WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlas beam conditions

  1. Development of Beam Conditions Monitor for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dolenc Kittelmann, Irena; Mikuž, M

    2008-01-01

    If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator the resulting beam losses could cause damage to the inner tracking devices of the experiments. This thesis presents the work performed during the development phase of a protection system for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) system is a stand-alone system designed to detect early signs of beam instabilities and trigger a beam abort in case of beam failures. It consists of two detector stations positioned at z=±1.84m from the interaction point. Each station comprises four BCM detector modules installed symmetrically around the beam pipe with sensors located at r=55 mm. This structure will allow distinguishing between anomalous events (beam gas and beam halo interactions, beam instabilities) and normal events due to proton-proton interaction by measuring the time-of-flight as well as the signal pulse amplitude from detector modules on the timescale of nanoseconds. Additionally, the BCM system aims to provide a coarse instan...

  2. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  3. The ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Cerv, M

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor is a novel charged-particle detector. It will be used in the ATLAS experiment to measure luminosity and beam backgrounds. The monitor’s pCVD diamond sensors are instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end chips. The CVD diamond sensor material was chosen to ensure long-term durability of the sensors in a radiation-hard environment. This document describes the principles of luminosity measurements. It is then explained how the Diamond Beam Monitor will carry out this task.

  4. ATLAS Beam Pipe and LUCID Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The film will show you the descending and installation of the last element of the LHC beam pipe. Around the beam pipe is installed an ATLAS detector called LUCID. The same kind of element is on both sides of ATLAS. This detector measures the rate of the collisions in ATLAS. You can also get more information about LUCID detector by watching the part were Vincent Hedberg is interviewed (00:01:20). Almost at the end of the film there is the interview of the Raymond Veness. He tells about the delicate operations of finishing the vacuum system and the LHC (00:26:00).

  5. ICESat-2 ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a beam steering mechanism (BSM) used to accurately guide a laser on the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) down to Earth in order to measure elevation. It describes the main components in the BSM that allows it to perform and meet stringent requirements. Requirements of the BSM include two-axis steering of the transmitted laser beam, +-5000 uRad mechanical motion in each axis, and 1.5 uRad RMS pointing stability among many other requirements. The BSM uses four voice coil actuators in order to locate the mirror at the angle we need. There are four Differential Position Sensors that determine the position and angle of the mirror at all times. These sensors were verified through optical testing in both ambient and thermal conditions. Testing and extensive analyses were performed on the two-axis flexure throughout the program to check flexure thickness, positive margins, and infinite life. The mirror mount design has been modified to eliminate radial preload, while incorporating a titanium wave spring to provide an axial preload of 10.8N. The BSM underwent multiple tests in order to verify all components work as required under various conditions.

  6. Test Beam Coordination: 2003 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B.

    The 2003 Test Beam Period The 2003 Test Beam period has been very fruitful for ATLAS. In spite of several days lost because of the accelerator problems, ATLAS has been able to achieve many results: FCAL has completed the calibration program in H6 Tilecal has completed the calibration program in H8 Pixel has performed extensive studies with normal and high intensity beams (up to 1.4*108 hadrons/spill) SCT has completed a variety of studies with quite a high number of modules operated concurrently TRT has performed several studies at high, low and very low energy (first use of the new H8 beam in the range 1 to 9 GeV) Muons (MDT,RPC and TGC) have been operating a large setup for about 5 months. The almost final MDT ROD (MROD) has been integrated in the readout and the final trigger electronics for TGC and RPC has been tested and certified with normal beam and during dedicated 40 MHz beam periods. The TDAQ has exploited a new generation prototype successfully and the new Event Filter infrastructure f...

  7. Experiments with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rehm, K E; Blackmon, J; Borasi, F; Caggiano, J; Chen, A; Davids, C N; Greene, J; Harss, B; Heinz, A; Henderson, D; Janssens, R V F; Jiang, C L; Nolen, Jerry A; Pardo, R C; Parker, P; Paul, M; Schiffer, J P; Segel, R E; Seweryniak, D; Siemssen, R H; Smith, M S; Uusitalo, J; Wang, T F; Wiedenhöver, I

    2001-01-01

    Various beams of short- and long-lived radioactive nuclei have recently been produced at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory, using either the so-called In-Flight or the Two- Accelerator method. The production techniques, as well as recent results with /sup 44/Ti (T/sub 1/2/=60y) and /sup 17/F (T/sub 1/2 /=64s) beams, which are of interest to nucleosynthesis in supernovae and X-ray bursts, are discussed. (12 refs).

  8. ATLAS looks forward to having beams!

    CERN Multimedia

    Hans von der Schmitt

    Lyn Evans, head of the LHC project at CERN, brought very good news: all problems are now solved or understood, and barring a disaster, the LHC should see beams in July 2008. The ATLAS overview week (8-12 October) showed impressively that the experiment is getting ready for beams on all fronts. Perhaps that is best seen in the recent runs with cosmic events, which are integrating all ATLAS subsystems. The integration milestone M4 ended just a month ago (see the article in the September issue of ATLAS e-news), exercising for one week the complete chain from detectors - trigger and data acquisition - reconstruction at Tier0 - shipment of data worldwide to Tier1s. Event displays and histograms, available both online and offline, were shown throughout the overview week and are proof that the entire chain is actually working. The integration milestones give an enormous boost to the experiment - next time during M5 end of October. During the week we learned about successes and remaining issues along this ent...

  9. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  10. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  11. LHC collimation with a reduced beam pipe radius in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2011-01-01

    To increase physics performance, an upgrade of the ATLAS detector has been requested. As a consequence, a new beam pipe with a smaller radius needs to be installed inside the experimental detector. Based on SixTrack simulations, we investigate the effect from collimation of a reduced beam pipe in the ATLAS experiment. Several running scenarios are studied with a range of different beam pipe radii and in each case we conclude on the minimum allowed aperture, which does not cause beam losses inside the detectors.

  12. Test of the ATLAS pion calibration scheme in the ATLAS combined test beam

    CERN Document Server

    Spanò, F

    2009-01-01

    Pion energy reconstruction is studied using the data collected during the 2004 ATLAS combined test beam. The strategy to extract corrections for the non-compensating nature of the ATLAS calorimeters for dead material losses and for leakage effects is discussed and assessed. The default ATLAS strategy based on a weighting technique of the energy deposits in calorimeter cells is presented and compared to a novel technique exploiting correlations among energy deposited in calorimeter layers.

  13. The 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    The ATLAS CTB Team, .

    2004-01-01

    In the year 2004, ATLAS has been involved in a huge combined test beam (CTB) effort in H8. A complete slice of the barrel detector and of the Muon End-cap has been tested, with the following clear goals: pre-commission the final elements and study the detector performance in a realistic combined data taking. Thanks to this experience, a lot of expertise in the operations has been acquired and much data (~ 4.6 TB of data, ~ 90 million events on castor) has been collected and is already under analysis. The CTB has been characterized by different phases with an incremental presence of sub-detectors modules and associated DAQ infrastructure, as well as incremental improvement of analysis tools for prompt data certification. The physics goals of the CTB have been defined in consultation with the physics coordinator, all the sub-detector representatives and the combined performance group representative. With all these indications, a detailed run plan day-by-day schedule was defined before the CTB start and was foll...

  14. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  15. Recent results of radioactive beam experiments at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rehm, K E

    2001-01-01

    Various beams of short- and long-lived radioactive nuclei have recently been produced at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory, using either the so-called In-Flight or the Two- Accelerator method. With these beams many questions which are of interest in the areas of nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics can be addressed. In this contribution first results from experiments with /sup 44/Ti (T/sub 1/2/=60y) and /sup 17/F (T/sub 1/2/=64s) beams are discussed, which are of interest to the nucleosynthesis in supernovae and X-ray bursts. (28 refs).

  16. Beam study of irradiated ATLAS-SCT prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Akimoto, T; Eklund, L; García, J E; Hara, K; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kobayashi, H; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Koshino, T; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Macina, Daniela; Masuda, H; Matuo, T; Moorhead, G F; Nakano, I; Norimatsu, K; Ohsugi, T; Shinma, S; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Unno, Y; Vos, M; Yamanaka, K; Yamashita, T

    2002-01-01

    Prototypes of ATLAS-SCT modules with ABCD readout chips were tested in a 4 GeV/c pion beam at KEK's proton synchrotron. Of both SCT module geometries - barrel and forward - three identical modules were placed in the beam. One module of each type had been irradiated to 3x10 sup 1 sup 4 protons/cm sup 2 in the CERN PS previous to the beam test. A method has been developed to reconstruct the time-resolved shaper pulse from the binary hit information, allowing a more detailed study of the timing properties of the ABCD. The present results will be compared to a simulation of the charge collection and Front End electronics response.

  17. Planar Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade: Beam Tests results

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J

    2012-01-01

    The performance of planar silicon pixel sensors, in development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades, has been examined in a series of beam tests at the CERN SPS facilities since 2009. Salient results are reported on the key parameters, including the spatial resolution, the charge collection and the charge sharing between adjacent cells, for different bulk materials and sensor geometries. Measurements are presented for n+-in-n pixel sensors irradiated with a range of fluences and for p-type silicon sensors with various layouts from different vendors. All tested sensors were connected via bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. The tests reveal that both n-type and p-type planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after the lifetime fluence expected at the HL-LHC.

  18. Hadron beam test of a scintillating fibre tracker system for elastic scattering and luminosity measurement in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, F; Barrillon, P; Blanchot, G; Blin, S; Braem, André; de La Taille, C; Di Girolamo, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Faustino, J; Fournier, D; Franz, S; Grafström, P; Gurriana, L; Haguenauer, M; Hedberg, V; Heller, M; Hoffmann, S; Iwanski, W; Joram, C; Kocnár, A; Lavigne, B; Lundberg, B; Maio, A; Maneira, M J P; Mapelli, A; Marques, C; Mjörnmark, U; Conde-Muíño, P; Puzo, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Saraiva, J G; Seguin-Moreau, N; Soares, S; Stenzel, H; Thioye, M; Varouchas, D; Vorobel, V

    2007-01-01

    A scintillating fibre tracker is proposed to measure elastic proton scattering at very small angles in the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The tracker will be located in so-called Roman Pot units at a distance of 240 m on each side of the ATLAS interaction point. An initial validation of the design choices was achieved in a beam test at DESY in a relatively low energy electron beam and using slow off-the-shelf electronics. Here we report on the results from a second beam test experiment carried out at CERN, where new detector prototypes were tested in a high energy hadron beam, using the first version of the custom designed front-end electronics. The results show an adequate tracking performance under conditions which are similar to the situation at the LHC. In addition, the alignment method using so-called overlap detectors was studied and shown to have the expected precision.

  19. ATLAS 13 TeV Stable Beam Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, clustered in a structure typical of a di-jet event. The transverse momentum of the jets are about 200 GeV and 170 GeV.

  20. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies’ qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests are presented.

  1. RP process studies with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., Physics Div., Argonne, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Reactions of interest to nuclear astrophysics have been studied with radioactive beams at the ATLAS accelerator. Using a modified ISOL technique, beams of {sup 18}F(T{sub 1/2}=110 min) and {sup 56}Ni(T{sub 1/2}=6.1 d) have been produced. The reactions {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O, {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne, and {sup 56}Ni(d,p){sup 57}Ni have been investigated. The results indicate that the {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}) route is a small contributor to the breakout from the hot CNO cycle into the rp process, while the {sup 56}Ni(p,{gamma}){sup 57}Cu rate is about ten times larger than previously assumed. (orig.)

  2. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented.

  3. Test Beam Studies for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is expected to deliver 3-4/ab of p-p collisions with around 200 collisions per proton bunch crossing starting in 2026, and the readout electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter need to be upgraded to deal with the high rate of data taking as well as the large pileup conditions. The proposed digitizer/shaper cards were tested in 2016-7 in the North Area at CERN using the beam from the SPS to produce high energy pions, electrons, muons, and kaons. This presentation summarizes the setup for particle identification and study of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter data taking in preparation for the production of main boards and digitizer/shaper boards for the photo-multiplier tubes. The fully assembled and tested mini-drawers will start to be installed after the LHC long shutdown in December 2023. The pulse shape, uniformity, and timing precision of the upgrade system are demonstrated.

  4. Withdrawn: LHC Timing Signal Distribution and Beam Phase Monitoring Through ATLAS BPTX Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    The LHC timing signals are broadcast to various destinations in the subsequent experiments. And all of them could be delayed to time in the ATLAS sub-detectors by using the Corde board and the RF2TTC module. The ATLAS BPTX detectors and monitoring system could guarantee the demanded sychronization of the beam in the futher collision.

  5. A Tool for Conditions Tag Management in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sharmazanashvili, A; Gvaberidze, G; Schekriladze, V; Formica, A

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS Conditions data include about 2 TB in a relational database and 400 GB of files referenced from the database. Conditions data is entered and retrieved using COOL, the API for accessing data in the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure. It is managed using an ATLAS-customized python based tool set. Conditions data are required for every reconstruction and simulation job, so access to them is crucial for all aspects of ATLAS data taking and analysis, as well as by preceding tasks to derive optimal corrections to reconstruction. Optimized sets of conditions for processing are accomplished using strict version control on those conditions: a process which assigns COOL Tags to sets of conditions, and then unifies those conditions over data-taking intervals into a COOL Global Tag. This Global Tag identifies the set of conditions used to process data so that the underlying conditions can be uniquely identified with 100% reproducibility should the processing be executed again. Understanding shifts in the underl...

  6. A Tool for Conditions Tag Management in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sharmazanashvili, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Gvaberidze, G; Shekriladze, V; Formica, A

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS Conditions data include about 2 TB in a relational database and 400 GB of files referenced from the database. Conditions data is entered and retrieved using COOL, the API for accessing data in the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure. It is managed using an ATLAS-customized python based tool set. Conditions data are required for every reconstruction and simulation job, so access to them is crucial for all aspects of ATLAS data taking and analysis, as well as by preceding tasks to derive optimal corrections to reconstruction. Optimized sets of conditions for processing are accomplished using strict version control on those conditions: a process which assigns COOL Tags to sets of conditions, and then unifies those conditions over data-taking intervals into a COOL Global Tag. This Global Tag identifies the set of conditions used to process data so that the underlying conditions can be uniquely identified with 100% reproducibility should the processing be executed again. Understanding shifts in the underl...

  7. A Layer Correlation Technique for ATLAS Calorimetry Calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Carli, T; Spanò, F; Speckmayer, P

    2008-01-01

    A method for calibrating the response of a segmented calorimeter to hadrons is developed. The ansatz is that information on longitudinal shower fluctuations gained from a principal component analysis of the layer energy depositions can improve energy resolution by correcting for hadronic invisible energy and dead material losses: projections along the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix are used as input for the calibration. The technique is used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the ATLAS calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. Simulated Monte Carlo events are used to derive corrections for invisible energy lost in nuclear reactions and in dead material in front and in between the calorimeters. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the resolution is improved by about 20%.

  8. Event displays from Beam 2 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  9. Event displays from Beam 01 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    atlas collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded on, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detector

  10. Event displays from Beam Halo in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  11. Beam splash effects on ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors evaluated using 1-w Nd YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kohriki, T; Kuwano, T; Moorhead, G F; Terada, S; Unno, Y

    2005-01-01

    On an incident of accelerator beam loss, the tracking detector located close to the beam line is subjected to receive intensive radiation in a short period. We used a 1-W focused Nd: YAG laser and simulated the effects on the ATLAS microstrip detector. The laser corresponds to intensity of up to 1 multiplied by 109mips/pulse with a pulse width of about 10 ns. We observed breaks on Al strips on extreme conditions, depending on the laser intensity and bias voltage applied to the silicon sensor. The break can be interpreted as the oxide breakdown due to a large voltage locally created across the oxide by the intensive signal charges. The robustness of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) module including readout ASICs is also evaluated.

  12. Installation of the last piece of LHC beam pipe and ATLAS detector called LUCID

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    This film is spoken in English and text in French. The film will show you the descending and installation of the last element of the LHC beam pipe. Around the beam pipe is installed an ATLAS detector called LUCID. The same kind of element is on both sides of ATLAS. This detector measures the rate of the collisions in ATLAS. You can also get more information about LUCID detector by watching the part where Vincent Hedberg is interviewed. Almost at the end of the film there is the interview of the Raymond Veness. He tells about the delicate operations of finishing the vacuum system and the LHC.

  13. Characterisation and mitigation of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the 2011 proton-proton run

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruce, Roderik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; 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Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; 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Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; 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Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; 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van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; 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Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-07-17

    This paper presents a summary of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector and discusses methods to tag and remove background contaminated events in data. Trigger-rate based monitoring of beam-related backgrounds is presented. The correlations of backgrounds with machine conditions, such as residual pressure in the beam-pipe, are discussed. Results from dedicated beam-background simulations are shown, and their qualitative agreement with data is evaluated. Data taken during the passage of unpaired, i.e. non-colliding, proton bunches is used to obtain background-enriched data samples. These are used to identify characteristic features of beam-induced backgrounds, which then are exploited to develop dedicated background tagging tools. These tools, based on observables in the Pixel detector, the muon spectrometer and the calorimeters, are described in detail and their efficiencies are evaluated. Finally an example of an application of these techniques to a monojet analysis is given, which demonstra...

  14. Detailed Performance Study of ATLAS Endcap Muon Trigger with Beam Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, T

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the first beam collision was occurred at the LHC and the ATLAS has started data taking with beam collision at s = 7 TeV since May 2010. This poster will mention the contraptions to take the beam collision data for the electronics of Level1 Endcap Muon Trigger system, and the result and detailed study of LVL1 Endcap Muon Trigger system performance with beam collision.

  15. ATLAS One of the first Heavy ions collisions with stable beams- Event Display - November 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    One of the first heavy ions collisions with stable beams recorded by ATLAS in November 2015. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as orange arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the Liquid Argon and Scintillating Tile calorimeters respectively. The beam pipe and the inner detectors are also shown.

  16. Beam tests of the 12 MHz RFQ RIB injector for ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifft, B. E.; Kaye, R. A.; Kedzie, M.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-05-06

    Beam tests of the ANL 12 MHz Radio-Frequency Quadruple (RFQ), designed for use as the initial element of an injector system for radioactive beams into the existing ATLAS accelerators, are in progress. Recent high-voltage tests of the RFQ without beam achieved the design intervane voltage of 100 kV CW, enabling beam tests with A/q as large as 132 using beams from the ANL Physics Division 4 MV Dynamitron accelerator facility. Although the RFQ was designed for bunched beams, initial tests have been performed with unbunched beams. Experiments with stable, unbunched beams of singly-charged {sup 132}Xe and {sup 84}Kr measured the output beam energy distribution as a function of the RFQ operating voltage. The observed energies are in excellent agreement with numerical beam simulations.

  17. Commissioning of the ATLAS high-level trigger with single beam and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkcan Özcan, V.

    2010-11-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Using fast reconstruction algorithms, its trigger system needs to efficiently reject a huge rate of background events and still select potentially interesting ones with good efficiency. After a first processing level using custom electronics, the trigger selection is made by software running on two processor farms, designed to have a total of around two thousand multi-core machines. This system is known as the High Level Trigger (HLT). To reduce the network data traffic and the processing time to manageable levels, the HLT uses seeded, step-wise reconstruction, aiming at the earliest possible rejection of background events. The recent LHC startup and short single-beam run provided a "stress test" of the trigger. Following this period, ATLAS continued to collect cosmic-ray events for detector alignment and calibration purposes. These running periods allowed strict tests of the HLT reconstruction and selection algorithms as well as of its configuration and monitoring systems. This facilitated the commissioning of several tracking, muon-finding, and calorimetry algorithms under different running conditions. After an overview of the trigger design, this paper focuses on the experience gained in running the trigger in the fast-changing environment of the detector commissioning. It will emphasize the commissioning of the HLT algorithms, monitoring and configuration.

  18. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Lourerio, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; RØhne, O.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2010-11-01

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  19. Beam backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during LHC loss map tests at beta*=40cm and beta*=80cm at Ebeam=6.5 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this note the beam-background measurements with the ATLAS detector during lossmap tests of the LHC are described. Loss maps taken at beta*=40 cm and the normal 2015 setting of beta*=80 cm are compared. In the first case several collimator settings were explored, resulting in significant changes of beam backgrounds in ATLAS. Besides the studies of the dependence of background on collimation, which are important for optimisation of the LHC performance, these tests provide a clean environment to study the relative importance of beam halo losses on the experiment. The results show that the halo-related component of beam background in ATLAS decreases exponentially with increasing aperture of the tertiary collimators, the slope in terms of nominal sigma being about -0.5. From the data it is also shown that in normal operation conditions of LHC run 2 the beam halo losses contribute at most at the percent level to the total background, the dominant part coming from beam-gas interactions. The data are also used to ...

  20. Evolution of ATLAS conditions data and its management for LHC run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Gallas, Elizabeth; Formica, Andrea; Borodin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector consists of several sub-detector systems. Both data taking and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation rely on an accurate description of the detector conditions from every sub system, such as calibration constants, different scenarios of pile-up and noise conditions, size and position of the beam spot, etc. In order to guarantee database availability for critical online applications during data-taking, two database systems, one for online access and another one for all other database access have been implemented. The long shutdown period has provided the opportunity to review and improve the run-1 system: revise workflows, include new and innovative monitoring and maintenance tools and implement a new database instance for run-2 conditions data. The detector conditions are organized by tag identification strings and managed independently from the different sub-detector experts. The individual tags are then collected and associated into a global conditions tag, assuring synchronization of various sub-d...

  1. Evolution of ATLAS conditions data and its management for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Gallas, Elizabeth; Radescu, Voica

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the LHC consists of several sub-detector systems. Both data taking and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation rely on an accurate description of the detector conditions from every subsystem, such as calibration constants, different scenarios of pile-up and noise conditions, size and position of the beam spot, etc. In order to guarantee database availability for critical online applications during data-taking, two database systems, one for online access and another one for all other database access have been implemented. The long shutdown period has provided the opportunity to review and improve the Run-1 system: revise workflows, include new and innovative monitoring and maintenance tools and implement a new database instance for Run-2 conditions data. The detector conditions are organized by tag identification strings and managed independently from the different sub-detector experts. The individual tags are then collected and associated into a global conditions tag, assuring synchronization of var...

  2. Study of the 2004 End-Cap beam tests of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bieri, Marco

    The ATLAS detector is an all-purpose detector to study high-ener gy proton–proton colli- sions. ATLAS is located at the LHC (Lar ge Hadron Collider) at CERN in Gene va, Switzer - land. Before first data taking, man y beam tests have been carried out in order to fully understand each detector component. The studies in this thesis will concentrate on the 2004 beam test of the entire combined end-cap calorimeter system. The first section of this thesis outlines particle selection in the incoming test beam, eliminating contamination in order to have an accurate calibration environment. The remainder of the thesis focuses on detector calibration and performance studies, including signal-to-ener gy calibration con- stant determination, and various detector ener gy summation methods studying their effect on response. Ov erall detector ener gy sharing characteristics including the response of dead detector regions is also presented.

  3. Higher order correlation beams in atmosphere under strong turbulence conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, H; Monken, C H

    2016-02-08

    Higher order correlation beams, that is, two-photon beams obtained from the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Hermite-Gauss or Laguerre-Gauss beams of any order, can be used to encode information in many modes, opening the possibility of quantum communication with large alphabets. In this paper we calculate, analytically, the fourth-order correlation function for the Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss coherent and partially coherent correlation beams propagating through a strong turbulent medium. We show that fourth-order correlation functions for correlation beams have, under certain conditions, expressions similar to those of intensities of classical beams and are degraded by turbulence in a similar way as the classical beams. Our results can be useful in establishing limits for the use of two-photon beams in quantum communications with larger alphabets under atmospheric turbulence.

  4. Conditional beam splitting attack on quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Calsamiglia, John; Barnett, Stephen M.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel attack on quantum key distribution based on the idea of adaptive absorption [calsam01]. The conditional beam splitting attack is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional beam spitting attack, achieving a performance similar to the, powerful but currently unfeasible, photon number splitting attack. The implementation of the conditional beam splitting attack, based solely on linear optical elements, is well within reach of current technology.

  5. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pospelov, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |eta| = 0.45 of Atlas have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap test beam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested on the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to MC simulations are presented.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter with Cosmic Muons and LHC Single Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    MANGEARD, PS

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. The LAr calorimeter has been installed in the ATLAS cavern and filled with liquid argon since 2006. Cosmic muon data, first triggered via specially developed trigger boards on the LVL1 output of the Tile calorimeter and later with the standard ATLAS LVL1 calorimeter trigger, have been recorded at various stages of commissioning. In Sept 2008, with the first single beams circulating in the LHC ring and a near full readout of the calorimeter, events resulting from beam-gas interactions and beam-collimator splash were recorded. We present here the calorimeter performance study based on these cosmic muon and LHC beam events. With the reconstructed muon minimum ionizing signal in the calorimeter, the uniformity of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter can be checked. The timing alignment as measured from the data ca...

  7. Test Beam results and integration of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, M; Cataldi, G; Chiodini, G; Fiore, G; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Miccoli, A; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Spagnolo, S; Tassielli, G F; Ventura, A; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G; Bocci, V; Chiodi, G; Gennari, E; Nisati, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Delle Fratte, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Solfaroli, E; Aprodu, V; Petcu, M; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Muon Trigger will be crucial for the online selection of events with high transverse momentum muons and for its correct association to the bunch-crossing corresponding to the detected events. This system uses dedicated coarse granularity and fast detectors capable of providing measurements in two orthogonal projections. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are used in the barrel region. The associated trigger electronics is based on a custom chip, the Coincidence Matrix, that performs space coincidences within programmable roads and time gates. The system is highly redundant and communicates with the ATLAS Level-1 trigger Processor with the MUCTPI Interface. The trigger electronics provides also the Readout of the RPCs. Preliminary results achieved with a full trigger tower with production detectors in the H8 test beam at CERN will be shown. In particular preliminary results on the integration of the barrel muon trigger electronics with the MUCTPI interface and with the ATLAS DAQ system will ...

  8. LHC Report: special run with de-squeezed beams for ATLAS/ALFA and TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    Helmut Burkhardt for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The main high-luminosity proton-proton run of the LHC is complemented by one week per year of special proton-proton runs. The special runs are performed with larger beam sizes at the interaction points to allow the forward physics experiments, TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA, the chance to make precise measurements of protons as they emerge from collisions at small angles.   In standard high-luminosity operation, the beams are squeezed to give small beam sizes at the interaction points to maximise the collision rates. The “squeeze” takes place at top energy and the beam size at the centre of ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5) is reduced from 66 micrometres at the top of the ramp to 18 micrometres before colliding beams are established. Protons that avoid the fate of an inelastic collision but yet still interact – in elastic or diffractive events – are scattered and emerge in the forward direction. The reduction in beam size has a side effect of increasing the an...

  9. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, KJ; The ATLAS collaboration; Pospelov, G

    2010-01-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at $|eta| = 3.2$ in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at $|eta| = 0.45$ of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap testbeam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  10. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - First stable beam, 3 June 2015 - run: 266904

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of proton-proton collision events recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters.

  11. Modeling and simulation of beam induced backgrounds measured by ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yicong

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is a forward detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. Its main goal is to trigger diffractive protons in collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To achieve this, the detector has to be placed very close to the beam. Inevitable consequence is that its measurements can be easily affected by the beam induced background. This thesis presents a study of the beam induced background in the AFP detector and discuss methods for its removal. The Geant4 simulations and data, including non-colliding bunches are used to identify characteristic features of beam induced backgrounds. A method using combination of signals detected by the AFP detector and the Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators (MBTS) is used to selected single diffractive event namely on low pile-up data taken during the first AFP physics run in 2016. Finally, an estimate of the beam induced backgrounds level in data together with a study of the radiation environment at the AFP stations was made, comparing result...

  12. Energy Linearity and Resolution of the ATLAS Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter in an Electron Test-Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Aharrouche, M; Di Ciaccio, L; El-Kacimi, M; Gaumer, O; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Lafaye, R; Laplace, S; Le Maner, C; Neukermans, L; Perrodo, P; Poggioli, L; Prieur, D; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Tarrade, F; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Lanni, F; Ma, H; Rajagopalan, S; Rescia, S; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Hakimi, M; Hoummada, A; Barberio, E; Gao, Y S; Lü, L; Stroynowski, R; Aleksa, Martin; Beck-Hansen, J; Carli, T; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fassnacht, P; Follin, F; Gianotti, F; Hervás, L; Lampl, W; Collot, J; Hostachy, J Y; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Martin, P; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Saboumazrag, S; Leltchouk, M; Parsons, J A; Seman, M; Simion, S; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Bourdarios, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Graziani, G; Hassani, S; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Kado, M; Lechowski, M; Lelas, M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Sacco, R; Serin, L; Unal, G; Zerwas, D; Camard, A; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Nikolic-Audit, I; Schwemling, P; Ghazlane, H; Cherkaoui-El-Moursli, R; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Boonekamp, M; Kerschen, N; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, P; Schwindling, J; Lund-Jensen, B; Tayalati, Y

    2006-01-01

    A module of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel liquid argon calorimeter was exposed to the CERN electron test-beam at the H8 beam line upgraded for precision momentum measurement. The available energies of the electron beam ranged from 10 to 245 GeV. The electron beam impinged at one point corresponding to a pseudo-rapidity of eta=0.687 and an azimuthal angle of phi=0.28 in the ATLAS coordinate system. A detailed study of several effects biasing the electron energy measurement allowed an energy reconstruction procedure to be developed that ensures a good linearity and a good resolution. Use is made of detailed Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant which describe the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles as well as the energy distributions. For electron energies between 15 GeV and 180 GeV the deviation of the measured incident electron energy over the beam energy is within 0.1%. The systematic uncertainty of the measurement is about 0.1% at low energies and negligible at high energies. The energy resoluti...

  13. Validation of the Local Hadronic Calibration Scheme of ATLAS with Combined Beam Test Data in the End-Cap and Forward Regions of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryunin, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented. The Local Hadron Calibration developed for the energy reconstruction and the calibration of jets and missing transverse energy in ATLAS, has been validated using data obtained during these beam tests. The analysis has been carried out by using special sets of calibration weights and corrections obtained with the Geant4 simulation of a detailed beam test set-up. The validation itself has been performed by careful studying specific calorimeter performance parameters such as e.g. energy response, energy resolution, shower shapes, cluster energy density as well as different physics lists of the Geant4 simulation.

  14. Performance of the ATLAS liquid argon forward calorimeter in beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, J P; Cadabeschi, M; Epshteyn, V; Galt, C; Gillberg, D; Gorbounov, P; Heelan, L; Khakzad, M; Khovanskiy, V; Krieger, P; Loch, P; McCarthy, T G; Oakham, F G; Orr, R S; Rutherfoord, J; Savine, A; Schram, M; Shatalov, P; Shaver, L; Shupe, M; Strickland, V; Thompson, P; Tsukerman, I

    2013-01-01

    One of two ATLAS Forward Calorimeters, consisting of threemodules, one behind the other, was exposed to particle beams ofknown energies in order to study the detector performance with andwithout the presence of upstream material in the beam, and at theinner edge of the acceptance where shower energy containment isincomplete. Data were taken in the H6 beamline at CERN usingelectron and hadron beams with energies from 10 to 200 GeV.Results related to the intrinsic detector calibration, based on datataken with a minimal amount of material in front of the detector,have been previously published, but are updated here. This paperfocuses on studies of data taken with additional upstream materialin place. The effects of this additional material on the linearityand resolution of the response are presented. The response at theinner edge of the acceptance is also investigated. For all analyses,results based on a GEANT4 simulation of the beam-test setup anddetector response are also presented.

  15. Phonon Modes and the Maintenance Condition of a Crystalline Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Okamoto, Hiromi; Sessler, Andrew M; Yuri, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam requires that there not be a resonance between the crystal phonon frequencies and the frequency associated with a beam moving through a lattice of N periods. This resonance can be avoided provided the phonon frequencies are all below half of the lattice frequency. Here we make a detailed study of the phonon modes of a crystalline beam. Analytic results obtained in a “smooth approximation” using the ground-state crystalline beam structure is compared with numerical evaluation employing Fourier transform of Molecular Dynamic (MD) modes. The MD also determines when a crystalline beam is stable. The maintenance condition, when combined with either the simple analytic theory or the numerical evaluation of phonon modes, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the MD calculations of crystal stability.

  16. The ATLAS conditions database architecture for the Muon spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Monica; ATLAS Muon Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    The Muon System, facing the challenge requirement of the conditions data storage, has extensively started to use the conditions database project 'COOL' as the basis for all its conditions data storage both at CERN and throughout the worldwide collaboration as decided by the ATLAS Collaboration. The management of the Muon COOL conditions database will be one of the most challenging applications for Muon System, both in terms of data volumes and rates, but also in terms of the variety of data stored. The Muon conditions database is responsible for almost all of the 'non event' data and detector quality flags storage needed for debugging of the detector operations and for performing reconstruction and analysis. The COOL database allows database applications to be written independently of the underlying database technology and ensures long term compatibility with the entire ATLAS Software. COOL implements an interval of validity database, i.e. objects stored or referenced in COOL have an associated start and end time between which they are valid, the data is stored in folders, which are themselves arranged in a hierarchical structure of folder sets. The structure is simple and mainly optimized to store and retrieve object(s) associated with a particular time. In this work, an overview of the entire Muon conditions database architecture is given, including the different sources of the data and the storage model used. In addiction the software interfaces used to access to the conditions data are described, more emphasis is given to the Offline Reconstruction framework ATHENA and the services developed to provide the conditions data to the reconstruction.

  17. The ATLAS conditions database architecture for the Muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verducci, Monica, E-mail: monica.verducci@cern.c [University of Wuerzburg Am Hubland, 97074, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    The Muon System, facing the challenge requirement of the conditions data storage, has extensively started to use the conditions database project 'COOL' as the basis for all its conditions data storage both at CERN and throughout the worldwide collaboration as decided by the ATLAS Collaboration. The management of the Muon COOL conditions database will be one of the most challenging applications for Muon System, both in terms of data volumes and rates, but also in terms of the variety of data stored. The Muon conditions database is responsible for almost all of the 'non event' data and detector quality flags storage needed for debugging of the detector operations and for performing reconstruction and analysis. The COOL database allows database applications to be written independently of the underlying database technology and ensures long term compatibility with the entire ATLAS Software. COOL implements an interval of validity database, i.e. objects stored or referenced in COOL have an associated start and end time between which they are valid, the data is stored in folders, which are themselves arranged in a hierarchical structure of folder sets. The structure is simple and mainly optimized to store and retrieve object(s) associated with a particular time. In this work, an overview of the entire Muon conditions database architecture is given, including the different sources of the data and the storage model used. In addiction the software interfaces used to access to the conditions data are described, more emphasis is given to the Offline Reconstruction framework ATHENA and the services developed to provide the conditions data to the reconstruction.

  18. Hadron beam test of a scintillating fibre tracker system for elastic scattering and luminosity measurement in ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Anghinolfi, F.; S. Ask; Barrillon, P.; Blanchot, G; Blin, S.; Braem, André; C. De La Taille; Di Girolamo, B.; I. Efthymiopoulos(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Faustino, J; Fournier, D.; Franz, S.; Grafström, P.; Gurriana, L.; Haguenauer, M.

    2007-01-01

    A scintillating fibre tracker is proposed to measure elastic proton scattering at very small angles in the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The tracker will be located in so-called Roman Pot units at a distance of 240 m on each side of the ATLAS interaction point. An initial validation of the design choices was achieved in a beam test at DESY in a relatively low energy electron beam and using slow off-the-shelf electronics. Here we report on the results from a second beam test experiment carried out...

  19. Large scale access tests and online interfaces to ATLAS conditions databases

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, A; Pereira, P; Simões, J; Soloviev, I; Burckhart, D; Schmitt, J V D; Caprini, M; Kolos, S

    2008-01-01

    The access of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to the ATLAS Conditions Databases sets strong reliability and performance requirements on the database storage and access infrastructures. Several applications were developed to support the integration of Conditions database access with the online services in TDAQ, including the interface to the Information Services (IS) and to the TDAQ Configuration Databases.

  20. Commissioning of the ATLAS High Level Trigger with single beam and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattia, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The trigger system is responsible for making the online selection of interesting collision events. At the LHC design luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1 it will need to achieve a rejection factor of the order of 10-7 against random proton-proton interactions, while selecting with high efficiency events that are needed for physics analyses. After a first processing level using custom electronics based on FPGAs and ASICs, the trigger selection is made by software running on two processor farms, containing a total of around two thousand multi-core machines. This system is known as the High Level Trigger (HLT). To reduce the network data traffic and the processing time to manageable levels, the HLT uses seeded, step-wise reconstruction, aiming at the earliest possible rejection of background events. The recent LHC startup and short single-beam run provided a "stress test" of the system and some initial calibration data. Following this period, ATLAS continued to collect cosmic-ray events for detector alignment and calibration purposes. After giving an overview of the trigger design and its innovative features, this paper focuses on the experience gained from operating the ATLAS trigger with single LHC beams and cosmic-rays.

  1. Beam tests of an integrated prototype of the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00397348

    2016-09-19

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is intended to measure protons scattered at small angles from the ATLAS interaction point. To this end, a combination of 3D Silicon pixel tracking modules and Quartz-Cherenkov time-of-flight (ToF) detectors is installed 210m away from the interaction point at both sides of ATLAS. Beam tests with an AFP prototype detector combining tracking and timing sub-detectors and a common readout have been performed at the CERN-SPS test-beam facility in November 2014 and September 2015 to complete the system integration and to study the detector performance. The successful tracking-timing integration was demonstrated. Good tracker hit efficiencies above 99.9% at a sensor tilt of 14{\\deg}, as foreseen for AFP, were observed. Spatial resolutions in the short pixel direction with 50 {\\mu}m pitch of 5.5 +/- 0.5 {\\mu}m per pixel plane and of 2.8 +/- 0.5 {\\mu}m for the full four-plane tracker at 14{\\deg} were found, largely surpassing the AFP requirement of 10 {\\mu}m. The timing detector...

  2. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

    2008-06-02

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

  3. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Lourerio, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; RØhne, O.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2011-06-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20GeV and 180GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale.

  4. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P. J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J. B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Göttfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Härtel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J. C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Karagöz Ünel, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C. G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K. F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Zhelezko, A.

    2008-09-01

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system (Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignment of the silicon modules is of the order of 5 μm in their most precise coordinate.

  5. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abat, E; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T.P A; Aleksa, M; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Arik, E; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K; Banfi, D; Baron, S; Barr, A J; Beccherle, R; Beck, H P; Belhorma, B; Bell, P J; Benchekroun, D; Benjamin, D P; Benslama, K; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Bernabeu, J; Bertelsen, H; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Boonekamp, M; Bosman, M; Bourdarios, C; Broklova, Z; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Calvet, D; Canneri, M; Capeans Garrido, M; Caprini, M; Cardiel Sas, L; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Catinaccio, A; Cauz, D; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cetin, S A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chouridou, S; Ciobotaru, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, B; Cobal, M; Cogneras, E; Conde Muino, P; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Cornelissen, T; Correard, S; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cuneo, S; Cwetanski, P; Da Silva, D; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Darbo, G; Davidek, T; De, K; Defay, P O; Dekhissi, B; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Dobos, D; Dobson, M; Dolgoshein, B A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Drasal, Z; Dressnandt, N; Driouchi, C; Drohan, J; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, P; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Eifert, T F; Einsweiler, K; El Kacimi, M; Elsing, M; Emelyanov, D; Escobar, C; Etienvre, A I; Fabich, A; Facius, K; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farthouat, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fayard, L; Febbraro, R; Fedin, O L; Fenyuk, A; Fergusson, D; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Filippini, G; Flick, T; Fournier, D; Francavilla, P; Francis, D; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Gallas, M; Gallop, B J; Gameiro, S; Gan, K K; Garcia, R; Garcia, C; Gavrilenko, I L; Gemme, C; Gerlach, P; Ghodbane, N; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Glonti, G; Gottfert, T.; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gomez, M D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Goujdami, D; Grahn, K J; Grenier, P; Grigalashvili, N; Grishkevich, Y; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwe, M; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hance, M; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Harvey, A., Jr; Hawkings, R J; Heinemann, F.E W; Henriques Correia, A; Henss, T; Hervas, L; Higon, E; Hill, J C; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hruska, I; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Hulsbergen, W; Hurwitz, M; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Jansen, E; Jen-La Plante, I; Johansson, P.D C; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Jorgensen, S; Joseph, J; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Karyukhin, A; Kataoka, M; Kayumov, F; Kazarov, A; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Kerschen, N; Kersten, S; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Khramov, E; Khristachev, A; Khubua, J; Kittelmann, T H; Klingenberg, R; Klinkby, E B; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Kolos, S; Konovalov, S P; Konstantinidis, N; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T Z; Kruger, K.; Kramarenko, V; Kudin, L G; Kulchitsky, Y; Lacasta, C; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Lari, T; Le Bihan, A C; Lechowski, M; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lelas, D; Lester, C G; Liang, Z; Lichard, P; Liebig, W; Lipniacka, A; Lokajicek, M; Louchard, L; Loureiro, K F; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Ma, H; Mackeprang, R; Maio, A; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mandelli, L; Maneira, J; Mangin-Brinet, M; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marti i Garcia, S; Martin, F; Mathes, M; Mazzanti, M; McFarlane, K W; McPherson, R; Mchedlidze, G; Mehlhase, S; Meirosu, C; Meng, Z; Meroni, C; Mialkovski, V; Mikulec, B; Milstead, D; Minashvili, I; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Moed, S; Monnier, E; Moorhead, G; Morettini, P; Morozov, S V; Mosidze, M; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E.W J; Munar, A; Myagkov, A; Nadtochi, A V; Nakamura, K; Nechaeva, P; Negri, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nesterov, S Y; Newcomer, F M; Nikitine, I; Nikolaev, K; Nikolic-Audit, I; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S B; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, S; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paolone, V; Parodi, F; Parsons, J; Parzhitski, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passmore, S M; Pater, J; Patrichev, S; Peez, M; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petti, R; Phillips, P W; Pilcher, J; Pina, J; Pinto, B; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Poppleton, A; Poveda, J; Pralavorio, P; Pribyl, L; Price, M J; Prieur, D; Puigdengoles, C; Puzo, P; Ragusa, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reeves, K; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Reznicek, P; Ridel, M; Risso, P; Riu, I; Robinson, D; Roda, C; Roe, S; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Ruiz, A; Rusakovich, N; Rust, D; Ryabov, Y F; Ryjov, V; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Salzburger, A; Sandaker, H; Santamarina Rios, C.Santamarina; Santi, L; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Sauvage, G; Says, L P; Schaefer, M; Schegelsky, V A; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, C; Schultes, J; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seixas, J M; Seliverstov, D M; Serin, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalanda, N; Shaw, C; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Silva, J; Simion, S; Simonyan, M; Sloper, J E; Smirnov, S.Yu; Smirnova, L; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, O; Soloviev, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Spano, F; Speckmayer, P; Stancu, S; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Straessner, A; Suchkov, S I; Suk, M; Szczygiel, R; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, F; Tas, P; Tayalati, Y; Tegenfeldt, F; Teuscher, R; Thioye, M; Tikhomirov, V O; Timmermans, C.J.W P; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Tremblet, L; Troncon, C; Tsiareshka, P; Tyndel, M; Karagoz Unel, M.; Unal, G; Unel, G; Usai, G; Van Berg, R; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vandelli, W; Vannucci, F; Vartapetian, A; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vasilyeva, L; Vazeille, F; Vernocchi, F; Vetter-Cole, Y; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; de Vivie, J B; Volpi, M; Vu Anh, T; Wang, C; Warren, M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Wells, P S; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wiesmann, M; Wilkens, H; Williams, H H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yasu, Y; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zhang, H; Zhelezko, A; Zhou, N

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  6. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2011-04-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  7. A Study of Hadronic Calibration Schemes for Pion Test Beam Data in the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Thomas G

    The ATLAS forward calorimeters constitute a small though important fraction of the detector's calorimeter system, designed in part to accurately and precisely measure the energy of particles and jets of particles originating from the collisions of high-energy protons at the detector's centre. The application of hadronic weights, a practice common in high-energy calorimetry, provides a means of compensation for the fraction of energy which is deposited by particles in the detector, but which is invisible to the detector due to the nature of hadronic showers. Explored here are various schemes of extracting hadronic weights, as well as the application of such weights, based on pion data from the 2003 ATLAS forward calorimeter test beam. During the collection of test beam data, beams of both pions and electrons of known energy, ranging from 10 to 200 GeV, were fired at specific points of an isolated detector in order to understand its response. The improvement in noise-subtracted energy resolution with respect to...

  8. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - First stable beam, 3 June 2015 - run: 266904

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, clustered in a structure typical of a di-jet event. The transverse momentum of the jets are about 200 GeV and 170 GeV.

  9. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - First stable beam, 3 June 2015 - run: 266904

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The yellow rectangles along with the red and green bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters. Tracks originate from several vertices, indicating multiple proton-proton interactions (also known as pile-up ) recorded in one event.

  10. Test-beam results from the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; Bright-Thomas, P G; Connors, A; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellis, Nick; Engström, M; Farthouat, Philippe; Garvey, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hatley, R; Hellman, S; Hillier, S J; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Maddox, A J; Pentney, J M; Perera, V J O; Pfeiffer, U; Schuler, G A; Schumacher, C; Shah, T P; Silverstein, S; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Wunsch, M

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger will utilise a number of advanced technologies, many of which have already been successfully demonstrated. To evaluate the different technologies associated with the important areas of $9 high-speed data transport a large demonstrator system has been designed and operated during the last two years, using signals from prototype calorimeters in the ATLAS test-beam. Using this system, inter-crate data transmission and $9 reception have been demonstrated at over 1.4 Gbyte/s, with individual links running at up to 1.6 Gbaud. Operating with 160 Mbit/s signals across a transmission-line backplane, custom transceiver ASICs have achieved inter-module data $9 fanout at peak rates above 800 Mbyte/s. With the addition of further modules, the system was extended to emulate a vertical slice through the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger. We present here the results from these tests, including $9 measurements of bit-error rates across different data paths. (12 refs).

  11. A JEE RESTful service to access Conditions Data in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Formica, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Usage of Conditions Data in ATLAS is extensive for offline reconstruction and analysis (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality). The system is based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, with read and write access via an ad hoc C++ API (COOL), a system which was developed before Run 1 data taking began. The infrastructure dictates that the data is organized into separate schemas (assigned to subsystems/groups storing distinct and independent sets of conditions), making it difficult to access information from several schemas at the same time. We have thus created PL/SQL functions containing queries to provide content extraction at multi-schema level. The PL/SQL API has been exposed to external clients by means of an intermediate java application server (JBoss), where an application delivering access to the DB via RESTful services has been deployed. The services allow navigation over multiple schema content, via simple URLs. The queried data can be retrieved either in XML or JSON formats, vi...

  12. A JEE RESTful service to access Conditions Data in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00081940; Gallas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Usage of Conditions Data in ATLAS is extensive for offline reconstruction and analysis (e.g.: alignment, calibration, data quality). The system is based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, with read and write access via an ad hoc C++ API (COOL), a system which was developed before Run 1 data taking began. The infrastructure dictates that the data is organized into separate schemata (assigned to subsystems/groups storing distinct and independent sets of conditions), making it difficult to access information from several schemata at the same time. We have thus created PL/SQL functions containing queries to provide content extraction at multi-schema level. The PL/SQL API has been exposed to external clients by means of a Java application providing DB access via RESTful services, deployed inside an application server (JBoss WildFly). The services allow navigation over multiple schemata via simple URLs. The data can be retrieved either in XML or JSON formats, via simple clients (like curl or Web browser...

  13. A JEE RESTful service to access Conditions Data in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Andrea; Gallas, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Usage of condition data in ATLAS is extensive for offline reconstruction and analysis (e.g. alignment, calibration, data quality). The system is based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, with read and write access via an ad hoc C++ API (COOL), a system which was developed before Run 1 data taking began. The infrastructure dictates that the data is organized into separate schemas (assigned to subsystems/groups storing distinct and independent sets of conditions), making it difficult to access information from several schemas at the same time. We have thus created PL/SQL functions containing queries to provide content extraction at multi-schema level. The PL/SQL API has been exposed to external clients by means of a Java application providing DB access via REST services, deployed inside an application server (JBoss WildFly). The services allow navigation over multiple schemas via simple URLs. The data can be retrieved either in XML or JSON formats, via simple clients (like curl or Web browsers).

  14. Studies of the ATLAS hadronic Calorimeter response to different particles at Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zakareishvili, Tamar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muons data allow to study the dependence of the response on the incident point and angle in the cell. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data will allow to tune the calorimeter response to pions and kaons modelling to improve the reconstruction of the jet energies. The results of the ongoing data analysis are discussed in the presentation.

  15. First test beam results of prototype modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS strip tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218553; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is foreseen to be upgraded to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This will result in higher particle rates and radiation doses. The ATLAS experiment plans to replace its inner tracking detector by a new all-silicon tracker which is based on the concept of modularity. For the new silicon strip tracker a large prototyping and evaluation campaign is ongoing. Many modules of different types were built and tested both in the laboratories and in test beams. In the following first results obtained in test beams are presented. Both mini and full-size modules for the central and forward regions were tested before and after irradiation to fluences as expected at the HL-LHC.

  16. A Layer Correlation Technique for Pion Energy Calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, Karl-Johan

    2009-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed. It is based on a principal component analysis of the calorimeter layer energy deposits, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the ATLAS calorimeters were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by about 20% compared to the electromagnetic scale.

  17. Radioactive Beams from 252CF Fission Using a Gas Catcher and an ECR Charge Breeder at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Hecht, Adam; Moore, Eugene F; Savard, Guy

    2005-01-01

    An upgrade to the radioactive beam capability of the ATLAS facility has been proposed using 252Cf fission fragments thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam using a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams an existing ATLAS ECR ion source will be reconfigured as a charge breeder source. A 1Ci 252Cf source is expected to provide sufficient yield to deliver beams of up to ~106 far from stability ions per second on target. A facility description, the expected performance and the expected performance will be presented in this paper. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  18. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  19. Book Review: A Clinical Atlas of Skin Conditions in HIV/AIDS: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A Clinical Atlas of Skin Conditions in HIV/AIDS: An Illustrated Management Guide for Health Care Professionals. By Ncoza Dlova and Anisa Mosam. 2nd ed. Pretoria: HPMG, 2009. Pp. 100. ISBN 1-875098-40-2.

  20. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  1. One of the first heavy-ion collisions with stable beams recorded by ATLAS in November 2015.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    One of the first heavy-ion collisions with stable beams recorded by ATLAS in November 2015. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as orange arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the Liquid Argon and Scintillating Tile calorimeters respectively.

  2. Simulation of the ATLAS SCT barrel module response to LHC beam loss scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Fadeyev, V; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Domingo, M

    2014-01-01

    In the event of beam loss at the LHC, ATLAS Inner Detector components nearest the beam line may be subjected to unusually large amounts of radiation. Understanding their behavior in such an event is important in determining whether they would still function properly. We built a SPICE model of the silicon strip module electrical system to determine the behavior of its elements during a realistic beam loss scenario. We found that the power supply and bias filter characteristics strongly affect the module response in such scenarios. In particular, the following self-limiting phenomena were observed: there is a finite amount of charge initially available on the bias filter capacitors for collection by the strips; the power supply current limit reduces the rate at which the bias filter capacitors' charge can be replenished; the reduced bias voltage leads to a smaller depletion depth in the sensors which results in less collected charge. These effects provide a larger measure of safety during beam loss events than ...

  3. First use of LHC Run 3 Conditions Database infrastructure for auxiliary data files in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00081940; The ATLAS collaboration; Barberis, Dario; Gallas, Elizabeth; Rybkin, Grigori; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Buttinger, William

    2017-01-01

    Processing of the large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment requires fast and reliable access to what we call Auxiliary Data Files (ADF). These files, produced by Combined Performance, Trigger and Physics groups, contain conditions, calibrations, and other derived data used by the ATLAS software. In ATLAS this data has, thus far for historical reasons, been collected and accessed outside the ATLAS Conditions Database infrastructure and related software. For this reason, along with the fact that ADF are effectively read by the software as binary objects, this class of data appears ideal for testing the proposed Run 3 conditions data infrastructure now in development. This paper describes this implementation as well as the lessons learned in exploring and refining the new infrastructure with the potential for deployment during Run 2.

  4. First use of LHC Run 3 Conditions Database infrastructure for auxiliary data files in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperio Bella, L.; Barberis, D.; Buttinger, W.; Formica, A.; Gallas, E. J.; Rinaldi, L.; Rybkin, G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Processing of the large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment requires fast and reliable access to what we call Auxiliary Data Files (ADF). These files, produced by Combined Performance, Trigger and Physics groups, contain conditions, calibrations, and other derived data used by the ATLAS software. In ATLAS this data has, thus far for historical reasons, been collected and accessed outside the ATLAS Conditions Database infrastructure and related software. For this reason, along with the fact that ADF are effectively read by the software as binary objects, this class of data appears ideal for testing the proposed Run 3 conditions data infrastructure now in development. This paper describes this implementation as well as the lessons learned in exploring and refining the new infrastructure with the potential for deployment during Run 2.

  5. First Use of LHC Run 3 Conditions Database Infrastructure for Auxiliary Data Files in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aperio Bella, Ludovica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Processing of the large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment requires fast and reliable access to what we call Auxiliary Data Files (ADF). These files, produced by Combined Performance, Trigger and Physics groups, contain conditions, calibrations, and other derived data used by the ATLAS software. In ATLAS this data has, thus far for historical reasons, been collected and accessed outside the ATLAS Conditions Database infrastructure and related software. For this reason, along with the fact that ADF data is effectively read by the software as binary objects, makes this class of data ideal for testing the proposed Run 3 Conditions data infrastructure now in development. This paper will describe this implementation as well as describe the lessons learned in exploring and refining the new infrastructure with the potential for deployment during Run 2.

  6. Advanced technologies for scalable ATLAS conditions database access on the grid

    CERN Document Server

    Basset, R; Dimitrov, G; Girone, M; Hawkings, R; Nevski, P; Valassi, A; Vaniachine, A; Viegas, F; Walker, R; Wong, A

    2010-01-01

    During massive data reprocessing operations an ATLAS Conditions Database application must support concurrent access from numerous ATLAS data processing jobs running on the Grid. By simulating realistic work-flow, ATLAS database scalability tests provided feedback for Conditions Db software optimization and allowed precise determination of required distributed database resources. In distributed data processing one must take into account the chaotic nature of Grid computing characterized by peak loads, which can be much higher than average access rates. To validate database performance at peak loads, we tested database scalability at very high concurrent jobs rates. This has been achieved through coordinated database stress tests performed in series of ATLAS reprocessing exercises at the Tier-1 sites. The goal of database stress tests is to detect scalability limits of the hardware deployed at the Tier-1 sites, so that the server overload conditions can be safely avoided in a production environment. Our analysi...

  7. Multiatlas whole heart segmentation of CT data using conditional entropy for atlas ranking and selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Xiahai, E-mail: zhuangxiahai@sjtu.edu.cn; Qian, Xiaohua [SJTU-CU International Cooperative Research Center, Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Naval Architecture Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Bai, Wenjia; Shi, Wenzhe; Rueckert, Daniel [Biomedical Image Analysis Group, Department of Computing, Imperial College London, 180 Queens Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Song, Jingjing; Zhan, Songhua [Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Lian, Yanyun [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is widely used in clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Whole heart segmentation (WHS) plays a vital role in developing new clinical applications of cardiac CT. However, the shape and appearance of the heart can vary greatly across different scans, making the automatic segmentation particularly challenging. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a multiatlas segmentation (MAS) scheme using a new atlas ranking and selection algorithm for automatic WHS of CT data. Research on different MAS strategies and their influence on WHS performance are limited. This work provides a detailed comparison study evaluating the impacts of label fusion, atlas ranking, and sizes of the atlas database on the segmentation performance. Methods: Atlases in a database were registered to the target image using a hierarchical registration scheme specifically designed for cardiac images. A subset of the atlases were selected for label fusion, according to the authors’ proposed atlas ranking criterion which evaluated the performance of each atlas by computing the conditional entropy of the target image given the propagated atlas labeling. Joint label fusion was used to combine multiple label estimates to obtain the final segmentation. The authors used 30 clinical cardiac CT angiography (CTA) images to evaluate the proposed MAS scheme and to investigate different segmentation strategies. Results: The mean WHS Dice score of the proposed MAS method was 0.918 ± 0.021, and the mean runtime for one case was 13.2 min on a workstation. This MAS scheme using joint label fusion generated significantly better Dice scores than the other label fusion strategies, including majority voting (0.901 ± 0.276, p < 0.01), locally weighted voting (0.905 ± 0.0247, p < 0.01), and probabilistic patch-based fusion (0.909 ± 0.0249, p < 0.01). In the atlas ranking study, the proposed criterion based on conditional entropy yielded a performance curve

  8. Upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor for CMS online luminosity measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Karacheban, Olena; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Novgorodova, Olga; Penno, Marek; Walsh, Roberval; Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz; Loos, R; Ryjov, Vladimir; Burtowy, Piotr; Lokhovitskiy, Arkady; Odell, Nathaniel; Przyborowski, Dominik; Stickland, David P; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The CMS beam condition monitoring subsystem BCM1F during LHC Run I consisted of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the tracker detector volume, for the purpose of fast monitoring of beam background and collision products. Effort is ongoing to develop the use of BCM1F as an online bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. To prepare for the expected increase in the LHC luminosity and the change from 50 ns to 25 ns bunch separation, several changes to the system are required, including a higher number of sensors and upgraded electronics. In particular, a new real-time digitizer with large memory was developed and is being integrated into a multi-subsystem framework for luminosity measurement. Current results from Run II preparation will be discussed, including results from the January 201...

  9. Simulation of the ATLAS SCT Barrel Module Response to LHC Beam Loss Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Fadeyev, V; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Domingo, M

    2013-01-01

    In the event of beam loss at the LHC, ATLAS Inner Detector components nearest the beamline may be subjected to unusually large amounts of radiation. Understanding their behavior in such an event is important in determining whether they would still function properly. We built a SPICE model of the silicon strip module electrical system to determine the behavior of its elements during a realistic beam loss scenario. We found that the power supply and bias filter characteristics strongly affect the module response in such scenarios. In particular, the following self-limiting phenomena were observed: there is a finite amount of charge initially available on the bias filter capacitors for collection by the strips; the power supply current limit reduces the rate at which the bias filter capacitors' charge can be replenished; the reduced bias voltage leads to a smaller depletion depth which results in less collected charge. These effects provide a larger measure of safety during beam loss events than we have previous...

  10. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Trigger with Beam Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has taken its first data with colliding beams. The LHC aims to deliver an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 in the run period 2010/2011 at luminosities of up to 1032 cm-2 s-1, which requires active rejection of events in the trigger system. The muon system is the largest sub-detector of the ATLAS experiment and has the capability to reconstruct muons in standalone mode, as well as in combination with the Inner Detector tracking. It deploys different detector technologies, resistive plate chambers and thin gap chambers to provide fast trigger signals, and monitored drift tubes and cathode strip chambers for precision measurements. The L1 muon trigger gets its input from the fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The Muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level 2 trigger followed by an event...

  11. De-squeeze the beams: the TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    A special week-long proton–proton run with larger beam sizes at the interaction point is intended to probe the p-p elastic scattering regime at small angles.   Nicola Turini, deputy spokesperson for TOTEM, in front of one of the experiment’s ‘Roman Pot’ detectors in the LHC tunnel. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Usually, the motto of the LHC is “maximum luminosity”. But for a few days per year, the LHC ignores its motto to run at very low luminosity for the forward experiments. This week, the LHC will provide the TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA experiments with data for a broad physics programme. The TOTEM experiment at Point 5 and the ATLAS/ALFA experiment at Point 1 study the elastic scattering of protons, which are not observable in normal operation runs. In the elastic scattering process, the two protons survive their encounter intact and only change directions by exchanging momentum. To allow this special run, the operators play with the so-c...

  12. System Test of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer in the H8 Beam at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, Erez; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference; Etzion, Erez

    2004-01-01

    An extensive system test of the ATLAS muon spectrometer has been performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS during the last four years. This spectrometer will use pressurized Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) for precision tracking, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) for triggering in the barrel and Thin Gap Chambers (TGCs) for triggering in the end-cap region. The test set-up emulates one projective tower of the barrel (six MDT chambers and six RPCs) and one end-cap octant (six MDT chambers, A CSC and three TGCs). The barrel and end-cap stands have also been equipped with optical alignment systems, aiming at a relative positioning of the precision chambers in each tower to 30-40 micrometers. In addition to the performance of the detectors and the alignment scheme, many other systems aspects of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been tested and validated with this setup, such as the mechanical detector integration and installation, the detector control system, the data acquisi...

  13. Utility of collecting metadata to manage a large scale conditions database in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gallas, EJ; The ATLAS collaboration; Borodin, M; Formica, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Conditions Database, based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, contains a wide variety of information needed in online data taking and offline analysis. The total volume of ATLAS conditions data is in the multi-Terabyte range. Internally, the active data is divided into 65 separate schemas (each with hundreds of underlying tables) according to overall data taking type, detector subsystem, and whether the data is used offline or strictly online. While each schema has a common infrastructure, each schema's data is entirely independent of other schemas, except at the highest level, where sets of conditions from each subsystem are tagged globally for ATLAS event data reconstruction and reprocessing. The partitioned nature of the conditions infrastructure works well for most purposes, but metadata about each schema is problematic to collect in global tools from such a system because it is only accessible via LCG tools schema by schema. This makes it difficult to get an overview of all schemas,...

  14. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: Major upgrade of the ATLAS Test Beam network infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B; Pasqualucci, E

    Based on the positive experience gained last year by the Muon group with the adoption of a completely isolated private network for the data acquisition, already last year for the 2002 Combined Pixel-Tilecal-Muon Test Beam, we adopted the private network solution. The main advantage of the isolation from the common CERN network infrastructure is the complete independence from possible problems that could affect the network in the area, intended to serve many other users, and the possibility to have a completely independent management of the IP addresses assignment. Moreover the presence of a firewall in the private network allows a better protection against possible external hackers, allowing users to transparently access the external word. A Fast Ethernet network has been set up as a control network. It relies on a backbone 24-port Fast Ethernet switch on which, in a tree structure, are connected several smaller switches dedicated to each sub-detector. In this way each sub-detector produces its own traffic...

  15. TESTBEAM COORDINATION: 2nd ATLAS H8 Combined Test Beam Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B

    The second ATLAS H8 Combined Test Beam Workshop took place at CERN on 24th and 25th November. After a first workshop in July to warm up the atmosphere, a lot of work has been done in the meantime and there was a clear need to get together again before the end of 2003. The morning of the first day has been devoted to an assessment of the status of the various elements needed for next year’s test beam in H8. Each sub-detector has been presenting the status of preparation, as well as the work in progress and still to be done. The picture has been completed with the first plans for the DAQ from the point of view of the sub-detectors requirements, and a status of the LVL1 elements. Finally, the status and the timescale for availability of the LVL2 and EF infrastructure have been presented. The final draft layout of the sub-detectors has been discussed (figures 1 and 2). A more detailed description of the layout is in preparation to include more information on dead material and on the ancillary detectors (scint...

  16. Advanced technologies for scalable ATLAS conditions database access on the grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, R.; Canali, L.; Dimitrov, G.; Girone, M.; Hawkings, R.; Nevski, P.; Valassi, A.; Vaniachine, A.; Viegas, F.; Walker, R.; Wong, A.

    2010-04-01

    During massive data reprocessing operations an ATLAS Conditions Database application must support concurrent access from numerous ATLAS data processing jobs running on the Grid. By simulating realistic work-flow, ATLAS database scalability tests provided feedback for Conditions Db software optimization and allowed precise determination of required distributed database resources. In distributed data processing one must take into account the chaotic nature of Grid computing characterized by peak loads, which can be much higher than average access rates. To validate database performance at peak loads, we tested database scalability at very high concurrent jobs rates. This has been achieved through coordinated database stress tests performed in series of ATLAS reprocessing exercises at the Tier-1 sites. The goal of database stress tests is to detect scalability limits of the hardware deployed at the Tier-1 sites, so that the server overload conditions can be safely avoided in a production environment. Our analysis of server performance under stress tests indicates that Conditions Db data access is limited by the disk I/O throughput. An unacceptable side-effect of the disk I/O saturation is a degradation of the WLCG 3D Services that update Conditions Db data at all ten ATLAS Tier-1 sites using the technology of Oracle Streams. To avoid such bottlenecks we prototyped and tested a novel approach for database peak load avoidance in Grid computing. Our approach is based upon the proven idea of pilot job submission on the Grid: instead of the actual query, an ATLAS utility library sends to the database server a pilot query first.

  17. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector, 7 Apr 2015 - Run 260466 - event 22425

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Event display of one of the collimator "splash" event seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2 , on Tuesday April the 7th : event 22425, run 260466. The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point. The spray of particles enters ATLAS from the left hand side of the picture. The length of the yellow bars indicates the energy deposited in the ATLAS calorimeter.

  18. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, L.; Barberis, D.; Formica, A.; Gallas, E. J.; Oda, S.; Rybkin, G.; Verducci, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository.

  19. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00064378; The ATLAS collaboration; Formica, Andrea; Gallas, Elizabeth; Oda, Susumu; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rybkin, Grigori; Verducci, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository.

  20. ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from Brookhaven have played...

  1. Atlas of social and economic conditions and change in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen

    2001-01-01

    This atlas illustrates the spatial and temporal dimensions of social and economic changes in the social-economic assessment region in the decade since 1987/1988. Maps, interpretive text, and accompanying tables and graphs portray conditions, trends, and changes in selected social, economic, and natural resource-related indicators for the 26 counties of the diverse...

  2. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    OpenAIRE

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge a...

  3. Beam Test Studies of 3D Pixel Sensors Irradiated Non-Uniformly for the ATLAS Forward Physics Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; Boscardin, M; Christophersen, M; Da Via, C; Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Fadeyev, V; Fleta, C; Gemme, C; Grenier, P; Jimenez, A; Lopez, I; Micelli, A; Nelist, C; Parker, S; Pellegrini, G; Phlips, B; Pohl, D L; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sicho, P; Tsiskaridze, S

    2013-01-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  4. A study of the application of Brain Atlas with and without +Gz acceleration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifeng; Zhang, Lihui; Zhang, Tao; Li, Baohui

    2017-07-20

    The purposes of this study were to utilize Brain Atlas to investigate the fluctuations in the characteristics of human EEG, with and without +Gz acceleration produced by human centrifuge, and also to examine the G load endurance of human body. The Brain Atlas of the EEG signal with and without +Gz acceleration in a static state were compared in order to reveal the correlation and differences. When compared with those in a static state, it was found that for the EEG readings of the subjects undergoing +Gz acceleration conditions, the energy and gray scale values of the low-frequency component-delta rhythm showed significant increases, while the energy and gray scale values of the high-frequency component-beta rhythm showed significant decreases. Among these, the beta2 rhythm was determined to be significantly inhibited. These fluctuations suggested that the ischemia conditions of brain had been improved. Also, the recoveries in the energy and gray-scale values were determined to be faster, which suggested that the G load endurance of human body had been enhanced. The Brain Atlas was found to show observable changes in color. The experimental results indicated that the Brain Atlas was able to provide assistance during the exploration of the fluctuations in the characteristics of EEG, and provided a criterion to assist in the observations of the function state fluctuations of human brain with +Gz acceleration. It also assisted in the evaluations of the G load endurance of human body.

  5. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Barrel and END-CAP Toroids In order to produce a powerful magnetic field to bend the paths of the muons, the ATLAS detector uses an exceptionally large system of air-core toroids arranged outside the calorimeter volumes. The large volume magnetic field has a wide angular coverage and strengths of up to 4.7tesla. The toroids system contains over 100km of superconducting wire and has a design current of 20 500 amperes. (ATLAS brochure: The Technical Challenges)

  6. Experience with the Open Source based implementation for ATLAS Conditions Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, A; Oliveira, C; Pedro, L; Barros, N

    2003-01-01

    Conditions Data in high energy physics experiments is frequently seen as every data needed for reconstruction besides the event data itself. This includes all sorts of slowly evolving data like detector alignment, calibration and robustness, and data from detector control system. Also, every Conditions Data Object is associated with a time interval of validity and a version. Besides that, quite often is useful to tag collections of Conditions Data Objects altogether. These issues have already been investigated and a data model has been proposed and used for different implementations based in commercial DBMSs, both at CERN and for the BaBar experiment. The special case of the ATLAS complex trigger that requires online access to calibration and alignment data poses new challenges that have to be met using a flexible and customizable solution more in the line of Open Source components. Motivated by the ATLAS challenges we have developed an alternative implementation, based in an Open Source RDBMS. Several issues...

  7. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector - 7 Apr 2015 - Run 260466 - event 14046

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Event display of one of the collimator "splash" event seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2 , on Tuesday April the 7th 2015 : event 14046, run 260466. The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point.

  8. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector - 5 Apr 2015 - run 260272 - event 6539

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Event display of one of the collimator "splash" events seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2, on Tuesday April the 5th : run 260272, event 6539 . The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point.

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Precision Muon Chambers under LHC Operating Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067746; Dubbert, J; Horvat, S; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A

    2004-01-01

    For the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider (LHC), large drift chambers consisting of 6 to 8 layers of pressurized drift tubes are used for precision tracking covering an active area of 5000 m2 in the toroidal ?eld of superconducting air core magnets. The chambers have to provide a spatial resolution of 41 microns with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas mixture at an absolute pressure of 3 bar and gas gain of 2?104. The environment in which the chambers will be operated is characterized by high neutron and background with counting rates of up to 100 per square cm and second. The resolution and efficiency of a chamber from the serial production for ATLAS has been investigated in a 100 GeV muon beam at photon irradiation rates as expected during LHC operation. A silicon strip detector telescope was used as external reference in the beam. The spatial resolution of a chamber is degraded by 4 ?m at the highest background rate. The detection e?ciency of the drift tubes is unchanged under irradiation...

  10. New Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring (BCM1F) system for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083575; Dabrowski, A.E.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.M.; Karacheban, O.; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J.L.; Penno, M.; Pozniak, K.T.; Miraglia, M.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.; Lokhovitskiy, A.; Stickland, D.; Walsh, R.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project is composed of several systems providing the experiment protection from adverse beam conditions while also measuring the online luminosity and beam background. Although the readout bandwidth of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring system (BCM1F - one of the faster monitoring systems of the CMS BRIL), was sufficient for the initial LHC conditions, the foreseen enhancement of the beams parameters after the LHC Long Shutdown-1 (LS1) imposed the upgrade of the system. This paper presents the new BCM1F, which is designed to provide real-time fast diagnosis of beam conditions and instantaneous luminosity with readout able to resolve the 25 ns sub-bunch structure.

  11. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Enabling Conditions, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting conditions enabling market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem...

  12. Large scale access tests and online interfaces to ATLAS conditions databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, A; Lopes, L; Pereira, P; Simoes, J [SIM and FCUL, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Soloviev, I [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St Petersburg, PNPI (Russian Federation); Burckhart, D [CERN - Geneva (Switzerland); Schmitt, J V D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Garching (Germany); Caprini, M [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN/HH Bucharest), Magurele (Romania); Kolos, S [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States)], E-mail: Antonio.Amorim@sim.fc.ul.pt

    2008-07-01

    The access of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to the ATLAS Conditions Databases sets strong reliability and performance requirements on the database storage and access infrastructures. Several applications were developed to support the integration of Conditions database access with the online services in TDAQ, including the interface to the Information Services (IS) and to the TDAQ Configuration Databases. The information storage requirements were the motivation for the ONline A Synchronous Interface to COOL (ONASIC) from the Information Service (IS) to LCG/COOL databases. ONASIC avoids the possible backpressure from Online Database servers by managing a local cache. In parallel, OKS2COOL was developed to store Configuration Databases into an Offline Database with history record. The DBStressor application was developed to test and stress the access to the Conditions database using the LCG/COOL interface while operating in an integrated way as a TDAQ application. The performance scaling of simultaneous Conditions database read accesses was studied in the context of the ATLAS High Level Trigger large computing farms. A large set of tests were performed involving up to 1000 computing nodes that simultaneously accessed the LCG central database server infrastructure at CERN.

  13. A Layer Correlation Technique for Pion Energy Calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test (Conference record)

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, K-J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed. It is based on a principal component analysis of the calorimeter layer energy deposits, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the ATLAS calorimeters were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by about 20% compared to the electromagnetic scale.

  14. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - First stable beam, 3 June 2015 - run: 266904, evt: 25884805

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed by the tracking detector are shown as light blue lines, and hits in the layers of the silicon tracking detector are shown as colored filled circles. The four inner layers are part of the silicon pixel detector and the four outer layers are part of the silicon strip detector. The layer closest to the beam, called IBL, is new for Run 2. In the view in the bottom right it is seen that this event has multiple pp collisions. The total number of reconstructed collision vertices is 17 but they are not all resolvable on the scale of this picture

  15. Data Quality Monitoring Framework for ATLAS Experiment: Performance Achieved with Colliding Beams at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Corso-Radu, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Ilchenko, Y; Kolos, S; Okawa, H; Slagle, K; Taffard, A

    2010-01-01

    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first runs have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also were used to perform a general commissioning of the system. The online data quality monitoring framework (DQMF) is a highly scalable distributed framework that is used to assess the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. DQMF provides quick feedback to the user about the correct functioning and performance of different parts of the detector, it quickly spots problems related with data quality and allows one to determine the origin of these problems. DQMF performs over forty thousand advanced data quality checks at a rate that depends on the histogram update frequency and it displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in the mai...

  16. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

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Ermoline, I; Sinev, N; Whiteson, D O; Corso radu, A; Huang, J; Werth, M P; Kastoryano, M; Meirose da silva costa, B; Namasivayam, H; Hobbs, J D; Schamberger jr, R D; Guo, F; Potekhin, M; Popovic, D; Gorisek, A; Sokhrannyi, G; Hofsajer, I W; Mandelli, L; Ceradini, F; Graziani, E; Giorgi, F; Zur nedden, M E G; Grancagnolo, S; Volpi, M; Nunes hanninger, G; Rados, P K; Milesi, M; Cuthbert, C J; Black, C W; Fink grael, F; Fincke-keeler, M; Keeler, R; Kowalewski, R V; Berghaus, F O; Qi, M; Davidek, T; Tas, P; Jakubek, J; Duckeck, G; Walker, R; Mitterer, C A; Harenberg, T; Sandvoss, S A; Del peso, J; Llorente merino, J; Gonzalez millan, V; Irles quiles, A; Crouau, M; Gris, P L Y; Liauzu, S; Romano saez, S M; Gallop, B J; Jones, T J; Austin, N C; Morris, J; Duerdoth, I; Thompson, R J; Kelly, M P; Leisos, A; Garas, A; Pizio, C; Venda pinto, B A; Kudin, L; Qian, J; Wilson, A W; Mietlicki, D; Long, J D; Sang, Z; Arms, K E; Rahimi, A M; Moss, J J; Oh, S H; Parker, S I; Parsons, J; Cunitz, H; Vanguri, R S; Sadrozinski, H; Lockman, W S; Martinez-mc kinney, G; Goussiou, A; Jones, A; Lie, K; Hasegawa, Y; Olcese, M; Gilewsky, V; Harrison, P F; Janus, M; Spangenberg, M; De, K; Ozturk, N; Pal, A K; Darmora, S; Bullock, D J; Oviawe, O; Derkaoui, J E; Rahal, G; Sircar, A; Frey, A S; Stolte, P; Rosien, N; Zoch, K; Li, L; Schouten, D W; Catinaccio, A; Ciapetti, M; Delruelle, N; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Hoecker, A; Klioutchnikova, T; Macina, D; Malyukov, S; Spiwoks, R D; Unal, G P; Vandoni, G; Petersen, B A; Pommes, K; Nairz, A M; Wengler, T; Mladenov, D; Solans sanchez, C A; Lantzsch, K; Schmieden, K; Jakobsen, S; Ritsch, E; Sciuccati, A; Alves dos santos, A M; Ouyang, Q; Zhou, M; Brock, I C; Janssen, J; Katzy, J; Anders, C F; Nilsson, B S; Bazan, A; Di ciaccio, L; Yildizkaya, T; Collot, J; Malek, F; Trocme, B S; Breugnon, P; Godiot, S; Adam bourdarios, C; Coulon, J; Duflot, L; Petroff, P G; Zerwas, D; Lieuvin, M; Calderini, G; Laporte, D; Ocariz, J; Gabrielli, A; Ohska, T K; Kurochkin, Y; Kantserov, V; Vasilyeva, L; Speransky, M; Smirnov, S; Antonov, A; Bulekov, O; Tikhonov, Y; Sargsyan, L; Vardanyan, G; Budick, B; Kocian, M L; Luitz, S; Young, C C; Grenier, P J; Kelsey, M; Black, J E; Kneringer, E; Jussel, P; Horton, A J; Beaudry, J; Chandra, A; Ereditato, A; Topfel, C M; Mathieu, R; Bucci, F; Muenstermann, D; White, R M; He, M; Urban, J; Straka, M; Vrba, V; Schumacher, M; Parzefall, U; Mahboubi, K; Sommer, P O; Koepke, L H; Bethke, S; Moser, H; Wiesmann, M; Walkowiak, W A; Fleck, I J; Martinez-perez, M; Sanchez sanchez, C A; Jorgensen roca, S; Accion garcia, E; Sainz ruiz, C A; Valls ferrer, J A; Amoros vicente, G; Vives torrescasana, R; Ouraou, A; Formica, A; Hassani, S; Watson, M F; Cottin buracchio, G F; Bussey, P J; Saxon, D; Ferrando, J E; Collins-tooth, C L; Hall, D C; Cuhadar donszelmann, T; Dawson, I; Duxfield, R; Argyropoulos, T; Brodet, E; Livneh, R; Shougaev, K; Reinherz, E I; Guttman, N; Beretta, M M; Vilucchi, E; Aloisio, A; Patricelli, S; Caprio, M; Cevenini, F; De vecchi, C; Livan, M; Rimoldi, A; Vercesi, V; Ayad, R; Mastroberardino, A; Ciapetti, G; Luminari, L; Rescigno, M; Santonico, R; Salamon, A; Del papa, C; Kurashige, H; Homma, Y; Tomoto, M; Horii, Y; Sugaya, Y; Hanagaki, K; Bobbink, G; Kluit, P M; Koffeman, E N; Van eijk, B; Lee, H; Eigen, G; Dorholt, O; Strandlie, A; Strzempek, P B; Dita, S; Stoicea, G; Chitan, A; Leven, S S; Moa, T; Brenner, R; Ekelof, T J C; Olshevskiy, A; Roumiantsev, V; Chlachidze, G; Zimine, N; Gusakov, Y; Grigalashvili, N; Mineev, M; Potrap, I; Barashkou, A; Shoukavy, D; Shaykhatdenov, B; Pikelner, A; Gladilin, L; Ammosov, V; Abramov, A; Arik, M; Sahinsoy, M; Uysal, Z; Azizi, K; Hotinli, S C; Zhou, S; Berger, E; Blair, R; Underwood, D G; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-sciveres, M A; Siegrist, J L; Kipnis, I; Dahl, O; Holland, S; Barbaro galtieri, A; Smith, P T; Parua, N; Franklin, M; Mercurio, K M; Tong, B; Pod, E; Cole, S G; Hopkins, W H; Guest, D H; Severini, H; Marsicano, J J; Abbott, B K; Wang, Q; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Takai, H; Rajagopalan, S; Protopopescu, S D; Snyder, S S; Undrus, A; Popescu, R N; Begel, M A; Blocker, C A; Amelung, C; Mandic, I; Macek, B; Tucker, B H; Citterio, M; Troncon, C; Orestano, D; Taccini, C; Romeo, G L; Dova, M T; Taylor, G N; Gesualdi manhaes, A; Mcpherson, R A; Sobie, R; Taylor, R P; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Slovak, R; Sopko, B; Vacek, V; Sanders, M P; Hertenberger, R; Meineck, C; Becks, K; Kind, P; Sandhoff, M; Cantero garcia, J; De la torre perez, H; Castillo gimenez, V; Ros, E; Hernandez jimenez, Y; Chadelas, R; Santoni, C; Washbrook, A J; O'brien, B J; Wynne, B M; Mehta, A; Vossebeld, J H; Landon, M; Teixeira dias castanheira, M; Cerrito, L; Keates, J R; Fassouliotis, D; Chardalas, M; Manousos, A; Grachev, V; Seliverstov, D; Sedykh, E; Cakir, O; Ciftci, R; Edson, W; Prell, S A; Rosati, M; Stroman, T; Jiang, H; Neal, H A; Li, X; Gan, K K; Smith, D S; Kruse, M C; Ko, B R; Leung fook cheong, A M; Cole, B; Angerami, A R; Greene, Z S; Kroll, J I; Van berg, R P; Forbush, D A; Lubatti, H; Raisher, J; Shupe, M A; Wolin, S; Oshita, H; Gaudio, G; Das, R; Konig, A C; Croft, V A; Harvey, A; Maaroufi, F; Melo, I; Greenwood jr, Z D; Shabalina, E; Mchedlidze, G; Drechsler, E; Rieger, J K; Blackston, M; Colombo, T

    2002-01-01

    % ATLAS \\\\ \\\\ ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for recording proton-proton collisions at LHC. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 144 participating institutions (June 1998) with more than 1750~physicists and engineers (700 from non-Member States). The detector design has been optimized to cover the largest possible range of LHC physics: searches for Higgs bosons and alternative schemes for the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism; searches for supersymmetric particles, new gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and quark and lepton compositeness indicating extensions to the Standard Model and new physics beyond it; studies of the origin of CP violation via high-precision measurements of CP-violating B-decays; high-precision measurements of the third quark family such as the top-quark mass and decay properties, rare decays of B-hadrons, spectroscopy of rare B-hadrons, and $ B ^0 _{s} $-mixing. \\\\ \\\\The ATLAS dectector, shown in the Figure includes an inner tracking detector inside a 2~T~solenoid providing an axial...

  17. Run II performance of luminosity and beam condition monitors at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The BRIL (Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity) system of CMS consists of instrumentation to measure the luminosity online and offline, and to monitor the LHC beam conditions inside CMS. An accurate luminosity measurement is essential to the CMS physics program, and measurement of the beam background is necessary to ensure safe operation of CMS. Many of the BRIL subsystems have been upgraded and others have been added for LHC Run II to complement the existing measurements. The beam condition monitor (BCM) consists of several sets of diamond sensors used to measure online luminosity and beam background with a single-bunch-crossing resolution. The BCM also detects when beam conditions become unfavorable for CMS running and may trigger a beam abort to protect the detector. The beam halo monitor (BHM) uses quartz bars to measure the background of the incoming beams at larger radii. The pixel luminosity telescope (PLT) consists of telescopes of silicon sensors designed to provide a CMS online and offline luminosity measurement. In addition, the forward hadronic calorimeter (HF) delivers an independent luminosity measurement, making the whole system robust and allowing for cross-checks of the systematics. An overview of the performance during 2015 LHC running for the new/updated BRIL subsystems will be given, including the uncertainties of the luminosity measurements.

  18. Explicit formulation for natural frequencies of double-beam system with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzabeigy, Alborz; Madoliat, Reza [Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabbagh, Vahid [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, free transverse vibration of two parallel beams connected through Winkler type elastic layer is investigated. Euler- Bernoulli beam hypothesis has been applied and it is assumed that boundary conditions of upper and lower beams are similar while arbitrary without any limitation even for non-ideal boundary conditions. Material properties and cross-section geometry of beams could be different from each other. The motion of the system is described by a homogeneous set of two partial differential equations, which is solved by using the classical Bernoulli-Fourier method. Explicit expressions are derived for the natural frequencies. In order to verify accuracy of results, the problem once again solved using modified Adomian decomposition method. Comparison between results indicates excellent accuracy of proposed formulation for any arbitrary boundary conditions. Derived explicit formulation is simplest method to determine natural frequencies of double-beam systems with high level of accuracy in comparison with other methods in literature.

  19. Summer student report - Upgrade work for the Fast Beam Condition Monitor at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tsrunchev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Report on summer student internship at CERN. Describes work done towards the replacement of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) - activities related to the test beam conducted by the BRIL (Background Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity) experiment in July 2016, analog opto-hybrids testing and XDAQ development for the uTCA readout system currently under development.

  20. The fast beam condition monitor BCM1F backend electronics upgraded MicroTCA-based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka A.; Bell, Alan; Dabrowski, Anne E.; Guthoff, Moritz; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Karacheban, Olena; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lokhovitskiy, Arkady; Leonard, Jessica L.; Loos, Robert; Miraglia, Marco; Penno, Marek; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Przyborowski, Dominik; Stickland, David; Trapani, Pier Paolo; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Ryjov, Vladimir; Walsh, Roberval

    2014-11-01

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment, consists of several beam monitoring systems. One system, the upgraded Fast Beams Condition Monitor, is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamonds with a double-pad sensor metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real-time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to extract information on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products. The Slow Control Driver is designed for the front-end electronics configuration and control. The system architecture and the upgrade status will be presented.

  1. Architecture of the upgraded BCM1F backend electronics for Beam Conditions and Luminosity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozdzinska, A. A.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J. L.; Pozniak, K. T.; Miraglia, M.; Walsh, R.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment consists of several beam monitoring systems and luminometers. The upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor is based on 24 single crystal diamond sensors with a two-pad metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to measure count rates on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products to be used to determine the luminosity and the machine induced background. The system architecture and the signal processing algorithms will be presented.

  2. Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector with first beams and cosmic data

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has started taking data last autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. The Inner Detector is the charged particle tracking system built on three technologies: silicon pixels, silicon micro-strips and drift tubes. The talk will review the commissioning phase of the Inner Detector in the ATLAS experimental hall, with emphasis on operational aspects, calibrations and properties of the silicon based detectors. Cosmic muon data have been used for timing the different components of the system, measuring detector performance on particle, with and without magnetic field, and cross-checking the calibration results. Cosmic ray data serves also to produce an early alignment of the real ATLAS Inner Detector even before the LHC start up, exercising the alignment procedure that will be repeated every 24h during the accelerator's running. Tracking performance after this early alignment will be presented.

  3. Detailed Performance Study of ATLAS Endcap Muon Trigger with Beam Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, T

    2010-01-01

    Since the first p-p collision of the LHC, The Trigger System has been providing level-1 trigger signals of muon candidates with the specified latency to the central trigger system. The timing calibration is a vital issue to identify the bunch crossing number, which contains the high-momentum muon objects. To determine the bunch crossing identification number correctly, the signal delay parameters of all the 320k channels are aligned and the timing for opening the gate is adjusted to the fastest signal according to the result of a clock phase scan with a precision of 1nsec. After the timing calibration and the optimization of trigger conditions, the trigger efficiency is measured as 93.6% at the plateau region using the muon tracks originating from beam collisions. In this paper, we report on detailed studies about trigger efficiencies, optimization of coincidence windows and adjustment of gate timing based on the experience of the data acquisition of several months.

  4. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  5. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinca, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Weidberg, A R

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed

  6. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Weidberg, A R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the \\emph{p-i-n} photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  7. Method Suitable for Updating the Boundary Condition of Continuous Beam Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, JianXin; Zheng, Honglan; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The boundary support conditions of continuous beam bridges play the great influence on the results of the structural analysis, but it is difficult to accurately model the boundaries owing to the complexity structure of constraint conditions. To address this issue, a parameterized method is proposed to update the boundary support conditions in this study. First, the connection stiffness at boundary is considered as the optimization variable, and then the optimization problem of updating the boundary conditions are described in detail based on the theory of finite element model updating. Second, for verifying the proposed method, a loading test was conducted on an actual three-span continuous beam bridge. With the proposed method, the discrepancy between the measured modal parameters and the analytical results are greatly reduced; therefore, it is shown that the proposed method is effective for updating the boundary support conditions of actual continuous beam bridges.

  8. Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector with the first beam and cosmic data

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started data-taking in Autumn 2008 with the inauguration of the LHC. The Inner Detector is a tracking system for charged particles based on three technologies: silicon pixels, silicon micro-strips and drift tubes. The detector was commissioned and calibrated in the ATLAS cavern. Cosmic muons data are used for timing the different components of the system, measuring detector performance on particlesand cross-checking the calibration results. Cosmic ray data serve also to align the detector prior to the LHC start up, exercising the alignment procedure to be repeated during the accelerator's operation. Tracking performance after this early alignment is suitable for initial LHC collisions.

  9. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rahman, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sheehy, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pietz, J. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Ackeret, M. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Yeckel, C. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Miller, R. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dobrin, E. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Thompson, K. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  10. Vibration analysis of multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary and coupling conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Chaofan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of studying the vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system under various boundary and coupling conditions, this paper constructs a free vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system on the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. The vibration characteristics of a multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary supports and elastic coupling conditions are investigated using the current analysis model. Unlike most existing techniques, the beam displacement function is generally sought as an improved Fourier cosine series, and four sine terms are introduced to overcome all the relevant discontinuities or jumps of elastic boundary conditions. On this basis, the unknown series coefficients of the displacement function are treated as the generalized coordinates and solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz method, and the vibration problem of multi-span bean systems is converted into a standard eigenvalue problem concerning the unknown displacement expansion coefficient. By comparing the free vibration characteristics of the proposed method with those of the FEA method, the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are validated, providing a reliable and theoretical basis for multi-span beam system structure in engineering applications.

  11. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  12. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.

    2017-10-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  13. LIPAc personnel protection system for realizing radiation licensing conditions on injector commissioning with deuteron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki [Gitec Co. Ltd., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Marqueta, Alvaro; Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [Quantum Beam Science Center, JAEA, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Gobin, Raphael [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Personnel Protection System (PPS) is developed to adapt the radiation licensing. • PPS achieves the target performance to secure the personnel safety. • Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) is developed to manage the beam-operation-time. • Satisfying performance of PDMS is confirmed by injector operation with H+ beam. • By the result of PPS and PDMS tests, the radiation license was successfully obtained. - Abstract: The performance validation of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), up to the energy of 9 MeV deuteron beam with 125 mA continuous wave (CW), is planned in Rokkasho, Japan. There are three main phases of LIPAc performance validation: Injector commissioning, RFQ commissioning and LIPAc commissioning. Injector commissioning was started by H{sup +} and D{sup +} beam. To apply the radiation licensing for the Injector commissioning, the entering/leaving to/from accelerator vault should be under control, and access to the accelerator vault has to be prohibited for any person during the beam operation. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was developed to adapt the radiation licensing conditions. The licensing requests that PPS must manage the accumulated D{sup +} current. So, to manage the overall D{sup +} beam time during injector operation, Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) was developed as a configurable subsystem as part of the PPS. The PDMS was tested during H{sup +} beam (as simulated D{sup +}) operation, to confirm that it can handle the beam inhibit from Injector before the beam accumulation is above the threshold value specified in the radiation licensing condition. In this paper, the design and configuration of these systems and the result of the tests are presented.

  14. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector - 7 Apr 2015 - Run 260466 - LB 731 - Event 16848

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, EXPERIMENT

    2015-01-01

    Event display of a collimator "splash" event seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2, on Tuesday April the 7th 2015: event 16848, run 260466. The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point. The figure on the left shows an axial view of the various components of the ATLAS detector. The figure on the right shows the energy deposits in the cells of the ATLAS calorimeter.

  15. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector - 5 Apr 2015 - Run 260272 - LB 240 - event 5879

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS EXPERIMENT

    2015-01-01

    Event display of first collimator "splash" event seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2 , on Sunday April the 5th : event 5879, run 260272. The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point. The spray of particles enters ATLAS from the right hand side of the picture.

  16. The Performance of the Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM), is installed in CMS to protect the CMS detector from high beam losses and to provide feedback to the LHC and CMS on the beam conditions. The primary detector sub-systems are based on either single crystal diamond sensors (BCM1F) for particle counting with nanosecond resolution or on polycrystalline diamonds (BCM2; BCM1L) for integrated signal current measurements. Beam scintillation counters (BSC) are also used during low luminosity running. The detectors have radiation hard front-end electronics and are read out independently of the CMS central data acquisition and are online whenever there is beam in the LHC machine. The various sub-systems exploit different time resolutions and position locations to be able to monitor the beam induced backgrounds and the flux of particles produced during collisions. This paper describes the CMS BRM system and the complementary aspects of the installed BRM sub-detectors to measure both single particle count rates a...

  17. Non-collision backgrounds in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The proton-proton collision events recorded by the ATLAS experiment are on top of a background that is due to both collision debris and non-collision components. The latter comprises of three types: beam-induced backgrounds, cosmic particles and detector noise. We present studies that focus on the first two of these. We give a detailed description of beam-related and cosmic backgrounds based on the full 2011 ATLAS data set, and present their rates throughout the whole data-taking period. Studies of correlations between tertiary proton halo and muon backgrounds, as well as, residual pressure and resulting beam-gas events seen in beam-condition monitors will be presented. Results of simulations based on the LHC geometry and its parameters will be presented. They help to better understand the features of beam-induced backgrounds in each ATLAS sub-detector. The studies of beam-induced backgrounds in ATLAS reveal their characteristics and serve as a basis for designing rejection tools that can be applied in physic...

  18. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Gallas, Elizabeth; Oda, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository. In this presentation, we describe the systems developed to collect this conditions usage metadata per job type and describe a few specific (but very different) ways in which it has been used. For example, it can be used to cull specific conditions data into a much more compact package to be used by jobs doing similar types of processing: these customized collections can then be shipped with jobs to be executed on isolated worker nodes (such as HPC farms) that have no netwo...

  19. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  20. Development of laser decontamination. 4. Test of beam transmission by fibers and the most suitable condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Tanimoto, Kenichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-07-01

    In this work, the characteristics of laser beam transmission by optical fibers and decontamination speed by the most suitable condition and improvement of the characteristics of secondary products are experimented for apply laser decontamination technique to radioactive wastes treatment and decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities. The results are as follows. (1) Beam transmission: For Q switch pulse YAG laser, beam transmission by optical fibers were examined. Transmission energy increase in proportion to diameter of fiber. The maximum transmission energy of optical fiber was 61 mJ, which was not damaged. The transmission energy of bundle fiber was more plenty than the energy of single fibers at same numbers. It is able to apply bundle fiber to transmission system of Q switch pulse YAG laser beam. (2) Improvement of decontamination speed: Imitation contaminants were removed perfectly on the condition that, the irradiation frequency was 2 times, move speed of test piece was 3.0 mm/sec, beam diameter was 1.2 mm, repetition speed was 10 Hz. At this time, the number of beam shots were more 4 in the unit area. The case of fluence is constant, the number of beam shots were increased by spread of beam diameter in the unit area. (3) Measurement of secondary products: Particle diameters of more than 50% secondary products by Q switch pulse YAG laser were less than 0. 1 {mu}m. Particle diameters of more than 50% secondary products by normal pulse YAG laser were from 0.1 {mu}m to 1 {mu}m. (author)

  1. Conditions for coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced microbunching suppression in multibend beam transport or recirculation arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Li, R.; Tennant, C.

    2017-02-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high-brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in beam phase space degradation. On one hand, CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beam line and possibly cause emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching instability. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Correspondingly, a few scenarios have been introduced to suppress CSR-induced microbunching instability, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching instability along transport or recirculation arcs. Examples are presented with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our developed semianalytical Vlasov solver [C.-Y. Tsai, D. Douglas, R. Li, and C. Tennant, Linear microbunching analysis for recirculation machines, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 19, 114401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.114401]. The example lattices include low-energy (˜100 MeV ) and high-energy (˜1 GeV ) recirculation arcs, and medium-energy compressor arcs. Our studies show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. Beam current dependences of maximal CSR microbunching gains are also demonstrated, which should help outline a beam line design for different scales of nominal currents. We expect this analysis can shed light on the lattice design approach that aims to control the CSR-induced microbunching.

  2. Automatic MRI Atlas-Based External Beam Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason; Lambert, Jonathan; Parker, Joel; Greer, Peter B.; Fripp, Jurgen; Denham, James; Ourselin, Sébastien; Salvado, Olivier

    Prostate radiation therapy dose planning currently requires computed tomography (CT) scans as they contain electron density information needed for patient dose calculations. However magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images have significantly superior soft-tissue contrast for segmenting organs of interest and determining the target volume for treatment. This paper describes work on the development of an alternative treatment workflow enabling both organ delineation and dose planning to be performed using MRI alone. This is achieved by atlas based segmentation and the generation of pseudo-CT scans from MRI. Planning and dosimetry results for three prostate cancer patients from Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital (Australia) are presented supporting the feasibility of this workflow. Good DSC scores were found for the atlas based segmentation of the prostate (mean 0.84) and bones (mean 0.89). The agreement between MRI/pseudo-CT and CT planning was quantified by dose differences and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi values indicate that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions are equivalent.

  3. Effect of environmental conditions on the flexural properties of wood I-beams and lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo-Huang Chen; R.C. Tang; E.W. Price

    1989-01-01

    Flexural properties as affected by environmental conditions were evaluated for full-sized wood composite I-beams webbed with oriented strand board (OSB), randomly oriented flakeboard (RF) and 3-ply Structural I plywood (PLY). Solid-sawn southern pine 2 by 10's, ordinarily used in light-frame building construction, were also tested for comparative purposes....

  4. Precision tracking with small-strip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC): from Test Beam to ATLAS NSW Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Benhammou, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The forthcoming luminosity upgrade of LHC to super - LHC (sLHC) will increase the e xpected background rate in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer by approximately a factor of five. Some of the present Muon Spectrometer components will fail to cope with these high rates and will have to be replaced. A development of the Th in Gap Chambers (TGC) has been tested during the last four years. The results of these tests , presented here, showed that the small strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) provide a fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under sLHC conditions. In 2012, sTGC technology has been accepted as a part of the New Small Wheel (NSW).

  5. Measurements of the performance of a beam condition monitor prototype in a 5 GeV electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, M.; Afanaciev, K.; Burtowy, P.; Dabrowski, A.; Henschel, H.; Idzik, M.; Karacheban, O.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Pollak, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Ryjov, V.; Schuwalow, S.; Stickland, D.; Walsh, R.; Zagozdzinska, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, in the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, experiment was operated since 2008 and delivered invaluable information on the machine induced background in the inner part of the CMS detector supporting a safe operation of the inner tracker and high quality data. Due to the shortening of the time between two bunch crossings from 50 ns to 25 ns and higher expected luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, in 2015, BCM1F needed an upgrade to higher bandwidth. In addition, BCM1F is used as an on-line luminometer operated independently of CMS. To match these requirements, the number of single crystal diamond sensors was enhanced from 8 to 24. Each sensor is subdivided into two pads, leading to 48 readout channels. Dedicated fast front-end ASICs were developed in 130 nm technology, and the back-end electronics is completely upgraded. An assembled prototype BCM1F detector comprising sensors, a fast front-end ASIC and optical analog readout was studied in a 5 GeV electron beam at the DESY-II accelerator. Results on the performance are given.

  6. Performance of New and Upgraded Detectors for Luminosity and Beam Condition Measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The beam monitoring and luminosity systems of the CMS experiment are enhanced by several new and upgraded sub-detectors to match the challenges of the LHC operation and physics program at increased energy and higher luminosity. A dedicated pixelated luminosity telescope is installed for a fast and precise luminosity measurement. This detector measures coincidences between several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. An upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using single crystalline diamond sensors. It is equipped with a dedicated front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background, thus serving as online luminosity measurement. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light from fused silica to provide direction sensitivity and excellent time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles....

  7. Attractor of Beam Equation with Structural Damping under Nonlinear Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously, considering the viscous effect of material, damping of medium, and rotational inertia, we study a kind of more general Kirchhoff-type extensible beam equation utt-uxxtt+uxxxx-σ(∫0l‍(ux2dxuxx-ϕ(∫0l‍(ux2dxuxxt=q(x, in  [0,L]×R+ with the structural damping and the rotational inertia term. Little attention is paid to the longtime behavior of the beam equation under nonlinear boundary conditions. In this paper, under nonlinear boundary conditions, we prove not only the existence and uniqueness of global solutions by prior estimates combined with some inequality skills, but also the existence of a global attractor by the existence of an absorbing set and asymptotic compactness of corresponding solution semigroup. In addition, the same results also can be proved under the other nonlinear boundary conditions.

  8. Quasi-optical Gaussian beam tracing to evaluate Doppler backscattering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, C.; Hennequin, P.; Truc, A.; Quéméneur, A.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave beam backscattering near the cut-off layer appears to be the most interesting diagnostic to observe density fluctuation time evolution for a given localization in the plasma and at a defined wave vector. It also provides perpendicular plasma velocity. Scattering only occurs when the Bragg selection rule is fulfilled, i.e. when the scattering wave vector is almost perpendicular to the magnetic field. In order to evaluate these scattering conditions, ray tracing is required. 3D geometry is necessary to evaluate the angle between the magnetic field and the wave vector at the reflection. The ripple effect on the iso-index layer curve cannot be neglected. Scattering localization and wave vector resolution can be approached if single ray tracing is replaced with quasi-optical beam tracing. Optical propagation is still considered in the WKB approximation but the beam is described as multiple connected rays. The beam radial expansion due to diffraction is well described. This approach allows one to compute beam parameters for all data acquisitions (50 triggers per shot) and all shots (40 shots per day) during the following night on a recent personal computer with MatLab©.

  9. Development of a CVD diamond Beam Condition Monitor for CMS at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L; Gray, R; Ilgner, C; MacPherson, A; Oh, A; Pritchard, T; Stone, R; Worm, S

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will store 2808 bunches per colliding beam, with each bunch consisting of 1011 protons at an energy of 7 TeV. If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor fast increments of particle fluxes near the interaction point and, if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control to dump the beams. The system is being developed initially for the CMS experiment but it is sufficiently general to find potential applications elsewhere. Due to its high radiation hardness, CVD diamond was chosen for investigation as the BCM sensor. Various samples of CVD diamond have been characterized extensively with both a 90Sr source and in high-intensity test beams in order to assess the capabilities of such sensors and to study whether this detector technology is suitable for a BCM system. A selection of results fro...

  10. Efficacy of Thermally Conditioned Sisal FRP Composite on the Shear Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of commercially viable composites based on natural resources for a wide range of applications is on the rise. Efforts include new methods of production and the utilization of natural reinforcements to make biodegradable composites with lignocellulosic fibers, for various engineering applications. In this work, thermal conditioning of woven sisal fibre was carried out, followed by the development of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite system, and its tensile and flexural behaviour was characterized. It was observed that thermal conditioning improved the tensile strength and the flexural strength of the woven sisal fibre composites, which were observed to bear superior values than those in the untreated ones. Then, the efficacy of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams was evaluated using two types of techniques: full and strip wrapping techniques. Detailed analysis of the load deflection behaviour and fracture study of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with woven sisal under shearing load were carried out, and it was concluded that woven sisal FRP strengthened beams, underwent very ductile nature of failure, without any delamination or debonding of sisal FRP, and also increased the shear strength and the first crack load of the reinforced concrete beams.

  11. Fertility in premenopausal women post autologous stem cell transplant with BEAM conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasica, Masa; Taylor, Emma; Bhattacharyya, Puja; Bennett, Ashwini; Cooke, Rachel E; Stern, Catharyn; Agresta, Franca; Ayton, Rosemary; Grigg, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    There is currently minimal data on fertility outcomes in premenopausal women undergoing autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) with carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) conditioning. A retrospective analysis of fertility outcomes in premenopausal females aged between 18 and 40 yr who underwent BEAM/ASCT for lymphoma between 1995 and 2011 was performed at four transplant centres. Of 41 premenopausal women who underwent BEAM conditioning, 25 met the inclusion criteria with the main exclusion criterion being inadequate documentation. Eighteen had Hodgkin lymphoma, and seven had non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Median number of chemotherapy regimens pretransplant was 2 (1-3). Seventeen women (68%) with a median age at transplant of 25 yr (range 17-33) recovered their menses. The comparative group without recovery was older with a median age of 34 yr (range 20-40) (P = 0.007). Ten patients, with a median age at transplant of 22 yr (range 17-30), had 15 naturally conceived pregnancies. Chemotherapy regimens and lymphoma type did not obviously influence the incidence of menses recovery or conception. The incidence of recovery of menses and fertility in premenopausal women undergoing BEAM/ASCT for lymphoma is substantial. Younger age at transplant correlates with superior fertility outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of storage conditions on graft of polypropylene non-woven fabric induced by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Radiation Research Dvision for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we fabricated effect of storage conditions on graft of polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric induced by electron beam. The electron beam irradiations on PP non-woven fabric were carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 25 to 100 kGy to make free radicals on fabric surface. The radical measurement was established by electron spin resonance (ESR) for confirming the changes of the alkyl radical and peroxy radical according to effect of storage time, storage temperature and atmosphere. It was observed that the free radicals were increased with irradiation dose and decreased with storage time due to the continuous oxidation. However, the radical extinction was significantly delayed due to reduced mobility of radicals at extremely low temperature. The degree of graft based on the analysis of ESR was investigated. The conditions of graft reaction were set at a temperature: 60 degrees Celcius, reaction time: 6 hours and styrene monomer concentration: 20 wt%.

  13. Pulse simulations and heat flow measurements for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter under high-luminosity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758133; Zuber, Kai

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is an important step for further and more detailed studies of the Standard Model of particle physics as well as searches for new physics. The necessary upgrade of the ATLAS detector is a challenging task as the increased luminosity entails many problems for the different detector parts. The liquid-argon Forward Calorimeter suffers signal-degradation effects and a high voltage drop of the supply potential under high-luminosity conditions. It is possible that the argon starts to boil due to the large energy depositions. The effect of the high-luminosity environment on the liquid-argon Forward Calorimeter has been simulated in order to investigate the level of signal degradation. The results show a curvature of the triangular pulse shape that appears prolonged when increasing the energy deposit. This effect is caused by the drop in the electric potential that produces a decrease in the electric field across the liquid-argon gap in the Forward Calorim...

  14. Ajax, XSLT and SVG: Displaying ATLAS conditions data with new web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, S. A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    The combination of three relatively recent technologies is described which allows an easy path from database retrieval to interactive web display. SQL queries on an Oracle database can be performed in a manner which directly return an XML description of the result, and Ajax techniques (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) are used to dynamically inject the data into a web display accompanied by an XSLT transform template which determines how the data will be formatted. By tuning the transform to generate SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) a direct graphical representation can be produced in the web page while retaining the database data as the XML source, allowing dynamic links to be generated in the web representation, but programmatic use of the data when used from a user application. With the release of the SVG 1.2 Tiny draft specification, the display can also be tailored for display on mobile devices. The technologies are described and a sample application demonstrated, showing conditions data from the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker.

  15. Ajax, XSLT and SVG: Displaying ATLAS conditions data with new web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, S A

    2010-01-01

    The combination of three relatively recent technologies is described which allows an easy path from database retrieval to interactive web display. SQL queries on an Oracle database can be performed in a manner which directly return an XML description of the result, and Ajax techniques (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) are used to dynamically inject the data into a web display accompanied by an XSLT transform template which determines how the data will be formatted. By tuning the transform to generate SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) a direct graphical representation can be produced in the web page while retaining the database data as the XML source, allowing dynamic links to be generated in the web representation, but programmatic use of the data when used from a user application. With the release of the SVG 1.2 Tiny draft specification, the display can also be tailored for display on mobile devices. The technologies are described and a sample application demonstrated, showing conditions data from the ATLAS Sem...

  16. ATLAS DBM Module Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aria [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gorisek, Andrej [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zavrtanik, Marko [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sokhranyi, Grygorii [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); McGoldrick, Garrin [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Cerv, Matevz [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-06-18

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Jozef Stefan Institute, CERN, and University of Toronto who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond has a number of properties that make it attractive for high energy physics detector applications. Its large band-gap (5.5 eV) and large displacement energy (42 eV/atom) make it a material that is inherently radiation tolerant with very low leakage currents and high thermal conductivity. CVD diamond is being investigated by the RD42 Collaboration for use very close to LHC interaction regions, where the most extreme radiation conditions are found. This document builds on that work and proposes a highly spatially segmented diamond-based luminosity monitor to complement the time-segmented ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) so that, when Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators (MTBS) and LUCID (LUminosity measurement using a Cherenkov Integrating Detector) have difficulty functioning, the ATLAS luminosity measurement is not compromised.

  17. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  18. A discrete model for geometrically nonlinear transverse free constrained vibrations of beams with various end conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, A.; Beidouri, Z.; Benamar, R.

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper was the development of a physically discrete model for geometrically nonlinear free transverse constrained vibrations of beams, which may replace, if sufficient degrees of freedom are used, the previously developed continuous nonlinear beam constrained vibration models. The discrete model proposed is an N-Degrees of Freedom (N-dof) system made of N masses placed at the ends of solid bars connected by torsional springs, presenting the beam flexural rigidity. The large transverse displacements of the bar ends induce a variation in their lengths giving rise to axial forces modelled by longitudinal springs. The calculations made allowed application of the semi-analytical model developed previously for nonlinear structural vibration involving three tensors, namely the mass tensor mij, the linear rigidity tensor kij and the nonlinearity tensor bijkl. By application of Hamilton's principle and spectral analysis, the nonlinear vibration problem is reduced to a nonlinear algebraic system, examined for increasing numbers of dof. The results obtained by the physically discrete model showed a good agreement and a quick convergence to the equivalent continuous beam model, for various fixed boundary conditions, for both the linear frequencies and the nonlinear backbone curves, and also for the corresponding mode shapes. The model, validated here for the simply supported and clamped ends, may be used in further works to present the flexural linear and nonlinear constrained vibrations of beams with various types of discontinuities in the mass or in the elasticity distributions. The development of an adequate discrete model including the effect of the axial strains induced by large displacement amplitudes, which is predominant in geometrically nonlinear transverse constrained vibrations of beams [1]. The investigation of the results such a discrete model may lead to in the case of nonlinear free vibrations. The development of the analogy between the

  19. Pion Energy Reconstruction by the Local Hadronic Calibration Method with ATLAS Combined Test Beam 2004 data

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitsky, Y; Khubua, J; Russakovich, N; Shigaev, V; Vinogradov, V

    2008-01-01

    The pion energy reconstruction by the local hadronic calibration method on the basis of the 2004 combined test beam data in the energy range 10 -- 350 GeV and $\\eta = 0.25$ is performed. In this method energies deposited in each cell are weighted. The weights are determined by the Monte Carlo simulation using Calibration Hits software. We have modified this method by applying cuts in weights. The obtained fractional energy resolution with the conventional method of determination of the energy deposit in the dead material between LAr and Tile calorimeters is $\\sigma/E = (67\\pm2)\\%/\\sqrt{E} \\oplus (3.9\\pm0.2)\\% \\oplus (95\\pm22)\\%/E$. This is about 1.5 times better than the results for the hadronic calibration method obtained by the Oxford-Stockholm group and slightly better than the H1 method results for CTB04 obtained by Pisa group. The energy linearity is within $\\pm$1\\%. We have determined the general normalization constant of 0.91 for which the mean value linearity for the weight cut of 1.05 is about 1. At ...

  20. Statistical analysis and modelling of weather radar beam propagation conditions in the Po Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornasiero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground clutter caused by anomalous propagation (anaprop can affect seriously radar rain rate estimates, particularly in fully automatic radar processing systems, and, if not filtered, can produce frequent false alarms. A statistical study of anomalous propagation detected from two operational C-band radars in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna is discussed, paying particular attention to its diurnal and seasonal variability. The analysis shows a high incidence of anaprop in summer, mainly in the morning and evening, due to the humid and hot summer climate of the Po Valley, particularly in the coastal zone. Thereafter, a comparison between different techniques and datasets to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index gradient in the boundary layer is also presented. In particular, their capability to detect anomalous propagation conditions is compared. Furthermore, beam path trajectories are simulated using a multilayer ray-tracing model and the influence of the propagation conditions on the beam trajectory and shape is examined. High resolution radiosounding data are identified as the best available dataset to reproduce accurately the local propagation conditions, while lower resolution standard TEMP data suffers from interpolation degradation and Numerical Weather Prediction model data (Lokal Model are able to retrieve a tendency to superrefraction but not to detect ducting conditions. Observing the ray tracing of the centre, lower and upper limits of the radar antenna 3-dB half-power main beam lobe it is concluded that ducting layers produce a change in the measured volume and in the power distribution that can lead to an additional error in the reflectivity estimate and, subsequently, in the estimated rainfall rate.

  1. ATLAS Event - First Splash of Particles in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2008-01-01

    A simulated event. September 10, 2008 - The ATLAS detector lit up as a flood of particles traversed the detector when the beam was occasionally directed at a target near ATLAS. This allowed ATLAS physicists to study how well the various components of the detector were functioning in preparation for the forthcoming collisions. The first ATLAS data recorded on September 10, 2008 is seen here. Running time 24 seconds

  2. Development of a beam condition monitor for use in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using synthetic diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L; Ilgner, C; MacPherson, A; Oh, A; Pernegger, H; Pritchard, T; Stone, R; Worm, S

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will collide two counter rotating proton beams, each with a store energy about 350MJ; enough to melt 550kg of copper. If there is failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor last increments of particle flux near the interaction point and if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control, to dump the beams. Due to its radiation hardness and minimal services requirements, synthetic CVD diamond is being considered as BCM sensor option. (12 refs).

  3. Architecture of the upgraded BCM1F Backend Electronics for Beam Conditions and Luminosity measurement - hardware and firmware

    CERN Document Server

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka Anna

    2014-01-01

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment, consists of several beam monitoring systems. One system, the upgraded Fast Beams Condition Monitor, is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamonds with a double-pad sensor metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to extract information on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products. The Slow Control Driver is designed for the front-end electronics configuration and control. The system architecture and the upgrade status will be presented.

  4. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; 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Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palm, Marcus; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-05-20

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge are discussed in detail. Fake jets from colliding bunches and from ghost charge are analysed with improved methods, showing that ghost charge in individual radio-frequency buckets of the LHC can be resolved. Some results of two short periods of dedicated cosmic-ray background data-taking are shown; in particular cosmic-ray muon induced fake jet rates are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the fake jet rates from beam background. A thorough analysis of a particular LHC fill, where abnormally high background was obse...

  5. Measurement of charm and beauty-production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and test beam studies of ATLAS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libov, Vladyslav

    2013-08-15

    A measurement of charm and beauty production in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA is presented. The analysis is based on the data sample collected by the ZEUS detector in the period from 2003 to 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 354 pb{sup -1}. The kinematic region of the measurement is given by 54.2(5) GeV for charm (beauty) and -1.6<{eta}{sup jet}<2.2 for both charm and beauty, where E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, respectively. The significance of the decay length and the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with the secondary vertex are used as discriminating variables to distinguish between signal and background. Differential cross sections of jet production in charm and beauty events as a function of Q{sup 2}, y, E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are measured. Results are compared to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) predictions from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the fixed flavour number scheme. Good agreement between data and theory is observed. Contributions of the charm and beauty production to the inclusive proton structure function, F{sup cbar} {sup c}{sub 2} and F{sup b} {sup anti} {sup b}{sub 2}, are determined by extrapolating the double differential cross sections using NLO QCD predictions. Contributions to the test beam program for the Insertable B-Layer upgrade project of the ATLAS pixel detector are discussed. The test beam data analysis software package EUTelescope was extended, which allowed an efficient analysis of ATLAS pixel sensors. The USBPix DAQ system was integrated into the EUDET telescope allowing test beam

  6. Structural vibration a uniform accurate solution for laminated beams, plates and shells with general boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Guoyong; Su, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This book develops a uniform accurate method which is capable of dealing with vibrations of laminated beams, plates and shells with arbitrary boundary conditions including classical boundaries, elastic supports and their combinations. It also provides numerous solutions for various configurations including various boundary conditions, laminated schemes, geometry and material parameters, which fill certain gaps in this area of reach and may serve as benchmark solutions for the readers. For each case, corresponding fundamental equations in the framework of classical and shear deformation theory are developed. Following the fundamental equations, numerous free vibration results are presented for various configurations including different boundary conditions, laminated sequences and geometry and material properties. The proposed method and corresponding formulations can be readily extended to static analysis.

  7. A Slice of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An entire section of the ATLAS detector is being assembled at Prévessin. Since May the components have been tested using a beam from the SPS, giving the ATLAS team valuable experience of operating the detector as well as an opportunity to debug the system.

  8. Finding Multiple Peaks Signal in Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F)

    CERN Document Server

    Bin Ab Maalek, Abu Ubaidah Amir; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) is diamond and silicon sensors based luminometer of CMS detector. The methods of finding multiple peaks signal in BCM1F is shown. Multiple peaks signal found at signal with width between 60 ns - 300 ns. Double peaks are counted as single hit in the constant threshold analysis and leads to underestimation in the luminosity. Therefore it should be estimated for different filling schemes and sensor types. The percentage of long width pulse in different sensor for different fill are calculated. About 30 \\% long width pulse found in sCVD sensor, 12 \\% in pCVD and no more than 1 \\% for silicon sensor.

  9. Tailoring laser wakefield accelerated electron beams. An experimental study on the influence of experimental conditions on electron beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couperus, Jurjen P.; Koehler, Alexander; Zarini, Omid; Huebl, Axel; Schramm, Ulrich [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Jochmann, Axel; Debus, Alexander; Irman, Arie [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has emerged as a promising concept for the next generation of high energy electron accelerators. In LFWA a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse drives plasma density waves, inducing a high accelerating field gradient in the order of GV/m. To create stable reproducible electron beams, tailoring of experimental parameters like gas density, laser energy and laser pulse duration is required. In this talk we present an overview of our experimental studies with the DRACO (3 J on target, 30 fs) laser on ultrasonic gas-jet targets (He and He-N{sub 2} mixtures). We discuss the influence of experimental parameters on beam parameters like beam charge, shot-to-shot stability and energy distribution, both in the self-injecting bubble regime as well as in the ionisation injection regime.

  10. Test beam results on Atlas electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter: Electrons-jets separation; Resultats des tests en faisceau sur les bouchons du calorimetre electromagnetique d'ATLAS - separation electrons-jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfon, C

    2005-05-15

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments being built on the future proton-proton collider at CERN: the LHC. This experiment has a large physics program, from Standard Model to new physics. The search for the Higgs boson in two photons or in four leptons, or the search of Z' or W' needs a good energy resolution for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This thesis describes the beam tests performed on three modules of the electromagnetic end cap calorimeter. A 0.6% non-uniformity, and a 0.7% energy resolution global constant term (dominant at high energy) has been obtained. Moreover, a study on the separation between electrons and jets is also performed. This study shows that a jets rejection factor of 10{sup 5} can be obtained keeping an electron efficiency better than 78%. (author)

  11. A methodology for TLD postal dosimetry audit of high-energy radiotherapy photon beams in non-reference conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izewska, Joanna; Georg, Dietmar; Bera, Pranabes; Thwaites, David; Arib, Mehenna; Saravi, Margarita; Sergieva, Katia; Li, Kaibao; Yip, Fernando Garcia; Mahant, Ashok Kumar; Bulski, Wojciech

    2007-07-01

    A strategy for national TLD audit programmes has been developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It involves progression through three sequential dosimetry audit steps. The first step audits are for the beam output in reference conditions for high-energy photon beams. The second step audits are for the dose in reference and non-reference conditions on the beam axis for photon and electron beams. The third step audits involve measurements of the dose in reference, and non-reference conditions off-axis for open and wedged symmetric and asymmetric fields for photon beams. Through a co-ordinated research project the IAEA developed the methodology to extend the scope of national TLD auditing activities to more complex audit measurements for regular fields. Based on the IAEA standard TLD holder for high-energy photon beams, a TLD holder was developed with horizontal arm to enable measurements 5cm off the central axis. Basic correction factors were determined for the holder in the energy range between Co-60 and 25MV photon beams. New procedures were developed for the TLD irradiation in hospitals. The off-axis measurement methodology for photon beams was tested in a multi-national pilot study. The statistical distribution of dosimetric parameters (off-axis ratios for open and wedge beam profiles, output factors, wedge transmission factors) checked in 146 measurements was 0.999+/-0.012. The methodology of TLD audits in non-reference conditions with a modified IAEA TLD holder has been shown to be feasible.

  12. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  13. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  14. The CMS Fast Beams Condition Monitor Backend Electronics based on MicroTCA technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Beams Condition Monitor (BCM1F), upgraded for LHC Run II, is one sub-system of the Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment. It is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamond sensors. Each sensor is metallised with two pads, being read out by a dedicated fast frontend chip produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. Signals for real time monitoring are processed by custom-made back-end electronics to measure separately rates corresponding to LHC collision products, machine induced background and residual activation exploiting different arrival times. The system is built in MicroTCA technology and uses high speed analog-to-digital converters. The data processing module designed for the FPGA allows a distinguishing of collision and machine induced background, both synchronous to the LHC clock, from the residual activation products. In operational modes of high rates, consecutive events, spaced in time by less than 12.5 ns, may partially overlap. Hence, novel signal processing tec...

  15. On the Energetics of a Damped Beam-Like Equation for Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJAD HUSSAIN SANDILO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the energy estimates for a damped linear homogeneous beam-like equation will be considered. The energy estimates will be studied for different BCs (Boundary Conditions for the axially moving continuum. The problem has physical and engineering application. The applications are mostly occurring in models of conveyor belts and band-saw blades. The research study is focused on the Dirichlet, the Neumann and the Robin type of BCs. From physical point of view, the considered mathematical model expounds the transversal vibrations of a moving belt system or moving band-saw blade. It is assumed that a viscous damping parameter and the horizontal velocity are positive and constant. It will be shown in this paper that change in geometry or the physics of the boundaries can affect the stability properties of the system in general and stability depends on the axial direction of the motion. In all cases of the BCs, it will be shown that there is energy decay due to viscous damping parameter and it will also be shown that in some cases there is no conclusion whether the beam energy decreases or increases. The detailed physical interpretation of all terms and expressions is provided and studied in detail.

  16. Architecture of the upgraded BCM1F Backend Electronics for Beam Conditions and Luminosity measurement - hardware and firmware

    CERN Document Server

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka Anna; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J.L.; Pozniak, K.T.; Miraglia, M.; Walsh, R.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment, consists of several beam monitoring systems. One system, the upgraded Fast Beams Condition Monitor, is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamonds with a double-pad sensor metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to extract information on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products. Data in the form of histograms is transmitted to the DAQ. The system architecture and the signal processing algorithms will be presented.SummaryThe Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) detector is a part of the CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project (BRIL). The increased performance expected of the LHC with energy of up to 14 TeV, higher luminosity and 25 ns bunch spacing is a challenge for the detector systems and increase the importance of real-time beam monitoring at ...

  17. A better beam quality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made on two fronts, providing physics data and preparing for higher intensities. Over the Whitsun weekend of May 22 to 24, 5 fills for physics provided almost 30 hours of stable colliding beams, all with bunch intensities around 2x1010 protons and at a β* of 2m. The first three of these fills were with 6 bunches per beam, giving 3 pairs of collisions in all experiments. For the other two fills, the number of bunches per beam was increased to 13, giving 8 pairs of colliding bunches, and for the first time luminosities were pushed above 1029 cm-2s-1, 2 orders of magnitude higher than first collisions in March. In between and after these physics fills, nominal bunches of 1011 protons were successfully ramped and brought into collision in ATLAS and CMS for the first time (not in stable beam conditions and without squeeze). Event rates seen by the experiments were in the expected range for these conditions. In the middle of this work, a short fill with beams of 7 nominal bunches was ...

  18. Laser conditioning study of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkel, M.; DeYoreo, J.; Sell, W.; Milam, D.

    1997-12-20

    Considerable attention has been paid over the years to the problem of growing high purity KDP and KD*P to meet threshold requirements on succeeding generations of inertial confinement fusion lasers at LLNL. While damage thresholds for these materials have increased over time, the current National Ignition Facility (NIF) maximum fluence requirement (redline) for KD*P frequency triplers of 14.3 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm, 3 ns has not been reached without laser (pre)conditioning. It is reasonable to assume that, despite the rapid increase in damage thresholds for rapidly grown crystals, -a program of large scale conditioning of the 192 NIF triplers will be required. Small area ramp (R/1) tests on single sites indicate that KDP damage thresholds can be raised on average up to 1.5X the unconditioned values. Unpublished LLNL 3{omega} raster conditioning studies on KDP, however, have not conclusively shown that off-line conditioning is feasible for KD*P. Consequently, investigating the feasibility of on-line conditioning of NIF triplers at 3{omega} has become a high priority for the KDP damage group at LLNL. To investigate the feasibility of on-line conditioning we performed a series of experiments using the Optical Sciences Laser (OSL) on numerous samples of conventional and rapid growth KDP and KD*P. The experiment entailed exposing sites on each sample to a range of ramped shot (N/l) sequences starting at average fluences of -2 J/cm{sup 2} (in a 7 mm ``top hat`` beam @ 351 nm, 3 ns) up to peak fluences of approximately 13 J/cm{sup 2}. Test results indicated that the most effective conditioning procedure entailed a 7-8 shot ramp starting at 2 J/cm{sup 2} and ending at 12-13 J/cm{sup 2}. The pinpoint onset fluence for the 8/1 tests was 1.4 times that of the unconditioned site. Damage evolution appears to be exponential as a function of increasing fluence. When damage occurs after conditioning however, pinpoint density evolution exhibits a greater slope than less conditioned

  19. Effect of boundary conditions on piezoelectric buckled beams for vibrational noise harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, F.; Mattarelli, M.; Vocca, H.; Gammaitoni, L.

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear bistable systems have proven to be advantageous for energy harvesting of random and real ambient vibrations. One simple way of implementing a bistable transducer is setting a piezoelectric beam in a post-buckled configuration by axial compression. Besides, hinged or clamped-clamped type of boundary conditions correspond to two different post-buckled shape functions. Here we study, through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, the efficiency of a hinged and clamped-clamped piezoelectric bridge under band-limited random noise with progressive axial load. Clamped configuration results to harvest 26% more power than hinged around an optimal axial load of 0.05%, while, in the intra-well trapped situation, above 0.1%, the two configurations present no substantial difference. Nevertheless, simulations confirm the advantage of exploiting inter-well oscillations in bistable regime.

  20. Testbeam results of the upgraded fast beam condition monitor at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria; Karacheban, Olena; Lohmann, Wolfgang [BTU, Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Burtowy, Piotr; Ryjov, Vladimir; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Levy, Itamar [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Przyborowski, Dominik [AGH-UST, Cracow (Poland); Schuwalow, Sergej; Walsh, Roberval [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Fast Beam Condition Monitor BCM1F at CMS is based on single-crystal diamond sensor with nanosecond time resolution. BCM1F delivered luminosity and machine induced background information to the CMS and LHC control room during the first running period of the LHC. A major upgrade to BCM1F was developed and built during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2014. The increased rate and the 25ns spacing should be handled with sensors subdivided by a double pad metallization and a faster new front-end ASIC. A prototype with these new components was investigated in the testbeam at DESY-II. The results are presented and also verified by Superfish simulations.

  1. A new luminometer and beam conditions monitor for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena; Hempel, Maria [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Dabrowski, Anne; Ryjov, Vladimir; Stickland, David; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Leonard, Jessica; Walsh, Roberval [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Levy, Itamar [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Przyborowski, Dominik [AGH-UST University, Cracow (Poland); Schuwalow, Sergej [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, which allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rate in a detector. The Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) was upgraded in the last LHC long technical stop (LS1) to 24 diamond sensors read out by a dedicated fast ASIC in 130 nm CMOS technology. The backend comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with a 6.25 ns bin width, in VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. BCM1F is used for luminosity and machine induced background measurements at the CMS experiment. The performance of the detector in the first running period, as well as results on the calibration (Van-der-Meer scan) and the measurements of the luminosity are presented.

  2. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector; Controle et etalonnage par lumiere laser et par faisceaux de muons du calorimetre hadronique a tuiles scintillantes d'ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, V

    2003-10-15

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  3. Studies of the Core Conditions of the Earth and Super-Earths Using Intense Ion Beams at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N. A.; Neumayer, P.; Bagnoud, V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lomonosov, I. V.; Shutov, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskii pr. 18, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Borm, B. [Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Piriz, A. R.; Piriz, S. A. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    Using detailed numerical simulations, we present the design of an experiment that will generate samples of iron under extreme conditions of density and pressure believed to exist in the interior of the Earth and interior of extrasolar Earth-like planets. In the proposed experiment design, an intense uranium beam is used to implode a multilayered cylindrical target that consists of a thin Fe cylinder enclosed in a thick massive W shell. Such intense uranium beams will be available at the heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS100, at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), at Darmstadt, which is under construction and will become operational in the next few years. It is expected that the beam intensity will increase gradually over a couple of years to its maximum design value. Therefore, in our studies, we have considered a wide range of beam parameters, from the initial beam intensity (“Day One”) to the maximum specified value. It is also worth noting that two different focal spot geometries have been used. In one case, a circular focal spot with a Gaussian transverse intensity distribution is considered, whereas in the other case, an annular focal spot is used. With these two beam geometries, one can access different parts of the Fe phase diagram. For example, heating the sample with a circular focal spot generates a hot liquid state, while an annular focal spot can produce a highly compressed liquid or a highly compressed solid phase depending on the beam intensity.

  4. LUCID: The ATLAS Luminosity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, Grazia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID detector is the main luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment and the only one able to provide a reliable luminosity determination in all beam configurations, luminosity ranges and at bunch-crossing level. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for Run II: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. An innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers was implemented, resulting in the ability to control the detectors long time stability at few percent level. A description of the detector and its readout electronics will be given as well as preliminary results on the ATLAS luminosity measurement and related systematic uncertainties.

  5. Frontier use in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D A; The ATLAS collaboration; DeStefano, J; Dewhurst, A; Donno, F; Dykstra, D; Front, D; Gallas, E; Hawkings, R; Luehring, F; Walker, R

    2010-01-01

    Frontier is a distributed database access system, including data caching, that was developed originally for the CMS experiment. This system has been in production for CMS for some time, providing world-wide access to the experiment's conditions data for all user jobs. The ATLAS experiment, which has had similar problems with global data distribution, investigated the use of the system for ATLAS jobs. After months of trials and verification, ATLAS put the Frontier system into production late in 2009. Frontier now supplies database access for ATLAS jobs at over 50 computing sites. This successful deployment of Frontier in ATLAS will be described, along with the scope of the system and necessary resources.

  6. Anbindung der Detektorkontrolle des ATLAS-Pixeldetektors an das Datennahmesystem und die Conditions-Datenbank sowie erste Studien zur Rekonstruktion von K0s Zerfällen

    CERN Document Server

    Imhäuser, Martin

    Im Jahr 2007 wird am europäischen Kernforschungszentrum CERN mit dem LHC der bislang leistungsfähigste Speicherring der Welt mitsamt vier Großexperimenten seinen Betrieb aufnehmen. Das ATLAS-Experiment wird mit einem Universaldetektor eines dieser Experimente sein. Durch die steigende Komplexität und zunehmende Größe der Teilchendetektoren sind die Anforderungen an eine Überwachung und Kontrolle der Experimente nur noch durch umfangreiche und leistungsstarke Detektorkontrollsysteme zu erfüllen. Neben der Einbindung der Detektorgeometrie in das Detektorkontrollsystem des ATLAS Pixeldetektors als geografischer Ansatz, richtet sich der Hauptaugenmerk dieser Arbeit auf die Anbindung des Pixel Detektorkontrollsystems an das ATLAS Datennahmesystem und die Behandlung der Kommunikation zwischen beiden Systemen sowie die Untersuchung einer Speichermethode von Kenngrößen in einer Conditions-Datenbank. Nachdem in Kapitel 1 ein kurzer Überblick über die zugrunde liegende Physik gegeben wird, befasst sich Kap...

  7. An in-beam test study of the response of calorimeters in the ATLAS Experiment of LHC to charged pions of 3 to 350 GeV energy range; Etude en faisceau-test de la reponse des calorimetres de l'Experience ATLAS du LHC a des pions charges, d'energie comprise entre 3 et 350 Gev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiobbe Vincent [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, U.F.R de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques, 34, avenue Carnot - BP 185, 63006 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    ATLAS is one of the four main experiments under way of installing within the Large Hadron Project (LHC). LHC will provide two proton beams of high luminosity (1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at peak), colliding in the center of ATLAS detector at a 14 TeV rated COM energy. The aim of this study is an in-beam test characterization of the response of calorimeters in the central part of ATLAS. The study will be focused on the response to pions as main jet components. In the beginning a short presentation of the ATLAS program of physics is given enlightening the basic theoretical and experimental aspects of the experiment. A description of the ATLAS detector is also presented. The second chapter is devoted to detailed description of the central calorimetry of ATLAS. One starts from the mechanism of signal production in calorimeters, through the electronic processing up to the reconstruction of the released energy. The third chapter deals with the processing electronics of the TileCal hadron calorimeter the installation and certification at CERN of which was in charge of Clermont-Ferrand team. The chapter 4 gives a description of the SPS beam line and of the associated instrumentation tested in-beam in 2004. The chapters 6 and 7 are devoted to the study of the response of calorimeters to high energy pions (within 20 to 350 GeV range). The pion selection is described in the chapter 5. In the eighth chapter the calorimeter response to low energy pions (up to 9 GeV) is examined. In conclusion this study has shown that the data concerning pions obtained in-beam in 2004 are usable for energies within 3 to 350 GeV. The response and the energy resolution of LAr and TileCal were measured with a satisfactory accuracy,. A systematic comparison of these results with simulations (in the configuration of in-beam test) can now be done. Should the agreement be satisfying, the modelling could be used for the study of calibration of calorimeter response for the case of works with the

  8. Physical conditions for conducting radiobiological experiments in beams of accelerated particles with high linear energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Y. I.; Marennyy, A. M.; Popov, V. I.; Aykhorn, K.; Ertsgreber, G.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an accelerator to conduct radiobiological experiments is reported that uses aluminum filters to control the accelerated ion beam while preserving its stability, and a vacuum chamber to conduct the ion beam with the help of a collector through a lavsan exit port to the target. Depth distribution of the absorbed dose from a monodirectional ion beam is practically completely represented by the change in the energy spectrum of the biological object.

  9. Response and Shower Topology of 2 to 180 GeV Pions Measured with the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter at the CERN Test-beam and Comparison to Monte Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Abat, E; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T P A; Aleksa, M; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Arik, E; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K; Banfi, D; Baron, S; Barr, A J; Beccherle, R; Beck, H P; Belhorma, B; Bell, P J; Benchekroun, D; Benjamin, D P; Benslama, K; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Bernabeu, J; Bertelsen, H; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Boonekamp, M; Bosman, M; Bourdarios, C; Broklova, Z; Burckhart Chromek, D; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Calvet, D; Canneri, M; Capeans Garrido, M; Caprini, M; Cardiel Sas, L; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Catinaccio, A; Cauz, D; Cavalli, D; Cavalli Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cetin, S A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chouridou, S; Ciobotaru, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, B; Cobal, M; Cogneras, E; Conde Muino, P; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Cornelissen, T; Correard, S; Corso Radu, A; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cuneo, S; Cwetanski, P; Da Silva, D; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Darbo, G; Davidek, T; De, K; Defay, P O; Dekhissi, B; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Di Ciaccio, L; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Dobos, D; Dobson, M; Dolgoshein, B A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Drasal, Z; Dressnandt, N; Driouchi, G; Drohan, J; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, P; Eerola, P; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Eifert, T F; Einsweiler, K; El Kacimi, M; Elsing, M; Emelyanov, D; Escobar, C; Etienvre, A I; Fabich, A; Facius, K; Fakhr-Edine, A I; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farthouat, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fayard, L; Febbraro, R; Fedin, O L; Fenyuk, A; Fergusson, D; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Filippini, G; Flick, T; Fournier, D; Francavilla, P; Francis, D; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Gallas, M; Gallop, B J; Gameiro, S; Gan, K K; Garcia, R; Garcia, C; Gavrilenko, I L; Gemme, C; Gerlach, P; Ghodbane, N; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Di Girolamo, B; Glonti, G; Goettfert, T; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gomez, M D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Goujdami, D; Grahn, K J; Grenier, P; Grigalashvili, N; Grishkevich, Y; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwe, M; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Haertel, R; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hance, M; Hansen, D J; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Harvey Jr, A; Hawkings, R J; Heinemann, F E W; Henriques Correia, A; Henss, T; Hervas, L; Higon, E; Hill, J C; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hruska, I; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Hulsbergen, W; Hurwitz, M; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Jansen, E; Jen-La Plante, I; Johansson, P D C; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Jorgensen, S; Joseph, J; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Karyukhin, A; Kataoka, M; Kayumov, F; Kazarov, A; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Kerschen, N; Kersten, S; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Khramov, E; Khristachev, A; Khubua, J; Kittelmann, T H; Klingenberg, R; Klinkby, E B; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Kolos, S; Konovalov, S P; Konstantinidis, N; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T Z; Kruger, K; Kramarenko, V; Kudin, L G; Kulchitsky, Y; Le Bihan, A C; Lacasta, C; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Lari, T; Latorre, S; Le Bihan, A C; Lechowski, M; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lelas, D; Lester, C G; Liang, Z; Lichard, P; Liebig, W; Lipniacka, A; Lokajicek, M; Louchard, L; Lourerio, K F; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Ma, H; Mackeprang, R; Maio, A; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mandelli, L; Maneira, J; Mangin-Brinet, M; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marti i García, S; Martin, F; Mathes, M; Mazzanti, M; McFarlane, K W; McPherson, R; Mchedlidze, G; Mehlhase, S; Meirosu, C; Meng, Z; Meroni, C; Miagkov, A; Mialkovski, V; Mikulec, B; Milstead, D; Minashvili, I; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Moed, S; Monnier, E; Moorhead, G; Morettini, P; Morozov, S V; Mosidze, M; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E W J; Munar, A; Nadtochi, A V; Nakamura, K; Nechaeva, P; Negri, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nesterov, S Y; Newcomer, F M; Nikitine, I; Nikolaev, K; Nikolic-Audit, I; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S B; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, S; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paolone, V; Parodi, F; Parsons, J; Parzhitskiy, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passmore, M S; Pater, J; Patrichev, S; Peez, M; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petti, R; Phillips, P W; Pilcher, J; Pina, J; Pinto, B; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Poppleton, A; Poveda, J; Pralavorio, P; Pribyl, L; Price, M J; Prieur, D; Puigdengoles, C; Puzo, P; Rohne, O; Ragusa, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reeves, K; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Bruckman de Renstrom, P; Reznicek, P; Ridel, M; Risso, P; Riu, I; Robinson, D; Roda, C; Roe, S; Romaniouk, A; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Ruiz, A; Rusakovich, N; Rust, D; Ryabov, Y F; Ryjov, V; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Salzburger, A; Sandaker, H; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Sauvage, G; Says, L P; Schaefer, M; Schegelsky, V A; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, C; Schultes, J; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seixas, J M; Seliverstov, D M; Serin, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalanda, N; Shaw, C; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Silva, J; Simion, S; Simonyan, M; Sloper, J E; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnova, L; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, O; Soloviev, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Spano, F; Speckmayer, P; Stancu, S; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Straessner, A; Suchkov, S I; Suk, M; Szczygiel, R; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, F; Tas, P; Tayalati, Y; Tegenfeldt, F; Teuscher, R; Thioye, M; Tikhomirov, V O; Timmermans, C; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Tremblet, L; Troncon, C; Tsiareshka, P; Tyndel, M; Karagoez Unel, M; Unal, G; Unel, G; Usai, G; Van Berg, R; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vandelli, W; Vannucci, F; Vartapetian, A; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vasilyeva, L; Vazeille, F; Vernocchi, F; Vetter-Cole, Y; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; De Vivie, J B; Volpi, M; Vu Anh, T; Wang, C; Warren, M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Wells, P S; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wiessmann, M; Wilkens, H; Williams, H H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yasu, Y; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zhang, H; Zhelezko, A; Zhou, N

    2010-01-01

    The response of the ATLAS barrel calorimeter to pions with momenta from $2$ to $180$~GeV~ is studied in a test--beam at the CERN H8 beam line. %Various methods to reconstruct the deposited pion energies are studied. The mean energy, the energy resolution and the longitudinal and radial shower profiles, and, various observables characterising the shower topology in the calorimeter are measured. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed description of the experimental set--up and on various models describing the interaction of particles with matter based on Geant4.

  10. Mechanical behaviour of vacuum chambers and beam screens under quench conditions in dipole and quadrupole fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, C

    2002-01-01

    A method based on analytical formulas is described to calculate bending moments, stresses, and deformations of vacuum chambers and beam screens in dipole and in quadrupole fields during a magnet quench. Solutions are given for circular and racetrack shaped structures. Without the need of time consuming calculations the solutions enable a quick design and verification of vacuum chambers and beam screens.

  11. Effect of the thermophysical properties of a material on the choice of electron-beam welding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, M. S.; Martynov, V. N.; Kozhechenko, A. S.; Shcherbakov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    A method for selecting electron-beam welding (EBW) conditions is developed for specific equipment, thickness, and material of a product. The results can be used for calculating and predicting the welding parameters to reduce the time for preparing products for EBW and the material costs.

  12. Thermal analysis of the airflow around ATLAS muon barrel in view of the active ventilation conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Vila-Nova-Goncalves, L

    2004-01-01

    A thermal analysis of the airflow around the ATLAS muon detector, taking into consideration the real ventilation state of affairs inside the UX15 cavern and the electronic equipment disseminated in the region of the muon chambers (which leads to the development of temperature gradients in the air surrounding the detector), is presented. Thorough studies on a 2D model of the structure and its variants were elaborated by means of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and the most significant results are shown via the temperature and velocity charts available in the final sections of the current report. The first two sections furnish a synopsis of the structural components and the objectives of the study; the third illustrates the parameters of study and the fourth and fifth sections are devoted to the model and the results of the simulations.

  13. Diffraction and Forward Physics in ATLAS: results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Bruschi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The present and future potential of ATLAS for diffraction and forward physics is presented. As recent results the rapidity gap cross section and elastic and total pp cross sections are reported. The upgrade project AFP is presented and it is shown how it will complement the ALFA acceptance for diffractive physics in measurements taken with \\(\\beta^{*}\\)=90 m LHC\\ beam optics. Moreover, the AFP detector will guarantee good acceptance on diffractive events also with normal running conditions optics allowing not only to improve the ATLAS detector performances, but also being fundamental for potential discoveries (for instance, extra dimensions) in case the high luminosity program will be feasible.

  14. Nonequilibrium structural condition in the medical TiNi-based alloy surface layer treated by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiman, Aleksei A., E-mail: nasa@ispms.tsc.ru; Lotkov, Aleksandr I. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, Ludmila L., E-mail: meisner2l@yahoo.com; Semin, Viktor O. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Koval, Nikolai N.; Teresov, Anton D. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia and Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    The research is devoted to study the structural condition and their evolution from the surface to the depth of TiNi specimens treated by low-energy high-current electron beams with surface melting at a beam energy density E = 10 J/cm{sup 2}, number of pulses N = 10, and pulse duration τ = 50 μs. Determined thickness of the remelted layer, found that it has a layered structure in which each layer differs in phase composition and structural phase state. Refinement B2 phase lattice parameters in local areas showed the presence of strong inhomogeneous lattice strain.

  15. Development of a postal dosimetric system for quality assurance programs in radiotherapy using fotons beams in non references conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy, to cure the primary tumor, the absorbed dose delivered at the target volume should have an accuracy better than +- 5%. As the basic aim in radiotherapy is the eradication of the primary tumor with the smallest possible damage to the health tissues, it is necessary to guarantee that the dose delivered to the patient in different depths and treatment configurations has the right accuracy. For this reason, a quality control program should be carried out by regulatory and national standardization programs including postal evaluation of the beam dosimetry are also necessary. Since many years Brazil is running a postal quality control program in radiotherapy in reference conditions, Nevertheless it should be increased to include also measurements in non reference conditions. In this paper we present a new dosimetric postal system using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 in powder) for photon beams quality control in radiotherapy, in non reference conditions. This system has been checked and appl...

  16. Development of a Beam Condition Monitor System for the Experimental Areas of the LHC Using CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will store 2808 bunches per colliding beam, each bunch consisting of 10^11 protons at an energy of 7 TeV. If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damages not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor fast increments of particle fluxes near the interaction point and, if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control to dump the beams. The system is being developed initially for the CMS experiment but is sufficiently general to find potential applications elsewhere. Due to its high radiation hardness, CVD diamond has been studied for use as the BCM sensor. Various samples of CVD diamond have been characterized extensively with a Sr-90 source and high intensity test beams in order to assess the capabilities of such sensors and to study whether this detector technology is suitable for a BCM system. The results from these investigations are p...

  17. Measurement of the LHC Beam Parameters Using the Distributed High Level Trigger System of the ATLAS Detector during 2009 and 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Miller, D W; Salnikov, A; Stelzer, J; Strauss, E; Su, D; Winklmeier, F

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the first collision data from the LHC recorded at sqrt(s)=7 TeV in 2010, we present the first online measurement of the LHC luminous region parameters. This is achieved using highly optimized software algorithms running on a large farm of commercial processors in the high-level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment. A dedicated fast vertex fitting algorithm allows for event-by-event reconstruction of interaction vertices with a time constraint of a few milliseconds. The three-dimensional distribution of these vertices enables the characterization of interaction-point beam parameters and is used to extract the luminous region position, orientation and size. These results are then fed back to high-level trigger algorithms that depend on the precise knowledge of impact parameter or decay length, such as b-tagging. Changes in the transverse centroid position due to IP-orbit drifts, and longitudinal shifts arising from RF phase changes, are accounted for, and the performance of these algorithms is optim...

  18. A top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a candidate boosted top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. The red line shows the path of a muon with transverse momentum around 50 GeV through the detector. The dashed line shows the direction of the missing transverse momentum, which has a magnitude of about 470 GeV. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, from these deposits 4 small-radius (R=0.4) jets are identified with transverse momenta between 70 and 300 GeV. Three of these small-radius jets are re-clustered into the leading large-radius (R=1.0) jet (not shown explicitly) with a transverse momentum of about 600 GeV and a jet mass of about 180 GeV, near the top quark mass. One of these three jets in addition to the fourth jet above 70 GeV are identified as having originated from b-quarks. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in th...

  19. Strength and behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Satadru Das [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Bing, E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Fujikake, Kazunori [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka 239 8686 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of wider range of loading rates on dynamic shear behavior of RC deep beams. ► Experimental investigation of RC deep beam with and without shear reinforcements. ► Verification of experimental results with truss model and FE simulation results. ► Empirical equations are proposed to predict the dynamic increase factor of maximum resistance. -- Abstract: Research on reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams has seen considerable headway over the past three decades; however, information on the dynamic shear strength and behavior of RC deep beams under varying rates of loads remains limited. This paper describes the experimental results of 24 RC deep beams with and without shear reinforcements under varying rates of concentrated loading. Results obtained serve as useful data on shear resistance, failure patterns and strain rates corresponding to varying loading rates. An analytical truss model approach proves its efficacy in predicting the dynamic shear resistance under varying loading rates. Furthermore, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model is described and the simulation results are verified with the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and shear span to effective depth ratio on shear behavior. Subsequently, two empirical equations were proposed by integrating the various parameters to assess the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of maximum resistance under varying rates of concentrated loading.

  20. INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON THE QUALITY OF NON-STATIONARY LOAD ON A BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishakin, V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The approaches to solving the problems of acting on crimped constant cross-section beams iden-tification of pulse loads, which are the constituent elements of the structures used in mechanical engineering are presented and compared. By means of the developed approaches the problems are reduced to a numerical solution of Volterra integral equations systems.

  1. A new on-line luminometer and beam conditions monitor using single crystal diamond sensors

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation near the beam-pipe requires extremely radiation hard sensors. Inside CMS two rings instrumented with 12 single crystal diamond sensors each are installed on both sides of the interaction point. The sensors are subdivided in two pads, and each pad is read out by a dedicated fast radiation hard ASIC in 130 nm CMOS technology. Due to the excellent time resolution collision products will be separated from machine induced background. In the backend a dead-time less histogramming unit is used, and a fast microTCA system with GHz sampling rate is under development. The detector will measure both the on-line luminosity and the background bunch-by-bunch. The performance of a prototype detector in a test-beam will be reported, and results from the operation during data taking will be presented.

  2. A new on-line luminometer and beam conditions monitor using single crystal diamond sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, Olena

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation near the beam-pipe requires extremely radiation hardsensors. Inside CMS two rings instrumented with 12 single crystal diamondsensors each are installed on both sides of the interaction point. Thesensors are subdivided in two pads, and each pad is read out by adedicated fast radiation hard ASIC in 130 nm CMOS technology.Due to the excellent time resolution collision products will be separatedfrom machine induced background. In the backend a dead-time lesshistogramming unit is udsed, and a fast microTCA system with GHz samplingrate is under development.The detector will measure both the on-line luminosity and the backgroundbunch-by-bunch.The performance of a prototype detector in a test-beam will be reported,and results from the operation during data taking will be presented.

  3. Neutron-induced damage evolution under Beam Raster Scanner conditions for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.mota@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico - CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, Christophe J., E-mail: christophe.ortiz@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico - CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, Angel, E-mail: Angel.ibarra@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico - CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vila, Rafael, E-mail: Rafael.vila@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico - CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    The formation and evolution of defects in materials irradiated with a homogeneous neutron source and with the Beam Raster Scanner (BRS) solution was investigated. The intensity neutron source fluctuations inherent to the BRS system were determined using the neutron transport McDeLicious code. Defects generated during irradiation were calculated using the binary collision approximation MARLOWE code, using the primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy spectrum resulting from neutron interactions with the material. In order to predict the evolution of defects during irradiation, a Rate Theory model based on ab initio parameters was developed. Our model accounts for the migration of mobile defects, the formation of clusters and their recombination. As an example, we investigated defect evolution in Fe irradiated at room temperature in both beam configurations. Simulation results clearly indicate that the defect evolution expected in the BRS configuration is nearly the same as the one expected in a homogeneous irradiation system.

  4. Dynamic condition assessment of a cracked beam with the composite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z. R.; Law, S. S.

    2009-02-01

    Existing models of local damage in a beam element are usually formulated as a damage in a single element, and the coupling effect between adjacent damages is simply ignored. This coupling effect is larger in the case of a fine mesh of finite elements or when there is a high density of damage in the structure. This paper studies such effect from multiple cracks in a finite element in the dynamic analysis and local damage identification. The finite beam element is formulated using the composite element method [P. Zeng, Composite element method for vibration analysis of structure, Journal of Sound and Vibration 218 (1998) 619-696] with a one-member-one-element configuration with cracks where the interaction effect between cracks in the same element is automatically included. The accuracy and convergence speed of the proposed model in computation are compared with existing models and experimental results. The parameter of the Christides and Barr [One dimensional theory of cracked Bernoulli-Euler beams, International Journal of Mechanical Science 26 (1984) 639-648] crack model is found needing adjustment with the use of the proposed model. The response sensitivity-based approach of damage identification is then applied in the identification of single and multiple crack damages with both simulated and experimental data. Results obtained are found very accurate even under noisy environment.

  5. Stock footage ATLAS-ALFA experiment November 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This footage shows an ALFA station of the ATLAS experiment in the LHC tunnel. This detector aims to measure the elastic proton scattering and to determine from these data the elastic and total cross sections, as well as the luminosity. Altogether there are two times two stations at both sides of ATLAS at Point 1 in a distance of about 240m. Each station consist of two Roman Pots which are equipped with scintillating fiber detectors. They are used under special beam conditions (high beta*) when the detectors are moved close to the circulating LHC beams (as close as 1mm). In standard high intensity LHC runs the Pots remain in parking position. The movie records the composition of an ALFA station at the C-side of ATLAS in the tunnel section *** 7L1. All stations are placed on the outgoing beams where scattered protons are expected. That's why the station mechanics is partly covered by the tubes of incoming beam lines. The stations are placed in between the large boxes with DQR resistors to absorb the magnet curr...

  6. Simulation of Electron Beam Transport in Ion-Focused Regime Conditioning Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-21

    leflhron Davis lgharay. Swft, I M. Arlington. VA 22Z02.4302. and to the office of Management and Budget. Paperwork Reduction Protect (07044 1in). Wahngon...nb(r, rz) and nh(r, rz) are the beam and ion densities, respectively, and vi is the gas ionization rate. In sir at pressure P, vi =P(torr) nsecŕ . In... Humphries and Ekdah156 and Fernsler, et al.57 FRIEZR employs a variation of Adler’s thin lens approximation to treat foil focusing. The impulse has the

  7. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used....... Reconstructed sagittal images (2.0 and 5.0 mm thickness) were evaluated by three examiners, using a dichotomous scale when assessing the condition of the buccal bone around the implants. A multivariate logistic regression was performed using examiners' detection of the buccal bone condition as the dependent...

  8. Results of the High-Power Conditioning and the First Beam Acceleration of the DTL-1 for J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Naito, F; Chiba, J; Fukui, Y; Furukawa, K; Igarashi, Z; Ikegami, K; Ikegami, M; Kadokura, E; Kamikubota, N; Kato, T; Kawamura, M; Kobayashi, H; Kubota, C; Takasaki, E; Tanaka, H; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshino, K

    2004-01-01

    The first tank of the DTL for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) was installed in the test facility at KEK. The DTL tank is 9.9 m in length and consists of the 76 cells. The resonant frequency of the tank is 324 MHz. After the installation of the tank, the high-power conditioning was carried out deliberately. Consequently the peak rf power of 1.3 MW (pulse repetition 50 Hz, pulse length 600 μs) was put into the tank stably. (The required power is about 1.1 MW for the designed accelerating field of 2.5 MV/m on the axis.) Following the conditioning, negative hydrogen beam, accelerated by the RFQ linac up to 3 MeV, was injected to the DTL and accelerated up to its design value of 19.7 MeV. The peak current of 30 mA was achieved with almost 100% transmission. In this paper, the conditioning history of the DTL and the result of the first beam test will be described.

  9. Effet des conditions climatiques sur le niveau du lac Sidi Ali (Moyen Atlas, Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le lac Sidi Ali est un lac naturel d'altitude (2070-2080 m, sans exutoire superficiel, déterminé par le barrage d'une coulée basaltique. Doté d'un bassin versant apparent de 15,6 km2, il est alimenté par des eaux de ruissellement et par des sources karstiques. Son niveau subit des variations très fortes, annuelles et interannuelles, sous le contrôle des conditions climatiques, et en particulier des pluies et de l'évapotranspiration. Les périodes de sécheresse qui ont marqué les trois dernières décennies, se sont traduites par un abaissement du niveau de près de 7 m. Mais les précipitations abondantes des années 2008-09 et 2009-10 ont provoqué une nette remontée. Une régression multiple d'assez bonne qualité (r = 0,87 lie la variation annuelle du niveau (d'août à août à différents paramètres (conditions climatiques et niveau initial du lac.Lake Sidi Ali is a natural lake at high altitude (2070-2080 m, without surface outlet, determined by the dam of a basalt flow. With an apparent catchment of 15.6 km2, it is fed by runoff and karst springs. Its level shows strong annual and interannual variations, depending on weather conditions, particularly rainfall and evapotranspiration. Droughts that have marked the last three decades have resulted in a lowering of about 7 m of the water level. But heavy rainfall that occurred in 2008-09 and 2009-10 caused a marked rise. A multiple regression of sufficient quality (r = 0.87 binds the annual change (from august to august at differents parameters (weather conditions and initial level of the lake.

  10. Two Beam Energy Exchange in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells with Photorefractive Field Controlled Boundary Conditions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    photorefractive layers. The cell is illuminated by two intersecting coherent light beams E1 =A1 (z) e1 exp (ik1r − iω t) and E2 = A2 (z) e2 exp (ik2r − iω t). The...photorefractive substrates and LC possess non-linear properties that require A1(z), A2 (z) to change as a function of position. The bisector of the...anchoring energy w: w =1 - dotted , 10 - dashed, 102 - solid. The modulation parameters m(−L/2)=m(L/2)= 0.1, parameters α1 = 0.02, α2 =−0.02, cell

  11. 23 April 2010 - Her Majesty’s Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, S. Gillett CMG CVO, accompanied by Beams Department Head P. Collier, visiting the ATLAS control room with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, University of Birmingham, D. Charlton and signing the guest book with Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    23 April 2010 - Her Majesty’s Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, S. Gillett CMG CVO, accompanied by Beams Department Head P. Collier, visiting the ATLAS control room with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, University of Birmingham, D. Charlton and signing the guest book with Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci.

  12. The effect of crystallization conditions on tantalum distribution in molybdenum and tungsten during electron beam zone melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Skotnicova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of tantalum in molybdenum and tungsten single crystals during electron beam floating zone melting under different crystallization conditions was investigated. The performed line chemical analysis of specimens proved creation of tantalum micro segregation, so-called growth striations, which showed themselves on concentration profiles as periodically alternating areas with increased and decreased concentrations of tantalum. The existence of these chemical inhomogeneities suggests that stationary conditions of the crystal growth were disturbed during the zone melting, i.e. fluctuations of microscopic rate of growth occurred due to convection in the melt. The determined effective distribution coefficients of tantalum in molybdenum and tungsten approach to calculated theoretical values of the equilibrium distribution coefficient.

  13. Permanent magnet electron beam ion source/trap systems with bakeable magnets for improved operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Zschornack, G; Kentsch, U; Ritter, E

    2014-02-01

    The magnetic system of a Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS) generating the necessary magnetic field with a new type of permanent magnet made of high energy density NdFeB-type material operable at temperatures above 100 °C has been investigated and tested. The employment of such kind of magnets provides simplified operation without the time-consuming installation and de-installation procedures of the magnets for the necessary baking of the ion source after commissioning and maintenance work. Furthermore, with the use of a new magnetization technique the geometrical filling factor of the magnetic Dresden EBIS design could be increased to a filling factor of 100% leading to an axial magnetic field strength of approximately 0.5 T exceeding the old design by 20%. Simulations using the finite element method software Field Precision and their results compared with measurements are presented as well. It could be shown that several baking cycles at temperatures higher than 100 °C did not change the magnetic properties of the setup.

  14. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  15. Status of the AFP Project in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is given. In 2016 one arm of the AFP detector was installed and first data have been taken. In parallel with integration of the AFP subdetector into the ATLAS TDAQ nad DCS, beam tests and preparations for the installation of the 2nd arm are performed.

  16. The ATLAS Student Event Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fassouliotis, D; Roupas, Z; Vudragovic, D

    2007-01-01

    The ASEC (ATLAS Student Event Challenge) is an educational project which allows the students to learn about the elementary particles by studying "events", the products of beam collisions at the LHC. The events are collected by the ATLAS detector and displayed graphically using the ATLANTIS package. The students are given the means to select and analyse the events on-line, and subsequently present the results and draw conclusions.

  17. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2005-01-01

    CAMERA ON TOROID The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The video is about the slow lowering of the toroid down to the cavern of ATLAS. It is very demanding task. The camera is placed on top of the toroid.

  18. First LHC beam in 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Impressions from the ATLAS control room while waiting for the very first 2017 LHC beams, from the traditional croissants in the morning to the "beam splashes" in the evening. The shift crew, online experts, run coordinators and management are looking forward the next steps of the LHC restart.

  19. LHCb: Beam and Background Monitoring and the Development of an Online Condition Analysis Tool for the LHCb Experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been taking data since more than half a year at the LHC, recording events from collisions at the highest energy ever achieved. For its physics purposes in the sector of CP violation, the experiment will record data with the best precision achievable. An online and offline beam and background monitoring became therefore essential to understand the performance of the LHC accelerator at CERN, to monitor and study the behavior of the background around the LHCb experiment and to optimize the experimental conditions. During my second year as a Doctoral Student at CERN, I have been working on the timing and readout control as well as on the online Beam, Background, and Luminosity Monitoring of the LHCb experiment in the frame of the LHCb Online group. The group is responsible for the complete data acquisition of the LHCb experiment, from the Front-End Electronics (FEE) to the storage of the data for offline analysis, including the Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system. The latter controls and...

  20. Report on Proton and Ion Beam measurements at the Matter in Extreme Condition (MCC) end station at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M.; Goede, S.; Schumaker, W.; Roedel, C.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S.H.; /SLAC

    2016-02-16

    We report on MeV ion beams produced with high-repetition rates of 1 Hz at the MEC end station at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. These data were obtained during the commissioning beam time of the new 30TW laser. After describing the experimental set-up, the laser conditions and the target diagnostics, ion beam spectra measured for different foil thicknesses and laser intensities will be presented and discussed. These results are subsequently compared with results from cryogenic hydrogen jets at MEC in January 2015.

  1. Six tesla analyzing magnet for heavy-ion beam transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.P.; Bollinger, L.; Erskine, J.; Genens, L.; Hoffman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting analyzer magnet for particle beam deflection has been designed and is being fabricated for use at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). This six tesla magnet will provide 45/sup 0/ of deflection for the heavy-ion beams from the ATLAS tandem electrostatic accelerator and together with its twin will replace the existing conventional 90/sup 0/ analyzer magnet which will become inadequate when ATLAS is completed.

  2. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  3. The CMS fast beams condition monitor back-end electronics based on MicroTCA technology: status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka A.; Dabrowski, Anne E.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2015-09-01

    The Fast Beams Condition Monitor (BCM1F), upgraded for LHC Run II, is used to measure the online luminosity and machine induced background for the CMS experiment. The detector consists of 24 single-crystal CVD diamond sensors that are read out with a custom fast front-end chip fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology. Since the signals from the sensors are used for real time monitoring of the LHC conditions they are processed by dedicated back-end electronics to measure separately rates corresponding to LHC collision products, machine induced background and residual activation exploiting different arrival times. The system is built in MicroTCA technology and uses high speed analog-to-digital converters. In operational modes of high rates, consecutive events, spaced in time by less than 12.5 ns, may cause partially overlapping events. Hence, novel signal processing techniques are deployed to resolve overlapping peaks. The high accuracy qualification of the signals is crucial to determine the luminosity and the machine induced background rates for the CMS experiment and the LHC.

  4. Visualization of the influence of the air conditioning system to the high-power laser beam quality with the modulation coherent imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hua; Veetil, Suhas P; Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Air conditioning systems can lead to dynamic phase change in the laser beams of high-power laser facilities for the inertial confinement fusion, and this kind of phase change cannot be measured by most of the commonly employed Hartmann wavefront sensor or interferometry due to some uncontrollable factors, such as too large laser beam diameters and the limited space of the facility. It is demonstrated that this problem can be solved using a scheme based on modulation coherent imaging, and thus the influence of the air conditioning system on the performance of the high-power facility can be evaluated directly.

  5. Energy- and wave-based beam-tracing prediction of room-acoustical parameters using different boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Behrooz; Hodgson, Murray

    2012-09-01

    A beam-tracing model was used to study the acoustical responses of three empty, rectangular rooms with different boundary conditions. The model is wave-based (accounting for sound phase) and can be applied to rooms with extended-reaction surfaces that are made of multiple layers of solid, fluid, or poroelastic materials-the acoustical properties of these surfaces are calculated using Biot theory. Three room-acoustical parameters were studied in various room configurations: sound strength, reverberation time, and RApid Speech Transmission Index. The main objective was to investigate the effects of modeling surfaces as either local or extended reaction on predicted values of these three parameters. Moreover, the significance of modeling interference effects was investigated, including the study of sound phase-change on surface reflection. Modeling surfaces as of local or extended reaction was found to be significant for surfaces consisting of multiple layers, specifically when one of the layers is air. For multilayers of solid materials with an air-cavity, this was most significant around their mass-air-mass resonance frequencies. Accounting for interference effects made significant changes in the predicted values of all parameters. Modeling phase change on reflection, on the other hand, was found to be relatively much less significant.

  6. Analysis of mixing conditions and multistage irradiation impact on NOx removal efficiency in the electron beam flue gas treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Andrzej; Dobrowolski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    In the process of electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT), most energy is spent on NOx removal. The dose distribution in the reactor is not uniform and the flue gas flow pattern plays an important role in the process efficiency. It was found that proper construction of the reactor may increase the energy efficiency of the process. The impact of the number of irradiation stages and mixing conditions on NOx removal efficiency was investigated for an ideal case and a practical solution was presented and compared with previously known EBFGT reactor constructions. The research was performed by means of computational fluid dynamics methods in combination with empirical Wittig formula. Two versions of dose distribution were taken for calculations. The results of the research show that for an ideal case, application of multistage irradiation and interstage mixing may reduce the energy consumption in the process by up to 39%. On the other side, simulation of reactor construction modification for two-stage irradiation results in 25% energy consumption reduction. The results of presented case study may be applied for improving the existing reactors and proper design of future installations.

  7. A recurrence matrix method for the analysis of longitudinal and torsional vibrations in non-uniform multibranch beams with variable boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. B.; Stephens, M. V.

    1974-01-01

    An approximate method for calculating the longitudinal and torsional natural frequencies and associated modal data of a beamlike, variable cross section multibranch structure is presented. The procedure described is the numerical integration of the first order differential equations that characterize the beam element in longitudinal motion and that satisfy the appropriate boundary conditions.

  8. Effect of laser beam conditioning on fabrication of clean micro-channel on stainless steel 316L using second harmonic of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanasam Sunderlal; Baruah, Prahlad Kr; Khare, Alika; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.

    2018-02-01

    Laser micromachining of metals for fabrication of micro-channels generate ridge formation along the edges accompanied by ripples along the channel bed. The ridge formation is due to the formation of interference pattern formed by back reflections from the beam splitter and other optical components involved before focusing on the work piece. This problem can be curtailed by using a suitable aperture or Iris diaphragm so as to cut the unwanted portion of the laser beam before illuminating the sample. This paper reports an experimental investigation on minimizing this problem by conditioning the laser beam using an Iris diaphragm and using optimum process parameters. In this work, systematic experiments have been carried out using the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to fabricate micro-channels. Initial experiments revealed that formation of ridges along the sides of micro-channel can easily be minimized with the help of Iris diaphragm. Further it is noted that a clean micro-channel of depth 43.39 μm, width up to 64.49 μm and of good surface quality with average surface roughness (Ra) value of 370 nm can be machined on stainless steel (SS) 316L by employing optimum process condition: laser beam energy of 30 mJ/pulse, 11 number of laser scans and scan speed of 169.54 μm/s with an opening of 4 mm diameter of Iris diaphragm in the path of the laser beam.

  9. Beam-beam instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  10. beam-beam interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The Beam 1 (represented in blue) and the Beam 2 (represented in red) are colliding with an angle at the Interaction Point (IP). The angle is needed to avoid unwanted multiple collisions along the interaction region. Despite of the separation introduced by the angle, the two beams interact via their electromagnetic field, the so called "beam-beam" interaction.

  11. Gradient changes in structural condition of the B2 phase of NiTi surface layers after electron-beam treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, Ludmila L., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: egu@ispms.tsc.ru; Gudimova, Ekaterina Yu., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: egu@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Ostapenko, Marina G., E-mail: artifact@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lotkov, Aleksandr I., E-mail: lotkov@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Structural conditions of the B2 phase of the Ti{sub 49.5}Ni{sub 50.5} alloy surface layers before and after electron-beam treatments (pulse duration τ = 150 μs, number of pulses n = 5, beam energy density E ≤ 20 J/cm{sup 2}) were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the X-ray patterns demonstrates that surface layers modified by electron beam treatment contain phase with B2{sup surf} structure. It is revealed that the lattice parameter of the B2{sup surf} phase in the surface (modified) layer is also higher than the lattice parameter of the B2 phase in the underlying layer (a{sub B2} = 3.0159±0.0005). The values of lattice parameter of phase B2{sup surf} amounted a{sub B2}{sup surf} = 3.0316±0.0005 Å and a{sub B2}{sup surf} = 3.0252±0.0005 Å, for the specimens after electron-beam treatment at E{sub 1} = 15 J/cm{sup 2} and E{sub 2} = 20 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Inflated lattice parameters a{sub B2}{sup surf} are associated with changes in the chemical composition and the presence of residual stresses in the surface region of the samples after electron-beam treatments.

  12. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  13. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  14. Superconducting rf development at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kedzie, M.; Clifft, B.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Givens, J.; Potter, J.; Crandall, K. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac began operation in 1978 and has operated nearly continuously since that time, while undergoing a series of upgrades and expansions, the most recent being the ``uranium upgrade`` completed earlier this year and described below. In its present configuration the ATLAS linac consists of an array of 64 resonant cavities operating from 48 to 145 MHz, which match a range of particle velocities .007 < {beta} = v/c < .2. The linac provides approximately 50 MV of effective accelerating potential for ions of q/m > 1/10 over the entire periodic table. Delivered beams include 5 {minus} 7 pnA of {sup 238}U{sup 39+} at 1535 MeV. At present more than 10{sup 6} cavity-hours of operation at surface electric fields of 15 MV/m have been accumulated. Superconducting structure development at ATLAS is aimed at improving the cost/performance of existing low velocity structures both for possible future ATLAS upgrades, and also for heavy-ion linacs at other institutions. An application of particular current interest is to develop structures suitable for accelerating radioactive ion beams. Such structures must accelerate very low charge to mass ratio beams and must also have very large transverse acceptance.

  15. Prospects and Results from the AFP Detector in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gach, Grzegorz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is given. In 2016 one arm of the AFP detector was installed and first data have been taken. In parallel with integration of the AFP subdetector into the ATLAS TDAQ nad DCS, beam tests and preparations for the installation of the 2nd arm are performed.

  16. Prospects and Results from the AFP Detector in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gach, Grzegorz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In 2016 one arm of the AFP detector was installed and first data have been taken. In parallel with integration of the AFP subdetector into the ATLAS TDAQ and DCS systems, beam tests and preparations for the installation of the 2$^{\\textrm{nd}}$ arm are performed. In this report, a status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is discussed.

  17. ATLAS IBL operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237659; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the inner most pixel layer in the ATLAS experiment, which was installed at 3.3 cm radius from the beam axis in 2014 to improve the tracking performance. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed for the IBL. After the long shut-down period over 2013 and 2014, the ATLAS experiment started data-taking in May 2015 for Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The IBL has been operated successfully since the beginning of Run-2 and shows excellent performance with the low dead module fraction, high data-taking efficiency and improved tracking capability. The experience and challenges in the operation of the IBL is described as well as its performance.

  18. Radiation damage in the diamond based beam condition monitors of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne; De Boer, Wim; Stickland, David; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) of the CMS detector at the LHC is a protection device similar to the LHC Beam Loss Monitor system. While the electronics used is the same, poly-crystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamonds are used instead of ionization chambers as the BCM sensor material. The main purpose of the system is the protection of the silicon Pixel and Strip tracking detectors by inducing a beam dump, if the beam losses are too high in the CMS detector. By comparing the detector current with the instantaneous luminosity, the BCM detector ef fi ciency can be monitored. The number of radiation-induced defects in the diamond, reduces the charge collection distance, and hence lowers the signal. The number of these induced defects can be simulated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation. The cross-section for creating defects increases with decreasing energies of the impinging particles. This explains, why diamond sensors mounted close to heavy calorimeters experience more radiation damage, becaus...

  19. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter lowered in to the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was lowered into the ATLAS cavern at POINT1. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  20. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria

    2013-04-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus(ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments to study the questions: ''What is mass?'', ''What is the universe made of?'' and ''Why is there no antimatter?''. The four experiments take data of the collision products and try to answer the fundamental questions of physics. The two larger detectors, CMS and ATLAS, are looking for the Higgs boson to study the electroweak symmetry breaking. Both detectors were built with contrasting concepts to exclude potential error sources and to rea rm the results. The smaller experiment LHCb studies the matter-antimatter asymmetry with a focus of the beauty quark. Another smaller experiment is ALICE that studies the conditions right after the Big Bang by colliding heavy ions. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150 km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due to deviations of the beam parameters. Several systems called beam loss monitors (BLMs) can measure beam losses. This thesis concentrates on two of them, ionization chambers and diamond detectors. Over 3600 ionization chambers are installed in

  1. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...... database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases...... will be utilized, such as the Indian, the South African, the Finnish, the German, the Canadian atlases and others....

  2. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  3. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, Ralf; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP) combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). In addition to the event-selection decision, the CTP also provides trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and the data acquisition system. It further provides accumulated and bunch-by-bunch scaler data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The CTP is presented and results are shown from tests with the calorimeter adn muon trigger processors connected to detectors in a particle beam, as well as from stand-alone full-system tests in the laboratory which were used to validate the CTP.

  4. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  5. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  6. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  7. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.

    1999-12-21

    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed.

  8. On the H8 beam line of the SPS in the North Area, a complete slice of the ATLAS detector is taking shape

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The Inner Detector and Calorimetry setup. The Liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter in its cryostat, and the tile calorimeter (centre) are mounted such that they can be repositioned in the beam, which travels from left to right. Also visible is the magnet housing the Pixel and SCT detectors (far left), the Transition Radiation Tracker (left) and part of a MDT/RPC Muon chamber (far right).

  9. The Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrere, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) successfully collecting data at 7 TeV and even at 8 TeV since April 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades in phase with the three long shutdown periods leading to detector improvement. The ATLAS collaboration will upgrade at the next shutdown in 2013-2014 its semiconductor pixel tracking detector with a new Insertable BLayer (IBL) between the existing innermost pixel layer and the vacuum pipe of the LHC. The extreme operating conditions at this location led considering the development of new radiation hard pixel sensor technologies and a new front-end readout chip. The IBL community is currently working for producing modules with silicon planar and 3D technology towards the loading on 14 local stave structures as well as the integration around the beam pipe and in the ATLAS detector. The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will eventually increase to about five times the LHC design-luminosity some 10-years from now requiring a complete Inner Detector replace...

  10. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system: detector concept description and first beam test results

    CERN Document Server

    Argyropoulos, Spyridon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s-1 will have a severe impact on the ATLAS detector performance. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors are foreseen to provide a precision timing information for minimum ionizing particle with a time resolution better than 50 pico-seconds ...

  11. A High Granular Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system: detector concept description and first beam test results

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, Didier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s-1 will have a severe impact on the ATLAS detector performance. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors are foreseen to provide a precision timing information for minimum ionizing particle with a time resolution better than 50 pico-seconds ...

  12. Characteristics of the Shanghai high-temperature superconducting electron-beam ion trap and studies of the space-charge effect under ultralow-energy operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, B.; Lu, Q. F.; Cheng, T.; Li, M. C.; Yang, Y.; Yao, K.; Shen, Y.; Lu, D.; Xiao, J.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2017-10-01

    A high-temperature superconducting electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) has been set up at the Shanghai EBIT Laboratory for spectroscopic studies of low-charge-state ions. In the study reported here, beam trajectory simulations are implemented in order to provide guidance for the operation of this EBIT under ultralow-energy conditions, which has been successfully achieved with a full-transmission electron-beam current of 1-8.7 mA at a nominal electron energy of 30-120 eV. The space-charge effect is studied through both simulations and experiments. A modified iterative formula is proposed to estimate the space-charge potential of the electrons and shows very good agreement with the simulation results. In addition, space-charge compensation by trapped ions is found in extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic measurements of carbon ions and is studied through simulation of ion behavior in the EBIT. Based on the simulation results, the ion-cloud radius, ion density, and electron-ion overlap are obtained.

  13. Effects of temperature, packaging and electron beam irradiation processing conditions on the property behaviour of Poly (ether-block-amide) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kieran A., E-mail: kmurray@research.ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland); Kennedy, James E., E-mail: jkennedy@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland); McEvoy, Brian, E-mail: Brian.Mcevoy@synergyhealthplc.com [Synergy Health, IDA Business and Technology Park, Sragh, Tullamore, Co. Offaly (Ireland); Vrain, Olivier, E-mail: Olivier.Vrain@synergyhealthplc.com [Synergy Health, IDA Business and Technology Park, Sragh, Tullamore, Co. Offaly (Ireland); Ryan, Damien, E-mail: Damien.Ryan@synergyhealthplc.com [Synergy Health, IDA Business and Technology Park, Sragh, Tullamore, Co. Offaly (Ireland); Cowman, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Cowman@synergyhealthplc.com [Synergy Health, IDA Business and Technology Park, Sragh, Tullamore, Co. Offaly (Ireland); Higginbotham, Clement L., E-mail: chigginbotham@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)

    2014-06-01

    The radiation stability of Poly (ether-block-amide) (PEBA) blended with a multifunctional phenolic antioxidant and a hindered amide light stabiliser was examined under various temperatures, packaging and electron beam processing conditions. FTIR revealed that there were slight alterations to the PEBA before irradiation; however, these became more pronounced following irradiation. The effect of varying the temperature, packaging and processing conditions on the resultant PEBA properties was apparent. For example, rheology demonstrated that the structural properties could be enhanced by manipulating the aforementioned criteria. Mechanical testing exhibited less radiation resistance when the PEBA samples were vacuum packed and exposed to irradiation. MFI and AFM confirmed that the melting strength and surface topography could be reduced/increased depending on the conditions employed. From this study it was concluded that virgin PEBA submerged in dry ice with non-vacuum packaging during the irradiation process, provided excellent radiation resistance (20.9% improvement) in contrast to the traditional method. - Highlights: • PEBA was melt blended with Irganox 565 and Tinuvin 783. • All virgin and blended PEBA samples were exposed to electron beam irradiation. • Virgin and blended PEBA was exposed to different temperatures during irradiation. • Non-vacuum and vacuum packed PEBA samples were compared following irradiation. • Virgin PEBA with non-vacuum packaging in dry ice improved the radiation resistance.

  14. Last ATLAS TRT module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT) consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. Images with the team responsible for assembly : Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  15. BTF measurements with beam-beam interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgen, P.; Fischer, W.

    2014-07-17

    We present considerations about the transverse beam transfer function (BTF) of beams under the influence of two effects: The strong-strong beam-beam effect and the influence of a Gaussian electron lens. The BTF are investigated using two methods: BTF excitation is simulated in a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The BTF model is verified using a known analytic expectation. Analytic expectations for BTF of beams under a stationary electron lens are derived by extending BTF from the formalism of Berg and Ruggiero. Finally we compare the analytic BTF results for a stationary Gaussian lens to both the PIC simulation for split tune conditions and to PIC simulations for a beam influenced by an electron lens. We conclude that the formalism represents the electron lens well and can be applied to a limited extend to the beam-beam effect under split tune conditions. The analytic formalism allows us to recover the strength of an electron lens by means of fitting and can give clues regarding the strength of the beam-beam effe...

  16. Mongolian Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatic atlas dated 1985, in Mongolian, with introductory material also in Russian and English. One hundred eight pages in single page PDFs.

  17. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger System with 13TeV nominal LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Helary, Louis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 (L1) Trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) plays a key role in the ATLAS detector data-taking. It is a hardware system that selects in real time events containing physics-motivated signatures. Selection is purely based on calorimetry energy depositions and hits in the muon chambers consistent with muon candidates. The L1 Trigger system has been upgraded to cope with the more challenging run-II LHC beam conditions, including increased centre-of-mass energy, increased instantaneous luminosity and higher levels of pileup. This talk summarises the improvements, commissioning and performance of the L1 ATLAS Trigger for the LHC run-II data period. The acceptance of muon triggers has been improved by increasing the hermiticity of the muon spectrometer. New strategies to obtain a better muon trigger signal purity were designed for certain geometrically difficult transition regions by using the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. Algorithms to reduce noise spikes in muon trig...

  18. Design and Performance of the BCM1F Front End ASIC for the Beam Condition Monitoring System at the CMS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, Dominik; Kaplon, Jan; Rymaszewski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    We present the design and the test results of the BCM1F front end ASIC designed for readout of diamond sensors used in the Beam Condition Monitoring system at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment built in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The design comprises a fast transimpedance preamplifier with active feedback, a shaper stage and high-performance differential output buffer. The front end amplifier shows good linearity for input charges below 7 fC, signal gain of about 50 mV/fC, equivalent noise charge (ENC) around 400 e- for 2 pF and less than 700 e- for 5 pF input capacitance. The measured peaking time (Tp) is in the range from 6.6 to 9.4 ns depending on the applied bias conditions and the input capacitance. The full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the response is kept below 10 ns, which allows for efficient beam halo detection. The return time after the detector signal overdrive is maintained below 25 ns. These two latter parameters make the presented circuit compatible with high data rate applications.

  19. Heavy ion Physics with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    White, S N

    2006-01-01

    Soon after the LHC is commissioned with proton beams the ATLAS experiment will begin studies of Pb-Pb collisions with a center of mass energy of ?sNN = 5.5 TeV. The ATLAS program is a natural extension of measurements at RHIC in a direction that exploits the higher LHC energies and the superb ATLAS calorimeter and tracking coverage. At LHC energies, collisions will be produced with even higher energy density than observed at RHIC. The properties of the resulting hot medium can be studied with higher energy probes, which are more directly interpreted through modification of jet properties emerging from these collisions, for example. Other topics which are enabled by the 30-fold increase in center of mass energy include probing the partonic structure of nuclei with hard photoproduction (in UltraPeripheral collisions) and in p-Pb collisions. Here we report on evaluation of ATLAS capabilities for Heavy Ion Physics.

  20. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atlas is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using distinct technologies: silicon planar sensors (both pixel and microstrips) and drift-tubes. The tracking system is embedded in a 2 T solenoidal field. In order to reach the track parameter accuracy requested by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software counts of course on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam spot and primary vertex for the global positioning, plus constrain...

  1. Prime wires for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In an award ceremony on 3 September, ATLAS honoured the French company Axon Cable for its special coaxial cables, which were purpose-built for the Liquid Argon calorimeter modules. Working for CERN since the 1970s, Axon' Cable received the ATLAS supplier award last week for its contribution to the liquid argon calorimeter cables of ATLAS (LAL/Orsay, France and University of Victoria, Canada), started in 1996. Its two sets of minicoaxial cables, called harnesses "A" and "B", are designed to function in the harsh conditions in the liquid argon (at 90 Kelvin or -183°C) and under extreme radiation (up to several Mrads). The cables are mainly used for the readout of the calorimeters, and are connected to the outside world by 114 signal feedthroughs with 1920 channels each. The signal from the detectors is transmitted directly without any amplification, which imposes tight restrictions on the impedance and on the signal propagation time of the cables. Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, gives the award for best s...

  2. Application of Diamond Based Beam Loss Monitors at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080642; Lohmann, W; Rüdiger, S

    2013-05-14

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due...

  3. Optimization and Calibration of the Drift-Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067746

    2000-01-01

    The final phase of preparations for the ATLAS experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has begun. In the last decade the collaboration has carried out various test-beam experiments to study and optimize prototypes of all subdetectors under more and more realistic conditions. To enhance the detector-physical understanding, these hardware activities were complemented by detailed simulations. In parallel the development of reconstruction software has made important progress. The present work focusses on some advanced aspects of optimizing the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT) for operation as precision chambers in the Muon Spectrometer. It will be shown how this system has been tuned for maximum performance in order to meet the ambitious goals defined by the objectives of LHC particle physics. After defining the basic detector parameters, the tubes' capability of running in ATLAS's high-rate gamma radiation background was verified. Both tasks necessitated several years of gathering experience in mu...

  4. Expected performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    These slides present the expected tracking performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, based on the latest available public results (scoping document). More recent layout designs currently under consideration are also shown. The extended inner pixel barrel concept is discussed in more detail, along with test beam results demonstrating the proof-of-principle.

  5. ATLAS pixel detector electronics and sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G; Bernardet, K [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Ackers, M; Barbero, M B [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D - 53115 Bonn (Germany); Alberti, F A; Aleppo, M; Alimonti, G; Andreani, A; Andreazza, A [INFN Milano, via Celoria 16, IT - 20133 Milano (Italy); Alonso, J; Anderssen, E C; Arguin, J-F; Beringer, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Physics Division MS50B-6227, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Arms, K E [Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210-1117, United States of America (United States); Barberis, D; Beccherle, R B [INFN Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, IT - 16146 Genova (Italy); Bazalova, M [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ - 18221 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Becks, K H; Bellina, F [Bergische Universitaet, Fachbereich C, Physik Postfach 100127, Gauss-Strasse 20, D- 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Behera, P K [203 VAN ALLEN HALL, IOWA CITY IA 52242-1479, United States of America (United States)], E-mail: MGGilchriese@lbl.gov (and others)

    2008-07-15

    The silicon pixel tracking system for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is described and the performance requirements are summarized. Detailed descriptions of the pixel detector electronics and the silicon sensors are given. The design, fabrication, assembly and performance of the pixel detector modules are presented. Data obtained from test beams as well as studies using cosmic rays are also discussed.

  6. ATLAS in Collision Mode : 13TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    With the success of first stable beams, we look back to June 3rd 2015 as the final preparations for stable beam collisions were made for Run 2's start and take a look into the ATLAS Control Room on that exciting day.

  7. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  8. Test-beam with Python

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The talk will show the current implementation of the software tool developed by Silab (Bonn) and Oxford University to analyze test beam data with Mimosa telescope. Data collected from the telescope are merged with hits recorded on pixel detectors with a FE-I4 chips, the official read-out chip of the Atlas Pixel Detector. The software tool used to collect data, pyBAR, is developed with Python as well. The test-beam analysis tool parses the data-sets, recreates the tracks, aligns the telescope planes and allows to investigate the detectors spatial properties with high resolution. This has just allowed to study the properties of brand new devices that stand as possible candidate to replace the current pixel detector in Atlas.

  9. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  10. 18 December 2012 - British University of Edinburgh Principal T. O’Shea and delegation (see list below) visiting the CERN Control Centre with Beams Department D. Nisbet, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Beams Department R. Veness, in the ATLAS Visitor Centre and experimental cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti, in LHCb experimental cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Campana and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    The delegation was throughout accompanied by Beams Department R. Veness and Physics Department and ATLAS Collaboration P. Wells 1.\tProf. Sir Timothy O'Shea, Principal, University of Edinburgh 2.\tProf. Lesley Yellowlees, Vice Principal, Head of College of Science and Engineering 3.\tProf Jeff Haywood, Vice Principal for Knowledge Management 4.\tProf. Peter Higgs, Professor of Theoretical Physics 5.\tMr Bruce Minto, Supporter of the University 6.\tProf. Walter Nimmo, Supporter of the University 7.\tProf. Arthur Trew, Head of School of Physics and Astronomy 8.\tProf David Robertson, Head of School of Informatics 9.\tProf Stefano Brandani, Head of School of Engineering 10.\tMr Alan Walker, accompanying Prof. Higgs 11.\tProf. Peter Clarke, LHCb Collaboration, School of Physics and Astronomy

  11. An accurate method to determine the growth conditions during molecular beam epitaxy of cubic GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoettker, B.; Kuehler, J.; As, D.J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K. [Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 6 - Physik

    1998-08-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to study the reconstruction of the (001) surface of cubic GaN, in particular to monitor the c(2 x 2) to (2 x 2) transition when the substrate shutter is closed. The delay time of the RHEED intensity increase after closing the substrate shutter is used as a measure of the excess Ga accumulated during growth at the surface. We describe a method which allows by measuring the transient of the intensity of the half-order streak to obtain optimum conditions for the growth of homogeneous c-GaN epilayers with a minimum density of micron-sized crystalline inclusions. (orig.) 7 refs.

  12. Effect of dual ion beam irradiation (helium and deuterium on tungsten–tantalum alloys under fusion relevant conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gonderman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of tungsten (W as a divertor material in ITER is based on its high melting point, low erosion, and strong mechanical properties. However, continued investigation has shown W to undergo severe morphology changes in fusion-like conditions. Recent literature suggests alloying W with other ductile refractory metals, viz. tantalum (Ta may resolve some of these issues. These results provide further motivation for investigating W–Ta alloys as a plasma-facing component (PFC for ITER and future DEMO reactors. Specifically, how these alloy materials respond to simultaneous He+ and D+ ion irradiation, and what is the effect on the surface morphology when exposed to fusion relevant conditions. In the present study, the surface morphology changes are investigated in several W–Ta targets (pure W, W-1%Ta, W-3%Ta, and W-5% Ta due to simultaneous He+ and D+ ion irradiations. This comprehensive work allows for deeper understanding of the synergistic effects induced by dual ion irradiation on W and W–Ta alloy surface morphology. Pure W and W–Ta alloys were irradiated simultaneously by 100eV He+ and/or D+ ions at various mixture ratios (100% He+, 60% D+ + 40% He+, 90% D+ + 10% He+ ions and 100% D+ ions, having a total constant He fluence of 6×1024 ion m−2, and at a target temperature of 1223K. This work shows that slight changes in materials composition and He/D content have significant impact on surface morphology evolution and performance. While both the pure W and W–Ta alloys exhibit very damaged surfaces under the He+ only irradiations, there is a clear suppression of the surface morphology evolution as the ratio of D+/He+ ions is increased.

  13. Simulation of hadronic showers in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryunin, A E; Strízenec, P; Kish, J; Loch, P; Mazini, R

    2002-01-01

    Results of Geant4 based simulations of the response of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter to charged pions are presented. The first results of hadronic simulations with Geant4 for the ATLAS forward calorimeter are shown as well. Predictions of Geant4 and Geant3 on energy response and resolution for charged pions are compared. Where it is possible, the comparison with experimental results of beam tests is done. (6 refs).

  14. Status of forward physics projects at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ask, S

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is building several detector systems for forward physics studies and to determine the luminosity. The main forward systems consist of a Cerenkov detector called LUCID, a Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) and Roman Pots which initially will house a scintillating fiber tracker system called ALFA. This presentation will describe the foreseen forward physics activities in ATLAS together with the status of the related detector systems. The detector performance obtained from beam tests both at DESY and at CERN will be presented and the final steps to completion will be outlined.

  15. The ALFA Roman Pot Detectors of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel Khalek, S.

    2016-11-23

    The ATLAS Roman Pot system is designed to determine the total proton-proton cross-section as well as the luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by measuring elastic proton scattering at very small angles. The system is made of four Roman Pot stations, located in the LHC tunnel in a distance of about 240~m at both sides of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station is equipped with tracking detectors, inserted in Roman Pots which approach the LHC beams vertically. The tracking detectors consist of multi-layer scintillating fibre structures readout by Multi-Anode-Photo-Multipliers.

  16. ATLAS construction: A status report

    CERN Document Server

    Sfyrla, Anna

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose p-p collider detector being constructed for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is located in one of the two high luminosity bunch crossing points (peak luminosity of 1 0 3 4 c m - 2 s _ 1 ) of the LHC. It consists of 3 main sections. Located close to the beam axis, the tracking system employs pixel detectors, silicon microstrip modules and transition radiation straws, all within a 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid. The tracker is surrounded by the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. In the outer part of the detector, 8 superconducting coils define an open toroidal magnetic field for muon detection. The construction status of the ATLAS detector towards being ready for the first collisions in 2007 will be presented, with particular emphasis on the construction and projected performance of the tracking system.

  17. SUSY (ATLAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the data-taking period at LHC (Run-II), several searches for supersymmetric particles were performed. The results from searches by the ATLAS collaborations are concisely reviewed. Model-independent and model-dependent limits on new particle production are set, and interpretations in supersymmetric models are given.

  18. ATLAS Story

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108663

    2012-01-01

    This film produced in July 2012 explains how fundamental research connects to Society and what benefits collaborative way of working can and may generate in the future, using ATLAS Collaboration as a case study. The film is intellectually inspired by the book "Collisions and Collaboration" (OUP) by Max Boisot (ed.), see: collisionsandcollaboration.com. The film is directed by Andrew Millington (OMNI Communications)

  19. SUSY (ATLAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the LHC Run-II data-taking period, several searches for supersymmetric particles were performed by the ATLAS collaboration. The results from these searches are concisely reviewed. Model-independent and model-dependent limits on new particle production are set, and interpretations in supersymmetric models are given.

  20. ATLAS Thesis Award 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on 22 February, 2018. They are pictured here with Karl Jakobs (ATLAS Spokesperson), Max Klein (ATLAS Collaboration Board Chair) and Katsuo Tokushuku (ATLAS Collaboration Board Deputy Chair).

  1. ATLAS Outreach Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS outreach team is very active, promoting particle physics to a broad range of audiences including physicists, general public, policy makers, students and teachers, and media. A selection of current outreach activities and new projects will be presented. Recent highlights include the new ATLAS public website and ATLAS Open Data, the very recent public release of 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data.

  2. ATLAS Data Preservation Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The principal intent of this document is to describe the ATLAS policy ensuring that its data are maintained reliably in a form accessible to ATLAS members. A separate document describes the ATLAS policy for making its data available, and potentially useful, to scientists who are not members of ATLAS.

  3. Physics with Tau Lepton Final States in ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingel Almut M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS detector records collisions from two high-energetic proton beams circulating in the LHC. An integral part of the ATLAS physics program are analyses with tau leptons in the final state. Here an overview is given over the studies done in ATLAS with hadronically-decaying final state tau leptons: Standard Model cross-section measurements of Z → ττ, W → τν and tt̅ → bb̅ e/μν τhadν; τ polarization measurements in W → τν decays; Higgs searches and various searches for physics beyond the Standard Model.

  4. Improvement of Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin; Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Shaojun

    2011-07-04

    We propose and demonstrate the improvement of conventional Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Based on the detailed study of the refractive beam shaping system, we found that the conventional Galilean beam shaper can only work well for the magnifying beam shaping. Taking the transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with high order Fermi-Dirac flattop profile as an example, the shaper can only work well at the condition that the size of input and target beam meets R(0) ≥ 1.3 w(0). For the improvement, the shaper is regarded as the combination of magnifying and demagnifying beam shaping system. The surface and phase distributions of the improved Galilean beam shaping system are derived based on Geometric and Fourier Optics. By using the improved Galilean beam shaper, the accurate transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with flattop irradiance distribution is realized. The irradiance distribution of the output beam is coincident with that of the target beam and the corresponding phase distribution is maintained. The propagation performance of the output beam is greatly improved. Studies of the influences of beam size and beam order on the improved Galilean beam shaping system show that restriction of beam size has been greatly reduced. This improvement can also be used to redistribute the input beam with complicated irradiance distribution into output beam with complicated irradiance distribution.

  5. The ATLAS Multi-User Upgrade and Potential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J. A.; Savard, G.; Ostroumov, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent integration of the CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder into the ATLAS accelerator system to provide for more pure and efficient charge breeding of radioactive beams, a multi-user upgrade of the ATLAS facility is being proposed to serve multiple users simultaneously. ATLAS was the first superconducting ion linac in the world and is the US DOE low-energy Nuclear Physics National User Facility. The proposed upgrade will take advantage of the continuous-wave nature of ATLAS and the pulsed nature of the EBIS charge breeder in order to simultaneously accelerate two beams with very close mass-to-charge ratios; one stable from the existing ECR ion source and one radioactive from the newly commissioned EBIS charge breeder. In addition to enhancing the nuclear physics program, beam extraction at different points along the linac will open up the opportunity for other potential applications; for instance, material irradiation studies at ~ 1 MeV/u and isotope production at ~ 6 MeV/u or at the full ATLAS energy of ~ 15 MeV/u. The concept and proposed implementation of the ATLAS multi-user upgrade will be presented. Future plans to enhance the flexibility of this upgrade will also be presented.

  6. ATLAS Online Data Quality Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first events have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also as a means to perform a general commissioning of system. A highly scalable distributed monitoring framework assesses the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. Every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in ...

  7. ATLAS online data quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first events have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also as a means to perform a general commissioning of system. A highly scalable distributed monitoring framework assesses the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. Every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in ...

  8. Beam lifetime and emittance growth in RHIC under normal operating conditions with the hydrogen gas jet, the cluster-jet and pellet targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevic, D.

    2010-09-01

    The inelastic scattering of the beam and the residual gas molecules in RHIC could represent one of the limitations on the beam life time and emittance growth. This report covers the dominant central nuclear collisions influence on the beam lifetime and transverse emittance growth. The cross sections for the beam-gas electron radiative captures are an order of magnitude smaller. The capture cross sections include the radiative and non-radiative capture, and the capture from the electron-positron pair creation from the 'vacuum capture'.

  9. Quality Assurance and Functionality Tests on Electrical Components during the ATLAS IBL Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalat, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During the shutdown of 2013-2014, for the enhancement of the current ATLAS Pixel Detector, a fourth layer (Insertable B Layer, IBL) is being built and will be installed between the innermost layer and a new beam pipe. A new generation of readout chip has been developed, and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been bump bonded to the Front Ends. Additionally, new staves and module flex circuits have been developed. A production QA test bench was therefore established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are being performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL; namely, connectivity tests, electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. This paper discusses the pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results fr...

  10. ATLAS Distributed Computing: Experience and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nairz, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has just concluded its first running period which commenced in 2010. After two years of remarkable performance from the LHC and ATLAS, the experiment has accumulated more than 25 fb-1 of data. The total volume of beam and simulated data products exceeds 100 PB distributed across more than 150 computing centers around the world, managed by the experiment's distributed data management system. These sites have provided up to 150,000 computing cores to ATLAS's global production and analysis processing system, enabling a rich physics program including the discovery of the Higgs-like boson in 2012. The wealth of accumulated experience in global data-intensive computing at this massive scale, and the considerably more challenging requirements of LHC computing from 2014 when the LHC resumes operation, are driving a comprehensive design and development cycle to prepare a revised computing model together with data processing and management systems able to meet the demands of higher trigger rates, e...

  11. ATLAS distributed computing: experience and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nairz, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has just concluded its first running period which commenced in 2010. After two years of remarkable performance from the LHC and ATLAS, the experiment has accumulated more than 25/fb of data. The total volume of beam and simulated data products exceeds 100~PB distributed across more than 150 computing centres around the world, managed by the experiment's distributed data management system. These sites have provided up to 150,000 computing cores to ATLAS's global production and analysis processing system, enabling a rich physics programme including the discovery of the Higgs-like boson in 2012. The wealth of accumulated experience in global data-intensive computing at this massive scale, and the considerably more challenging requirements of LHC computing from 2015 when the LHC resumes operation, are driving a comprehensive design and development cycle to prepare a revised computing model together with data processing and management systems able to meet the demands of higher trigger rates, e...

  12. Status of the uranium upgrade of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .007c to .05c. the PII project is approximately 75% complete. Beam tests and experiments using the partially completed PII have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The design, construction status, and results of recent operational experience using the PII will be discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach the track parameter accuracy motivated by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system needs to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 μm. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software relies on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam-spot and primary vertex as well as the momentum measured by the Muon System or the E/p using the calorimetry information. The alignment result of the ATLAS tracker using the 2011 collision data will also be presented.

  14. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F.

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  15. 3 May 2014 - His Excellency Dr Karolos Papoulias President of the Hellenic Republic in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 and in ATLAS experimental cavern with Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    In the LHC tunnel at Point 1: Beams Department, Controls Group Leader E. Hatziangeli and Technology Department, Cryogenics Group Deputy Leader D. Delikaris. In the ATLAS cavern: ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann and ATLAS Collaboration National contact person and CAST Collaboration National Technical University of Athens Team Leader E. Gazis.

  16. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  17. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2-3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  18. Status of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytka, Ladislav; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to add a set of detectors - silicon 3D pixel tracking detectors and QUARTIC time of flight detectors - in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The AFP detectors will be placed around 210 m from the interaction point and are meant to detect protons produced at small angles. The detectors are to be housed in the so called Hamburg beam pipe - a movable beam pipe allowing horizontal movement of the detectors. The AFP is currently under approval with possible installation in 2014/15.

  19. Status of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Chytka, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to add a set of detectors --- silicon 3D pixel tracking detectors and QUARTIC time of flight detectors --- in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The AFP detectors will be placed around 210 m from the interaction point and are meant to detect protons produced at small angles. The detectors are to be housed in the so called Hamburg beam pipe --- a movable beam pipe allowing horizontal movement of the detectors. The AFP is currently under approval with possible installation in 2014/15.

  20. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taševský, Marek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-10

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2–3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  1. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210~m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2--3~mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  2. Deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Bosman, M; Burckhart, Doris; Caprini, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Conde, P; Corso-Radu, A; Crone, G; Damazio, D; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Ghete, V; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gruwé, M; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Joos, M; Kabana, S; Kazarov, A; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kolos, S; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lankford, A; Lehmann, G; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meirosu, C; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N; Nisati, A; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Petersen, J; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sloper, J; Sobreira, A; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R A; Stancu, S; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Vandelli, Wainer R; Venda-Pinto, B; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S J; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiesmann, M; Yasu, Y; Zobernig, G; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS combined test beam in the second half of 2004 saw the first deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers (HLT). The next steps are deployment on the pre-series farms in the experimental area during 2005, commissioning and cosmics tests in 2006 and collisions in 2007. This paper reviews the experience gained in the test beam, describes the current status and discusses the further enhancements to be made. We address issues related to the dataflow, selection algorithms, testing, software distribution, installation and improvements.

  3. Research and Development in Micromegas Detector for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Iakovidis, Georgios

    My candidacy as a Ph.D student begun officially on September 2010. It was at the time that the MAMMA collaboration performed R&D on micromegas detectors transforming them spark resistant. This was done by adding a foil of resistive strips on top of the readout strips. Joining the collaboration I started to be active in the test beam periods dedicating time to understand the detector behaviour. In parallel I developed simulation procedures to understand further the detector and finally describe the physical processes taking place when a charged particle traverses the detector. Moreover, the unexplored at that time μTPC method was studied. In late 2011 the micromegas technology was a candidate for the ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade to which I dedicated most of my time in order satisfy the requirements and prove that the detector will work in the ATLAS environment including the magnetic field conditions. Most of the work at that time was dedicated to understand the spatial resolution of the detector an...

  4. HL LHC perspectives for the ATLAS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of the present muon trigger detector was conceived in the early nineties having in mind a fast, robust and simple device. According to the Atlas requirements the ageing qualification were done taking a reference luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1included a safety factor of 5 with respect to the simulated background rates. The experience made so far has shown that the average rate measured in 2012 LHC run is very close to the predicted one, however it is unevenly distributed in the barrel: the chambers at the barrel edge (i.e. higher eta values) show rates of about a factor of 2.5 higher than the average thus absorbing part of the safety factor. In the next decade, ATLAS will run with an increasing luminosity and beam energy resulting in much higher background rate, up to almost one order of magnitude with respect to the present condition. This will affect both the detector rate capability and robustness against the ageing effects and the demand of trigger performance to increase the muon momentum se...

  5. Advanced topographic laser altimeter system (ATLAS) receiver telescope assembly (RTA) and transmitter alignment and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Bolcar, Matthew; Chambers, John; Crane, Allen; Eegholm, Bente; Evans, Tyler; Hetherington, Samuel; Mentzell, Eric; Thompson, Patrick L.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Vaughnn, David

    2016-09-01

    The sole instrument on NASA's ICESat-2 spacecraft shown in Figure 1 will be the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS)1. The ATLAS is a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument; it measures the time of flight of the six transmitted laser beams to the Earth and back to determine altitude for geospatial mapping of global ice. The ATLAS laser beam is split into 6 main beams by a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that are reflected off of the earth and imaged by an 800 mm diameter Receiver Telescope Assembly (RTA). The RTA is composed of a 2-mirror telescope and Aft Optics Assembly (AOA) that collects and focuses the light from the 6 probe beams into 6 science fibers. Each fiber optic has a field of view on the earth that subtends 83 micro Radians. The light collected by each fiber is detected by a photomultiplier and timing related to a master clock to determine time of flight and therefore distance. The collection of the light from the 6 laser spots projected to the ground allows for dense cross track sampling to provide for slope measurements of ice fields. NASA LIDAR instruments typically utilize telescopes that are not diffraction limited since they function as a light collector rather than imaging function. The more challenging requirements of the ATLAS instrument require better performance of the telescope at the ¼ wave level to provide for improved sampling and signal to noise. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) contracted the build of the telescope to General Dynamics (GD). GD fabricated and tested the flight and flight spare telescope and then integrated the government supplied AOA for testing of the RTA before and after vibration qualification. The RTA was then delivered to GSFC for independent verification and testing over expected thermal vacuum conditions. The testing at GSFC included a measurement of the RTA wavefront error and encircled energy in several orientations to determine the expected zero gravity figure, encircled

  6. Installation of the last piece of the LHC beampipe at ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    The film will show you the descending and installation of the last element of the LHC beam pipe. Around the beam pipe is installed an ATLAS detector called LUCID. The same kind of element is on both sides of ATLAS. This detector measures the rate of the collisions in ATLAS. You can also get more information about LUCID detector by watching the part where Vincent Hedberg is interviewed . Almost at the end of the film there is the interview of the Raymond Veness. He tells about the delicate operations of finishing the vacuum system and the LHC .

  7. ATLAS Great Lakes Tier-2 Computing and Muon Calibration Center Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106342

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale computing in ATLAS is based on a grid-linked system of tiered computing centers. The ATLAS Great Lakes Tier-2 came online in September 2006 and now is commissioning with full capacity to provide significant computing power and services to the USATLAS community. Our Tier-2 Center also host the Michigan Muon Calibration Center which is responsible for daily calibrations of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tubes for ATLAS endcap muon system. During the first LHC beam period in 2008 and following ATLAS global cosmic ray data taking period, the Calibration Center received a large data stream from the muon detector to derive the drift tube timing offsets and time-to-space functions with a turn-around time of 24 hours. We will present the Calibration Center commissioning status and our plan for the first LHC beam collisions in 2009.

  8. Last ATLAS transition radiation tracker module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. In the last image the team responsible for assembly are shown from left to right: Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  9. 2017 LHC test collisions in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Test collisions are one of the many steps on the way to the LHC restart. The beams are neither quiet nor stable enough to ramp up the pixel and SCT, but other subsystems are on. On 10.05.2017 the ATLAS shift crew counted many women responsible for overall coordination, run control, high level trigger, data quality, safety and subsystems such as LAr calorimeter and muon spectrometer.

  10. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  11. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the first particles emerge from an ion source, the source characteristics need to be determined. The total beam intensity, the transverse particle distributions, the beam divergence and emittance as well as the longitudinal parameters of the beam must be measured. This chapter provides an overview of typical measurement methods and the instruments used, and shows the results obtained.

  13. EnviroAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in this web...

  14. ATLAS gets its own luminosity detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    During the winter shutdown, the ATLAS collaboration has completed the installation of ALFA, the detector system that aims at the LHC absolute luminosity at Point 1 analysing the elastic scattering of protons at small angles.   Upper and lower ALFA Roman Pots as installed in sector 8-1 of the LHC tunnel, 240 metres from the ATLAS Interaction Point. The detectors of the ALFA system are installed at ± 240 meters from the interaction point 1, on either side of the ATLAS detector. The whole system consists of four stations, two on each side of the interaction point. Each station is equipped with two Roman Pots; each pot – that is separated from the vacuum of the accelerator by a thin window but is connected with bellows to the beam-pipe – can be moved very close to the beam. “The Roman Pot technique has been used successfully in the past for the measurement of elastic scattering very close to the circulating beam,” says Patrick Fassn...

  15. First beam splashes at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year shutdown, the first beams of Run 2 circulated in the LHC last Sunday. On Tuesday, the LHC operators performed dedicated runs to allow some of the experiments to record their first signals coming from particles splashed out when the circulating beams hit the collimators. Powerful reconstruction software then transforms the electronic signals into colourful images.     “Splash” events are used by the experiments to test their numerous subdetectors and to synchronise them with the LHC clock. These events are recorded when the path of particles travelling in the LHC vacuum pipe is intentionally obstructed using collimators – one-metre-long graphite or tungsten jaws that are also used to catch particles that wander too far from the beam centre and to protect the accelerator against unavoidable regular and irregular beam losses. The particles sprayed out of the collision between the beam and the collimators are mostly muons. ATLAS and CMS&...

  16. The ATLAS level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Berge, D; Caracinha, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Ohm, C; Pauly, T; Perantoni, M; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger consists of the Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface (MUCTPI), the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), and the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) partitions of the sub-detectors. The MUCTPI connects the output of the muon trigger system to the CTP. At every bunch crossing it receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six pT thresholds. The CTP combines information from the calorimeter trigger and the MUCTPI and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). The MUCTPI and the CTP provide trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) for every event selected at the Level-1. They further provide accumulated and, for the CTP, bunch-by-bunch counter data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The TTC partitions send timing, trigger and control signals from the CTP to the...

  17. ATLAS experimentet

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach Committee

    2000-01-01

    Filmen innehåller mycket information om fysik och varför LHC behövs tilsammans med stora detektorer och specielt om behovet av ATLAS Experimentet. Mycket bra film för att förklara det okända- som man undersöker i CERN för att ge svar på frågor som människor har försökt förklara under flere tusen år.

  18. Quality Assurance and Functionality Tests on Electrical Components during the ATLAS IBL Production

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J

    2013-01-01

    To improve performance of the ATLAS inner tracker, a fourth Pixel layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed in 2014 on a new beam pipe. A new read out chip generation, FE-I4, has been developed and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been flip chipped to these front ends. New staves holding new stave and module flex circuits have been developed as well. Therefore, a production QA test bench has been established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. This setup combines former ATLAS Pixel services and a new readout system, namely the RCE (Reconfigurable Cluster Element) system developed at SLAC. With this setup all production staves will be tested to ensure the installation of only those staves which fulfill the IBL criteria. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the I...

  19. Track based Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Schieck, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particle, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift‐tube detectors. In order to achieve its scientific goals, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated tracks. The high level trigger selects and stores those tracks in a calibration stream. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. Primary vertexing and beam spot constraints have been implemented, as well as constraints on th...

  20. Track based Alignment of the Inner Detector of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lacuesta, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particle, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift‐tubes. which is embedded in a 2 T solenoidal field. The ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. Primary vertexing and beam spot constraints have also been implemented, as well as constraints from on the particle momentum as measured by the Muon System. Finally the assembly survey data can be used as constraint to the alignment corrections. As alignment algorithms are based on minimization of the track‐hit residuals, one needs to...

  1. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atlas is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using distinct technologies: silicon planar sensors (both pixel and microstrips) and drift-tubes (the Inner Detector). The tracking system is embedded in a 2 T solenoid field. In order to reach the track parameter accuracy requested by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software counts of course on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam spot and primary vertex for the global position...

  2. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdarios, Claire; Filipcic, Andrej; Lancon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte-Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans.

  3. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Herr

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: Atlas Physics Workshop 6-11 June 2005 June 2005 ATLAS Week Plenary Session Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  4. Berliner Philarmoniker ATLAS visit

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Berliner Philarmoniker in on tour through Europe. They stopped on June 27th in Geneva, for a concert at the Victoria Hall. An ATLAS visit was organised the morning after, lead by the ATLAS spokesperson Karl Jakobs (welcome and overview talk) and two ATLAS guides (AVC visit and 3D movie).

  5. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Green Bay, WI Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  7. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Paterson, NJ Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Portland, ME Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  9. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  10. Radiation hardness and lifetime studies of the VCSELs for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, P K; Chu, M L; Duh, T S; Gregor, I M; Hou, L S; Lee, S C; Song, P S; Su, D S

    2003-01-01

    Studies have been performed on the radiation hardness of the type of VCSELs**2 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers. that will be used in the ATLAS SemicConductor Tracker. The measurements were made using 30 MeV proton beams, 24 GeV/c proton beams and a gamma source. The lifetime of the devices after irradiation was studied.

  11. ATLAS25: Facebook Live Events

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2017-01-01

    This video is a montage of the 5 Facebook Live events that were broadcast on 2nd October 2017, to celebrate ATLAS25. For more details visit: http://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-news/celebrating-25-years-discovery

  12. Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '2 Beam Dynamics' with the content: 2 Beam Dynamics 2.1 Linear Transverse Beam Dynamics 2.2 Coupling 2.3 Liouville's Theorem 2.4 Momentum Dependent Transverse Motion 2.5 Longitudinal Motion

  13. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  14. Status and Challenges in Beam Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie; Yu, Peicheng; Okamoto, Hiromi; Yuri, Yosuke; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2009-05-04

    During the past several decades, beam crystallization has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical investigations have been numerical, mainly using computer modeling based on the method of molecular dynamics (MD), and analytical, based on phonon theory. Experimental investigations involve both ion storage rings and ion traps using both electron and laser beam cooling. Topics of interests include crystal stability in various accelerator lattices and under different beam conditions, colliding crystalline beams, crystalline beam formation in shear-free ring lattices with both magnets and electrodes, experimental simulation of alternating-gradient conditions with an ion trap, tapered cooling and coupled cooling, and beam dynamics at different temperature regime as the beam is cooled from high to low temperature. In this paper, we first review theoretical approaches and major conclusions pertaining to beam crystallization. Then, we analyze conditions and methods of the various major experiments. Finally, we discuss, both theoretically and experimentally, some improvements, open questions, and challenges in beam crystallization.

  15. The AGFA and AIRIS separators at ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS facility is being augmented with two new separators in order to take full advantage of recent and future anticipated beam intensity upgrades to the accelerator. A novel concept is used for the Argonne Gas-Filled Analyzer (AGFA), which employs only two magnetic elements; a quadrupole singlet for vertical focusing and a multipole magnet that provides a dipole field for the separation and a quadrupole field for horizontal focusing of the reaction products. The design allows for placing Gammasphere or GRETINA at the target position. This arrangement enables studies of prompt gamma-ray emission from weakly populated trans-fermium nuclei and those near the doubly-magic N=Z=50 shell closures measured in coincidence with the recoils registered in the AGFA focal plane. The Argonne In-flight Radioactive Ion Separator (AIRIS) is a magnetic chicane that will be installed immediately downstream of the last ATLAS cryostat. It will be used to separate radioactive ion beams generated in flight by the primary beam at an upstream high-intensity production target. These beams will be further purified by a downstream RF sweeper and transported to a number of target stations including HELIOS, the Enge spectrograph, the FMA and Gammasphere.

  16. The laser reference line method and its comparison to a total station in an ATLAS like configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov, V; Lyablin, M; Gayde, J -Ch; Girolamo, B; Mergelkuhl, D; Nessi, M

    2014-01-01

    A new type of measuring system, the Laser Reference Line, is proposed as a metrological tool and can be used within limited space to ensure a precise installation along an axis on the ATLAS interaction point. A simplified ATLAS like beam pipe mock-up is used for this test. The coordinates of the beam pipe are measured three times using the new method and a Total Station. The measurements agree within the measurement error of the Total Station, which indicates that the precision of the laser reference line is suitable for this specific task in the ATLAS experiment.

  17. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at \\sqrt{s} = 2.36$ TeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 data at the centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 2.36 TeV were recorded with the ATLAS detector. This was the first time the LHC had been operated at this beam energy and stable beam conditions were not declared. Therefore, to ensure detector safety, the silicon strip detector was in standby mode with reduced sensor bias voltage, which makes track reconstruction more difficult. Two complementary methods were developed to measure the charged particle multiplicity distributions and, in particular, estimate the track reconstruction efficiency under these challenging conditions. The first uses the full Inner Detector information and corrects the efficiency from the simulation using a data-driven technique. The second uses tracks reconstructed from pixel detector information only. The charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta| 500 MeV. The average charged particle m...

  18. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2006-01-01

    The instrumentation measuring beam parameters constitutes an important part of any particle accelerator. These lectures aim at giving an overview of detection and measurement techniques without going too much into details of implementation. Instruments for linear accelerators, transfer lines, and small synchrotrons are described with an emphasis on opportunities and problems specific to low-energy particle beams.

  19. Off-line commissioning of EBIS and plans for its integration into ATLAS and CARIBU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N., E-mail: ostroumov@anl.gov; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Mustapha, B.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and significantly improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The CARIBU EBIS-CB has been successfully commissioned offline with an external singly charged cesium ion source. The performance of the EBIS fully meets the specifications to breed rare isotope beams delivered from CARIBU. The EBIS is being relocated and integrated into ATLAS and CARIBU. A long electrostatic beam transport system including two 180° bends in the vertical plane has been designed. The commissioning of the EBIS and the beam transport system in their permanent location will start at the end of this year.

  20. Characterizing Effects and Benefits of Beam Defocus on High Energy Laser Performance Under Thermal Blooming and Turbulence Conditions for Air-to-Ground Engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-29

    type sometimes used by anti-Israel terrorists, but has even had success at destroying incoming artillery shells! MTHEL uses deuterium -fluoride laser...approximately 1 MW and 25 kW at a wavelength (λ) of 1.315 μm, respectively. Another example is the deuterium -fluoride (DF) laser, extensively tested at...for effect, in particular a cylinder . Since it is the beam spreading transverse to the wind vector that contributes most to reduced peak irradiance

  1. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  2. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  3. Alignment of the Atlas Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsan, Mahsana

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general purpose detectors at the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will be colliding proton beams at a center of mass energy {\\surd}s= 14 TeV and is currently operating at {\\surd}s = 7 TeV. During the commissioning phase since September 2008, the ATLAS recorded cosmic-rays data and proton-proton collisions at {\\surd}s = 0.9 TeV. This data has extensively been used for the alignment and calibration of various sub-detectors. The ATLAS detector has a precision tracking system installed around the beam pipe for the measurements of the position and momentum of charged particles emerging from the collisions. The precise knowledge of misalignments of the tracking devices is crucial for the important physics measurements. At the time of writing the alignment corrections were obtained from the cosmic-rays and 0.9 TeV proton-proton collisions data, while the large statistics of proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV was used to check the performance of the...

  4. ATLAS presents award to a Russian manufacturer within an ISTC project

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 28 January the Russian machine building plant Molniya was awarded a prize for best ATLAS suppliers, for excellence in the construction of 29 modules for the Hadronic End-Cap Calorimeter of ATLAS. An ATLAS supplier award ceremony was held on Wednesday 28th January. The award for the most exceptional contribution to construction of the future detector was presented to the Russian company Molniya, a former weapons manufacturer based near Moscow. The Molniya machine building plant constructed a total of 29 modules for the LAr Hadronic End-Cap Calorimeter (HEC) of ATLAS. Thirteen are series modules which have already been integrated into the four wheels of the detector. The remaining 16 are calibration modules, designed for the ATLAS beam tests. To manufacture the unique copper plates and module structures required, the company set up a dedicated production process and developed stringent quality control criteria. The task was completed on time, within budget and the completed modules surpassed required qua...

  5. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  6. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  7. Future ATLAS Higgs Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will prove a challenging environment to work in, with for example $=200$ expected. It will however also provide great opportunities for advancing studies of the Higgs boson. The ATLAS detector will be upgraded, and Higgs prospects analyses have been performed to assess the reach of ATLAS Higgs studies in the HL-LHC era. These analyses are presented, as are Run-2 ATLAS di-Higgs analyses for comparison.

  8. LHC Report: Freshly squeezed beams!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    After careful validation of  new machine settings, the LHC was ready for higher luminosity operation. New luminosity records have been set, but the operations team continues to wrestle with machine availability issues.   The commissioning of the squeeze to a ß* of 1 m in ATLAS and CMS described in the last Bulletin took until Wednesday, 7 September to complete. In order to validate the new set-up, beam losses were provoked in a controlled way with low intensity beams. The distribution of beam loss around the machine in these tests is known as a loss map. The loss maps showed that the collimation system is catching the large majority of beam losses as it should, and that the machine was ready for us to ramp the number of bunches back up and go to physics production. The ramp-up of the number of bunches went smoothly with fills at 264, 480, and 912 bunches on the way back to the machine’s previous record of 1380 bunches (first fill on Friday, 9 Se...

  9. Beam Development_V6MP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-24

    This presentation includes slides on Conditions; Sternglass states; H+ beam interacts with a W sense wire – Sternglass theory for SE current; Observed H+ beam at 03WS001 location; Jan 23 data; H- beam at 03WS001 location, Jan 23 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; H- beam at 03WS001 location; Jan 23 data; H+ beam at 04WS001 location, Jan 23 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; H+ beam at 04WS001 location; Jan 23 data; H- beam at 10WS001 location, Nov 17, 2013 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; H- beam at 10WS001 location; Nov 17, 2013 data; H- beam at 11WS001 location, Nov 17, 2013 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; and lastly H- beam at 11WS001 location; Nov 17, 2013 data.

  10. Jet and Missing E$_T$ Reconstruction in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ghezzi, A; Primo workshop italiano sulla fisica di ATLAS e CMS

    2003-01-01

    Many physics goals in ATLAS and CMS require precise reconstruction of jets and missing transverse energy, among these there is the search for the Higgs boson and for the supersymmetric particles. In this note the most relevant aspects related to the ATLAS and CMS hadron calorimetry and to jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction are described. The quality of the reconstruction, evaluated both on test beam data and simulated events, is presented

  11. ATLAS Forward Proton: Measurements and Prospects for Exclusive Diffraction, BSM Physics and Pomeron Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The installation of the second arm of the Atlas Forward Proton (AFP) detector system has been completed in time for the 2017 running of LHC, opening the road for measurements of processes with two forward protons. This talk will describe the status of the project, its rich physics programme, as well as first perfomance and measurements with beams. Further ATLAS results with just one or without proton tags will be presented as well

  12. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00227035; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Toward forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This article reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  13. ATLAS Forward Detectors: present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the main central detectors, the ATLAS experiment has also four subdetectors situated in a forward region hundreds of meters far from the interaction point and dedicated to measure particles leaving under very small angles the ATLAS proton-proton impact point. Particularly, LUCID is dedicated to luminosity measurement while ALFA, ZDC and AFP are committed to forward physics studies. ALFA is devoted to the measurement of proton elastic scattering, ZDC is dedicated to detect proton and neutral particles travelling along the beam axis and AFP aims to measure momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. This presentation will give an overview on the detectors status, the results obtained during the RUN 2 period of data taking and the future plans for the next years.

  14. The ATLAS Forward Proton Detector (AFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, S.; AFP Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector will identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Tracking and timing detectors will be placed 2-3 mm from the beam, 210 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. The silicon-based tracker will provide momentum measurement, while the time of flight system is used to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton collisions. The study of soft and hard diffractive events at low luminosities (μ ≈ 1) is the core of the AFP physics program. This paper presents an overview of the project with particular emphasis on the qualification of the pixel and timing systems.

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  16. Transverse mode coupling instability of colliding beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In high brightness circular colliders, coherent and incoherent beam dynamics are dominated by beam-beam interactions. It is generally assumed that the incoherent tune spread introduced by the beam-beam interactions is sufficiently large to cure any instabilities originating from impedance. However, as the two counterrotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes and therefore modify the coherent beam dynamics and stability conditions. In this case, coherent beam-beam effects and impedance cannot be treated independently and their interplay should be taken into account in any realistic attempt to study the beam stability of colliding beams. Due to the complexity of these physics processes, numerical simulations become an important tool for the analysis of this system. Two approaches are proposed in this paper: a fully self-consistent multiparticle tracking including particle-in-cell Poisson solver for the beam-beam interactions and a linearized model taking into account finite bunch length effects. To ensure the validity of the results a detailed benchmarking of these models was performed. It will be shown that under certain conditions coherent beam-beam dipole modes can couple with higher order headtail modes and lead to strong instabilities with characteristics similar to the classical transverse mode coupling instability originating from impedance alone. Possible cures for this instability are explored both for single bunch and multibunch interactions. Simulation results and experimental evidences of the existence of this instability at the LHC will be presented for the specific case of offset collisions.

  17. Comparaison of Atlas Tilecal module

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov1, V; Gayde, J C; Khubua, J I; Lasseur, C; Lyablin, M V; Miralles-Verge, L; Nessi, Marzio; Rusakovitch, N A; Sissakian, A N; Topilin, N D

    2002-01-01

    The high precision assembly of a large experimental set-ups is of a principal necessity for the successful execution of the forthcoming LHC research program in the TeV-beams. The creation of an adequate Survey&Control METROLOGY METHODs are an essential part of the detector construction scenario. This work contains the dimension measurement data for ATLAS hadron calorimeter MODULE#8 (6m long, 22tons) which were obtained by LASER and by PHOTOGRAMMETRY methods. The comparative data analysis demonstrates the measurements agreement within ±70mm. It means these two clearly independent methods can be combined and lead to the rise of a new generation engineering culture: high precision metrology when precision assembly of large scale massive objects.

  18. Electronics Evaluation, Jet reconstruction and a Study of GMSB in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sjölin, J

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is described. Emphasis is put on the Tile calorimeter and its fast readout electronics. An overview of the charge calibration of the electronics tested during the test-beam periods in 1996-98 is given. The evaluation guided a decision concerning methods of signal compression and dynamical range of the Analog to Digital Converter for the final version. An introduction to the topic of jet reconstruction in the ATLAS barrel calorimeter is given. Also included is a study of the sensitivity to model parameters for Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking with stau as the NLSP using fast simulations of the ATLAS detector.

  19. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune

    To determine the total cross section and absolute luminosity in the ATLAS detector at the LHC via pp scattering under very small angles, a dedicated sub-detector called ALFA has been made. Several performance evaluation tests including a test beam campaign lead to improvements of the detector...... system capabilities both before and after the installation at the LHC in winter 2010-2011. The ALFA detector system was commissioned, optimized and integrated into ATLAS making it possible to trigger full ATLAS detector with ALFA. Already In 2011 this allowed for a measurement of the total cross section...

  20. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Goldfarb, S

    2005-01-01

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: Atlas Software Week Plenary 6-10 December 2004 North American ATLAS Physics Workshop (Tucson) 20-21 December 2004 (17 talks) Physics Analysis Tools Tutorial (Tucson) 19 December 2004 Full Chain Tutorial 21 September 2004 ATLAS Plenary Sessions, 17-18 February 2005 (17 talks) Coming soon: ATLAS Tutorial on Electroweak Physics, 14 Feb. 2005 Software Workshop, 21-22 February 2005 Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  1. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  2. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  3. The UNDP/GEF Baltic wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, O.

    2003-01-01

    was running for about two years it was only possible to get one full one-year data series for each site with start time ranging from primo May 2001 to primo October 2001. Themeasured data have been analysed according to the “Wind Atlas Method”, implying cleansing the wind data for nearby terrain effects......, and resulting in regional wind climates or Wind Atlases referring to a number of standard conditions. To the extentpossible measures have been taken to make the regional wind climates represent long-term wind statistics (> 10 year). This was done by using correlation techniques based on reference data from met...... of the three national meteorological institutes. All relevant data files regarding the 8 stations of the project will be available from the wind atlas web of Risø National Laboratory: www.windatlas.dk - with the exception of the private datameasured at Türisalu....

  4. 90 m β* Optics for ATLAS/ALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalier, S; Burkhardt, H; Grafstrom, P

    2011-01-01

    We describe a high β∗ optics developed for the ATLAS detector at the LHC interaction point IP1. Roman Pots have been installed 240 m left and right of IP1 to allow to measure the absolute luminosity and the total elastic cross section for ATLAS with ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS). Ultimately, it is planned to perform these measurements at a very high β∗ of 2625 m. Here we describe a new, intermediate β∗ = 90 m optics, which has been optimized for compatibility with the present LHC running conditions. We describe the main features and the expected performance of this optics for ALFA.

  5. Prototype ATLAS IBL Modules using the FE-I4A Front-End Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Alimonti, Gianluca; Allport, Phil; Altenheiner, Silke; Ancu, Lucian; Andreazza, Attilio; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Bagolini, Alvise; Ballansat, Jacques; Barbero, Marlon; Barbier, Gérard; Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Baudin, Patrick; Beau, Tristan; Beccherle, Roberto; Beck, Hans Peter; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, Jim; Bomben, Marco; Borri, Marcello; Boscardin, Maurizio; Botelho Direito, Jose Antonio; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George Russell Jr; Breugnon, Patrick; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buchholz, Peter; Buttar, Craig; Cadoux, Franck; Calderini, Giovanni; Caminada, Leah; Capeans, Mar; Casse, Gianluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Chauveau, Jacques; Chu, Ming-Lee; Ciapetti, Marco; Cindro, Vladimir; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan; Cobal, Marina; Coelli, Simone; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Colin, Daly; Collot, Johann; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; DaVia, Cinzia; David, Pierre-Yves; Debieux, Stéphane; Delebecque, Pierre; Devetak, Erik; DeWilde, Burton; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Dinu, Nicoleta; Dittus, Fridolin; Diyakov, Denis; Djama, Fares; Dobos, Daniel Adam; Doonan, Kate; Dopke, Jens; Dorholt, Ole; Dube, Sourabh; Dushkin, Andrey; Dzahini, Daniel; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrmann, Oswin; Elldge, David; Elles, Sabine; Elsing, Markus; Eraud, Ludovic; Ereditato, Antonio; Eyring, Andreas; Falchieri, Davide; Falou, Aboud; Fang, Xiaochao; Fausten, Camille; Favre, Yannick; Ferrere, Didier; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien; Flick, Tobias; Forshaw, Dean; Fougeron, Denis; Fritzsch, Thomas; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gaglione, Renaud; Gallrapp, Christian; Gan, K; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gariano, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Thibaut; Gemme, Claudia; Gensolen, Fabrice; George, Matthias; Ghislain, Patrick; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gibson, Stephen; Giordani, Mario Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Gjersdal, Håvard; Glitza, Karl Walter; Gnani, Dario; Godlewski, Jan; Gonella, Laura; Gorelov, Igor; Gorišek, Andrej; Gössling, Claus; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gray, Heather; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gromov, Vladimir; Grondin, Denis; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hansson, Per; Harb, Ali; Hartman, Neal; Hasi, Jasmine; Hegner, Franziska; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hessey, Nigel; Hetmánek, Martin; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hügging, Fabian; Husi, Coralie; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Idarraga, John; Ikegami, Yoichi; Janoška, Zdenko; Jansen, Jens; Jansen, Luc; Jensen, Frank; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Joseph, John; Kagan, Harris; Karagounis, Michael; Kass, Richard; Kenney, Christopher J; Kersten, Susanne; Kind, Peter; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kluit, Ruud; Kocian, Martin; Koffeman, Els; Kok, Angela; Korchak, Oleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Krieger, Nina; Krüger, Hans; Kruth, Andre; Kugel, Andreas; Kuykendall, William; La Rosa, Alessandro; Lai, Chung-Hang; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laporte, Didier; Lapsien, Tobias; Lounis, abdenour; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Yunpeng; Lubatti, Henry; Macchiolo, Anna; Mallik, Usha; Mandić, Igor; Marchand, Denis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Massol, Nicolas; Matthias, Wittgen; Mättig, Peter; Mekkaoui, Abderrazak; Menouni, Mohsine; Menu, Johann; Meroni, Chiara; Mesa, Javier; Micelli, Andrea; Michal, Sébastien; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mikuž, Marko; Mitsui, Shingo; Monti, Mauro; Moore, J; Morettini, Paolo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Murray, Peyton; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, David J; Nessi, Marzio; Neumann, Manuel; Nisius, Richard; Nordberg, Markus; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Oppermann, Hermann; Oriunno, Marco; Padilla, Cristobal; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pelleriti, Gabriel; Pernegger, Heinz; Piacquadio, Nicola Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Pohl, David; Polini, Alessandro; Popule, Jiří; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Povoli, Marco; Puldon, David; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Quadt, Arnulf; Quirion, David; Ragusa, Francesco; Rambure, Thibaut; Richards, Erik; Ristic, Branislav; Røhne, Ole; Rothermund, Mario; Rovani, Alessandro; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rummler, André; Ruscino, Ettore; Salek, David; Salzburger, Andreas; Sandaker, Heidi; Schipper, Jan-David; Schneider, Basil; Schorlemmer, Andre; Schroer, Nicolai; Schwemling, Philippe; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Šícho, Petr; Skubic, Patrick; Sloboda, Michal; Smith, D; Sood, Alex; Spencer, Edwin; Strang, Michael; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Su, Dong; Takubo, Yosuke; Tassan, Jean; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Todorov, Theodore; Tomášek, Michal; Toms, Konstantin; Travaglini, Riccardo; Trischuk, William; Troncon, Clara; Troska, Georg; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsurin, Ilya; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Unno, Yoshinobu; Vacavant, Laurent; Verlaat, Bart; Vianello, Elisa; Vigeolas, Eric; von Kleist, Stephan; Vrba, Václav; Vuillermet, Raphaël; Wang, Rui; Watts, Stephen; Weber, Michele; Weber, Marteen; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Welch, Steven David; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Wiese, Andreas; Wittig, Tobias; Yildizkaya, Tamer; Zeitnitz, Christian; Ziolkowski, Michal; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zorzi, Nicola; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration will upgrade its semiconductor pixel tracking detector with a new Insertable B-layer (IBL) between the existing pixel detector and the vacuum pipe of the Large Hadron Collider. The extreme operating conditions at this location have necessitated the development of new radiation hard pixel sensor technologies and a new front-end readout chip, called the FE-I4. Planar pixel sensors and 3D pixel sensors have been investigated to equip this new pixel layer, and prototype modules using the FE-I4A have been fabricated and characterized using 120 GeV pions at the CERN SPS and 4 GeV positrons at DESY, before and after module irradiation. Beam test results are presented, including charge collection efficiency, tracking efficiency and charge sharing.

  6. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  7. ATLAS brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Document Server

    Lefevre, C

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  8. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    OMNI communication

    2005-01-01

    La Givrine near St Cergue Cross Country Skiing and Fondue at Basse Ruche with M Nordberg, P Jenni, M Nessi, F Gianotti and Co. ATLAS Management Fondu dinner, reviewing state of play of the experiment Many fun scenes from cross country skiing and after 41 minutes of the film starts the fondue dinner in a nice chalet with many persons working for ATLAS experiment

  9. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  10. ATLAS brochure (Catalan version)

    CERN Document Server

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  11. ATLAS Colouring Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  12. ATLAS Thesis Awards 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on Thursday 25 February. The winners also presented their work in front of members of the ATLAS Collaboration. Winners: Javier Montejo Berlingen, Barcelona (Spain), Ruth Pöttgen, Mainz (Germany), Nils Ruthmann, Freiburg (Germany), and Steven Schramm, Toronto (Canada).

  13. ATLAS brochure (Danish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  14. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  15. ATLAS brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  16. ATLAS Brochure (french version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  17. ATLAS Brochure (english version)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  18. ATLAS brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  19. ATLAS brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  20. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Budker Nuclear Physics Institute, Novosibirsk Sequence 1 Shots of aircraft factory where machining for ATLAS is done Shots of aircraft Work on components for ATLAS big wheel Discussions between Tikhonov and Nordberg in workshop Sequence 2 Shots of downtown Novosibirsk, including little church which is mid-point of Russian Federation Sequence 3 Interview of Yuri Tikhonov by Andrew Millington

  1. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  2. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  3. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  4. Tile/hadronic Calorimeter design viewed from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Santoni, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. In the barrel part of ATLAS, together with the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, TileCal provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. To understand the detail of the response of the detector, 11% of the 192 calorimeter modules were exposed to test beams of electrons, muons, and hadrons. Results were also obtained in the experimental hall using random triggers, calibration data and data from muons, isolated pions, and inclusive p-p events. This talk gives an overview of the TileCal performance.

  5. Online Monitoring software framework in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, M.; Caprini, M.; Da Silva Conceicao, J.; Dobson, M.; Flammer, J.; Jones, R.; Kazarov, A.; Kolos, S.; Liko, D.; Lucio, L.; Mapelli, L.; Soloviev, I.; Hart, R.; Amorim, A.; Klose, D.; Lima, J.; Pedro, L.; Wolters, H.; Badescu, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Kotov, V.; Mineev, M.; Ryabov, Yu.; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Ryabov, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    A fast, efficient and comprehensive monitoring system is a vital part of any HEP experiment. This paper describes the software framework that will be used during ATLAS data taking to monitor the state of the data acquisition and the quality of physics data in the experiment. The framework has been implemented by the Online Software group of the ATLAS Trigger&Data Acquisition (TDAQ) project and has already been used for several years in the ATLAS test beams at CERN. The inter-process communication in the framework is implemented via CORBA, which provides portability between different operating systems and programming languages. This paper will describe the design and the most important aspects of the online monitoring framework implementation. It will also show some test results, which indicate the performance and scalability of the current implementation.

  6. Finite element modelling of composite castellated beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, castellated beam becomes popular in building structural as beam members. This is due to several advantages of castellated beam such as increased depth without any additional mass, passing the underfloor service ducts without changing of story elevation. However, the presence of holes can develop various local effects such as local buckling, lateral torsional buckling caused by compression force at the flange section of the steel beam. Many studies have investigated the failure mechanism of castellated beam and one technique which can prevent the beam fall into local failure is the use of reinforced concrete slab as lateral support on castellated beam, so called composite castellated beam. Besides of preventing the local failure of castellated beam, the concrete slab can increase the plasticity moment of the composite castellated beam section which can deliver into increasing the ultimate load of the beam. The aim of this numerical studies of composite castellated beam on certain loading condition (monotonic quasi-static loading. ABAQUS was used for finite element modelling purpose and compared with the experimental test for checking the reliability of the model. The result shows that the ultimate load of the composite castellated beam reached 6.24 times than the ultimate load of the solid I beam and 1.2 times compared the composite beam.

  7. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  8. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bregliozzi, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Lechner, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Mereghetti, A.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2013-11-01

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  9. Trigger and DAQ in the Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Dobson, M; Padilla, C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction During the Combined Test Beam the latest prototype of the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ system is being used to support the data taking of all the detectors. Further development of the TDAQ subsystems benefits from the direct experience given by the integration in the beam test. Support of detectors for the Combined Test Beam All ATLAS detectors need their own detector-specific DAQ development. The readout electronics is controlled by a Readout Driver (ROD), custom-built for each detector. The ROD receives data for events that are accepted by the first level trigger. The detector-specific part of the DAQ system needs to control the ROD and to respond to commands of the central DAQ (e.g. to "Start" a run). The ROD module then sends event data to a Readout System (ROS), a PC with special receiver modules/buffers. At this point the data enters the realm of the ATLAS DAQ and High Level Trigger system, constructed from Linux PCs connected with gigabit Ethernet networks. Most ATLAS detectors, representing s...

  10. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  11. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  12. Dear ATLAS colleagues,

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/news/news_mali.php) many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  13. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  14. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3697 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa Slide 2 ? CSIR 2011 www.csir.co.za Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator...

  15. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4467 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... 2011 www.csir.co.za Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator design and experimental setup ? Results ? Conclusions ? Future work Slide 3 ? CSIR 2011...

  16. Smoluchowski Equations for Agglomeration in Conditions of Variable Temperature and Pressure and a New Scaling of Rate Constants: Application to Nozzle-Beam Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiken, J; Goodisman, J; Kornilov, O

    2015-07-09

    The Smoluchowski equations provide a rigorous and efficient means for including multiple kinetic pathways when modeling coalescence growth systems. Originally written for a constant temperature and volume system, the equations must be modified if temperature and pressure vary during the coalescence time. In this paper, the equations are generalized, and adaptations appropriate to the situation presented by supersonic nozzle beam expansions are described. Given rate constants for all the cluster-cluster reactions, solution of the Smoluchowski equations would yield the abundances of clusters of all sizes at all times. This is unlikely, but we show that if these rate constants scale with the sizes of the reacting partners, the asymptotic (large size and large time) form of the cluster size distribution can be predicted. Experimentally determined distributions for He fit the predicted asymptotic distribution very well. Deviations between predicted and observed distributions allow identification of special cluster sizes that is, magic numbers. Furthermore, fitting an observed distribution to the theoretical form yields the base agglomeration cross section, from which all cluster-cluster rate constants may be obtained by scaling. Comparing the base cross section to measures of size and reactivity gives information about the coalescence process.

  17. Electron emission yield and charging process of alkali-silicate glass submitted to an electron beam under the varying temperature condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M., E-mail: Mohamed.Belhaj@onera.fr [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Tondu, T.; Inguimbert, V. [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Elsafi, B.; Fakhfakh, S. [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Jbara, O., E-mail: omar.jbara@univ-reims.fr [GRESPI/Materiaux Fonctionnels, UFR Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-01-01

    The electron emission due to electron impact of alkali-silicate glasses is measured with a technique based on the use of a Kelvin probe (KP method) and a pulsed electron beam. The KP method, allows a clear discrimination between the external and internal effects of charging process. The effect of the incident charge fluence, incident charge fluency and the temperature on the yield curve is investigated. It was found that, at room temperature as well as at 80 Degree-Sign C, electron emission varies with charge fluence. The effects of the temperature on charging mechanisms and charge transport characteristics of alkali-silicate glasses where also studied using the measurement of displacement and leakage currents under continuous electron irradiation in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results clearly establish a correlation between charge carriers mobility and secondary electron emission yield. The enhancement of charge carrier mobility with increasing the temperature prevents the formation of a positive space charge (i.e. creation of positive ions and/or holes) that internally reduces the secondary electron (SE) emission. The higher is the temperature and the higher is the electron emission yield (EEY).

  18. Atlas of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution based on 2405 data points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, K.A.F.; Marret, F.; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Bogus, K.; Bonnet, S.; Bouimetarhan, I.; Crouch, E.; de Vernal, A.; Elshanawany, R.; Edwards, L.; Esper, O.; Forke, S.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Henry, M.; Holzwarth, U.; Kielt, J.-F.; Kim, S.-Y.; Ladouceur, S.; Ledu, D.; Chen, L.; Limoges, A.; Londeix, L.; Lu, S.-H.; Mahmoud, M.S.; Marino, G.; Matsouka, K.; Matthiessen, J.; Mildenhal, D.C.; Mudie, P.; Neil, H.L.; Pospelova, V.; Qi, Y.; Radi, T.; Richerol, T.; Rochon, A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Solignac, S.; Turon, J.-L.; Verleye, T.; Wang, Y.; Young, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellate cysts are useful for reconstructing upper water conditions. For adequate reconstructions detailed information is required about the relationship between modern day environmental conditions and the geographic distribution of cysts in sediments. This Atlas summarises the modern global

  19. The performance of ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is an apparatus of unprecedented complexity, designed to probe physics in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV. It was installed in its underground cavern at the LHC during the period 2004 to 2008. Testing of individual subsystems began immediately with calibration systems and cosmic rays, and by 2008 full detector systems could be operated with the planned infrastructure, readout, and monitoring systems. Several commissioning runs of the full detector were organized in 2008 and 2009. During these runs the detector was operated continuously for several months with its readout triggered by cosmic ray muons. At the same time, regular calibrations of individual detector systems were made. In the course of these runs, signals from tens of millions of cosmic ray events were recorded. These commissioning runs continued until the first beam-beam collisions in late 2009. This volume is a collection of seven performance papers based on d...

  20. Non-diffractive beam in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-09-01

    Beam propagation has been given important attention in a variety of applications in medicine, remote sensing and information science. Especially, the beam propagation in highly scattering media, which is called random media, is important. In general, the multiple scattering gets rid of beam characteristics, e.g., intensity distribution, phase front, and polarization. In this study, self-converging effect of annular beam was applied in random media. Diluted milk was used as random media, and the transmitted light was detected with a narrow view angle of 5.5mrad. The collimated annular beam of a few tens millimeters takes a few hundred meters to transform its beam shape into the non-diffractive beam in free space, while this transformation was shorten only to 20 cm in random media, that is, the collimated annular beam caused its transformation at only 20 cm in random media. The transformed beam kept its optical characteristics of ;non-diffractive beam;. Such transformation of the annular beam needs the appropriate condition of random media. Media concentration and propagation distance control the generation of the center peak intensity of the transformed beam. This study indicates the generation of the non-diffractive beam in random media and reveals its appropriate condition.

  1. ATLAS Forward Detectors and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, N

    2010-01-01

    In this communication I describe the ATLAS forward physics program and the detectors, LUCID, ZDC and ALFA that have been designed to meet this experimental challenge. In addition to their primary role in the determination of ATLAS luminosity these detectors - in conjunction with the main ATLAS detector - will be used to study soft QCD and diffractive physics in the initial low luminosity phase of ATLAS running. Finally, I will briefly describe the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project that currently represents the future of the ATLAS forward physics program.

  2. Tuning the beam: a physics perspective on beam diagnostic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In a nutshell, the role of a beam diagnostic measurement is to provide information needed to get a particle beam from Point A (injection point) to Point B (a target) in a useable condition, with 'useable' meaning the right energy and size and with acceptable losses. Specifications and performance requirements of diagnostics are based on the physics of the particle beam to be measured, with typical customers of beam parameter measurements being the accelerator operators and accelerator physicists. This tutorial will be a physics-oriented discussion of the interplay between tuning evolutions and the beam diagnostics systems that support the machine tune. This will include the differences between developing a tune and maintaining a tune, among other things. Practical longitudinal and transverse tuning issues and techniques from a variety of proton and electron machines will also be discussed.

  3. Prompt data reconstruction at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; da Costa, JF; Tuggle, J; Unal, G; Boyd, Jamie; Firmino da Costa, Joao; Tuggle, Joseph; Unal, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC collider recorded more than 5~fb$^{-1}$ data of $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7~TeV during 2011. The recorded data are promptly reconstructed in two steps at a large computing farm at CERN to provide fast access to high quality data for physics analysis. In the first step, a subset of the data corresponding to 10~Hz is processed in parallel with data taking. Data quality, detector calibration constants, and the beam spot position are determined using the reconstructed data within 48 hours. In the second step all recorded data are processed with the updated parameters. The LHC significantly increased the instantaneous luminosity and the number of interactions per bunch crossing in 2011; the data recording rate by ATLAS exceeds 400~Hz. To cope with these challenges the performance and reliability of the ATLAS reconstruction software have been improved. In this paper we describe how the prompt data reconstruction system quickly and stably provides high quality data...

  4. ATLAS Inner Detector: Commissioning with Cosmics Data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has started taking data last autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. Determination of vertex position and charged particle tracks is performed in the Inner Detector which consists of pixel and microstrip Silicon sensors and transition radiation tubes. In this talk construction and commissioning of these three detectors will be presented. The Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment with approx. 80 million readout channels. After connection of cooling and services and verification of their operation the ATLAS Pixel Detector is now in the final stage of its commissioning phase. Prior to the first beams expected in Autumn 2009, a full characterization of the detector is performed. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. Sensors are assembled into 4000 modules with 6 million readout channels. The completed SCT detector was operated for many months u...

  5. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  6. The luminosity monitor of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The LUCID (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) apparatus is composed by two symmetric arms deployed at about 17 m from the ATLAS interaction point. The purpose of this detector, installed in summer 2008, is to monitor the luminosity delivered by the LHC machine to the ATLAS experiment. Each arm of the LUCID detector is based on an aluminum vessel containing 20 Cherenkov tubes, 15 mm diameter and 1500 mm length, filled with C4F10 radiator gas at about 1.1 bar. The Cherenkov light generated by charged particles above the threshold is collected by photomultiplier tubes (PMT) directly placed at the tubes end. The intrinsically fast response of the detector and its readout electronics makes it ideal to follow the number of interactions per LHC bunch crossing therefore providing also an interaction trigger to the ATLAS experiment. The electronic boards performing the on-the-fly evaluation of the LHC luminosity with different algorithms will be discussed together with the results of a recent beam test on seve...

  7. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach the track parameter accuracy requested by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10μm. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software counts of course on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam spot and primary vertex for the global positioning, plus constraints on the track parameters as the momentum measured by the Muon System or the E/p using the calorimetry information. The alignment chain starts at the trigger level where a stream of high pT and isolated tracks is selected online. Also a cosmic ray trigger is enabled while ATLAS is recording collision data, Thus a stream of cosmic-ray tracks ...

  8. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran-Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores-Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fuster, J.; 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Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M-A; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, D.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa-Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero-Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  9. Study of radiation conditions for obtaining standard beam computed tomography; Estudo das condicoes de radiacao para obtencao do feixe padrao em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Lucio das Chagas de; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira, E-mail: lucio-andrade@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil there is a need to expand the traceability for the calibration of cameras used in dosimetry in CT. Thus, in order to promote the expansion of the radiation conditions RQT, LNMRI disseminate this greatness. These radiation conditions may be characterized in terms of tension in the X-ray tube (PPV), the first half-value layer (1{sup st} HVL) and homogeneity coefficient (CH). The LNMRI achieved satisfactory results within the international specifications suggested by IEC 61267 and TRS 457. (author)

  10. TLD Postal service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions in Cuba; Servicio Postal TLD para auditorias de calidad de haces de Co-60 en condiciones de referencia en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez L, S.; Walwyn S, G.; Alonso V, G. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, C. Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the methodology and experience of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Cuba in the establishment of the TLD Postal Service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions. Materials and methods: Through the Coordinated Project of Research (Contract 10794) its was bought 200 solid thermoluminescent detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) in micro bars form with dimensions of 6 x 1 x 1 mm and of the JR 1152F type manufactured in China. All these detectors were identified individually with a serial number on one of its faces, using a graphite fine sheet. Those detectors for its irradiation are introduced in cylindrical plastic capsules developed and used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Audit Postal Service of Dose IAEA/WHO, the capsules have one cavity equal to 3 mm for that is necessary to recover this cavity with a fine plastic tube so that the detectors remain immobile during the irradiation. The method used to determine the individual sensitivity of the thermoluminescent detectors is: to irradiate a detectors group (100 micro bars) 4 times in those same geometric conditions, with the same irradiation history and reading, then it is determine for each detector a sensitivity factor equal to the average of those readings obtained for the 4 irradiation cycles for each i detector among the average of all the reading values obtained during the 4 cycles. The thermoluminescent signal is obtained with a Harshaw 2000C/B reader manual. Results: The satisfactory results obtained in the verification of the calibration of the TLD system, using the reference irradiation service of the Seibersdorf Dosimetry Laboratory of the IAEA in three different years are shown. The results of the audits carried out to the different radiotherapy services of the country in different years are also presented. Conclusions: The experience with the detectors acquired in the project demonstrates that with an appropriate

  11. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - EnviroAtlas Community Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas Community. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the...

  13. ATLAS Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Roger; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Complementary to parallel open access and analysis preservation initiatives, ATLAS is taking steps to ensure that the data taken by the experiment during run-1 remain accessible and available for future analysis by the collaboration. An evaluation of what is required to achieve this is underway, examining the ATLAS data production chain to establish the effort required and potential problems. Several alternatives are explored, but the favoured solution is to bring the run 1 data and software in line with the equivalent to that which will be used for run 2. This will result in a coherent ATLAS dataset for the data already taken and that to come in the future.

  14. Highlights from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of recent results from ATLAS were presented. The data collected to date, the detector and physics performance, and measurements of previously established Standard Model processes were reviewed briefly before summarising the latest ATLAS results in the Brout-Englert-Higgs sector, where big progress has been made in the year since the discovery. Finally, selected prospects for measurements including the data from the HL-LHC luminosity upgrade were presented, for both ATLAS and CMS. Many of the results mentioned are preliminary. These proceedings reflect only a brief summary of the material presented, and the status at the time of the conference is reported.

  15. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy of Au nanoparticles on Si wafer using Bi3+ as primary ion coupled with surface etching by Ar cluster ion beam: The effect of etching conditions on surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Ji; Choi, Chang Min; Kim, Il Hee; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Gaehang; Jin, Jong Sung; Ganteför, Gerd; Kim, Young Dok; Choi, Myoung Choul

    2018-01-01

    Wet-chemically synthesized Au nanoparticles were deposited on Si wafer surfaces, and the secondary ions mass spectra (SIMS) from these samples were collected using Bi3+ with an energy of 30 keV as the primary ions. In the SIMS, Au cluster cations with a well-known, even-odd alteration pattern in the signal intensity were observed. We also performed depth profile SIMS analyses, i.e., etching the surface using an Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB), and a subsequent Bi3+ SIMS analysis was repetitively performed. Here, two different etching conditions (Ar1600 clusters of 10 keV energy or Ar1000 of 2.5 keV denoted as "harsh" or "soft" etching conditions, respectively) were used. Etching under harsh conditions induced emission of the Au-Si binary cluster cations in the SIMS spectra of the Bi3+ primary ions. The formation of binary cluster cations can be induced by either fragmentation of Au nanoparticles or alloying of Au and Si, increasing Au-Si coordination on the sample surface during harsh GCIB etching. Alternatively, use of the soft GCIB etching conditions resulted in exclusive emission of pure Au cluster cations with nearly no Au-Si cluster cation formation. Depth profile analyses of the Bi3+ SIMS combined with soft GCIB etching can be useful for studying the chemical environments of atoms at the surface without altering the original interface structure during etching.

  16. Integration of the Eventlndex with other ATLAS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, D.; Cárdenas Zárate, S. E.; Gallas, E. J.; Prokoshin, F.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex System, developed for use in LHC Run 2, is designed to index every processed event in ATLAS, replacing the TAG System used in Run 1. Its storage infrastructure, based on Hadoop open-source software framework, necessitates revamping how information in this system relates to other ATLAS systems. It will store more indexes since the fundamental mechanisms for retrieving these indexes will be better integrated into all stages of data processing, allowing more events from later stages of processing to be indexed than was possible with the previous system. Connections with other systems (conditions database, monitoring) are fundamentally critical to assess dataset completeness, identify data duplication, and check data integrity, and also enhance access to information in EventIndex by user and system interfaces. This paper gives an overview of the ATLAS systems involved, the relevant metadata, and describe the technologies we are deploying to complete these connections.

  17. ATLAS database application enhancements using Oracle 11g

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Blaszczyk, M; Sorokoletov, R

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC relies on databases for detector online data-taking, storage and retrieval of configurations, calibrations and alignments, post data-taking analysis, file management over the grid, job submission and management, condition data replication to remote sites. Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) has been addressing the ATLAS database requirements to a great extent for many years. Ten database clusters are currently deployed for the needs of the different applications, divided in production, integration and standby databases. The data volume, complexity and demands from the users are increasing steadily with time. Nowadays more than 20 TB of data are stored in the ATLAS production Oracle databases at CERN (not including the index overhead), but the most impressive number is the hosted 260 database schemas (for the most common case each schema is related to a dedicated client application with its own requirements). At the beginning of 2012 all ATLAS databases at CERN have...

  18. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Markus; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  19. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of

  20. The EDRO board connected to the Associative Memory: a "Baby" FastTracKer processor for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; Bevacqua, V; Cervigni, F; Crescioli, F; Fabbri, L; Giannetti, P; Giorgi, F; Magalotti, D; Negri, A; Piendibene, M; Roda, C; Sbarra, C; Villa, M; Vitillo, RA; Volpi, G

    2012-01-01

    The FastTracKer (FTK), a hardware dedicated processor, performs fast and precise online full track reconstruction at the ATLAS experiment, within an average latency of few dozens of microseconds. \\ It is made of two pipelined processors, the Associative Memory finding low precision tracks, and the Track Fitter refining the track quality with high precision fits. FTK has to face the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase I luminosity. So, while the new processor requires the best of the available technology for tracking in high occupancy conditions, we want to use already existing prototypes to exercise soon the FTK functions in the new ATLAS environment. Few boards connected together constitute a "baby FTK" that will grow soon becoming the "vertical slice".\\ The vertical slice will cover a small projective wedge in the detector, but it will be functionally complete. It will provide a full test of the entire FTK data chain, in the laboratory first and on beam-on conditions after. It will require early development a...

  1. 29 March 2011 - Ninth President of Israel S.Peres welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Heuer who introduces Council President M. Spiro, Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Head of International Relations F. Pauss, Physics Department Head P. Bloch, Technology Department Head F. Bordry, Human Resources Department Head A.-S. Catherin, Beams Department Head P. Collier, Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer, Adviser for Israel J. Ellis, Legal Counsel E. Gröniger-Voss, ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Former ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, Weizmann Institute G. Mikenberg, CERN VIP and Protocol Officer W. Korda.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    During his visit he toured the ATLAS underground experimental area with Giora Mikenberg of the ATLAS collaboration, Weizmann Institute of Sciences and Israeli industrial liaison office, Rolf Heuer, CERN’s director-general, and Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The president also visited the CERN computing centre and met Israeli scientists working at CERN.

  2. Optimization of FIBMOS Through 2D Silvaco ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J.; He, X.; Vasileska, D.; Schroder, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam MOSFETs (FIBMOS) demonstrate large enhancements in core device performance areas such as output resistance, hot electron reliability and voltage stability upon channel length or drain voltage variation. In this work, we describe an optimization technique for FIBMOS threshold voltage characterization using the 2D Silvaco ATLAS simulator. Both ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo particle-based simulations were used to show that FIBMOS devices exhibit enhanced current drive ...

  3. VARIATION IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF ATLAS VERTEBRAE IN DIFFERENT SKELETAL PATTERNS: A THREE – DIMENSIONAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Prajakta; Sunita,; Ranjit H; Narendra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : The morphology of the atlas vertebrae seems to be affected by the head posture , age , congenital anomalies and the skeletal growth pattern. The present study was carried out to assess the variation in the morphology of atlas vertebrae in different vertical skeletal patterns MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cone - beam computed tomography images of 45 adu lt subjects aged 18 to 35 years were evaluated. Subjects constituted three groups: group 1; avera...

  4. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  5. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN, Building 40 Interview with theorist Mr. Philip Hinchliffe (Berkeley) as well an interview with his wife Mrs. Hinchliffe who is also Physics Department head at Berkeley. They are both working in ATLAS Experiment.

  6. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  7. ATLAS TV PROJECT

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS Physics Workshop at the University of Roma Tre held from Monday 06 June 2005 to Saturday 11 June 2005. Experts establishing workshop, poster, people milling Shots of Peter Jenni introduction Many audience shots Sequences from various talks

  8. The Latest from ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Since November 2008, ATLAS has undertaken detailed maintenance, consolidation and repair work on the detector (see Bulletin of 20 July 2009). Today, the fraction of the detector that is operational has increased compared to last year: less than 1% of dead channels for most of the sub-systems. "We are going to start taking data this year with a detector which is even more efficient than it was last year," agrees ATLAS Spokesperson, Fabiola Gianotti. By mid-September the detector was fully closed again, and the cavern sealed. The magnet system has been operated at nominal current for extensive periods over recent months. Once the cavern was sealed, ATLAS began two weeks of combined running. Right now, subsystems are joining the run incrementally until the point where the whole detector is integrated and running as one. In the words of ATLAS Technical Coordinator, Marzio Nessi: "Now we really start physics." In parallel, the analysis ...

  9. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  10. ATLAS Cavern baseplate

    CERN Multimedia

    It-UDS-Audiovisual Services

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the incredible amounth of iron used for ATLAS cavern. Please look at the related links and also videos that are concerning the civil engineering where you can see even more detailed cavern excavation work.

  11. VT Planning Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Planning Atlas provides easy access to commonly requested land use planning data – the status of local planning and regulation, state designation boundaries and...

  12. Apollo Image Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Apollo Image Atlas is a comprehensive collection of Apollo-Saturn mission photography. Included are almost 25,000 lunar images, both from orbit and from the...

  13. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  14. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  15. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  16. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Goldfarb, S.

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: June ATLAS Plenary Meeting Tutorial on Physics EDM and Tools (June) Freiburg Overview Week Ketevi Assamagan's Tutorial on Analysis Tools Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  17. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  18. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  19. Budker INP in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Novosibirsk group has proposed a new design for the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter with a constant thickness of absorber plates. This design has signifi- cant advantages compared to one in the Technical Proposal and it has been accepted by the ATLAS Collaboration. The Novosibirsk group is responsible for the fabrication of the precision aluminium structure for the e.m.end-cap calorimeter.

  20. ATLAS Status and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Lankford, AJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will study a broad range of particle physics at the highest available laboratory energies, from measurements of the standard model to searches for new physics beyond the standard model. The status of ATLAS commissioning and the ATLAS physics program will be reported, and physics prospects for the 2010 LHC run will be discussed.

  1. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. The film has original working sound.

  2. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  3. Atomic and molecular beams production and collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Cyril Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular beams are employed in physics and chemistry experiments and, to a lesser extent, in the biological sciences. These beams enable atoms to be studied under collision-free conditions and allow the study of their interaction with other atoms, charged particles, radiation, and surfaces. Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation explores the latest techniques for producing a beam from any substance as well as from the dissociation of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens.The book not only provides the basic expressions essential to beam design but also offers

  4. Automated segmentation of CBCT image using spiral CT atlases and convex optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Ken Chung; Shi, Feng; Liao, Shu; Li, Gang; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Steve G F; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K M; Chow, Ben; Liu, Nancy X; Xia, James J; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. CBCT scans have relatively low cost and low radiation dose in comparison to conventional spiral CT scans. However, a major limitation of CBCT scans is the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening and inhomogeneity, causing great difficulties for accurate segmentation of bony structures from soft tissues, as well as separating mandible from maxilla. In this paper, we presented a novel fully automated method for CBCT image segmentation. In this method, we first estimated a patient-specific atlas using a sparse label fusion strategy from predefined spiral CT atlases. This patient-specific atlas was then integrated into a convex segmentation framework based on maximum a posteriori probability for accurate segmentation. Finally, the performance of our method was validated via comparisons with manual ground-truth segmentations.

  5. Overview of Silicon Pixel Sensor Development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS tracking system and is critical for track and vertex reconstruction. In order to preserve the tracking performance notwithstanding the increasing instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC, ATLAS plans to introduce a new pixel layer (IBL) mounted directly on a reduced diameter beam pipe. The IBL will have to sustain an estimated radiation dose, including safety factors, of $5 imes 10^{15}$~n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$. Two sensor technologies are currently being considered for the IBL, planar n-on-n slim edge and 3D double sided designs. Results of the characterization, irradiation and beam test studies of IBL pixel devices are presented.

  6. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  7. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  8. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bénédicte; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality (60)Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for (60)Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent--being higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other--except for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 ± 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber.

  9. The INFN MicroMegas Module-0 Prototype for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Del Gaudio, Michela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large size resistive Micro Mesh gaseous structure (MicroMegas) detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments, for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiments at CERN. Indeed during the next long shutdown (2019-2020) the Innermost Endcap Muon Station will be replaced by the New Small Wheels (NSW), comprising 2 x 8 layers of sTGC and MicroMegas chambers. The MicroMegas, as high-rate capable detectors, are adequate to work with HL-HLC condition of luminosity (7x1034 cm2 s-1) and high hit rate of the Innermost Endcap Muon Station (up to 15 kHz/cm2). In April 2016, the INFN (Italy) has completed the Module-0 SM1: the first full size prototype of a NSW MicroMegas chamber. The construction and results of module performance done at H8 CERN test beam are presented.

  10. Atlas Fractures and Atlas Osteosynthesis: A Comprehensive Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora, Frank; Chapman, Jens R; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Scholz, Matti

    2017-09-01

    Most atlas fractures are the result of compression forces. They are often combined with fractures of the axis and especially with the odontoid process. Multiple classification systems for atlas fractures have been described. For an adequate diagnosis, a computed tomography is mandatory. To distinguish between stable and unstable atlas injury, it is necessary to evaluate the integrity of the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) by magnetic resonance imaging and to classify the TAL lesion. Studies comparing conservative and operative management of unstable atlas fractures are unfortunately not available in the literature; neither are studies comparing different operative treatment strategies. Hence all treatment recommendations are based on low level evidence. Most of atlas fractures are stable and will be successfully managed by immobilization in a soft/hard collar. Unstable atlas fractures may be treated conservatively by halo-fixation, but nowadays more and more surgeons prefer surgery because of the potential discomfort and complications of halo-traction. Atlas fractures with a midsubstance ligamentous disruption of TAL or severe bony ligamentous avulsion can be treated by a C1/2 fusion. Unstable atlas fractures with moderate bony ligamentous avulsion may be treated by atlas osteosynthesis. Although the evidence for the different treatment strategies of atlas fractures is low, atlas osteosynthesis has the potential to change treatment philosophies. The reasons for this are described in this review.

  11. A survey of ponticulus posticus: Radiological analysis of atlas in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-06

    Aug 6, 2015 ... A survey of ponticulus posticus: Radiological analysis of atlas in an orthodontic population based on cone-beam computed tomography. SK Buyuk, AE Sekerci1, YA Benkli, A Ekizer2. Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, 52100 Ordu, Departments of 1Maxillofacial Radiology.

  12. An ATLAS inner detector end-cap is placed in its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation housed inside the inner end-cap must be kept cool to avoid thermal noise. This cooling is achieved on ATLAS by placing the end-cap inside a liquid argon cryostat. The end-cap measures particles that are produced close to the direction of the beam pipe and would otherwise be missed.

  13. Optical parameters Determination for absolute luminosity and total cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalier, Sophie

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims at measuring the absolute luminosity for the ATLAS experiment with an incertitude down to 2-3 \\% and the total elastic cross section. The luminosity is related to the number of events, the highest the luminosity, the highest the number of events. This is, then, an important quantity for colliders like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). LHC is made of two beams circulating in two different beam pipes and colliding at four interaction points where the four physics experiments are located (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb). ALFA detectors inserted into Roman Pots (RPs), have been placed around ATLAS at 240 m distance from the collision point (IP1) after six quadrupoles magnets and two dipoles defining the ALFA beam line which is part of the LHC ring.The detectors are made of scintillating optics fibers to catch elastic protons generated at IP1. These protons are tracked through the LHC magnets beam line which needs to be optimized in terms of optics parameters. We call high β optics, ...

  14. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallrapp, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  15. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  16. The 2002 Test Beam DAQ

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L.

    The ATLAS Tilecal group has been the first user of the Test Beam version of the DAQ/EF-1 prototype in 2000. The prototype was successfully tested in lab in summer 1999 and it has been officially adopted as baseline solution for the Test Beam DAQ at the end of 1999. It provides the right solution for users who need to have a modern data acquisition chain for final or almost final front-end and off-detector electronics (RODs and ROD emulators). The typical architecture for the readout and the DAQ is sketched in the figure below. A number of detector crates can send data over the Read Out Link to the Read Out System. The Read Out System sends data over an Ethernet link to a SubFarm PC that provides to send the data to Central Data Recording. In 2001 also the Muon MDT group has adopted this modern DAQ where for the first time a PC-based ReadOut System has been used, instead of the VME based implementation used in 2000, and for the Tilecal DAQ in 2001. In 2002 also Tilecal has adopted the PC-based implement...

  17. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068843; Boccone, V; Bregliozzi, G; Burkhardt, H; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Huhtinen, M.; Lechner, A; Levinsen, Y; Mereghetti, A; Mokhov, N.V; Tropin, I.S; Vlachoudis, V

    2013-01-01

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, a...

  18. EnviroAtlas Community Boundaries Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundaries of all EnviroAtlas Communities. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in each EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Austin, TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). The layers in this web...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Cleveland, OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). The layers in this web...

  1. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R., E-mail: roderik.bruce@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Assmann, R.W. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Boccone, V.; Bregliozzi, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Lechner, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Mereghetti, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S. [FNAL, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Vlachoudis, V. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam–gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam–gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors. -- Highlights: •We simulate sources of machine-induced experimental background at the CERN LHC. •We focus on the ATLAS and CMS experiments. •The LHC machine conditions are analyzed to normalize the simulation results. •Beam–gas interactions is found to be the dominating source of particles entering the detectors.

  2. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  3. A Refined Zigzag Beam Theory for Composite and Sandwich Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; Sciuva, Marco Di; Gherlone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A new refined theory for laminated composite and sandwich beams that contains the kinematics of the Timoshenko Beam Theory as a proper baseline subset is presented. This variationally consistent theory is derived from the virtual work principle and employs a novel piecewise linear zigzag function that provides a more realistic representation of the deformation states of transverse-shear flexible beams than other similar theories. This new zigzag function is unique in that it vanishes at the top and bottom bounding surfaces of a beam. The formulation does not enforce continuity of the transverse shear stress across the beam s cross-section, yet is robust. Two major shortcomings that are inherent in the previous zigzag theories, shear-force inconsistency and difficulties in simulating clamped boundary conditions, and that have greatly limited the utility of these previous theories are discussed in detail. An approach that has successfully resolved these shortcomings is presented herein. Exact solutions for simply supported and cantilevered beams subjected to static loads are derived and the improved modelling capability of the new zigzag beam theory is demonstrated. In particular, extensive results for thick beams with highly heterogeneous material lay-ups are discussed and compared with corresponding results obtained from elasticity solutions, two other zigzag theories, and high-fidelity finite element analyses. Comparisons with the baseline Timoshenko Beam Theory are also presented. The comparisons clearly show the improved accuracy of the new, refined zigzag theory presented herein over similar existing theories. This new theory can be readily extended to plate and shell structures, and should be useful for obtaining relatively low-cost, accurate estimates of structural response needed to design an important class of high-performance aerospace structures.

  4. Enhanced piezoelectric wind energy harvesting based on a buckled beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Jia; Shu, Chang; Fang, Zhou

    2017-05-01

    In order to improve the wind energy conversion efficiency, this study entails a concept utilizing the buckling behavior of a buckled beam to induce large amplitude oscillations in a PVDF beam harvester. Specifically, when the buckled beam subjected to the buckling load is in an unstable condition, the wind load can trigger the drastic vibration of the PVDF beam harvester. Experimental results demonstrate that the output performances of the proposed harvester are improved dramatically compared with a traditional cantilever beam harvester.

  5. Developing a wind atlas for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries

    2013-04-01

    The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of

  6. Matter-Wave Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorlach, Alexey A.; Gorlach, Maxim A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Optical and acoustic tractor beams are currently the focus of intense research due to their counterintuitive property of exerting a pulling force on small scattering objects. In this Letter we propose a matter-wave tractor beam and utilize the de Broglie waves of nonrelativistic matter particles...... in analogy to "classical" tractor beams. We reveal the presence of the quantum-mechanical pulling force for the variety of quantum mechanical potentials observing the resonant enhancement of the pulling effect under the conditions of the suppressed scattering known as the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. We also...... are compared, and the matter-wave pulling force is found to have exclusive properties of dragging slow particles in short-range potentials. We envisage that the use of tractor beams could lead to the unprecedented precision in manipulation with atomic-scale quantum objects....

  7. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  8. ATLAS Review Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Szeless, B

    The ATLAS internal reviews, be it the mandatory Production Readiness Reviews, the now newly installed Production Advancement Reviews, or the more and more requested different Design Reviews, have become a part of our ATLAS culture over the past years. The Activity Systems Status Overviews are, for the time being, a one in time event and should be held for each system as soon as possible to have some meaning. There seems to a consensus that the reviews have become a useful project tool for the ATLAS management but even more so for the sub-systems themselves making achievements as well as possible shortcomings visible. One other recognized byproduct is the increasing cross talk between the systems, a very important ingredient to make profit all the systems from the large collective knowledge we dispose of in ATLAS. In the last two months, the first two PARs were organized for the MDT End Caps and the TRT Barrel Modules, both part of the US contribution to the ATLAS Project. Furthermore several different design...

  9. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  10. New format for ATLAS e-news

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    ATLAS e-news got a new look! As of November 30, 2007, we have a new format for ATLAS e-news. Please go to: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/index.html . ATLAS e-news will now be published on a weekly basis. If you are not an ATLAS colaboration member but still want to know how the ATLAS experiment is doing, we will soon have a version of ATLAS e-news intended for the general public. Information will be sent out in due time.

  11. Heavy-ion beams required for the RIA accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Nolen, J A; Rehm, K E; Savard, Guy

    2004-01-01

    A class of experiments which will be representative of the expected initial fields of study at the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility (RIA), are discussed. Improvement in the understanding of the rapid neutron capture process that is responsible for the creation of most stable nuclei heavier than the iron-region nuclei, will be the most important areas of research with RIA. RIA will provide beams of nuclei far from stability at low energies and with excellent beam quality, similar to the properties of stable beams available from facilities such as ATLAS. A total of 21 driver beams are identified which are necessary to provide optimal population of the r-process path, and provide good production of light neutron-rich nuclei. (Edited abstract) 15 Refs.

  12. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  13. Radiological study on internal condition of radiopaque lesions occurred in the jaws bones. First report. Observation of 56 cases with limited cone beam X-ray CT for dental use (ortho-CT) images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Masao; Arai, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Koji; Shinoda, Koji; Komiyama, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2000-05-01

    According to the WHO classification in 1992, fibro-osseous lesion (FOL) of jaw bones were divided into osteogenic neoplasms and non-neoplastic lesions. However, it is difficult to differentiate cement-osseous dysplasia, diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis and condensing osteitis occurring in the periapical region, which show mixed radiolucent and radiopaque appearances, because the radiographic features of these lesions are very similar. Therefore, we investigated the findings of the internal condition of the lesions with limited cone beam X-ray CT for dental use (Ortho-CT) developed by Arai et al. in contrast to rotational panoramic radiography (RPR). A total of fifty-six lesions were analyzed using the rotational panoramic images and classified into the following three types. Type 1 had an amorphous appearance that showed uniform density, type 2 had a mottled appearance that showed mixed radiopacity and radiolucency, and type 3 had a complex appearance that showed complex internal condition. These lesions were also classified using Ortho-CT images according to the above criteria. Thirty-six (64.3%) of 56 cases were classified the same using either RPR or Ortho-CT image analysis. Many FOL of the jaw bones were not removed, except for neoplasms, so we obtained little information about the pathological findings of these lesions. However, in our study, the Ortho-CT images showed that FOL in the edentulous region included inflammatory lesions and a reactive bone formation. We conclude that Ortho-CT images are useful for diagnosing the internal condition of FOL and observing in minute detail by means of multi-directional images to provide new information of these lesions. (author)

  14. Testbeam Studies of Production Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A; Batkova, L; Batusov, V; Beck, H P; Bednar, P; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Caprini, M; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Corso-Radu, A; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Djobava, T; Dobson, M; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eriksson, D; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Febbraro, R; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Francis, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gorini, B; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Gruwé, M; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; Isaev, A; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Kazarov, A; Khandanyan, H; Khramov, J; Khubua, J; Kolos, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Lesser, J; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Makouski, M; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Mosidze, M; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Nordkvist, B; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Petersen, J; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsev, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevitch, I; Says, L-P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Da Silva, P; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Soloviev, I; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Stavina, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tremblet, L; Tsiareshka, P; Tylmad, M; Underwood, D; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200~calorimeter cells the variation of the response was {2.4\\,\\%}. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5\\,\\% for 91~measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of {1.4\\,\\%} for the modules and projective angles studied. The respon...

  15. Characterization and commissioning of the ATLAS micromegas quadruplet prototype

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068921

    2016-01-01

    Micromegas (Micro Mesh Gaseous Structure) chambers have been chosen for the New Small Wheel (NSW) project, the upgrade of the forward muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment both to provide precision tracking and contribute to the trigger. A quadruplet (1m $\\times$ 0.5m) has been built at the CERN laboratories, it will serve as prototype for the future ATLAS chambers. This detector is realized using resistive-strip technology and decoupling the amplification mesh from the readout structure. The four readout planes host overall 4096 strips with a pitch of 415 $\\mu m$. A complete detector characterization carried out with cosmic rays, X-Ray source and dedicated test beam is discussed. Characterization is done using analog front-end chip (APV25). The efforts that lead to the chamber construction and the preparation for the installation in the ATLAS experimental cavern are presented. Finally, an overview of the readout system developed for this prototype, and integration into the ATLAS Data Acquisition System i...

  16. Characterization and commissioning of the ATLAS micromegas quadruplet prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele; The ATLAS collaboration; Iengo, Paolo; Lin, Tai-hua; Schott, Matthias; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Wotschack, Jorg; Zibell, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas (Micro Mesh Gaseous Detector) chambers have been chosen for the upgrade of the forward muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment to provide precision tracking and also to contribute to the trigger. A quadruplet (1m X 0.5m) has been built at the CERN laboratories, it will serve as prototype for the future ATLAS chambers. This detector is realized using resistive-strip technology and decoupling the amplification mesh from the readout structure. The four readout planes host overall 4096 strips with a pitch of 415$\\mu m$. A complete detector characterization carried out with cosmic rays, X-Ray source and dedicated test beam is discussed, characterization is obtained by use of analog front-end chip (APV25). The efforts that lead to the chamber construction and the preparation for the installation in the ATLAS experimental cavern are presented. Finally, an overview of the readout system developed for this prototype, and integration in to the ATLAS Data Acquisition System is provided.

  17. Energy Measurement of Hadrons with the CERN ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Speckmayer, Peter; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose detector measuring the energy and direction of particles produced in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV provided by the Large Hadron Collider at the European center of particle physics, CERN. The main aim of this thesis is to assess the precision of the present understanding of the interactions of hadrons with matter (as implemented in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations) to describe the response of the ATLAS calorimeter and to predict the correction necessary to measure the full energy of pions. The simulations are compared to testbeam data. The present description of the response of the ATLAS central calorimeter is able to predict the energy corrections, as verified by using testbeam data. For the Combined Testbeam 2004 (CTB) a full slice of the central region of the ATLAS detector including all sub-detectors has been installed in the H8 beam line of the CERN SPS accelerator. Pions and electrons with the energies ranging from 1 to 350 GeV have been m...

  18. The performance and development of the ATLAS Inner Detector Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washbrook, A.

    2014-02-01

    A description of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) software trigger algorithms and the performance of the ID trigger for LHC Run 1 are presented, as well as prospects for a redesign of the tracking algorithms in Run 2. The ID trigger HLT algorithms are essential for a large number of signatures within the ATLAS trigger. During the shutdown, modifications are being made to the LHC machine, to increase both the beam energy and luminosity. This in turn poses significant challenges for the trigger algorithms both in terms of execution time and physics performance. To meet these challenges the ATLAS HLT software is being restructured to run as a single stage rather than in the two distinct levels present during the Run 1 operation. This is allowing the tracking algorithms to be redesigned to make optimal use of the CPU resources available and to integrate new detector systems being added to ATLAS for post-shutdown running. Expected future improvements in the timing and efficiencies of the Inner Detector triggers are also discussed. In addition, potential improvements in the algorithm performance resulting from the additional spacepoint information from the new Insertable B-Layer are presented.

  19. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and the sensor which can stand radiation levels beyond 5E15 neq/cm2. ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation and allows detector cooling with CO2 at -40C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and test ready for installation in ATLAS in 2013. The presentation summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip with new sensors, the construction ...

  20. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Loddenkoetter, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's largest particle accelerator. After a successful start run at 900 GeV in 2009, during 2010, LHC will collide two proton beams at an unprecedented centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. ATLAS is one of the four multipurpose experiments that will record the products of the LHC proton‐proton collisions. ATLAS is equipped, among others, with a charged particle tracking system built on two different technologies: silicon planar sensors and drift‐tube based detectors constituting the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). In order to achieve its scientific goals, ATLAS has quite exigent tracking performance requirements. Thus, the goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensors location should not deteriorate the resolution of the track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. In this manner the required precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors in its most sensitive direction is below 10 micrometers. T...