuum Jacket Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Richards, W. Lance

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared astronomical observation experiments. These experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The liquid helium supply is contained in large (i.e., 10 liters or more) vacuum-insulated dewars. Should the dewar vacuum insulation fail, the inrushing air will condense and freeze on the dewar wall, resulting in a large heat flux on the dewar's contents. The heat flux results in a rise in pressure and the actuation of the dewar pressure relief system. A previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment provided recommendations for the wall heat flux that would be expected from a loss of vacuum and detailed an appropriate method to use in calculating the maximum pressure that would occur in a loss of vacuum event. This method involved building a detailed supercritical helium compressible flow thermal/fluid model of the vent stack and exercising the model over the appropriate range of parameters. The experimenters designing science instruments for SOFIA are not experts in compressible supercritical flows and do not generally have access to the thermal/fluid modeling packages that are required to build detailed models of the vent stacks. Therefore, the SOFIA Program engaged the NESC to develop a simplified methodology to estimate the maximum pressure in a liquid helium dewar after the loss of vacuum insulation. The method would allow the university-based science instrument development teams to conservatively determine the cryostat's vent neck sizing during preliminary design of new SOFIA Science Instruments. This report details the development of the simplified method, the method itself, and the limits of its applicability. The simplified methodology provides an estimate of the dewar pressure after a loss of vacuum insulation that can be used for the initial design of the liquid helium dewar vent stacks. However, since it is not an exact

  20. The Odyssey of the Ancestral Escherich Strain through Culture Collections: an Example of Allopatric Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, M; Royer, G; Roche, D; Mercier-Darty, M; Vallenet, D; Médigue, C; Bastard, K; Rodriguez, C; Clermont, O; Denamur, E; Decousser, J-W

    2018-01-01

    More than a century ago, Theodor Escherich isolated the bacterium that was to become Escherichia coli , one of the most studied organisms. Not long after, the strain began an odyssey and landed in many laboratories across the world. As laboratory culture conditions could be responsible for major changes in bacterial strains, we conducted a genome analysis of isolates of this emblematic strain from different culture collections (England, France, the United States, Germany). Strikingly, many discrepancies between the isolates were observed, as revealed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the presence of virulence-associated genes, core genome MLST, and single nucleotide polymorphism/indel analyses. These differences are correlated with the phylogeographic history of the strain and were due to an unprecedented number of mutations in coding DNA repair functions such as mismatch repair (MutL) and oxidized guanine nucleotide pool cleaning (MutT), conferring a specific mutational spectrum and leading to a mutator phenotype. The mutator phenotype was probably acquired during subculturing and corresponded to second-order selection. Furthermore, all of the isolates exhibited hypersusceptibility to antibiotics due to mutations in efflux pump- and porin-encoding genes, as well as a specific mutation in the sigma factor-encoding gene rpoS . These defects reflect a self-preservation and nutritional competence tradeoff allowing survival under the starvation conditions imposed by storage. From a clinical point of view, dealing with such mutator strains can lead microbiologists to draw false conclusions about isolate relatedness and may impact therapeutic effectiveness. IMPORTANCE Mutator phenotypes have been described in laboratory-evolved bacteria, as well as in natural isolates. Several genes can be impacted, each of them being associated with a typical mutational spectrum. By studying one of the oldest strains available, the ancestral Escherich strain, we were able to

  1. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  2. The Effects of the Compasslearning Odyssey Spiral-Up Program on Discovery Education Scores of Sixth-Grade Gifted and High-Performing Language Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Carmen Freeman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) model CompassLearning Odyssey and the performance of middle school language arts students on the Discovery Education Test B and Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) along with examining teacher perceptions of high…

  3. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  4. Integrating Networking into ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Networking is foundational to the ATLAS distributed infrastructure and there are many ongoing activities related to networking both within and outside of ATLAS. We will report on the progress in a number of areas exploring ATLAS's use of networking and our ability to monitor the network, analyze metrics from the network, and tune and optimize application and end-host parameters to make the most effective use of the network. Specific topics will include work on Open vSwitch for production systems, network analytics, FTS testing and tuning, and network problem alerting and alarming.

  5. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  6. The Latest from ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Since November 2008, ATLAS has undertaken detailed maintenance, consolidation and repair work on the detector (see Bulletin of 20 July 2009). Today, the fraction of the detector that is operational has increased compared to last year: less than 1% of dead channels for most of the sub-systems. "We are going to start taking data this year with a detector which is even more efficient than it was last year," agrees ATLAS Spokesperson, Fabiola Gianotti. By mid-September the detector was fully closed again, and the cavern sealed. The magnet system has been operated at nominal current for extensive periods over recent months. Once the cavern was sealed, ATLAS began two weeks of combined running. Right now, subsystems are joining the run incrementally until the point where the whole detector is integrated and running as one. In the words of ATLAS Technical Coordinator, Marzio Nessi: "Now we really start physics." In parallel, the analysis ...

  7. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  8. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  9. Apollo Image Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Apollo Image Atlas is a comprehensive collection of Apollo-Saturn mission photography. Included are almost 25,000 lunar images, both from orbit and from the...

  10. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  11. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-16

    Nov 16, 2012 ... laboration has set up a framework to automatically process the ... ing (FPM) is complementary to data quality monitoring as problems may ... the full power of the ATLAS software framework Athena [4] and the availability of the.

  12. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  13. ATLAS Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The poster details the different aspects of the ATLAS Distributed Computing experience after the first year of LHC data taking. We describe the performance of the ATLAS distributed computing system and the lessons learned during the 2010 run, pointing out parts of the system which were in a good shape, and also spotting areas which required improvements. Improvements ranged from hardware upgrade on the ATLAS Tier-0 computing pools to improve data distribution rates, tuning of FTS channels between CERN and Tier-1s, and studying data access patterns for Grid analysis to improve the global processing rate. We show recent software development driven by operational needs with emphasis on data management and job execution in the ATLAS production system.

  14. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  15. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  16. Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfoord, John; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2012-12-01

    Although data-taking at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities creates a number of problems which can degrade its performance. These include space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps, excessive drop in potential across the gaps due to large HV supply currents through the protection resistors, and an increase in temperature which may cause the liquid argon to boil. One solution, which would require opening both End-Cap cryostats, is the construction and installation of new FCals with narrower liquid argon gaps, lowering the values of the protection resistors, and the addition of cooling loops. A second proposed solution, which does not require opening the cryostat cold volume, is the addition of a small, warm calorimeter in front of each existing FCal, resulting in a reduction of the particle flux to levels at which the existing FCal can operate normally.

  17. Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherfoord, John

    2012-01-01

    Although data-taking at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 10 34 cm −2 s −1 . The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities creates a number of problems which can degrade its performance. These include space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps, excessive drop in potential across the gaps due to large HV supply currents through the protection resistors, and an increase in temperature which may cause the liquid argon to boil. One solution, which would require opening both End-Cap cryostats, is the construction and installation of new FCals with narrower liquid argon gaps, lowering the values of the protection resistors, and the addition of cooling loops. A second proposed solution, which does not require opening the cryostat cold volume, is the addition of a small, warm calorimeter in front of each existing FCal, resulting in a reduction of the particle flux to levels at which the existing FCal can operate normally.

  18. ATLAS accelerator laboratory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of the ATLAS Accelerator is reported. Modifications are reported, including the installation of conductive tires for the Pelletron chain pulleys, installation of a new high frequency sweeper system at the entrance to the linac, and improvements to the rf drive ports of eight resonators to correct failures in the thermally conductive ceramic insulators. Progress is reported on the positive-ion injector upgrade for ATLAS. Also reported are building modifications and possible new uses for the tandem injector

  19. Budker INP in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Novosibirsk group has proposed a new design for the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter with a constant thickness of absorber plates. This design has signifi- cant advantages compared to one in the Technical Proposal and it has been accepted by the ATLAS Collaboration. The Novosibirsk group is responsible for the fabrication of the precision aluminium structure for the e.m.end-cap calorimeter.

  20. ATLAS construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is being constructed at the LHC, in view of a data-taking startup in 2007. This report concentrates on the progress and the technical challenges of the detector construction, and summarizes the status of the work as of August 2004. The project is on track to allow the highly motivated ATLAS Collaboration to enter into a new exploratory domain of high-energy physics in 2007. (author)

  1. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 4. The vacuum vessel and cryostat of JT-60SU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Tobita, Kenji

    1997-03-01

    The vacuum vessel and the cryostat for the JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) have been designed. Two types of the complex materials for the vacuum vessel were chosen on the basis of the avoidance of tritium occlusion and the low irradiation, i.e. (1) SUS316 covered by tungsten plate (30mm thickness) as a γ-ray shielding, (2) Ti-6Al-4V alloy covered by SUS430 plate (1mm thickness) as a tritium protector. Selecting the double skin type of vacuum vessel with toroidally continued structure gave the basic design of the vacuum vessel satisfying the design criteria of the vessel strength for the electromagnetic force, heat load and the property of radiation shielding. The characteristics of the SUS316 covered by tungsten plate type is that as the tungsten can shield the γ-ray, the dose rate inside the vacuum vessel during the maintenance can reduce effectively. The advantage of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy covered by SUS430 plate type vacuum vessel is the quick reduction of the radioactive isotope because of no production of the isotopes with long half-life periods. Channel type and vertical type of the divertor were designed. The sector type of toroidally separated structure was selected for the remote handling. The material of the armor plate was not determined because no material endure the high heat load on the divertor. The cryostat composing the dome and the tank was designed. The electromagnetic force by the eddy current, generated at the plasma start up phase and at the quench of CS super-conducting coil, were small compared to the force produced by the stress limit. (author)

  2. ATLAS Facility Description Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Moon, Sang Ki; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Yong

    2009-04-01

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The ATLAS has the same two-loop features as the APR1400 and is designed according to the well-known scaling method suggested by Ishii and Kataoka to simulate the various test scenarios as realistically as possible. It is a half-height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400. The fluid system of the ATLAS consists of a primary system, a secondary system, a safety injection system, a break simulating system, a containment simulating system, and auxiliary systems. The primary system includes a reactor vessel, two hot legs, four cold legs, a pressurizer, four reactor coolant pumps, and two steam generators. The secondary system of the ATLAS is simplified to be of a circulating loop-type. Most of the safety injection features of the APR1400 and the OPR1000 are incorporated into the safety injection system of the ATLAS. In the ATLAS test facility, about 1300 instrumentations are installed to precisely investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior in simulation of the various test scenarios. This report describes the scaling methodology, the geometric data of the individual component, and the specification and the location of the instrumentations in detail

  3. ATLAS-AWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrcke, Jan-Philip; Stonjek, Stefan; Kluth, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We show how the ATLAS offline software is ported on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We prepare an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) on the basis of the standard ATLAS platform Scientific Linux 4 (SL4). Then an instance of the SLC4 AMI is started on EC2 and we install and validate a recent release of the ATLAS offline software distribution kit. The installed software is archived as an image on the Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and can be quickly retrieved and connected to new SL4 AMI instances using the Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS). ATLAS jobs can then configure against the release kit using the ATLAS configuration management tool (cmt) in the standard way. The output of jobs is exported to S3 before the SL4 AMI is terminated. Job status information is transferred to the Amazon SimpleDB service. The whole process of launching instances of our AMI, starting, monitoring and stopping jobs and retrieving job output from S3 is controlled from a client machine using python scripts implementing the Amazon EC2/S3 API via the boto library working together with small scripts embedded in the SL4 AMI. We report our experience with setting up and operating the system using standard ATLAS job transforms.

  4. Engineering status of the superconducting end cap toroid magnets for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Carr, F S; Courthold, M J D; Cragg, D A; Densham, C J; Evans, D; Holtom, E; Rochford, J; Sole, D; Towndrow, Edwin F; Warner, G P

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC, CERN will utilise a large, superconducting, air-cored toroid magnet system for precision muon measurements. The magnet system will consist of a long barrel and two end-cap toroids. Each end-cap toroid will contain eight racetrack coils mounted as a single cold mass in cryostat vessel of ~10 m diameter. The project has now moved from the design/specification stage into the fabrication phase. This paper presents the engineering status of the cold masses and vacuum vessels that are under fabrication in industry. Final designs of cold mass supports, cryogenic systems and control/protection systems are presented. Planning for toroid integration, test and installation is described. (3 refs).

  5. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  6. Report to users of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the following topics: (1) status of the ATLAS accelerator; (2) progress in R and D towards a proposal for a National ISOL Facility; (3) highlights of recent research at ATLAS; (4) the move of gammasphere from LBNL to ANL; (5) Accelerator Target Development laboratory; (6) Program Advisory Committee; (7) ATLAS User Group Executive Committee; and (8) ATLAS user handbook available in the World Wide Web. A brief summary is given for each topic

  7. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Goldfarb, S.

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: June ATLAS Plenary Meeting Tutorial on Physics EDM and Tools (June) Freiburg Overview Week Ketevi Assamagan's Tutorial on Analysis Tools Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  8. Baby brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-03

    The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. ATLAS Review Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Szeless, B

    The ATLAS internal reviews, be it the mandatory Production Readiness Reviews, the now newly installed Production Advancement Reviews, or the more and more requested different Design Reviews, have become a part of our ATLAS culture over the past years. The Activity Systems Status Overviews are, for the time being, a one in time event and should be held for each system as soon as possible to have some meaning. There seems to a consensus that the reviews have become a useful project tool for the ATLAS management but even more so for the sub-systems themselves making achievements as well as possible shortcomings visible. One other recognized byproduct is the increasing cross talk between the systems, a very important ingredient to make profit all the systems from the large collective knowledge we dispose of in ATLAS. In the last two months, the first two PARs were organized for the MDT End Caps and the TRT Barrel Modules, both part of the US contribution to the ATLAS Project. Furthermore several different design...

  10. ATLAS MPGD production status

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Micromegas (MICRO MEsh GAseous Structure) chambers are Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors designed to provide a high spatial resolution and reasonable good time resolution in highly irradiated environments. In 2007 an ambitious long-term R\\&D activity was started in the context of the ATLAS experiment, at CERN: the Muon ATLAS Micromegas Activity (MAMMA). After years of tests on prototypes and technology breakthroughs, Micromegas chambers were chosen as tracking detectors for an upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. These novel detectors will be installed in 2020 at the end of the second long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider, and will serve mainly as precision detectors in the innermost part of the forward ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. Four different types of Micromegas modules, eight layers each, up to $3 m^2$ area (of unprecedented size), will cover a surface of $150 m^2$ for a total active area of about $1200 m^2$. With this upgrade the ATLAS muon system will maintain the full acceptance of its excellent...

  11. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  12. Mars: Detaching of the Free Water Signature (FWS) Presence Regions on the Base of HEND/ODYSSEY Data and Their Correlation with Some Permafrost Features from MOC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Boynton, M. V.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first results from global mapping of the neutron albedo from Mars by HEND instrument have shown the noticeable deficit of both the epithermal (EN) and the fast (FN) neutrons counts rate in the high latitudes regions of both hemispheres of the planet. The deficit is indicative for high enriching of the surface regolith by hydrogen, which may correspond to amount of any water phases and forms. The objectives of our study are the spatial and temporal variations of the free water (ice) signature in the Martian surface layer on the base of HEND/ODYSSEY data and their correlation with spatial spreading of some permafrost features, mapped on the base of MOC images. For the study we used the results of the global mapping (pixel 5 x5 ) of EN and FN albedo, realized by HEND/ODYSSEY in the period from 17 February to 10 December 2002 year.

  13. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Senchenko, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization and computing resources able to meet ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. In this paper we present ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS) designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of whole ATLAS Grid needed by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  14. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  15. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  16. The ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, HM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a charged particle tracking system, the Inner Detector, built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The Pixel and microstrip (SCT) subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. Since the LHC startup in 2009, the ATLAS inner tracker has played a central role in many ATLAS physics analyses. Rapid improvements in the calibration and alignment of the detector allowed it to reach nearly the nominal performance in the timespan of a few months. The tracking performance proved to be stable as the LHC luminosity increased by five orders of magnitude during the 2010 proton run, New developments in the offline reconstruction for the 2011 run will improve the tracking performance in high pile-up conditions as well as in highly boosted jets will be discussed.

  17. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Showing excellence in mechanics, electronics and cryogenics, three industries are honoured for their contributions to the ATLAS experiment. Representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony. For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Close interaction with CERN was a key factor in the selection of each rewarded company, in addition to the high-quality products they delivered to the experiment. Alu Menziken Industrie AG, of Switzerland, was honoured for the production of 380,000 aluminium tubes for the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). As Giora Mikenberg, the Muon System Project Leader stressed, the aluminium tubes were delivered on time with an extraordinary quality and precision. Between October 2000 and Jan...

  18. Two ATLAS suppliers honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recognised the outstanding contribution of two firms to the pixel detector. Recipients of the supplier award with Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN Secretary-General.At a ceremony held at CERN on 28 November, the ATLAS collaboration presented awards to two of its suppliers that had produced sensor wafers for the pixel detector. The CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik of Erfurt in Germany has supplied 655 sensor wafers containing a total of 1652 sensor tiles and the firm ON Semiconductor has supplied 515 sensor wafers (1177 sensor tiles) from its foundry at Roznov in the Czech Republic. Both firms have successfully met the very demanding requirements. ATLAS’s huge pixel detector is very complicated, requiring expertise in highly specialised integrated microelectronics and precision mechanics. Pixel detector project leader Kevin Einsweiler admits that when the project was first propo...

  19. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  20. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  1. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  2. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  3. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  4. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  5. Micromegas R&D for ATLAS MUON PHASE II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Edoardo Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade, a proposal to extend the detector acceptance of the muon system to high η has been put forward (namely up to | η| ~ 4). Extension of the muon coverage has been demonstrated to enhance physics performance. The proposed location for the new detector is in between the end-cap calorimeter cryostat and the JD shielding; in this region there is no magnetic field applied, the aim of the new detector is therefore to only tag muons without performing any momentum measurement. The new η tagger should cope with extremely high particle rate, that has been calculated, by means of simulations, to be 9 MHz at R = 25 cm and 0.4 MHz at R = 60 cm for μ = 200, where μ stands for the number of pp collisions per bunch crossing. The required spatial resolution at the inner edge of the detector has been estimated in few hundreds micrometres. One of the most promising candidate technology for the new detector is the MicroMegaS one, which has already been adopted for the NSW upgrad...

  6. ATLAS magnet common cryogenic, vacuum, electrical and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Miele, P; Delruelle, N; Geich-Gimbel, C; Haug, F; Olesen, G; Pengo, R; Sbrissa, E; Tyrvainen, H; ten Kate, H H J

    2004-01-01

    The superconducting Magnet System for the ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN comprises a Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid with overall dimensions of 20 m diameter by 26 m length and a stored energy of 1.6 GJ. Common proximity cryogenic and electrical systems for the toroids are implemented. The Cryogenic System provides the cooling power for the 3 toroid magnets considered as a single cold mass (600 tons) and for the CS. The 21 kA toroid and the 8 kA solenoid electrical circuits comprise both a switch-mode power supply, two circuit breakers, water cooled bus bars, He cooled current leads and the diode resistor ramp-down unit. The Vacuum System consists of a group of primary rotary pumps and sets of high vacuum diffusion pumps connected to each individual cryostat. The Magnet Safety System guarantees the magnet protection and human safety through slow and fast dump treatment. The Magnet Control System ensures control, regulation and monitoring of the operation of the magnets. The update...

  7. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; 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Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  8. Atlas of Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Marcus, A. W.; Meachan, J. E.; Rodman, A. W.; Steingisser, A. Y.; Allan, Stuart; West, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Established in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was the world’s first national park. In a fitting tribute to this diverse and beautiful region, the Atlas of Yellowstone is a compelling visual guide to this unique national park and its surrounding area. Ranging from art to wolves, from American Indians to the Yellowstone Volcano, and from geysers to population, each page explains something new about the dynamic forces shaping Yellowstone. Equal parts reference and travel guide, the Atlas of Yellowstone is an unsurpassed resource.

  9. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  10. LUCID in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Groth-Jensen, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This talk is to be given at the workshop DIFF2010 : Diffractive and electromagnetic processes at the LHC , early January next year. The aim of the talk is to give a overview/status update of the LUCID detector in ATLAS. As such the presentation will be focused on the design and current layout of the detector - with emphasis on the hardware side. The first few slides will be used to give an overview of the location, design and layout LUCID with respect to ATLAS. Afterwards some hardware issues will be address and finally some results from first LHC data will be shown.

  11. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  12. The Herschel ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  13. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  14. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieth, Donald L.; Voegele, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  15. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  16. The LHC SSS cold mass inside the cryostat. The complexity of the bus-bars for the power supply of the magnets and cryogenic links can be seen. The two apertures in the centre will house the beam lines

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The LHC SSS cold mass inside the cryostat. The complexity of the bus-bars for the power supply of the magnets and cryogenic links can be seen. The two apertures in the centre will house the beam lines

  17. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  18. Proposal to Negotiate an Amendment to an Existing Contract and Several Contracts for the Supply and Assembly of the LHC Short Straight Section Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Following the insolvency of a major contractor, CERN proposes to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract and to place several contracts for the supply of 360 LHC arc short straight section cryostats and their assembly, eight spare cryostat units and components for 64 LHC dispersion suppressor short straight section cryostats. The Finance Committee is therefore invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with the consortium: &8721; INTERTEC (DK) - CEGELEC (FR) - SPIE TRINDEL (FR) to include assembly of the LHC arc short straight sections, for an additional amount of 4 088 470 euros (6 205 480 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation after 31 December 2002; the consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal : DK - 52%, FR - 48%; and to the negotiation of contracts for the supply of related major components with the firms: &8721; SES (SK) for the supply of vacuum vessels for an amount of 5 538 533 euros...

  19. Short Straight Sections in the LHC Matching Sections (MS SSS) An Extension of the Arc Cryostats to Fulfil Specific Machine Functionalities

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V; Lutton, F

    2005-01-01

    The LHC insertions require 50 specific superconducting quadrupoles in the matching sections, operating either in 1.9 K superfluid helium or in boiling helium at 4.5 K. These magnets are assembled together with corrector magnets in cold masses, and are inserted in individual cryostats to form the MS Short Straight Sections (MS SSS). The variety of quadrupoles and corrector magnets leads to 10 families of cold masses, with lengths ranging from 5 to 12 m and weights ranging from 60 to 140 kN. The MS SSS need to fulfil specific requirements related to the collider topology, its cryogenic layout and the powering scheme. Most MS SSS are standalone cryogenic and super-conducting units, i.e. they are not in the continuous arc cryostat, and therefore need dedicated cryogenic and electrical feeding. Specially designed cryostat end-caps are required to close the vacuum vessels at each end, which include low heat in-leak Cold-to-Warm transitions (CWT) for the beam tubes and 6 kA local electrical feedthrough for powering...

  20. The observer's sky atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Karkoschka, E

    2007-01-01

    This title includes a short introduction to observing, a thorough description of the star charts and tables, a glossary and much more. It is perfect for both the beginner and seasoned observer. It is fully revised edition of a best-selling and highly-praised sky atlas.

  1. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  2. Tema-atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Olsen, S.

    I dette tema-atlas viser forskere på By og Byg, hvordan registre over befolkning, bygninger og forbrug kan overføres til kort ved hjælp af GIS-teknologi. Atlasset er samtidig en illustration af de muligheder, som tegner sig i kommunerne for at udnytte eksisterende registre i forbindelse med...

  3. Taus at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, Sarah M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-12-06

    The grant "Taus at ATLAS" supported the group of Sarah Demers at Yale University over a period of 8.5 months, bridging the time between her Early Career Award and her inclusion on Yale's grant cycle within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. The work supported the functioning of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and the analysis of ATLAS data. The work included searching for the Higgs Boson in a particular mode of its production (with a W or Z boson) and decay (to a pair of tau leptons.) This was part of a broad program of characterizing the Higgs boson as we try to understand this recently discovered particle, and whether or not it matches our expectations within the current standard model of particle physics. In addition, group members worked with simulation to understand the physics reach of planned upgrades to the ATLAS experiment. Supported group members include postdoctoral researcher Lotte Thomsen and graduate student Mariel Pettee.

  4. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - French

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  5. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Turkish

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  6. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Hebrew

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  7. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Italian

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  8. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - German

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  9. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Japanese

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  10. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Portuguese

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  11. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Czech

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  12. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Dutch

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  13. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Romanian

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  14. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Serbian

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  15. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  16. Prime wires for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In an award ceremony on 3 September, ATLAS honoured the French company Axon Cable for its special coaxial cables, which were purpose-built for the Liquid Argon calorimeter modules. Working for CERN since the 1970s, Axon' Cable received the ATLAS supplier award last week for its contribution to the liquid argon calorimeter cables of ATLAS (LAL/Orsay, France and University of Victoria, Canada), started in 1996. Its two sets of minicoaxial cables, called harnesses "A" and "B", are designed to function in the harsh conditions in the liquid argon (at 90 Kelvin or -183°C) and under extreme radiation (up to several Mrads). The cables are mainly used for the readout of the calorimeters, and are connected to the outside world by 114 signal feedthroughs with 1920 channels each. The signal from the detectors is transmitted directly without any amplification, which imposes tight restrictions on the impedance and on the signal propagation time of the cables. Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, gives the award for best s...

  17. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  18. ATLAS Experiment Brochure

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00085461

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  19. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  20. A thermosiphon for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2013-01-01

    A new thermosiphon cooling system, designed for the ATLAS silicon detectors by CERN’s EN-CV team in collaboration with the experiment, will replace the current system in the next LHC run in 2015. Using the basic properties of density difference and making gravity do the hard work, the thermosiphon promises to be a very reliable solution that will ensure the long-term stability of the whole system.   Former compressor-based cooling system of the ATLAS inner detectors. The system is currently being replaced by the innovative thermosiphon. (Photo courtesy of Olivier Crespo-Lopez). Reliability is the major issue for the present cooling system of the ATLAS silicon detectors. The system was designed 13 years ago using a compressor-based cooling cycle. “The current cooling system uses oil-free compressors to avoid fluid pollution in the delicate parts of the silicon detectors,” says Michele Battistin, EN-CV-PJ section leader and project leader of the ATLAS thermosiphon....

  1. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m...

  2. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  3. Top Physics at Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    This talk is an overview of recent results on top-quark physics obtained by the ATLAS collaboration from the analysis of p-p collisions at 7 and 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. Total and differential top pair cross section, single top cross section and mass measurements are presented.

  4. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking).

  5. ATLAS. LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In Greek mythology, Atlas was a Titan who had to hold up the heavens with his hands as a punishment for having taken part in a revolt against the Olympians. For LHC, the ATLAS detector will also have an onerous physics burden to bear, but this is seen as a golden opportunity rather than a punishment. The major physics goal of CERN's LHC proton-proton collider is the quest for the long-awaited£higgs' mechanism which drives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the electroweak Standard Model picture. The large ATLAS collaboration proposes a large general-purpose detector to exploit the full discovery potential of LHC's proton collisions. LHC will provide proton-proton collision luminosities at the aweinspiring level of 1034 cm2 s~1, with initial running in at 1033. The ATLAS philosophy is to handle as many signatures as possible at all luminosity levels, with the initial running providing more complex possibilities. The ATLAS concept was first presented as a Letter of Intent to the LHC Committee in November 1992. Following initial presentations at the Evian meeting (Towards the LHC Experimental Programme') in March of that year, two ideas for generalpurpose detectors, the ASCOT and EAGLE schemes, merged, with Friedrich Dydak (MPI Munich) and Peter Jenni (CERN) as ATLAS cospokesmen. Since the initial Letter of Intent presentation, the ATLAS design has been optimized and developed, guided by physics performance studies and the LHC-oriented detector R&D programme (April/May, page 3). The overall detector concept is characterized by an inner superconducting solenoid (for inner tracking) and large superconducting air-core toroids outside the calorimetry. This solution avoids constraining the calorimetry while providing a high resolution, large acceptance and robust detector. The outer magnet will extend over a length of 26 metres, with an outer diameter of almost 20 metres. The total weight of the detector is 7,000 tonnes. Fitted with its end

  6. New format for ATLAS e-news

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    ATLAS e-news got a new look! As of November 30, 2007, we have a new format for ATLAS e-news. Please go to: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/index.html . ATLAS e-news will now be published on a weekly basis. If you are not an ATLAS colaboration member but still want to know how the ATLAS experiment is doing, we will soon have a version of ATLAS e-news intended for the general public. Information will be sent out in due time.

  7. Networks in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks. We will report on a number of networking initiatives in ATLAS including participation in the global perfSONAR network monitoring and measuring efforts of WLCG and OSG, the collaboration with the LHCOPN/LHCONE effort, the integration of network awareness into PanDA, the use of the evolving ATLAS analytics framework to better understand our networks and the changes in our DDM system to allow remote access to data. We will also discuss new efforts underway that are exploring the inclusion and use of software defined networks (SDN) and how ATLAS might benefit from: • Orchestration and optimization of distributed data access and data movement. • Better control of workflows, end to end. • Enabling prioritization of time-critical vs normal tasks • Improvements in the efficiency of resource usage

  8. Dutch supplier rewarded for manufacture of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS end-cap toroids

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has presented an award for outstanding supplier performance to Dutch firm Schelde Exotech. Based on a design by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, Schelde Exotech manufactured under a NIKHEF contract the two 500 m3 large vacuum vessels for the cryostats of the ATLAS end-cap toroids. These 11-metre diameter castellated aluminium vessels with stainless-steel bore tube are essentially made up of 40-mm-thick plates for the shells, 75-mm-thick plates for the endplates, and 150-mm-thick bars for the flanges. Because of transport constraints, the vessels were made in halves, temporarily sealed and vacuum tested at the works, then transported to CERN for final assembly and acceptance tests. Both vessels were vacuum-tight and the meticulous and clean way of working ensured that a high vacuum was obtained within a few days of pumping. The delivery to CERN was completed in July 2002. Representatives of Schelde Exotech are seen here receiving their award in the ATLAS assembly hall. In the backgro...

  9. ATLAS B-physics potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smizanska, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies since 1993 have demonstrated the ability of ATLAS to pursue a wide B physics program. This document presents the latest performance studies with special stress on lepton identification. B-decays containing several leptons in ATLAS statistically dominate the high-precision measurements. We present new results on physics simulations of CP violation measurements in the B s 0 → J/Ψphi decay and on a novel ATLAS programme on beauty production in central proton-proton collisions of LHC

  10. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    Legger, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During...

  11. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  12. Taking ATLAS to new heights

    CERN Document Server

    Abha Eli Phoboo, ATLAS experiment

    2013-01-01

    Earlier this month, 51 members of the ATLAS collaboration trekked up to the highest peak in the Atlas Mountains, Mt. Toubkal (4,167m), in North Africa.    The physicists were in Marrakech, Morocco, attending the ATLAS Overview Week (7 - 11 October), which was held for the first time on the African continent. Around 300 members of the collaboration met to discuss the status of the LS1 upgrades and plans for the next run of the LHC. Besides the trek, 42 ATLAS members explored the Saharan sand dunes of Morocco on camels.  Photos courtesy of Patrick Jussel.

  13. Upgrade plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Even though data taking has just started with the LHC, plans are being developed to operate the machine and its detectors at up to 10 times the original design luminosity. This has an impact on many components of the ATLAS detector, particularly the Forward calorimeter, which is exposed to some of the highest radiation rates in ATLAS. The FCal detector and its associated components were designed for operation at the maximum LHC luminosity of 1034 cm2s-1. However at the higher luminosities (HL), which are projected for the HL-LHC, operation of the FCal will be compromised. Beam heating in the FCal which is located on a liquid argon filled cryostat could lead to the formation of argon bubbles in the detector, the ionization rate will result in space charge effects that will reduce the signal and the current draw will result in a voltage drop across the HV current limiting resistors. The space charge and ionization rates will result in the FCal becoming insensitive to particles at its inner edge and the insensit...

  14. Upgrade Plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC Collider foresees increased instantaneous luminosity 3-7 times the original design value of 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the LAr forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities poses a number of problems that can degrade its performance, related to beam heating, space charge effects in the LAr gaps and HV drop due to increased current draws over the HV current-limiting resistors. One solution to these problems, which would require the opening of both ATLAS endcap cryostats, is the construction and installation of a new FCal, with cooling loops, narrower LAr gaps, and lower value protection resistors. The signal performance of the current FCal and of a possible narrow-gap FCal has been measured in a dedicated test-beam campaign ...

  15. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  16. ATLAS Upgrade Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, S J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the already outstanding LHC luminosity performance, and planned LHC upgrades in the upcoming shutdowns, it is expected that within a short time-scale, the general purpose LHC experiments will have to cope with luminosities beyond their original design. In order to maintain detector performance and sensitivity to expected and new physics processes, ATLAS has defined a continuous upgrade programme which foresees staged enhancements during the next 10 years of operation, and then more widespread changes before the transition to the highest luminosities after 2022. This talk will describe several components of the ATLAS upgrade, focusing in particular on the Inner Detector and Trigger. The Inner Detector faces two challenges in the higher luminosity environment: high particle multiplicities and increased radiation dose. These will be addressed in the short term by a new layer of Pixel detectors, and in the long term by a complete replacement. The Trigger faces an increasingly difficult task of distinguishing...

  17. ATLAS IBL operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237659; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the inner most pixel layer in the ATLAS experiment, which was installed at 3.3 cm radius from the beam axis in 2014 to improve the tracking performance. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed for the IBL. After the long shut-down period over 2013 and 2014, the ATLAS experiment started data-taking in May 2015 for Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The IBL has been operated successfully since the beginning of Run-2 and shows excellent performance with the low dead module fraction, high data-taking efficiency and improved tracking capability. The experience and challenges in the operation of the IBL is described as well as its performance.

  18. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  19. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  20. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  1. Analysis Streamlining in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present recent work within the ATLAS collaboration centrally provide tools to facilitate analysis management and highly automated container-based analysis execution in order to both enable non-experts to benefit from these best practices as well as the collaboration to track and re-execute analyses indpendently, e.g. during their review phase. Through integration with the ATLAS GLANCE system, users can request a pre-configured, but customizable version control setup, including continuous integration for automated build and testing as well as continuous Linux Container image building for software preservation purposes. As analyses typically require many individual steps, analysis workflow pipelines can then be defined using such images and the yadage workflow description language. The integration into the workflow exection service REANA allows the interactive or automated reproduction of the main analysis results by orchestrating a large number of container jobs using the Kubernetes. For long-term archival,...

  2. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  3. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  4. Teaching atlas of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, L.; Dean, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The illustrated case reports in this teaching atlas cover practically the entire range of possible pathological changes and are based on in-patient case material and 80,000 screening documents. The two basic approaches, - detection and analysis of changes -, are taught comprehensively and in great detail. A systematic procedure for analysing the mammographies, in order to detect even the very least changes, and its practical application is explained using mammographies showing unclear findings at first sight. A system of coordinates is presented which allows precise localisation of the changes. Exercises for practising the technique of identifying the pathological changes round up the methodolical chapters. Additional imaging technical enhancements and detail enlargements are of great help in interpreting the findings. The specific approach adopted for this teaching atlas is a 'reverse procedure', which leaves the beaten track and starts with analysing the mammographies and evaluating the radiographic findings, in order to finally derive the diagnosis. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Boosted tops at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    A sample of candidate events for highly boosted top quarks is selected following the standard ATLAS selection for semi-leptonic ttbar events plus a requirement that the invariant mass of the reconstructed ttbar pair is greater than 700 GeV. Event displays are presented for the most promising candidates, as well as quantitative results for observables designed to isolate a boosted top quark signal.

  6. The ATLAS simulation infrastructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Bazalová, Magdalena; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Hruška, I.; Jahoda, M.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Popule, Jiří; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Šťastný, Jan; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2010), s. 823-874 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * simulation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/pdf/1005.4568

  7. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  8. Exotics searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Renjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Many theories beyond the Standard Model predict new physics accessible by the LHC. The ATLAS experiment all have rigorous search programs ongoing with the aim to find indications for new physics involving state of the art analysis techniques. This talk reports on new results obtained using the pp collision data sample collected in 2015 and 2016 at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  9. Higgs results from ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The updated Higgs measurements in various search channels with ATLAS Run 1 data are reviewed. Both the Standard Model (SM) Higgs results, such as H → γγ, ZZ, WW, ττ, μμ, bb-bar, and Beyond Standard Model (BSM) results, such as the charged Higgs, Higgs invisible decay and tensor couplings, are summarized. Prospects for future Higgs searches are briefly discussed

  10. The ATLAS TRT electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Serkant Ali; ATLAS Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4cm-20cm, the semiconductor tracker at radii from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT), tracking from 56 to 107 cm. The TRT provides a combination of continuous tracking with many projective measurements based on individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibres or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This...

  11. The ATLAS Analysis Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the ATLAS analysis architecture including the relevant aspects of the computing model and the major architectural aspects of the Athena framework. Emphasis will be given to the interplay between the analysis use cases and the technical aspects of the architecture including the design of the event data model, transient-persistent separation, data reduction strategies, analysis tools, and ROOT interoperability

  12. Atlas de fitoplancton marino.

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya, Oscar; Alvarado, Yaneth; Chávez, Isaias; Ruíz, Gerrado; Lopez, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    En El Salvador existe un fenómeno natural que afecta a las costas marítimas que son los fitoplancton; mediante el cual se expone el Atlas de fitoplancton marino que contiene 100 p. con imágenes, mapas, etc., con el fin de dar a conocer más de 200 especies de fitoplancton identificada hasta el momento, algunos son tóxicas, inocuas y nocivas.

  13. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  14. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  15. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  16. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  17. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  18. ATLAS overview week highlights

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Froidevaux

    2005-01-01

    A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

  19. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  20. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  1. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  2. ATLAS end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Three scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Phyiscs at Novossibirsk with one of the end-caps of the ATLAS detector. The end-caps will be used to detect particles produced in the proton-proton collisions at the heart of the ATLAS experiment that are travelling close to the axis of the two beams.

  3. Lowering the first ATLAS toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN will consist of eight toroid magnets, the first of which was lowered into the cavern in these images on 26 October 2004. The coils are supported on platforms where they will be attached to form a giant torus. The platforms will hold about 300 tonnes of ATLAS' muon chambers and will envelop the inner detectors.

  4. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months ago at their headquarters in Japan.

  5. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias

    by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the LHC Computing Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed among heterogeneous...

  6. ATLAS Grid Workflow Performance Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The CERN ATLAS experiment grid workflow system manages routinely 250 to 500 thousand concurrently running production and analysis jobs to process simulation and detector data. In total more than 300 PB of data is distributed over more than 150 sites in the WLCG. At this scale small improvements in the software and computing performance and workflows can lead to significant resource usage gains. ATLAS is reviewing together with CERN IT experts several typical simulation and data processing workloads for potential performance improvements in terms of memory and CPU usage, disk and network I/O. All ATLAS production and analysis grid jobs are instrumented to collect many performance metrics for detailed statistical studies using modern data analytics tools like ElasticSearch and Kibana. This presentation will review and explain the performance gains of several ATLAS simulation and data processing workflows and present analytics studies of the ATLAS grid workflows.

  7. The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: ATLAS Experiment Laboratory has been created by physicists and engineers preparing a research programme and detector for the LHC collider. This group is greatly supported by members of other Departments taking also part (often full time) in the ATLAS project. These are: J. Blocki, J. Godlewski, Z. Hajduk, P. Kapusta, B. Kisielewski, W. Ostrowicz, E. Richter-Was, and M. Turala. Our ATLAS Laboratory realizes its programme in very close collaboration with the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Technology of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. ATLAS, A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS Collaboration groups about 1700 experimentalists from about 150 research institutes. This apparatus, a huge system of many detectors, which are technologically very advanced, is going to be ready by 2005. With the start of the 2 x 7 TeV LHC collider ATLAS and CMS (the sister experiment at LHC) will begin their fascinating research programme at beam energies and intensities which have never been exploited. (author)

  8. ATLAS Award for Difficult Task

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Two Russian companies were honoured with an ATLAS Award, for supply of the ATLAS Inner Detector barrel support structure elements, last week. On 23 March the Russian company ORPE Technologiya and its subcontractor, RSP Khrunitchev, were jointly presented with an ATLAS Supplier Award. Since 1998, ORPE Technologiya has been actively involved in the development of the carbon-fibre reinforced plastic elements of the ATLAS Inner Detector barrel support structure. After three years of joint research and development, CERN and ORPE Technologiya launched the manufacturing contract. It had a tight delivery schedule and very demanding specifications in terms of mechanical tolerance and stability. The contract was successfully completed with the arrival of the last element of the structure at CERN on 8 January 2004. The delivery of this key component of the Inner Detector deserves an ATLAS Award given the difficulty of manufacturing the end-frames, which very few companies in the world would have been able to do at an ...

  9. Development, setup, and test of a new cryostat module for the S-DALINAC; Entwicklung, Aufbau und Test eines neuen Kryostatmoduls fuer den S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerzeder, Thorsten

    2013-07-01

    Within the work presented here, a new cryostat-module for the superconducting injector accelerator of the S-DALINAC as well as three superconducting cavities have been designed and built. The aim of these efforts was an increase in energy behind the injector from 10 MeV to 14 MeV and in beam current from 60 μA to 250 μA. Such an upgrade in intensity required an increase of the input radio-frequency (RF) power from 500 W to 2 kW. For this purpose new RF power couplers had been designed at the Institut fuer Theorie elektromagnetischer Felder at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt. In order to enable the use of these couplers a new cryostat-module with a WR-284 rectangular waveguide transition line through all pressure and temperature stages was developed within the work presented here. The new construction was designed following that of the standard cryostats of the S-DALINAC. Because the dimensions and adapters for the beam and insulating vacuum as well as the connections needed for helium and nitrogen supply of both cryostats agree, the present module can be simply replaced by the new one. For the WR-284 waveguide feed-through the tower section was redesigned to provide enough space for an assembly under clean-room conditions. The waveguide bellows, specially built for this project, show excellent RF properties and provide the flexibility needed for the transfer line. As an alternative to a cold vacuum window a special waveguide with diaphragms at an intermediate temperature has been developed in order to minimize losses due to heat radiation inside the waveguide. All waveguide components were tested for ultra-high-vacuum capability and their RF properties have been determined within this work. Within the process of the fabrication of the cryostat module the helium vessel was equipped with a significantly improved magnetic shielding. Final measurements inside the helium vessel showed an average value of 4 μT for the magnetic field at the positions of the

  10. 17 April 2008 - Head of Internal Audit Network meeting visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN ATLAS Team Leader P. Fassnacht, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Resources Manager M. Nordberg.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    17 April 2008 - Head of Internal Audit Network meeting visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN ATLAS Team Leader P. Fassnacht, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Resources Manager M. Nordberg.

  11. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions.

  12. ATLAS parameter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem

  13. ATLAS Exotic Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Bousson, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the outstanding performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that delivered more than 2 fb^-1 of proton-proton collision data at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, the ATLAS experiment has been able to explore a wide range of exotic models trying to address the questions unanswered by the Standard Model of particle physics. Searches for leptoquarks, new heavy quarks, vector-like quarks, black holes, hidden valley and contact interactions are reviewed in these proceedings.

  14. Commissioning of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J

    2008-01-01

    The status of the commissioning of the ATLAS experiment as of May 2008 is presented. The subdetector integration in recent milestone weeks is described, especially the cosmic commissioning in milestone week M6, focussing on combined running and track analysis of the muon detector and inner detector. The liquid argon and tile calorimeters have achieved near-full operation, and are integrated with the calorimeter trigger. The High-Level-Trigger infrastructure is installed and algorithms tested in technical runs. Problems with the inner detector cooling compressors are being fixed.

  15. Surveying the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The cathedral-like cavern into which the ATLAS experiment will be lowered and installed forms a vital part of the engineering work at CERN in preparation for the new LHC accelerator. This cavern, being measured by surveyors in these images, will have one of the largest spans of any man-made underground structure. The massive 46X25X25 cubic metre detector will be the largest of its type in the world when it is completed for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  16. Atlas of liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This atlas is an outcome of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme. In addition to Japan, nine other Asian countries participated in the project and 293 liver scintigrams (116 from Japanese institutions and 177 from seven Asian countries) were evaluated by physicians from the participating Asian countries. The computer analysis of the scan findings of the individual physicians was carried out and individual scores have been separately tabulated for: (a) scan abnormality; (b) space occupying lesions; (c) cirrhosis and (d) diffuse liver diseases like hepatitis. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. SUSY Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mamuzic, Judita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is considered one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. It postulates a fundamental symmetry between fermions and bosons, and introduces a set of new supersymmetric particles at the electroweak scale. It addresses the hierarchy and naturalness problem, gives a solution to the gauge coupling unification, and offers a cold dark matter candidate. Different aspects of SUSY searches, using strong, electroweak, third generation production, and R-parity violation and long lived particles are being studied at the LHC. An overview of most recent SUSY searches results using the 13 TeV ATLAS RUN2 data will be presented.

  18. Computational and mathematical methods in brain atlasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2017-12-01

    Brain atlases have a wide range of use from education to research to clinical applications. Mathematical methods as well as computational methods and tools play a major role in the process of brain atlas building and developing atlas-based applications. Computational methods and tools cover three areas: dedicated editors for brain model creation, brain navigators supporting multiple platforms, and atlas-assisted specific applications. Mathematical methods in atlas building and developing atlas-aided applications deal with problems in image segmentation, geometric body modelling, physical modelling, atlas-to-scan registration, visualisation, interaction and virtual reality. Here I overview computational and mathematical methods in atlas building and developing atlas-assisted applications, and share my contribution to and experience in this field.

  19. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  20. A learning space Odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the alignment of learning space with higher education learning and teaching. Significant changes in higher education the past decades, such as increased information and communication technology (ICT) and new learning theories have resulted in the dilemma whether higher

  1. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  2. ATLAS B-physics potential

    CERN Document Server

    Smizanska, M

    2001-01-01

    Studies since 1993 have demonstrated the ability of ATLAS to pursue a wide B physics program. This document presents the latest performance studies with special stress on lepton identification. B-decays containing several leptons in ATLAS statistically dominate the high- precision measurements. We present new results on physics simulations of CP violation measurements in the B/sub s//sup 0/ to J/ psi phi decay and on a novel ATLAS programme on beauty production in central proton-proton collisions at the LHC. (7 refs).

  3. Hidden Valley Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models.

  4. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  5. An ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat for simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and magneto-transport measurements down to 400 mK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Marcus; Bindel, Jan Raphael; Pezzotta, Mike; Becker, Stefan; Muckel, Florian; Johnsen, Tjorven; Saunus, Christian; Ast, Christian R; Morgenstern, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present the design and calibration measurements of a scanning tunneling microscope setup in a 3 He ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat operating at 400 mK with a hold time of 10 days. With 2.70 m in height and 4.70 m free space needed for assembly, the cryostat fits in a one-story lab building. The microscope features optical access, an xy table, in situ tip and sample exchange, and enough contacts to facilitate atomic force microscopy in tuning fork operation and simultaneous magneto-transport measurements on the sample. Hence, it enables scanning tunneling spectroscopy on microstructured samples which are tuned into preselected transport regimes. A superconducting magnet provides a perpendicular field of up to 14 T. The vertical noise of the scanning tunneling microscope amounts to 1 pm rms within a 700 Hz bandwidth. Tunneling spectroscopy using one superconducting electrode revealed an energy resolution of 120 μeV. Data on tip-sample Josephson contacts yield an even smaller feature size of 60 μeV, implying that the system operates close to the physical noise limit.

  6. An ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat for simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and magneto-transport measurements down to 400 mK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Marcus; Bindel, Jan Raphael; Pezzotta, Mike; Becker, Stefan; Muckel, Florian; Johnsen, Tjorven; Saunus, Christian; Ast, Christian R.; Morgenstern, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present the design and calibration measurements of a scanning tunneling microscope setup in a 3He ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat operating at 400 mK with a hold time of 10 days. With 2.70 m in height and 4.70 m free space needed for assembly, the cryostat fits in a one-story lab building. The microscope features optical access, an xy table, in situ tip and sample exchange, and enough contacts to facilitate atomic force microscopy in tuning fork operation and simultaneous magneto-transport measurements on the sample. Hence, it enables scanning tunneling spectroscopy on microstructured samples which are tuned into preselected transport regimes. A superconducting magnet provides a perpendicular field of up to 14 T. The vertical noise of the scanning tunneling microscope amounts to 1 pmrms within a 700 Hz bandwidth. Tunneling spectroscopy using one superconducting electrode revealed an energy resolution of 120 μeV. Data on tip-sample Josephson contacts yield an even smaller feature size of 60 μeV, implying that the system operates close to the physical noise limit.

  7. The Atlas upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    ATLAS is a heavy-ion accelerator system consisting of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic injector coupled to a superconducting linac. A project now well advanced will upgrade the capabilities of ATLAS immensely by replacing the tandem and its negative-ion source with a positive-ion injector that consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a 12-MV superconducting injector linac of novel design. This project will increase the beam intensity 100 fold and will extend the projectile-mass range up to uranium. Phase 1 of the work, which is nearing completion in late 1988, will provide an injector comprising the ECR source and its 350-kV voltage platform, beam analysis and bunching systems, beam lines, and a prototype 3-MV linac. The ECR source and its voltage platform are operational, development of the new class of low-frequency interdigital superconducting resonators required for the injector linac has been completed, and assembly of the whole system is in progress. Test runs and then routine use of the Phase 1 injector systems are planned for early 1989, and the final 12-MV injector linac will be commissioned in 1990. 12 refs., 6 figs

  8. ATLAS construction schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    Kotamaki, M

    The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....

  9. ATLAS Christmas lunch

    CERN Document Server

    Francois Butin; Markus Nordberg

    The end of the year ATLAS pit lunch is now a well established tradition: the 4th edition took place in the most prestigious place at CERN; the "Globe de l'innovation", or simply "the Globe". This end-of-year event is the opportunity to thank all those working so hard at Point 1. The first event took place in December 2003. At that time, there was no Globe yet, and the party took place in SX1 building, at the top of the shafts leading to the ATLAS cavern, with some 100 guests. In December 2004, we had the privilege to be the first to organize a lunch in the Globe with some 200 guests. Since then, many have followed our example! Well, almost: we were requested to refrain from serving "Tartiflette" again in there (a Savoyard specialty, using vast amounts of Reblochon, a smelly cheese...). It was said to have left a poignant odour for following events throughout 2004... Long queues formed for this special event. In December 2005, we were authorized to party in the Globe again (once we promised we would b...

  10. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  11. The ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system. The tracking precision is in fact important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, a well as to distinguish the contributions coming from many contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, the track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, full reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 KHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a specific processor: the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronic, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker information. Patte...

  12. ATLAS Physicist in Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Bengt Lund-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    On December 9, the former ATLAS physicist Christer Fuglesang was launched into space onboard the STS-116 Space Shuttle flight from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Christer worked on the development of the accordion-type liquid argon calorimeter and SUSY simulations in what eventually became ATLAS until summer 1992 when he became one out of six astronaut trainees with the European Space Agency (ESA). His selection out of a very large number of applicants from all over the ESA member states involved a number of tests in order to choose the most suitable candidates. As ESA astronaut Christer trained with the Russian Soyuz programme in Star City outside of Moscow from 1993 until 1996, when he moved to Houston to train for space shuttle missions with NASA. Christer belonged to the backup crew for the Euromir95 mission. After additional training in Russia, Christer qualified as ‘Soyuz return commander’ in 1998. Christer rerouting cables during his second space walk. (Photo: courtesy NASA) During...

  13. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  14. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  15. ATLAS Distributed Analysis Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Liko, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS production system has been successfully used to run production of simulation data at an unprecedented scale. Up to 10000 jobs were processed in one day. The experiences obtained operating the system on several grid flavours was essential to perform a user analysis using grid resources. First tests of the distributed analysis system were then performed. In the preparation phase data was registered in the LHC File Catalog (LFC) and replicated in external sites. For the main test, few resources were used. All these tests are only a first step towards the validation of the computing model. The ATLAS management computing board decided to integrate the collaboration efforts in distributed analysis in only one project, GANGA. The goal is to test the reconstruction and analysis software in a large scale Data production using Grid flavors in several sites. GANGA allows trivial switching between running test jobs on a local batch system and running large-scale analyses on the Grid; it provides job splitting a...

  16. ATLAS DBM Module Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aria [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gorisek, Andrej [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zavrtanik, Marko [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sokhranyi, Grygorii [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); McGoldrick, Garrin [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Cerv, Matevz [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-06-18

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Jozef Stefan Institute, CERN, and University of Toronto who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond has a number of properties that make it attractive for high energy physics detector applications. Its large band-gap (5.5 eV) and large displacement energy (42 eV/atom) make it a material that is inherently radiation tolerant with very low leakage currents and high thermal conductivity. CVD diamond is being investigated by the RD42 Collaboration for use very close to LHC interaction regions, where the most extreme radiation conditions are found. This document builds on that work and proposes a highly spatially segmented diamond-based luminosity monitor to complement the time-segmented ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) so that, when Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators (MTBS) and LUCID (LUminosity measurement using a Cherenkov Integrating Detector) have difficulty functioning, the ATLAS luminosity measurement is not compromised.

  17. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, Alexey; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gayazov, Stavro; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Senchenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data annually through simulation production and tens petabytes of data per year from the detector itself. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization and computing resources able to meet ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. In this paper we present ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS) designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of whole ATLAS Grid needed by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  18. CERN Open Days 2013, Point 1 - ATLAS: ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photolab

    2013-01-01

    Stand description: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN is one of the largest and most complex scientific endeavours ever assembled. The detector, located at collision point 1 of the LHC, is designed to explore the fundamental components of nature and to study the forces that shape our universe. The past year’s discovery of a Higgs boson is one of the most important scientific achievements of our time, yet this is only one of many key goals of ATLAS. During a brief break in their journey, some of the 3000-member ATLAS collaboration will be taking time to share the excitement of this exploration with you. On surface no restricted access  The exhibit at Point 1 will give visitors a chance to meet these modern-day explorers and to learn from them how answers to the most fundamental questions of mankind are being sought. Activities will include a visit to the ATLAS detector, located 80m below ground; watching the prize-winning ATLAS movie in the ATLAS cinema; seeing real particle tracks in a cloud chamber and discussi...

  19. NATIONAL ATLAS OF THE ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Atlas of the Arctic is a set of spatio-temporal information about the geographic, ecological, economic, historical-ethnographic, cultural, and social features of theArcticcompiled as a cartographic model of the territory. The Atlas is intended for use in a wide range of scientific, management, economic, defense, educational, and public activities. The state policy of theRussian Federationin the Arctic for the period until 2020 and beyond, states that the Arctic is of strategic importance forRussiain the 21st century. A detailed description of all sections of the Atlas is given. The Atlas can be used as an information-reference and educational resource or as a gift edition.

  20. Two new wheels for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Juergen Zimmer (Max Planck Institute), Roy Langstaff (TRIUMF/Victoria) and Sergej Kakurin (JINR), in front of one of the completed wheels of the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. A decade of careful preparation and construction by groups in three continents is nearing completion with the assembly of two of the four 4 m diameter wheels required for the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. The first two wheels have successfully passed all their mechanical and electrical tests, and have been rotated on schedule into the vertical position required in the experiment. 'This is an important milestone in the completion of the ATLAS End Cap Calorimetry' explains Chris Oram, who heads the Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter group. Like most experiments at particle colliders, ATLAS consists of several layers of detectors in the form of a 'barrel' and two 'end caps'. The Hadronic Calorimeter layer, which measures the energies of particles such as protons and pions, uses two techniques. The barrel part (Tile Calorimeter) cons...

  1. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  2. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  3. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  4. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  5. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  6. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  7. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  8. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  9. Wheels lining up for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 30 October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year.

  10. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  11. Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For more than 20 years, the Dartmouth Atlas Project has documented glaring variations in how medical resources are distributed and used in the United States. The...

  12. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias

    2008-01-01

    The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed and mana......The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed...... and managed by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed...

  13. ATLAS Software Installation on Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    PowerPC and high performance computers (HPC) are important resources for computing in the ATLAS experiment. The future LHC data processing will require more resources than Grid computing, currently using approximately 100,000 cores at well over 100 sites, can provide. Supercomputers are extremely powerful as they use resources of hundreds of thousands CPUs joined together. However their architectures have different instruction sets. ATLAS binary software distributions for x86 chipsets do not fit these architectures, as emulation of these chipsets results in huge performance loss. This presentation describes the methodology of ATLAS software installation from source code on supercomputers. The installation procedure includes downloading the ATLAS code base as well as the source of about 50 external packages, such as ROOT and Geant4, followed by compilation, and rigorous unit and integration testing. The presentation reports the application of this procedure at Titan HPC and Summit PowerPC at Oak Ridge Computin...

  14. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  15. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  16. The ATLAS detector simulation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The simulation program for the ATLAS experiment at CERN is currently in a full operational mode and integrated into the ATLAS common analysis framework, Athena. The OO approach, based on GEANT4, has been interfaced within Athena and to GEANT4 using the LCG dictionaries and Python scripting. The robustness of the application was proved during the test productions since 2004. The Python interface has added the flexibility, modularity and interactivity that the simulation tool requires in order to be able to provide a common implementation of different full ATLAS simulation setups, test beams and cosmic ray applications. Generation, simulation and digitization steps were exercised for performance and robustness tests. The comparison with real data has been possible in the context of the ATLAS Combined Test Beam (2004-2005) and cosmic ray studies (2006)

  17. The ATLAS Forward Physics Program

    OpenAIRE

    Royon, C

    2010-01-01

    After a brief review of the approved ATLAS forward detector system we describe the main ATLAS forward physics program. This program currently includes such topics as soft and hard diffraction, double pomeron exchange, central exclusive production, rapidity gap survival, two photon physics, the determination of the total cross-section and the determination of the absolute luminosity A possible high luminosity upgrade program involving new forward proton detectors is also briefly reviewed. This...

  18. Searches for Supersymmetry in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, Alberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson in ATLAS first run of data taking, and due to the lack of observation of new physics, searches for new particles such as Supersymmetric states are one of the main area of interest for the general purpose detectors operating at LHC. In this talk we will present a review of the searches for Supersymmetric particles, performed by the ATLAS experiment

  19. ATLAS cloud R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Bejar, Jose Caballero; Hover, John; Zaytsev, Alexander; Megino, Fernando Barreiro; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Llamas, Ramon Medrano; Benjamin, Doug; Gable, Ian; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Hendrix, Val; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Walker, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R and D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  20. ATLAS Award for Shield Supplier

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS technical coordinator Dr. Marzio Nessi presents the ATLAS supplier award to Vojtech Novotny, Director General of Skoda Hute.On 3 November, the ATLAS experiment honoured one of its suppliers, Skoda Hute s.r.o., of Plzen, Czech Republic, for their work on the detector's forward shielding elements. These huge and very massive cylinders surround the beampipe at either end of the detector to block stray particles from interfering with the ATLAS's muon chambers. For the shields, Skoda Hute produced 10 cast iron pieces with a total weight of 780 tonnes at a cost of 1.4 million CHF. Although there are many iron foundries in the CERN member states, there are only a limited number that can produce castings of the necessary size: the large pieces range in weight from 59 to 89 tonnes and are up to 1.5 metres thick.The forward shielding was designed by the ATLAS Technical Coordination in close collaboration with the ATLAS groups from the Czech Technical University and Charles University in Prague. The Czech groups a...

  1. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  2. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), the system designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  3. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Anisenkov, A; Di Girolamo, A; Klimentov, A; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), the system designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Demo (Parent)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Durham, NC EnviroAtlas Area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Phoenix, AZ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  7. Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The ATLAS facility is a leading facility for nuclear structure research in the...

  8. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded...

  10. Atlas of neutron resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Mughabghab, Said

    2018-01-01

    Atlas of Neutron Resonances: Resonance Properties and Thermal Cross Sections Z= 1-60, Sixth Edition, contains an extensive list of detailed individual neutron resonance parameters for Z=1-60, as well as thermal cross sections, capture resonance integrals, average resonance parameters and a short survey of the physics of thermal and resonance neutrons. The long introduction contains: nuclear physics formulas aimed at neutron physicists; topics of special interest such as valence neutron capture, nuclear level density parameters, and s-, p-, and d-wave neutron strength functions; and various comparisons of measured quantities with the predictions of nuclear models, such as the optical model. As in the last edition, additional features have been added to appeal to a wider spectrum of users. These include: spin-dependent scattering lengths that are of interest to solid-state physicists, nuclear physicists and neutron evaluators; calculated and measured Maxwellian average 5-keV and 30-keV capture cross sections o...

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  12. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  13. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  14. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  15. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-01-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015

  16. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: ajainfph@iitr.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario-L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  17. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  18. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  19. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  20. The ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dunford, Monica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    In particle physics experiments, the discovery of increasingly more massive particles has brought deep understanding of the basic constituents of matter and of the fundamental forces among them. In order to explore Nature in its deepest elementary secrets, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was built at CERN, Geneva. The LHC provides the highest energy collisions in a laboratory, at very high rates to allow one to study very rare reactions. Two independent sophisticated huge instruments, called ATLAS and CMS detectors, are operated to explore in a most broad way the physics of these collisions. In addition to these two general-purpose detectors, smaller specialized experiments (LHCb, ALICE and some others) are collecting collision data as well.

  1. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Anisenkov, Alexey; Belov, Sergey; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gayazov, Stavro; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Senchenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data annually through simulation production and tens petabytes of data per year from the detector itself. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization and computing resources able to meet ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. In this paper we present ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS) designed to integrate configurat...

  2. Soft QCD at CMS and ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Starovoitov, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A short overview of the recent soft QCD results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations is presented. The inelastic cross section measurement by CMS at 13 TeV is summarised. The contribution of the diffractive processes to the very forward photon spectra studied by ATLAS and LHCf is discussed. The ATLAS measurements of the exclusive two-photon production of the muon pairs is presented and compared to the previous ATLAS and CMS results.

  3. Report to users of ATLAS, January 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hofman, D.

    1998-01-01

    This report is aimed at informing users about the operating schedule, user policies, and recent changes in research capabilities. It covers the following subjects: (1) status of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) accelerator; (2) the move of Gammasphere from LBNL to ANL; (3) commissioning of the CPT mass spectrometer at ATLAS; (4) highlights of recent research at ATLAS; (5) Program Advisory Committee; and (6) ATLAS User Group Executive Committee

  4. CP violation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: In the standard model CP violation is generated by a non trivial complex phase in the CKM matrix. The Standard Model does not predict the elements of the CKM matrix, they need to be experimentally measured. This will show if all the CP violation phenomena can be accounted by the complex phase or there are other contributing mechanisms which lie beyond the scope of Standard Model. It is of interest to overconstraint the so called unitary triangle by measuring each angle (α, β and γ) from the CP asymmetry that occurs in different decay modes. During the initial low luminosity period of the LHC a large effort will be concentrated in studying B physics, especially CP violation in the B 0 - B-bar 0 system, with the ATLAS detector. The features of the detector which are important for CP studies are: sharp trigger from the muon spectrometer (muons will be identify down to p T ≅ 5GeV, be able to distinguish electrons from hadrons (down to p T ≅ 1 GeV) with the Straw Tracker and Transition detector and high resolution of tracks, secondary vertices with the Semiconductor Tracker (resolution of 10-90 μm. For some decays modes ATLAS is expected to obtain larger sample of events than the B-factories that are being proposed. It has been calculated that the systematic error σ sin (2 α) = 0.06 and σ sin ( 2 β) = 0.027 which is comparable with other future experiments

  5. THE PLOT OF HUSBAND’S RETURN TO HIS WIFE’S WEDDING IN "THE ODYSSEY" BY HOMER AND IN THE SLAVIC AND RUSSIAN EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Malchukova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the plot of husband’s return to his wife’s wedding embodied both in the millenary Ancient epic literature represented by the "Odyssey" of Homer, and in the Russian and Slavic epic. The study of Homer’s epic heritage, conducted over the years, includes a huge number of works of scientists around the world. Comparative-historical, comparative-genetic and comparative-typological studies found a link between oral folk tradition and epic poetry written by an author. The current international science is developing the hypothesis that professionally individual Homeric poems, which are at least 850 years old, were created in the ancient, oral poetry improvisation in a precise format of hexameter. The study of the Russian epic has less history, but the researches in this field have revealed the presence of Late Antiquity elements in the Slavic environment. These elements along with paganism and Christianity became the source of the people’s spiritual culture. The plot "the return of her husband", which is analyzed in the article, is widely-spread in folklore of many nations, and appeared rudimentarily in "The Odyssey". The western and eastern variants of this theme are diverse in genre structure and stylistic features. In Russian tradition the plot is presented in a large thematic variety "Dobrynya and Alyosha", which evolves into the epic genre due to contamination, small inserts in the epic genre. As a result, the great volume brings together the olden time and the ancient epic, creating intermediate forms comparable with the author’s imitations.

  6. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, P L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon microstrip detector part of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Together with the rest for the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) it provides vital precision tracking information of charged particles. In this paper the performance and operational status of the SCT in the last two years of ATLAS data taking are reviewed.

  7. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; Benjamin, D; DiGirolamo, A; Gable, I; Hendrix, V; Hover, J; Kucharczuk, K; Medrano LLamas, R; Love, P; Ohman, H; Paterson, M; Sobie, R; Taylor, R; Walker, R; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained...

  8. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  9. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legger, F

    2014-01-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  10. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  11. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legger, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  12. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisenkov, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Petrosyan, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    ATLAS, a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, produced petabytes of data annually through simulation production and tens of petabytes of data per year from the detector itself. The ATLAS computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization and computing resources able to meet ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. In this paper we describe the ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by the ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  13. ATLAS Maintenance and Operation management system

    CERN Document Server

    Copy, B

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance and operation of the ATLAS detector will involve thousands of contributors from 170 physics institutes. Planning and coordinating the action of ATLAS members, ensuring their expertise is properly leveraged and that no parts of the detector are understaffed or overstaffed will be a challenging task. The ATLAS Maintenance and Operation application (referred to as Operation Task Planner inside the ATLAS experiment) offers a fluent web based interface that combines the flexibility and comfort of a desktop application, intuitive data visualization and navigation techniques, with a lightweight service oriented architecture. We will review the application, its usage within the ATLAS experiment, its underlying design and implementation.

  14. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  15. ATLAS experiment : mapping the secrets of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2010-01-01

    This 4 page color brochure describes ATLAS and the LHC, the ATLAS inner detector, calorimeters, muon spectrometer, magnet system, a short definition of the terms "particles," "dark matter," "mass," "antimatter." It also explains the ATLAS collaboration and provides the ATLAS website address with some images of the detector and the ATLAS collaboration at work.

  16. ProstAtlas: A digital morphologic atlas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betrouni, N.; Iancu, A.; Puech, P.; Mordon, S.; Makni, N.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided medical interventions and medical robotics for prostate cancer have known an increasing interest and research activity. However before the routine deployment of these procedures in clinical practice becomes a reality, in vivo and in silico validations must be undertaken. In this study, we developed a digital morphologic atlas of the prostate. We were interested by the gland, the peripheral zone and the central gland. Starting from an image base collected from 30 selected patients, a mean shape and most important deformations for each structure were deduced using principal component analysis. The usefulness of this atlas was highlighted in two applications: image simulation and physical phantom design

  17. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton (pp) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5 < |η| < 4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5 K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and timing boards. In the first three years of LHC operation, approximately 27 fb −1 of pp collision data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Throughout this period, the calorimeter consistently operated with performances very close to specifications, with high data-taking efficiency. This is in large part due to a sophisticated data monitoring procedure designed to quickly identify issues that would degrade the detector performance, to ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. After a description of the detector design, main characteristics and operation principles, this paper details the data quality assessment procedures developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, when more than 98% of the luminosity recorded by ATLAS had high quality LAr calorimeter data suitable for physics analysis

  18. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  19. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  20. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.