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Sample records for atlantoaxial transarticular screw

  1. C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability due to rheumatoid arthritis: a seven-year analysis of outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagaria, Jabir

    2009-12-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: Observational study. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this article was to report long-term (minimum 7 years) clinical and radiologic outcome of our series of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis who underwent transarticular screw fixation to treat atlantoaxial subluxation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The indications for intervention in patients with atlantoaxial instability are pain, myelopathy, and progressive neurologic deficit. The various treatment options available for these patients are isolated C1-C2 fusion, occipitocervical fusion with or without transoral surgery. Review of current literature suggests that C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation has significant functional benefits, although there is discrepancy in this literature regarding improvement in function following surgery. METHODS.: Myelopathy was assessed using Ranawat myelopathy score and Myelopathy Disability Index. Pain scores were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale. The radiologic imaging was assessed and the following data were extracted; atlanto-dens interval, space available for cord, presence of signal change on T2 weighted image, and fusion rates. RESULTS.: Thirty-seven patients, median age 56, were included in the study. Average duration of neck symptoms was 15.8 months. Average duration of rheumatoid arthritis before surgery was 20.6 years. Preoperative symptoms: suboccipital pain in 26 patients; neck pain, 32; myelopathy, 22; and 5 were asymptomatic. After surgery: suboccipital pain, 2; neck pain, 3; and myelopathy, 10. Ninety percent patients with neck and suboccipital pain improved after surgery in their Visual Analogue pain scores, with all of them having >50% improvement in VAS scores (6.94-2.12 [P < 0.05]).Preoperative Ranawat grade was as follows: grade 1 in 15 patients, grade 2 in 7, and grade 3a in 14, grade 3b in 1.After surgery: grade 1 in 27 patients, grade 2 in 7, grade 3a in 1, and grade 3b in 2. The mean

  2. Bilateral C1-C2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation and bone graft fusion for reducible atlantoaxial dislocation: a seven-year analysis of outcome.

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    Xiang Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation was developed on the basis of transarticular screws fixation. The modified technique has showed a better biomechanical stability than established techniques in previous study. However, long-term (minimum follow-up 7 years outcomes of patients with reducible atlantoaxial dislocation who underwent this modified fixation technique have not still been reported. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of 36 patients who underwent this modified technique. Myelopathy was assessed using the Ranawat myelopathy score and Myelopathy Disability Index. Pain scores were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale. Radiological imaging was assessed and the following data were extracted: the atlantodental intervals, the space available for cord, presence of spinal cord signal change on T2 weighted image, C1-C2 angle, C2-C7 angle and fusion rates. FINDINGS: All patients achieved a minimum seven-year follow up. 95% patients with neck and suboccipital pain improved after surgery; in their Visual Analogue pain scores, there was a greater than 50% improvement in their VAS scores with a drop of 5 points on the VAS (P<0.05. 92% of patients improved in the Ranawat myelopathy grade; the Myelopathy Disability Index assessment showed a preoperative mean score of 35.62 with postoperative mean 12.75(P<0.05. There was not any significant atlantoaxial instability at each follow-up time. The space available for cord increased in all patients. Postoperative sagittal kyphosis of the subaxial spine was not observed. After six months after surgery, bone grafts of all patients were fused. No complications related to surgery were found in the period of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term outcomes of this case series demonstrate that under the condition of thorough preoperative preparations, bilateral C1-C2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation and bone graft fusion is a

  3. Bilateral C1–C2 Transarticular Screw and C1 Laminar Hook Fixation and Bone Graft Fusion for Reducible Atlantoaxial Dislocation: A Seven-Year Analysis of Outcome

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    Guo, Xiang; Ni, Bin; Xie, Ning; Lu, Xuhua; Guo, Qunfeng; Lu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation was developed on the basis of transarticular screws fixation. The modified technique has showed a better biomechanical stability than established techniques in previous study. However, long-term (minimum follow-up 7 years) outcomes of patients with reducible atlantoaxial dislocation who underwent this modified fixation technique have not still been reported. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of 36 patients who underwent this modified technique. Myelopathy was assessed using the Ranawat myelopathy score and Myelopathy Disability Index. Pain scores were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale. Radiological imaging was assessed and the following data were extracted: the atlantodental intervals, the space available for cord, presence of spinal cord signal change on T2 weighted image, C1–C2 angle, C2–C7 angle and fusion rates. Findings All patients achieved a minimum seven-year follow up. 95% patients with neck and suboccipital pain improved after surgery; in their Visual Analogue pain scores, there was a greater than 50% improvement in their VAS scores with a drop of 5 points on the VAS (Patlantoaxial instability at each follow-up time. The space available for cord increased in all patients. Postoperative sagittal kyphosis of the subaxial spine was not observed. After six months after surgery, bone grafts of all patients were fused. No complications related to surgery were found in the period of follow-up. Conclusions The long-term outcomes of this case series demonstrate that under the condition of thorough preoperative preparations, bilateral C1–C2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation and bone graft fusion is a reliable posterior atlantoaxial fusion technique for reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. PMID:24498163

  4. Percutaneous Posterior Trans-Articular Atlantoaxial Fixation for the Treatment of Odontoid Fractures in the Elderly; a Prospective Study.

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    Alhashash, Mohamed; Shousha, Mootaz; Gendy, Hany; Barakat, Ahmed Samir; Boehm, Heinrich

    2017-09-15

    A prospective study of 20 multimorbid patients older than 65 years undergoing minimally invasive surgical treatment for odontoid fracture. To analyze the results of percutaneous transarticular atlantoaxial screw fixation as a new minimally invasive treatment modality in this high risk group of patients. Odontoid fractures are a common injury pattern in the elderly. These fractures typically present significant challenges as geriatric patients often have multiple comorbidities that may adversely affect fracture management. Despite numerous publications on this subject, with a trend toward primary operative stabilization, the appropriate treatment for this frequent and potentially life threatening injury remains controversial. Between January 2013 and December 2015 twenty consecutive patients underwent posterior percutaneous transarticular atlantoaxial screw fixation for odontoid fracture type II. The two main inclusion criteria were age 65 years or older and ASA score of III or IV. The screws were inserted percutaneously with the help of two fluoroscopy devices. Clinical and radiological examinations were regularly performed for a minimum of 18 months postoperatively. The mean age was 81 years, all of them with multiple comorbidities. Reduction of the fracture and screw insertion was possible in all cases. The mean operative time was 51.75 minutes and mean blood loss was 41.7 ml. Three patients died in the first three months after surgery. Healing of the fracture occurred in 15 patients (88.2%). Revision surgery was not necessary in any of the patients. Mean VAS (visual analogue scale) at the final follow-up was 2.4, and mean patient satisfaction score was 7.1. Percutaneous transarticular atlantoaxial fixation in elderly patients offers a good minimally invasive operative treatment in this multimorbid group of patients. This new technique with short operative time is well tolerated by the geriatric patients leading to a healing rate up to 88%. 4.

  5. Posterior atlantoaxial fixation: a review of all techniques.

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    Huang, Da-Geng; Hao, Ding-Jun; He, Bao-Rong; Wu, Qi-Ning; Liu, Tuan-Jiang; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Hua; Fang, Xiang-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Posterior atlantoaxial fixation is an effective treatment for atlantoaxial instability. Great advancements on posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques have been made in the past decades. However, there is no article reviewing all the posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques yet. The aim was to review the evolution and advancements of posterior atlantoaxial fixation. This was a literature review. The application of all posterior fixation techniques in atlantoaxial stabilization, including wiring techniques, interlaminar clamp fixation, transarticular fixation, screw-plate systems, screw-rod systems, and hook-screw systems, are reviewed and discussed. Recent advancements on the novel technique of atlantoaxial fixation are described. The combination of the C1 and C2 screws in screw-rod systems are described in detail. All fixation techniques are useful. The screw-rod system appears to be the most popular approach. However, many novel or modified fixation methods have been introduced in recent years. Great advancements on posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques have been made in the past decades. The wiring technique and interlaminar clamps technique have fallen out of favor because of the development of newer and superior fixation techniques. The C1-C2 transarticular screw technique may remain the gold standard for atlantoaxial fusion, whereas screw-rod systems, especially the C1 pedicle screw combined with C2 pedicle/pars screw fixation, have become the most popular fixation techniques. Hook-screw systems are alternatives for atlantoaxial fixation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. C2 translaminar screw as the optimal choice for atlantoaxial dislocation with C2-C3 congenital fusion.

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    Zhou, Fengjin; Ni, Bin; Li, Songkai; Yang, Jian; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Zhuangchen

    2010-12-01

    The entry point and trajectory are very important for transarticular screw (TAS) and C2 pedicle screw (PDS) plantation. When the physical size is not large enough for the screw passing through, an accurate entry point is the most important point for successful screw insertion without vertebral artery (VA) injury and spinal cord injury. Once the laminas of C2 and C3 are fused, the normal anatomic mark might disappear and the insertion point would be hard to find. As a result, the complication of TAS or PDS implantation increases rapidly. We used C2 translaminar screws (TLSs) with C1 lateral mass screws as the optimal fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation in order to reduce the risk of VA injury and spinal cord injury. A 37-year-old woman with atlantoaxial dislocation due to obsolete odontoid fracture complained of neck pain and myelopathy. Preoperative CT reconstruction showed C2-C3 fusion and small size of C2 isthmus. The patient underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion using C1 lateral mass screws and C2 TLSs. The posterior arch of atlas was removed for decompression and fusion was done at C1-C2 joints by grafting bone fragments from the posterior iliac crest. TLSs combined with C1 lateral mass screws might be a useful technique for patients with atlantoaxial dislocation and C2-C3 fusion, especially with small size of C2 isthmus. Also, the fusion of posterior elements between C2 and C3 might be a relative contraindication for TAS fixation.

  7. Posterior atlantoaxial transpedicle screw fixation for traumatic atlatoaxial instability

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    Zheng-lei WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of posterior atlantoaxial pedicle screw fixation for traumatic atlantoaxial instability. Methods From September 2009 to March 2013, 17 patients with atlantoaxial instability received posterior atlantoaxial pedicle screw fixation. There were 12 males and 5 females, with a mean age of 42 years old (ranged from 19 to 63 years old. Transpedicle screw fixation was employed in 8 patients with atlantoaxial fracture and dislocation, in 2 with traumatic disruption of transverse atlantal ligament, and in 7 with odontoid fracture. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score before operation was from 5 to 14, with a mean of 11.2. Preoperative CT, MRI and radiographs, as well as intraoperative screw placement and bone graft were administered in all the patients. Results In all the patients, complete reduction was achieved without injury to the vertebral artery, spinal cord or never root, and they started to be ambulatory on the first day after the operation. The patients were followed up for 6-36 months (mean 21 months, and clinical symptoms were seen to be improved significantly. Imaging reexamination 6 months after the surgery showed satisfactory healing of implanted bone and position of all the screws without loosening of the implant. The mean JOA scores was 15.5(11.0-17.0 twelve months after the operation. Conclusion Atlantoaxial pedicle screw fixation for traumatic atlantoaxial instability is safe and reliable with a favorable clinical result. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.14

  8. A Method to Prevent Occipitocervical Joint Violation Using Plain Radiography During Percutaneous Anterior Transarticular Screw Fixation.

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    Jin, Hai-Ming; Xu, Dao-Liang; Xuan, Jun; Chen, Jiao-Xiang; Goswami, Amit; Chen, Xi-Bang; Wu, Ai-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-09-01

    A prospective study of anterior transarticular screw (ATS) fixation patients. To develop a method to determine screw tip position through plain radiography after percutaneous ATS fixation to prevent occipitocervical joint (OCJ) violation. No studies using plain radiography to prevent OCJ violation during percutaneous ATS fixation have been performed. In total, 34 subjects (with 68 screws) who had undergone percutaneous ATS fixation were enrolled. To evaluate the screw tip location in relation to the C1 lateral mass (LM), the screw tip positions were graded 1, 2, or 3 on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs, and I, II, or III on lateral radiographs. OCJ violation was analyzed by postoperative computed tomography (CT). Screws with tips located lower (tip I) in the LM did not result in OCJ violation. Only one tip in the tip 3 position showed OCJ perforation, and this screw was also located in tip III. Screw perforation rates of tip 1-tip II, tip 1-tip III, and tip 2-tip III were the highest (100%), followed by tip 2-tip II (10.5%) and tip3-tip III (10%). This study provides insights into OCJ violation during percutaneous ATS fixation. According to AP radiography, a percutaneous ATS with the screw tip located in the lateral part of the LM resulted in a lower rate of OCJ perforation, whereas screws located in the medial LM resulted in the highest rate of perforation. Percutaneous ATS with the screw tip located in the neutral part of the LM should ensure that the screw tip is below the upper part of the LM, preventing OCJ violation. These findings may help surgeons assess screw positioning both during and after the operation. 3.

  9. [Clinical application of atlantoaxial pedicle screw internal fixation for treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation].

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    Yang, Yong-Jun; Zhang, En-Zhong; Tan, Yuan-Chao; Zhou, Ji-Ping; Yao, Shu-Qiang; Jiang, Chuan-Jie; Cong, Pei-Yan

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of atlantoaxial pedicle screw internal fixation for treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation. Sixteen patients with atlantoaxial dislocation were treated from Dec. 2005 to June 2007, included 10 males and 6 females, aged from 38 to 45 years old (means 40.5 years). Among them 12 patients combined with nerve injury, according to ASIA grade: there were 3 cases in grade B, 5 cases in grade C, 4 cases in grade D. All patients received preoperative CT, radiograph and skull traction. Intraoperative posterior approach general spine pedicle screw-rod orthopaedics fixation system used and iliac bone block were implanted in space of posterior atlantal arch and axial vertebral plate. The outcome and complications were observed in the near future. There was no vascular or neural injury found. The patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months (means 18 months). All head pain, acid storm symptoms were improved after operation. According to the Odom's clinical efficacy evaluation standard, 12 cases were excellent, 4 were good. Eleven cases of 12 with nerve injury recovered significantly. By ASIA classification: 1 cases was in grade B, 2 cases were in grade C, 5 cases were in grade D, 4 cases were in grade E. No looseness or breakage of screw occurred. Bony fusion was achieved in all cases. Posterior approach atlantoaxial pedicle screw internal fixation have the advantages of direct screw placement, short-segment fusion, intraoperative reduction, fixation reliable, high fusion rate, and it can restablish the upper cervical vertebrae stability and help to recover the spinal cord and nerve function.

  10. Biomechanical comparison of the pull-down strength between TARP system and posterior atlantoaxial screw fixation system on the axis

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    Hong XIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the pull-down strength on axis between anterior transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP system and posterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation (ATSF system so as to provide a biomechanical basis for clinical application. Methods Six fresh human cadaveric atlantoaxial specimens (C0-C3 with intact ligaments were instrumented with TARP system and ATSF system respectively to simulate the reduction procedure of operation, the same stretch strength were loaded on anterior and posterior parts of the atlas and axis (60, 80 and 100N. The pull-down strength on the axis and the degree of displacement of atlantoaxial detachment were measured respectively and then analyzed statistically. Results When loaded with the stretch strength of 60, 80 and 100N, the pull-down strength on the axis generated by TARP system were 26.11±2.08, 36.08±2.40 and 45.01±2.26N, and those generated by ATSF system were 22.09±1.45, 29.77±2.36 and 40.80±3.41N, respectively; the atlantoaxial detaching displacement generated by TARP system was 0.87±0.07, 1.07±0.07 and 1.14±0.06mm respectively, and those generated by ATSF system were 0.82±0.07, 1.01±0.08 and 1.06±0.08mm respectively. The pull-down strength on both the axis and atlantoaxial detaching displacement showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion The pull-down strength on the axis and atlantoaxial detaching displacement generated by TARP system was significantly superior to those generated by ATSF system, suggesting that the TARP system could be a better fixation system for basilar invagination combined with atlantoaxial dislocation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.04

  11. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

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    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load under axial compression and torsion, single cycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  12. [Progress on atlanto-axial pedicle screw fixation through posterior approach].

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    Li, Guo-Qing; Ma, Wei-Hu; Liu, Guan-Yi

    2014-06-01

    The present of atlanto-axial pedicle screw fixation through posterior approach provide a new remedy for treating instability of pillow and cervical. A lot of researches have reported feasibility of atlanto-axial pedicle screw fixation, the results showed that it had advantages of easily exposure, less blood loss, shorter operative time, especially in treating as remedy fixation for atlanto-axial joint screw, atlas lateral mass screws and pedicle screw caused by injuries of tumor,inflammation and trauma. If not done properly, it can cause serious complications, such as iatrogenic fracture,injuries of vertebral artery and cervical spinal cord. Therefore,the safty and effectiveness of atlanto-axial pedicle screw fixation may be focus of research.

  13. Artrodesis C1C2 con tornillos transarticulares en artritis reumatoidea: experiencia y revisión de la literatura Artrodese C1 C2 com parafusos transarticulares em artrite reumatoide: experiência e revisão de literatura C1 C2 arthrodesis with transarticular screws in rheumatoid arthritis: experience and literature review

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    Lyonel Beaulieu Lalanne

    2011-01-01

    tratamento cirúrgico. Foi realizada a fixação C1-C2 com parafusos transarticulares por via posterior e cerclagem com fio metálico e enxerto autólogo. O Índice de Ranawat pré e pós-operatorio foi registrado, assim como a distância anterior atlas-dontoide (DAAO, o tempo operatório, os dias de hospitalização, as complicações trans e pós-operatórias e o tempo de consolidação. O seguimento médio foi de 34 meses. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do Índice de Ranawat no pós-operatório, a DAAO pré-operatória média foi de 11,9 cm (DP ± 2,57, variação de 7 a 16, e a DAAO pós-operatória média foi de 3 cm (DP ± 1,20, com a variação de 2 a 6. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 94 minutos e o período médio de de hospitalização foi 7 dias. Não foram observadas complicações intraoperatórias. Um paciente apresentou seroma de ferida operatória que necessitou de tratamento cirúrgico. O tempo de consolidação foi em média 14 semanas. CONCLUSÃO: A artrodese atlanto-axial com parafusos e cerclagem com fio metálico é uma boa alternativa no tratamento da instabilidade C1-C2 nos pacientes portadores de AR, proporcionando bons resultados clínicos e radiológicos.OBJECTIVE: Present the long term clinical and radiological results in C1-C2 transarticular screws technique with posterior wiring in RA patients and presenting the current literature review. METHODS: From 2002 to 2006, eleven patients (9 women and 2 men with RA and C1-C2 instability underwent C1-C2 arthrodesis with transarticular screws plus posterior wiring and autologous iliac crest bone graft. A retrospective chart and radiographic review was performed. Ranawat Index was recorded in pre- and post-operative, as well as anterior atlantodental interval (AADI, operating time, days of hospitalization and complications. The mean follow up (FU was 34 months. RESULTS: All patients presented improved Ranawat Index at follow up. Average pre-operative AADI was 11,9mm (SD ± 2

  14. Treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation using the transoral atlantoaxial pedicle screw technique. A report of 10 cases.

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    Zheng, Yi; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Yin, Yi-Hong; Yin, Qing-Shui; Zhang, Kai

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the outcome of the transoral atlantoaxial pedicle screw technique for the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD). A total of 10 patients with IAAD were treated using the transoral atlantoaxial pedicle screw technique. We compared preoperative and postoperative JOA (Japanese Orthopedic Association) scores and observed bone graft fusion rate of the atlantoaxial joint, and examined whether our technique was suitable for the treatment of IAAD. The mean preoperative and postoperative JOA scores (9.2 ± 0.63 and 12.9 ± 0.73, respectively) were significantly different (P atlantoaxial rigid bony fusion rate was 100 % in 10 cases. All cases were followed up for an average of 5.1 years (range 3.5-6 years). The transoral atlantoaxial screw reconstruction plate technique is a novel surgical technique for the treatment of IAAD in upper cervical diseases.

  15. Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture and neurologic deficit: a case report and the review of literature.

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    Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Shen, Lei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hao; Dai, Li-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without related fracture of the odontoid process is very rare, and only ten cases have been previously reported. The objective of this paper was to describe a case of traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without related fracture of the odontoid process, and its management with atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and bony fusion through an anterior retropharyngeal approach, and to review the relevant literature. The patient's medical and radiographic history is reviewed as well as the relevant medical literature. Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation was confirmed in a 48-year-old male struck by an automobile through conventional radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. No related fracture of the odontoid process or neurological deficit was found in this patient. Transarticular screw fixation of the atlantoaxial articulation through anterior retropharyngeal approach was performed after several unsuccessful attempts of closed reduction. At the latest follow-up, the lateral cervical spine radiography in flexion and extension demonstrated no instability of the atlantoaxial complex 21 months after the operation. In conclusion, patients with posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture may survive with few or no-long term neurological deficit. Routine CT and MRI of the cervical spine should be carried out in patients with head or neck trauma to prevent missing of this rare clinical entity. Transarticular screw fixation of the atlantoaxial articulation through anterior retropharyngeal approach is safe and useful in case the management of dislocation is unsuccessful under closed reduction.

  16. A comparison C1-C2 transarticular screw placement after self-education and mentored education of orthopaedic residents.

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    Kirkpatrick, John S

    2012-08-01

    Prospective randomized trial. This study will provide preliminary data on whether residents can be "self-taught" and to what extent a lecture, demonstration, and coaching can improve skills and knowledge. Practice-based learning is an essential competency in Accreditation Council for graduate Medical Education-accredited residencies. Little has been done to demonstrate whether residents can be self-taught or benefit from mentoring in understanding and performing difficult surgical tasks. A written test was given to orthopedic residents on C1-C2 transarticular screw placement. They were then provided reading on C1-C2 transarticular screw placement. Residents were then divided into a "self-directed learning" group and a "mentored learning" group. All residents then performed the technique on models, with the "mentored" group receiving a lecture and coaching from the mentor. The models were analyzed for technique errors and the previous test was administered again as a posttest. The test and screw placement were repeated 4 months later. Residents without mentoring had an average improvement of 4.5 points, those with mentoring had average improvement of 8.6 points (P=0.0068). The screw placement technique error rate for the nonmentored group (n=8) was 2.55, and for the mentored group (n=9) was 1.47 (P=0.004). Sixteen residents completed the delayed test, 7 from the nonmentored groups and 8 from the mentored group. Nine residents were able to repeat the screw placement technique 4 months after the initial test and screw placement, 3 nonentored, and 6 mentored. Although there were some trends toward the mentored group having better retention, neither knowledge nor skill was statistically different. This preliminary trial seems to indicate that residents provided a lecture and guided technical instruction will obtain knowledge and perform procedures better than those that do not. Conclusions based upon Post Graduate year, motivation, and interest in spine surgery could

  17. The efficacy of pedicle screw instrument in treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.

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    Zhai, Ming-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ping; Liu, Feng; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Peng

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effect of pedicle screw instrument in treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. From June 2003 to February 2009, 14 cases of atlas dislocation with upper cervical cord compression were enrolled and anterior transoral soft tissue release combined with posterior reduction and pedicle screw fixation were performed. CT, MRI and radiograph were used preoperatively, and screw placement and bone graft were administered in all cases intraoperatively. Cervical collars were used for 3 months. Screws were successfully placed in atlas in all cases. The average follow-up period was 18 months. Bone fusion was observed in all cases without the following complications: neurologic symptoms, internal fixation failure and redislocation. Neurological recovery was observed in all 14 cases. Pedicle screw instrument has the following advantages in atlas and axis injury treatment: direct screw placement, short-segment fusion, intraoperative reduction and high fusion rate, which should be a better surgical method for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation.

  18. The application of atlantoaxial screw and rod fixation in revision operations for postoperative re-dislocation in children.

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    Ma, XiangYang; Yin, QingShui; Xia, Hong; Wu, ZengHui; Yang, JinCheng; Liu, JingFa; Xu, JunJie; Qiu, Feng

    2015-03-01

    We evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of atlantoaxial screw and rod fixation for revision operations in the treatment of re-dislocation after atlantoaxial operations in children. Eight consecutive children with atlantoaxial instability required a revision operation due to atlantoaxial re-dislocation caused by the failure of the initial posterior wire fixation. The children were 5-11 years of age with an average age of 8.5 years. The posterior atlantoaxial screw and rod fixation and fusion operation was then performed. Autograft bones harvested from rib (in 3 patients), local bone (2 patients), and the iliac crest bone (3 patients) were used. There were no complications such as vertebral artery or spinal cord injury during the operations or loosening or fracture of the fixations after the operations. Stability and reduction of the atlantoaxial segments were achieved in all patients postoperatively. Follow-up time was 24-55 months, with an average of 35 months. All patients achieved solid osseous fusion demonstrated on plain radiographs or CT scanning. Atlantoaxial screw and rod fixation is feasible in children and may be considered for use during the initial operation in the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation in children to minimize the need for a revision operation. If a revision operation is required, atlantoaxial screw-rod fixation is a safe and effective method. Because the anatomical structure is complicated in revision operation patients, CAD-RP technology could guide the the procedures of exposure and screw placement.

  19. Screw fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation related to Down syndrome in children younger than 5 years.

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    Ito, Kenyu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present cases of upper cervical fixation in Down syndrome patients younger than 5 years. In two cases, C1 lateral mass screws were installed. However, owing to the irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, the screw backed out and fractured. Therefore, O-C2 fusion was performed. Furthermore, C2 bilateral lamina screws were added to the C2 pedicle screw for reinforcement. C1-C2 fusion is an option for Down syndrome patients younger than 5 years with atlantoaxial dislocation, when the dislocation is reducible. If the dislocation is irreducible, or the implant cannot be firmly secured, the fixation range should be expanded to O-C2 or below.

  20. Transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate internal fixation with transoral transpedicular or articular mass screw of c2 for the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: two case reports.

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    Ai, Fu-Zhi; Yin, Qing-Shui; Xu, Da-Chuan; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Mai, Xiao-Hong

    2011-04-15

    Retrospective report of two surgical cases and review of the literature. To report the clinical application of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP) internal fixation with a novel technique of transoral transpedicular or articular mass screw of C2 in the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination with ventral spinal cord compression. Current surgical treatments for IAAD have various disadvantages, such as posterior decompression followed by atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fusion with unsatisfactory decompression, transoral decompression, and one-stage posterior instrumentation needing two approaches although with satisfactory decompression, resection of dens and/or clivus with potential risk of spinal cord injury and CSF leakeage. TARP system with a novel technique of transoral transpedicular screw or articular mass screw of C2 was designed and employed for two patients with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, during which one case was with basilar invagination. The histories of the cases and the novel technique of transoral articular mass screw and transpedicular screw insertion of C2 were reported in detail. The two case examples demonstrate the efficacy of this one-stage single transoral approach to the surgical treatment of irreducible anterior atlantoaxial dislocation with spinal cord compression especially in the case of basilar invagination. The role of the TARP in affecting and maintaining the reduction while promoting successful fusion is illustrated. The authors' one-stage anterior procedure employing the TARP for the surgical treatment of irreducible anterior atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination was effective in these two cases. This method was able to avoid the need for dens and clivus resection and/or a posterior instrumentation and fusion procedure. The technique of transoral articular mass screw and transpedicular screw insertion of C2 was valuable for transoral atlantoaxial plate internal

  1. [Transpedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine for treating atlantoaxial instability and dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Quan, Zhengxue; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ke

    2010-02-01

    To explore the surgical feasibility and clinical outcome of transpedicle screw fixation in treatment of atlantoaxial instability and dislocation. From January 2007 to June 2009, 16 patients with atlantoaxial instability and dislocation were treated with transpedicle screw fixation. There were 13 males and 3 females, with a mean age of 42 years (range, 24-61 years). The transpedicle screw fixation was employed in 5 patients with old odontoid fracture (4 of Anderson type II and 1 of type III), in 4 patients with fresh odontoid fracture, in 4 patients with traumatic disruption of transverse atlantal ligament, and in 3 patients with congenital odontoid disconnection for atlantoaxial instability. All patients had symptoms of cervical pain and limiting of cervical motion, 10 patients complicated by dyscinesia and hypoesthesia of extremities. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before operation was from 5 to 13, with an average of 8.5. The image examination showed atlantoaxial instability or dislocation in all patients. Granulated autogenous ilium (20-30 g) was placed onto the surface of the posterior arches of both atlas and axis in some patients with old fracture of odontoid process or disruption of transverse atlantal ligament. The mean operative time and bleeding amount were 1.6 hours (1.2-2.5 hours) and 100 mL (50-200 mL), respectively. All the incision healed by first intension. All patients were followed up for 3-18 months, with an average of 11.5 months. The JOA score 3 months after operation was from 12 to 17, with an average of 14.2. All screws were successfully placed in atlas and axis. No postoperative complications such as vertebral artery injury, dural rupture, exacerbation of neurological symptoms, wound infection, and broken screws were observed in 16 cases. Postoperative radiograph and CT showed that only one screw penetrated into vertebral canal, but there was no neurological symptoms. Bony fusion was observed after 6 to 18 months of

  2. [A novel computer-assisted drill template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement:a cadaveric experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Yuan, Zhen-shan; Xie, Hui; Yuan, Jian-bing; Dong, Wei-xin; Wang, Cheng-tao

    2013-09-03

    To validate the accuracy of atlanto-axial pedicle screw placement with a rapid prototyping drill guide template and analyze the factors of screw deviations. Computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 16 cervical specimens. And three-dimension cervical vertebrae was reconstructed by Mimics software. The ideal trajectory for atlanto-axial pedicle screws was designed with a complementary basal template for posterior surface of atlanto-axial corresponding anatomical structure. Then drill guide template was materialized in a rapid prototyping machine. These templates were used during operation. The entry point and ideal and actual trajectories were measured after matching the positions of preoperative and postoperative specimens at designated coordinate axis. The average displacement of entry point of left and right C1 pedicle screw in x, y, z axis was (0.14 ± 0.59),(0.31 ± 1.32), (0.27 ± 0.68), (0.23 ± 0.55), (0.43 ± 1.21) and (0.30 ± 0.72) mm. And the average displacement of entry point of left and right C2 pedicle screw in m, n, p axis was (0.25 ± 0.85), (0.52 ± 1.52), (-0.27 ± 0.67), (0.44 ± 0.87), (0.38 ± 1.48), (-0.14 ± 0.62) mm.No statistically significant difference existed (P > 0.05) in deviation of entry point and between ideal and actual trajectories. Both human handling and inherent hardware and software factors are main reasons for a deviation of C1-C2 pedicle screw placement assisted by a rapid prototyping drill guide template.Ease of operation and individualized design are the advantages of drill guide template so as to greatly improve the precision of screw placement and reduce screw deviation.

  3. Atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijendra K

    2012-01-01

    Atlanto-axial dislocations (AADs) may be classified into four varieties depending upon the direction and plane of the dislocation i.e. anteroposterior, rotatory, central, and mixed dislocations. However, from the surgical point of view these are divided into two categories i.e. reducible (RAADs) and irreducible (IAADs). Posterior fusion is the treatment of choice for RAAD. Transarticular screw fixation with sub-laminar wiring is the most stable& method of posterior fusion. Often, IAAD is due to inadequate extension in dynamic X-ray study which may also be due to spasm of muscles. If the anatomy at the occipito-atlanto-axial region {O-C1-C2; O: occiput, C1: atlas, C2: axis} is normal on X-ray, the dislocation should be reducible. In case congenital anomalies at O-C1-C2 and IAAD are seen on flexion/extension studies of the cervical spine, the C1-C2 joints should be seen in computerized tomography scan (CT). If the C1-C2 joint facet surfaces are normal, the AAD should be reducible by cervical traction or during surgery by mobilizing the joints. The entity termed "dolichoodontoid" does not exist. It is invariably C2-C3 (C3- third cervical vertebra) fusion which gives an appearance of dolichoodontoid on plain X-ray or on mid-saggital section of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scan. The central dislocation and axial invagination should not be confused with basilar invagination. Transoral odontoidectomy alone is never sufficient in cases of congenital IAAD, adequate generous three-dimensional decompression while protecting the underlying neural structures should be achieved. Chronic post-traumatic IAAD are usually Type II odontoid fractures which get malunited or nonunited with pseudoarthrosis in dislocated position. All these dislocations can be reduced by transoral removal of the offending bone, callous and fibrous tissue.

  4. Deviation analysis of C1-C2 transarticular screw placement assisted by a novel rapid prototyping drill template: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Yuan, Zhen-Shan; Kepler, Christopher K; Albert, Todd J; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Dong, Wei-Xin; Sun, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Cheng-Tao

    2014-07-01

    Cadaveric study. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the accuracy of a novel navigational template for C1-C2 transarticular screw (C1C2TAS) placement in cadaveric specimens. Currently, C1C2TASs are primarily positioned using a free-hand technique or under fluoroscopic guidance. Screw placement is challenging owing to the small size of the C2 isthmus, which places technical demands on the surgeon. Screw insertion carries a potential risk of neurovascular injury, magnifying the importance of using a precise technique for screw insertion. Computed tomography (CT) scans with 0.625-mm wide cuts were obtained from the 32 cadaveric cervical specimens. The CT data were imported into a computer navigation system. We developed 32 three-dimensional drill templates, which were created by computer modeling using a rapid prototyping technique based on the CT data. We constructed drill templates using a custom trajectory for each level and side based on specimen anatomy. The drill templates were used to guide establishment of a pilot hole for screw placement. The entry point and angular direction of the intended screw positions and inserted screw positions were measured by comparing postoperative and preoperative images after the coordinate axes were synchronized. The average displacement of the entry point of the left and right C1C2TAS in the x-, y-, and z-axis was 0.13±0.90 mm, 0.50±1.50 mm, and -0.22±0.71 mm on the left, and 0.21±1.03 mm, 0.46±1.55 mm, and -0.29±0.58 mm on the right. There was no statistically significant difference in entry point and direction between the intended and actual screw trajectory. The small deviations seen are likely due to human error in the form of small variations in the surgical technique and use of software to design the prototype. This technology improves the safety profile of this fixation technique and should be further studied in clinical applications.

  5. Atlantoaxial dislocation in a patient with nonsyndromic symmetrical dwarfism: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvuru Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ are complex developmental defects. We describe a patient with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD and short stature whose morphopathologydid not fit into any of the previously described syndromic constellations. The patient underwent a reduction of the AAD followed by fixation with C1-C2 transarticular screws. Although numerous syndromes have been linked to both dwarfism and craniovertebral junction anomalies, this patient did not fit into any of these patterns. It is possible that this may be one of the many as yet unrecognized patterns of congenital anomalies.

  6. Comparison of safety and stability of C-2 pars and pedicle screws for atlantoaxial fusion: meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert E; Tanweer, Omar; Boah, Akwasi; Smith, Michael L; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony

    2012-12-01

    Some centers report a lower incidence of vertebral artery (VA) injury with C-2 pars screws compared with pedicle screws without sacrificing construct stability, despite biomechanical studies suggesting greater load failures with C-2 pedicle screws. The authors reviewed published series describing C-2 pars and pedicle screw implantation and atlantoaxial fusions and compared the incidence of VA injury, screw malposition, and successful atlantoaxial fusion with each screw type. Online databases were searched for English-language articles between 1994 and April of 2011 describing the clinical and radiographic outcomes following posterior atlantoaxial fusion with C-1 lateral mass and either C-2 pars interarticularis or pedicle screws. Thirty-three studies describing 2975 C-2 pedicle screws and 11 studies describing 405 C-2 pars screws met inclusion criteria for the safety analysis. Seven studies describing 113 patients treated with C-2 pars screws and 20 studies describing 918 patients treated with C-2 pedicle screws met inclusion criteria for fusion analysis. Standard and formal meta-analysis techniques were used to compare outcomes. All studies provided Class III evidence. Ten instances of VA injury occurred with C-2 pedicle screws (0.3%) and no VA injury occurred with pars screws. The point estimate of VA injury for C-2 pedicle screws was 1.09% (95% CI 0.73%-1.63%) and was similar to that of C-2 pars screws (1.48%, 95% CI 0.62%-3.52%). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of clinically significant screw malpositions (1.14% [95% CI 0.77%-1.69%) vs 1.69% [95% CI 0.73%-3.84%]). Radiographically identified screw malposition occurred in a higher proportion of C-2 pedicle screws compared with C-2 pars screws (6.0% [95% CI 3.7%-9.6%] vs 4.0% [95% CI 2.0%-7.6%], p pars screws (5 [4.4%] of 113) compared with those treated with C-2 pedicle screws (2 [0.22%] of 900). Point estimates with 95% confidence intervals show a slightly higher rate of

  7. Posterior C1-C2 screw and rod instrument for reduction and fixation of basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng Li; Zhou, Ding Biao; Yu, Xin Guang; Yin, Yi Heng; Qiao, Guang Yu

    2014-08-01

    To report the surgical technique and preliminary clinical results for the treatment of basilar invagination (BI) with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) by posterior C1-C2 pedicle screw and rod instrument. Between July 2012 and August 2013, 33 patients who had BI with AAD underwent surgery at our institution. Pre and postoperative three-dimensional computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed to assess the degree of dislocation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate the compression of the medulla oblongata. For all patients, reduction of the AAD was conducted by two steps: fastening nuts and rods was performed to achieve the horizontal reduction. Distraction between C1 and C2 screws was performed to obtain the vertical reduction. No neurovascular injury occurred during surgery. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 15 months (mean 10.38 months) in 32 patients. Post-operative three-dimensional CT showed that complete horizontal reduction was obtained in 30/33 (90.9%), and complete vertical reduction was obtained in 31/33 (93.9%). The repeated three-dimensional CT and MR image demonstrated that bony fusion and the decompression of the medulla oblongata were obtained in all patients. Clinical symptoms improved significantly 3 months after surgery. This C1-C2 pedicle screw and rod instrument is a promising technique for the treatment of BI with AAD.

  8. Impact of Starting Point and Bicortical Purchase of C1 Lateral Mass Screws on Atlantoaxial Fusion: Meta-Analysis and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert E; Tanweer, Omar; Smith, Michael L; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Structured review of literature and application of meta-analysis statistical techniques. Review published series describing clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated with C1 lateral mass screws (C1LMS), specifically analyzing the impact of starting point and bicortical purchase on successful atlantoaxial arthrodesis. Biomechanical studies suggest posterior arch screws and C1LMS with bicortical purchase are stronger than screws placed within the center of the lateral mass or those with unicortical purchase. Online databases were searched for English-language articles between 1994 and 2012 describing posterior atlantal instrumentation with C1LMS. Thirty-four studies describing 1247 patients having posterior atlantoaxial fusion with C1LMS met inclusion criteria. All studies provided class III evidence. Arthrodesis was quite successful regardless of technique (99.0% overall). Meta-analysis and multivariate regression analyses showed that neither posterior arch starting point nor bicortical screw purchase translated into a higher rate of successful arthrodesis. There were no complications from bicortical screw purchase. The Goel-Harms technique is a very safe and successful technique for achieving atlantoaxial fusion, regardless of minor variations in C1LMS technique. Although biomechanical studies suggest markedly increased rigidity of bicortical and posterior arch C1LMS, the significance of these findings may be minimal in the clinical setting of atlantoaxial fixation and fusion with modern techniques. The decision to use either technique must be made after careful review of the preoperative multiplanar computed tomography imaging, assessment of the unique anatomy of each patient, and the demands of the clinical scenario such as bone quality.

  9. Dorsal stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation using non-absorbable sutures in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Masian, D; Luján-Feliu-Pascual, A; Font, C; Mascort, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe a novel dorsal technique for stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation in toy breed dogs using 3-metric nylon suture. Retrospective study. Fifteen toy breed dogs with a body weight of 2 kg or less with atlantoaxial subluxation. The atlantoaxial joint of each dog was surgically stabilized through a dorsal approach by placing a double strand of non-absorbable, 3-metric, nylon suture material between the dorsal muscles of the atlanto-occipital and the atlantoaxial joint muscles. Pre- and postoperative neurological status, diagnostic imaging, and complications were reviewed. Clinical follow-up examination was performed at six months. For long-term assessment, a telephone follow-up was performed. No intra-operative complications were observed. Functional improvement occurred in 12 dogs. One dog did not improve and four dogs required revision surgery. In two of those four cases, suture material breakage was proven and it was suspected in the other two. Two cases underwent a second dorsal approach with the same suture material and two cases underwent a ventral approach (transarticular fixation and multiple implants embedded with polymethylmethacrylate). Dorsal stabilization using 3-metric nylon may be adequate as a safe, effective, and simple alternative technique for atlantoaxial stabilization in toy breed dogs of ≤1.5 kg of weight, in which the use of ventral screws and pins is challenging.

  10. C1 lateral mass screw placement in occipitalization with atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination: a report of 146 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi-heng; Yu, Xin-guang; Qiao, Guang-yu; Guo, Sheng-li; Zhang, Jian-ning

    2014-11-15

    Retrospective study of 146 patients with the diagnosis of occipitalization, atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and basilar invagination, using a novel surgical treatment strategy. To introduce a novel fixation and reduction technique. Atlas occipitalization associated with basilar invagination often result in fixed AAD that need reduction and occipitocervical fixation. The widely used occipitocervical fixation with suboccipital screws has several limitations such as the poor screw purchase in maldevelopment of the occipital bone, limited area available for implants in previous suboccipital craniectomy. The placement of occipitalized C1 lateral mass screw is an alternative option. From June 2007 to June 2013, 146 patients of occipitalized atlas with fixed AAD and basilar invagination, underwent fixation and reduction via C1 lateral mass and C2 pars/pedicle screw. A total of 143 patients achieved the follow-up in the range from 6 months to 4 years (average, 30 mo). Neurological improvement was seen in all the 143 patients, with the averaged Japanese Orthopedic Association scores increasing from 11.6 to 15.5. Radiographical evaluation showed that solid bony fusion was achieved in all patients, and complete reduction was attained in 95 patients, and partial reduction (>60%) in 40 patients, and no effective reduction in 8 patients who had additional transoral decompression. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the ventral cervicomedullary compression was relieved in all patients. Although technically demanding, the C1 lateral mass placement in occipitalization is very useful in the rescue situation where more conventional stabilization alternatives are not technically possible, or as routine occipitocervical stabilization. It provides firm stabilization offering an optimum situation for bony fusion, and meanwhile the effective reduction of fixed AAD and basilar invagination. An extremely high fusion rate can be expected with minimal complications and minimal

  11. [Exploratory study of 3D printing technique in the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yiheng; Yu, Xinguang; Tong, Huaiyu; Xu, Tao; Wang, Peng; Qiao, Guangyu

    2015-10-06

    To investigate the clinical application value of the 3D printing technique in the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation. From January 2013 to September 2013, 10 patients with basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation needing posterior fixation undertook 3D printing modes at the Department of Neurosurgery in PLA General Hospital. The 1:1 size models were established from skull base to C4 level with different colors between bone structures and vertebral arteries. The simulation of screw insertion was made to investigate the fixation plan and ideal entry point to avoid vertebral artery injury. After obtaining the individual screw insertion data in 3D printing modes, the according surgical operations were performed. The actual clinical results and virtual screw data in 3D printing mode were compared with each other. The 3D printing modes revealed that all the 10 patients had the dysplasia or occipitalized C1 posterior arch indicating C1 posterior arch screw implantation was not suitable. C1 lateral masses were chosen as the screws entry points. C2 screws were designed individually based on the 3D printing modes as follows: 3 patients with aberrant vertebral artery or narrow C2 pedicle less than 3.5 mm were not suitable for pedicle screw implantation. Among the 3 patients, 1 was fixed with C2 laminar screw, and 1 with C2-3 transarticular screw and 1 with C3 pedicle screw (also combined with congenital C2-3 vertebral fusion). Two patients with narrow C2 pedicle between 3.5 and 4mm were designed to choose pedicle screw fixation after 3D printing mode evaluation. One patient with C1 lateral mass vertically dislocated axis was planned with C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. All the other patients were planned with C2 pedicle screws. All the 10 patients had operation designed as the 3D printing modes schemes. The follow-up ranged from 12 to 18 months and all the patients recovered from the clinical symptoms and the bony fusion attained to

  12. Accuracy Assessment of Using Rapid Prototyping Drill Templates for Atlantoaxial Screw Placement: A Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using rapid prototyping drill templates (RPDTs for C1 lateral mass screw (C1-LMS and C2 pedicle screw (C2-PS placement. Methods. 23 formalin-fixed craniocervical cadaver specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional method group, intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to assist the screw placement. In the RPDT navigation group, specific RPDTs were constructed for each specimen and were used intraoperatively for screw placement navigation. The screw position, the operating time, and the fluoroscopy time for each screw placement were compared between the 2 groups. Results. Compared with the conventional method, the RPDT technique significantly increased the placement accuracy of the C2-PS (p0.05. Moreover, the RPDT technique significantly decreased the operating and fluoroscopy times. Conclusion. Using RPDTs significantly increases the accuracy of C1-LMS and C2-PS placement while decreasing the screw placement time and the radiation exposure. Due to these advantages, this approach is worth promoting for use in the Harms technique.

  13. Management of Unusual Atlantoaxial Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruipeng; Fan, Daoyang; Wu, Han; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Yilin; Liao, Wensheng; Tan, Hongyu; Wang, Limin; Wang, Weidong

    2017-04-15

    A case report and review of the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the successful treatment of one posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture and to review the relevant literature. Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture of the odontoid process is extremely rare. Management of these patients is still unknown. A posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture in a 58-year-old man with incomplete quadriplegia was treated surgically with posterior atlantoaxial pedicle screws internal fixation and fusion after closed reduction. The images, treatment, and related literature are reviewed. The patient had complete recovery of neurologic deficit and bony fusion of the atlantoaxial joint was identified on the follow-up computed tomography taken 3 months after posterior fixation. To our knowledge, no case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation with neurologic deficit has been previously reported in English medical literature. We described a rare case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation with neurologic deficit. Treatment procedure of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation was presented. 5.

  14. Safety Issues and Neurological Improvement following C1- C2 Fusion using C1 Lateral Mass and C2 Pedicle Screw in Atlantoaxial Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Kwan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of instrumentation methods for C1-C2 fusion from the use of posterior wiring methods to transarticular screws and C1 lateral mass with C2 pedicle screw construct have improved fusion rates to almost 100%. However, the C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw technique is technically demanding. This is a prospective review of a series of ten patients who was planned for C1-C2 fusion using C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw technique between January 2007 and June 2009. The procedure was converted to occipital cervical fusion due to a fracture of a hypoplastic lateral mass-posterior arch complex in one patient and Gallie fusion due to a vertebral artery injury in another. Eight patients underwent the C1-C2 fusion using C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw successfully without any complications. The union rate was 100% with an average union time of 5.3 months (range from 3 to 8 months. Postoperatively, the patients achieved an average of one Frankel grade neurological improvement. In conclusion, this technique provides an excellent union rate and good neurological recovery.

  15. C1-C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation for Atlantoaxial Dislocation in Pediatric Patients Younger than 5 Years: A Case Series of 15 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Hui; Shao, Jiang; Chou, Dean; Wu, Jian-Feng; Song, Jia; Zhang, Jing

    2017-12-01

    C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation has become popular for providing excellent bony purchase and avoiding neurovascular complications. However, it may be technically challenging in children. The objective of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) in pediatric patients younger than 5 years and to evaluate the preliminary clinical and radiographic results. During a 7-year period, 15 patients with a mean age of 3.4 years (range, 2-5 years) underwent C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation for AAD; at least 1 C1 pedicle screw was incorporated as part of the posterior atlantoaxial fusion construct. The cause, surgical technique, instrumentation, and clinical and radiographic results were analyzed. Five patients had preoperative neurologic deficits and no neurovascular injury occurred during surgery. Anterior release using a retropharyngeal approach was performed in 4 cases. Fixation of 55 C1 and C2 pedicle screws was performed successfully without neurovascular complications. Anatomic and partial reductions occurred in 12 and 3 cases, respectively. Solid fusion was achieved in 14 patients (96.9%) during a mean follow-up of 37.6 months (range, 12-111 months). Two patients (13%) experienced complications: one had prolonged immobilization for a loose C1 pedicle screw, and one had unintended fusion caused by allograft absorption. All patients showed radiographic stability and symptom resolution. C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation for AAD is safe and effective even in children younger than 5 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anterior and posterior fixation for delayed treatment of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai Ming; Malhotra, Karan; Butler, Joseph S; Wu, Shi Qiang

    2015-10-29

    Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation (PAAD) without fracture of the odontoid process is a rare injury. Authors have variously reported closed or open reduction, followed by either anterior or posterior fixation, but there is no consensus on best treatment. We present a particularly unstable case of PAAD. Open reduction through a retropharyngeal approach with odontoidectomy was required for reduction. Anterior fixation with transarticular lag screws was required prior to posterior fixation with pedicle screws. Despite non-compliance with postoperative immobilisation, imaging at 20-month follow-up confirmed solid fusion. The patient is pain-free with a good range of movement of the neck and has returned to a manual job. Our case had a greater degree of instability than was previously reported, which necessitated 360° fixation. This is the first reported case of this treatment strategy, which provided a very stable fixation allowing fusion despite early movement and without causing undue stiffness. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Unilateral C-1 posterior arch screws and C-2 laminar screws combined with a 1-side C1-2 pedicle screw system as salvage fixation for atlantoaxial instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo-Xin, Jin; Huan, Wang

    2015-10-30

    OBJECT Atlantoaxial instability often requires surgery, and the current methods for fixation pose some risk to vascular and neurological tissues. Thus, new effective and safer methods are needed for salvage operations. This study sought to assess unilateral C-1 posterior arch screws (PASs) and C-2 laminar screws (LSs) combined with 1-side C1-2 pedicle screws (PSs) for posterior C1-2 fixation using biomechanical testing with bilateral C1-2 PSs in a cadaveric model. METHODS Six fresh ligamentous human cervical spines were evaluated for their biomechanics. The cadaveric specimens were tested in their intact condition, stabilization after injury, and after injury at 1.5 Nm of pure moment in 6 directions. The 3 groups tested were bilateral C1-2 PSs (Group A); left side C1-2 PSs with an ipsilateral C-1 PAS + C-2 laminar screw (Group B); and left side C1-2 PSs with a contralateral C-1 PAS + C-2 LS (Group C). During the testing, angular motion was measured using a motion capture platform. Data were recorded, and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS Biomechanical testing showed that there was no significant difference among the stabilities of these fixation systems in flexion-extension and rotation control. In left lateral bending, the bilateral C1-2 PS group decreased flexibility by 71.9% compared with the intact condition, the unilateral C1-2 PS and ipsilateral PAS+LS group decreased flexibility by 77.6%, and the unilateral C1-2 PS and contralateral PAS+LS group by 70.0%. Each method significantly decreased C1-2 movements in right lateral bending compared with the intact condition, and the bilateral C1-2 PS system was more stable than the C1-2 PS and contralateral PAS+LS system (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS A unilateral C-1 PAS + C-2 LS combined with 1-side C-1 PSs provided the same acute stability as the PS, and no statistically significant difference in acute stability was found between the 2 screw techniques. These methods may constitute an alternative method for

  18. New clinical classification system for atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, JunJie; Yin, QingShui; Xia, Hong; Wu, ZengHui; Ma, XiangYang; Zhang, Kai; Wang, ZhiYun; Yang, JinCheng; Ai, FuZhi; Wang, JianHua; Liu, JingFa; Mai, XiaoHong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define a new clinical classification of atlantoaxial dislocation based on its clinical manifestations, namely reducible atlantoaxial dislocation (RAAD), irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD), and fixed atlantoaxial dislocation (FAAD). A total of 107 patients with atlantoaxial dislocation were respectively treated based on this clinical classification, including 66 patients with RAAD, 39 patients with IAAD, and 2 patients with FAAD. Six of the 66 patients with RAAD with rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation were treated with traction and a cervical collar, 9 with fresh type II dens fracture were treated with cannulated screw fixation, and 51 were treated with posterior atlantoaxial or occipitocervical arthrodesis. Thirty-eight patients with IAAD received a transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system, and 1 with a giant cell tumor was treated with lesion resection and vertebral reconstruction by a shaped titanium mesh system followed by posterior occipitocervical screw-rod fixation. The 2 patients with FAAD underwent anterior decompression and received a transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system. Follow-up data were obtained for a minimum of 6 months. All patients' neurological symptoms improved postoperatively. Bony union was accomplished by 3-month follow-up. Donor-site infection was found in 1 patient, with no occurrence of other complications. This article proposes a new classification of atlantoaxial dislocation indicating the severity and difficulty in reduction of the atlantoaxial joint. The classification system assists with decision making regarding therapeutic options. Transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate fixation and posterior atlantoaxial screw-rod fixation are commonly performed for atlantoaxial dislocation. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Migration of titanium cable into spinal cord and spontaneous C2 and C3 fusion: Case report of possible causes of fatigue failure after posterior atlantoaxial fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huibo; Lou, Jigang; Liu, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Atlantoaxial instability is a common and serious injury of the upper cervical spine. Brooks' procedure is widely used to reconstruct the unstable atlantoaxial joint. The migration into spinal cord of titanium cable and spontaneous fusion between C2 and C3 has been little reported and the management of such a patient is difficult. We describe an unusual case of fatigue failure of posterior titanium atlantoaxial cable fixation with migration into the spinal cord and spontaneous fusion between C2 and C3. A 16-year-old girl complained of cervico-occipital pain with numbness and weakness of extremities 3 months ago. The girl underwent posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis with titanium cables and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting when she was 6 years old. When presented to our emergency department, imaging revealed the cracked titanium atlantoaxial cable and the spontaneous fusion between C2 and C3. Computed tomography demonstrated a broken wire with anterior migration of the cable into the spinal cord. The patient underwent posterior approach cervical spinal surgery to remove the broken cables. She remains neurologically intact a year following the posterior approach cervical spine surgery. Brooks' posterior stabilization could not effectively control rotation at the atlantoaxial articulation, so surgeons must be aware of the potential of fatigue failure of cables as well as the possibility of its migration into the spinal cord when using Brooks' posterior stabilization. Bilateral C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw fixation or transarticular screw fixation are recommended by the authors in the event of rotatory instability.

  20. Irreducible Atlanto-Axial Dislocation in Neglected Odontoid Fracture Treated with Single Stage Anterior Release and Posterior Instrumented Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Ashok Keshav; Chaudhary, Kshitij Subhash

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-know fact that type 2 odontoid fractures frequently go into nonunion. If left untreated, patients may develop irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). We describe the surgical management of two patients with neglected odontoid fractures and irreducible AAD treated with single stage anterior release followed by posterior instrumented fusion. Both patients presented with history of neglected trauma and progressive myelopathy. Traction under anesthesia failed to achieve reduction of AAD. Anterior release was done by trans-oral approach in one patient and retrophayngeal approach in the other. Posterior fixation was performed with transarticular screws in both the patients. Both patients had full neurological recovery and demonstrated fusion at follow-up. Anterior release followed by posterior instrumented correction may be an effective alternative to the traditional means of treating irreducible dislocations associated with neglected odontoid fractures. PMID:27114778

  1. Microendoscopic anterior approach for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: surgical techniques and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Sen; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Lin, Yan; Mao, Fang-Min; Huang, Qi-Shan; Ni, Wen-Fei

    2010-04-01

    Surgical techniques and preliminary results. To describe and evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new minimal invasive technique for the irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IADD). Endoscope has been widely used in minimal invasive spinal surgery. However, there are no clinical reports regarding anterior approach for IADD in the literature. Ten consecutive patients with IADD were treated by anterior release with microendoscopic aide and subsequently reduction, anterior transarticular screw fixation and morselized autologous bone grafts. There were 3 cases of odontoid dysplasia, 4, chronic odontoid fracture, 1, odontoid absence, 1 fasilar impression, and 1 malunion of odontoid fracture. According to Symon and Lavender's classification of disability, 6 cases were moderate disability, 3 severe nonbedbound, and 1 severe bedridden. The procedure was performed by the same surgeon (Yong-Long Chi). The new technique was performed successfully in all cases. All the patients underwent transarticular screw fixation and anterior morselized autograft fusion. The average operation time was 120 min (range, 90 to 150 min) and the mean estimated blood loss was 150 mL (range, 100 to 250 mL). Postoperative radiographs demonstrated that 9 cases restored anatomic position and 1 had partial reduction. According to the postoperative computed tomography all the screws were appropriately placed. Follow-up after surgery, longest is 16 months and minimal 8 months with a mean of 12 months, neurologic status was improved in all patients. There was no loss of fixation and solid fusion was achieved in all cases. Surgical technique of microendoscopic anterior release, reduction, fixation, and fusion is safe and reliable minimally invasive for treating IADD.

  2. Posterior realignment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation with C1-C2 screw and rod system: a technique of direct reduction and fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi-Heng; Qiao, Guang-Yu; Yu, Xin-Guang; Tong, Huai-Yu; Zhang, Yuan-Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of chronic and irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) with ventral compression is challenging for surgeons. The main procedures are occipitocervical/C1-C2 fusion after transoral odontoidectomy or release of the periodontoid tissues. These surgical procedures, which are performed simultaneously or intermittently, have many disadvantages that may discount their effectiveness. Therefore, a more effective way to achieve surgical reduction and to keep solid stability with only a single procedure is needed. We describe a technique to reduce chronic and irreducible AAD with C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw and rod system. This was a retrospective case series. Our sample comprised 26 patients (9 men and 17 women) with irreducible AAD who ranged in age from 15 to 54 years (mean, 35 years). Patients' neurologic status was evaluated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale. Twenty-six symptomatic patients underwent posterior realignment and reduction through the C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw and rod system. The proposed mechanism of reduction is that the implanted screws and rods between C1 and C2 acting as a lever system drew C1 backward and pushed C2 downward and forward after removing circumambient obstruction and scars and thoroughly releasing the facet joints. The preoperative and postoperative JOA score, the extent of reduction, and the conditions of C1-C2 bony fusion were examined. No neurovascular injury occurred during surgery. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 40 months (mean 20.7 months). Radiographic evaluation showed that solid bony fusion was achieved in all patients, and that complete reduction was attained in 18 patients and partial reduction (>60% reduction) in 8 patients. The mean postoperative JOA score at last follow-up was 15.7, compared with the preoperative score of 12.1 (p<.01). This C1-C2 screw and rod system provides reliable stability and sufficient reduction of the anatomic malalignment at the craniovertebral junction

  3. [The synthetic typing and its clinical application in atlantoaxial dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-shui; Chang, Yun-bing; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zheng-hui; Ai, Fu-zhi; Quan, Ri; Ma, Xiang-yang; Zhang, Kai; Cao, Zheng-lin; Wang, Jian-hua

    2008-02-15

    To evaluate the synthetic typing and the treatment strategy for atlantoaxial dislocation. The synthetic typing of atlantoaxial dislocation was worked out on the base of pathogenesis typing, Fielding imaging typing, and clinical typing, named PIR typing system (Pathogenesis, Imaging, and Reduction). Ninety-three patients with atlantoaxial dislocation were treated according to this typing system. Nine cases of type-II dens fracture were treated with hollow screw fixation. Bone union was accomplished at the follow-up of three months in all the patients, only with slight limitation of cervical motion. Un-retrieved Fielding I -degree dislocation was found in one case. Among the thirty-four patients treated with trans-oropharyngeal atlantoaxial reduction plate system (TARP), 32 obtained complete atlantoaxial reduction and fusion three months after operation. Atlantoaxial dislocation recurred in the other two cases because of screw loosening and the problem was solved through revision operations. Four patients in non-reducible type underwent anterior and/or posterior decompression. T heir neurological improved after operation but their atlantoaxial joints remained dislocated, and one case complicated with intracranial infection. Via the synthetic PIR typing system, atlantoaxial dislocation can be better classified according to its pathogenesis, imaging manifestation and mechanic stability. This system can also be served as a guide for clinical treatment. Anterior TARP operation and posterior atlantoaxial trans-pedicle screw-rod fixation are the main methods for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation.

  4. [Traumatic occipitocervical and atlantoaxial dislocation with clivus fracture in a child. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Pineda, Tenoch; Loyo-Varela, Mauro; Revilla-Pacheco, Francisco; Uribe-Leitz, Monika; Manrique-Guzmán, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Cranieovertebral junction lesions in the paediatric population are associated with a low survival rate, which has declined in recent years. Neurological disability is a major concern due to the high economical cost it represents. Paediatric patients are more susceptible to this lesion because of hyperextension capacity, flat articulation, and increased ligamentous laxity. Survival after these kinds of injuries has been more often reported in adults, but are limited in the paediatric population. A case is reported of an 8-year-old male with occipitocervical and atlantoaxial dislocation associated with clivus fracture, brain oedema, and post-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A halo vest system was placed with no traction. One month after the trauma the patient was surgically treated with C1 and C2 trans-articular screws, occipitocervical fixation with plate and screws, and C1- C2 fixation with tricortical bone graft and wires without complication. He has now returned to school and is self-sufficient. With better pre-hospital medical care and with improved surgical techniques the mortality rate has declined in this kind of lesion. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.

  6. Surgical management of post-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation due to C2 facet fracture: 5 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyriere, H; Graillon, T; Pesenti, S; Tropiano, P; Blondel, B; Fuentes, S

    2017-02-01

    Report the results of surgical treatment of post-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) due to C2 articular facet fracture in adults. The records of five patients treated since 2009 for AARF due to a C2 articular facet fracture were analyzed retrospectively. Three women and two men with an average age of 60 years (27-82) were included, one of whom initially had neurological deficits. In all cases, the surgical strategy consisted of posterior fixation: Harms-type in four cases and trans-articular with hooks in one case. Dislocations due to fracture of the C2 articular facet are rare in adults; various treatment strategies have been described. In our experience, posterior screw fixation leads to satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes. Fusion is not necessary in these cases because the dislocation is related to an asymmetric fracture without ligament damage. Posterior fixation provides satisfactory reduction of these injuries and leads to satisfactory bone union. This surgical treatment can be performed early on after the trauma and is an interesting alternative to conservative treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. [Diagnosis and treatment for complicated atlantoaxial dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-shui; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zeng-hui; Ai, Fu-zhi; Ma, Xiang-yang; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jian-hua; Mai, Xiao-hong; Wan, Lei; Chen, Xu-qiong

    2010-09-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment methods for complicated atlantoaxial dislocation. A retrospective evaluation was done to summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics and complicated factors of 54 patients with complicated atlantoaxial dislocation who could not to be treated effectively by using conventional therapy in our hospital from February 2005 to October 2008. According to different complicated factors, different treatment methods mainly including transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III (TARP-III) operation, decompression procedure with deep grinding guided by computer aided design-rapid prototyping (CAD-RP), screw placement technique with CAD-RP guide plate and extensile approach surgery were performed. The average follow-up period was 24 months. Among 54 cases, 48 cases achieved immediate anatomic reduction completely and 6 cases almost achieved anatomical reduction. All the compressed spinal cords were decompressed sufficiently. The decompression rate was 86.0% and the improvement rate of nerve function was 77.8%. Two cases suffered postoperative intracranial infection. Some cases of complicated atlantoaxial dislocation can be effectively treated by using TARP-III operation, decompression procedure with deep grinding guided by CAD-RP, individualized screw placement technique with CAD-RP guide plate and extensile approach surgery.

  8. Atlantoaxial manual realignment in a patient with traumatic atlantoaxial joint disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Figueiredo, Antonio; Maheshwari, Shradha; Shah, Abhidha

    2010-05-01

    We report a patient with complex traumatic translatory atlantoaxial dislocation, who we treated by joint exposure and reduction of the dislocation by facet manipulation and subsequent plate and screw atlantoaxial fixation. A 28-year-old male had fallen 7.6m (25 feet), and following the fall had severe neck pain but no neurological deficit. Investigations revealed a fracture at the base of the odontoid process and posterior displacement of the entire atlas over the axis, resulting in a translatory atlantoaxial dislocation. Head traction failed as he developed severe vertigo following its application. The patient was operated upon in a prone position. We opened the atlantoaxial joint and realigned the facets using distraction and manipulation techniques and secured the joint using a plate and screw interarticular method. The patient tolerated the treatment well and was symptom-free after 28 months. Postoperative images showed good craniovertebral alignment. Although technically challenging, direct manipulation of the facets of the atlas and axis can result in excellent craniovertebral realignment.

  9. Single-stage anterior release and posterior instrumented fusion for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation with basilar invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Aggarwal, Rishi Anil; Nemade, Pradip Sharad; Bhosale, Sunil Krishna

    2016-01-01

    The options available for treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) with basilar invagination are odontoidectomy, posterior decompression, and posterior atlantoaxial joint distraction. In 2006, Wang et al. described that most IAAD can be reduced following anterior release of contracted soft tissues. Anterior release may be done by transoral (TO) or retropharyngeal (RP) approach. Posterior instrumented fusion provides stability and helps in achieving further reduction. This study aimed to study the neurologic and radiological outcome following treatment of basilar invagination associated with IAAD by anterior release and posterior instrumented fusion. A retrospective case series was carried out. The patient sample comprised 19 patients with IAAD. Patients were assessed for neurologic recovery by Benzel modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score and radiologically by assessing reduction on lateral radiographs and comparing clivus-canal angle (CCA) on preoperative and postoperative computed tomography scan. Nineteen consecutive patients with IAAD were surgically treated. Anterior release was done via TO approach in 12 patients and RP approach in 7. Following anterior release, all patients underwent posterior instrumented fusion. This study included 15 men and 4 women with mean follow-up of 18 months. Pathology included occipitalization of atlas in 16 patients, os odontoideum in 2, and missing posterior elements of axis in 1. All patients had cervical myelopathy. Occipitocervical fixation was done in 18 patients and C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in 1. Fifteen patients had anatomical reduction whereas four had partial reduction. The CCA improved from a mean preoperative angle of 111.47° to mean postoperative angle of 142.84°. The mJOA improved from preoperative mean mJOA of 12.89 to a postoperative mean mJOA of 16.84. Fusion was achieved in all patients. Maceration of posterior wound which healed by daily cleaning and dressing was

  10. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaré, S.; Lazennec, J. Y.; Camelot, C.; Saillant, G.; Hansen, S.; Trabelsi, R.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.

  11. Estudo tomográfico do atlas relacionado com a inserção de implantes na massa lateral Tomographic study of the atlas concerning screw fixation on lateral mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A técnica de Harms para a realização da artrodese atlantoaxial possibilita o uso de manobras de redução transoperatória da subluxação atlantoaxial e facilita a fixação dessa articulação, principalmente nos pacientes hipercifóticos e nas situações em que há impossibilidade da fixação com o parafuso transarticular C1-C2. OBJETIVOS: descrever os parâmetros morfométricos do atlas relacionados à técnica de Harms para a artrodese C1-C2, o trajeto ideal e o corredor de segurança da inserção do parafuso na massa lateral do atlas mensurados através de imagens de reconstrução multiplanar com tomografia computadorizada helicoidal nos planos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: trinta atlas de origem local foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada e mensurados com cursor digital. RESULTADOS: o comprimento posteroanterior do implante mediu 16,5 mm à direita e 16,3mm à esquerda. Quando utilizando como ponto de entrada na porção central da massa lateral imediatamente inferior ao arco posterior, o trajeto deve ter uma congruência de 15º no plano coronal e uma angulação superior de 20º no plano sagital. CONCLUSÃO: O corredor de segurança para um parafuso na massa lateral teria uma inclinação inferior de 22º e superior de 33º no plano sagital e no plano axial de 36º medial e 26º lateral.INTRODUCTION: Harms's technique for atlanto-axial arthrodesis fusion makes possible the use of intraoperative reduction maneuvers of the atlanto-axial dislocation and facilitates the fixation of this joint, especially in hiperkyphotic patients and in situations where the fixation with transarticular screw on C1-C2 segment is impossible. OBJECTIVE: to describe the morphometric parameters of atlases related to the Harms's technique for atlanto-axial arthrodesis, the optimal path and the safety aisle for screw insertion into atlas' lateral mass measured with multiplanar reconstruction imaging with helical computed tomography scan at

  12. Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, Umesh; Khanapure, Kiran S; Jagannatha, Aniruddha T; Joshi, Krishna C; Varma, Ravi G; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive techniques are being increasingly used to treat disorders of the cervical spine. They have a potential to reduce the postoperative neck discomfort subsequent to extensive muscle dissection associated with conventional atlantoaxial fusion procedures. The aim of this paper was to elaborate on the technique and results of minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion. MATERIALS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion was done initially in 4 fresh-frozen cadavers and subsequently in 5 clinical cases. Clinical cases included patients with reducible atlantoaxial instability and undisplaced or minimally displaced odontoid fractures. The surgical technique is illustrated in detail. RESULTS Among the cadaveric specimens, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position and 2 of the 8 C-2 screws had a vertebral canal breach. Among clinical cases, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position. Only one C-2 screw had a Grade 2 vertebral canal breach, which was clinically insignificant. None of the patients experienced neurological worsening or implant-related complications at follow-up. Evidence of rib graft fusion or C1-2 joint fusion was successfully demonstrated in 4 cases, and flexion-extension radiographs done at follow-up did not show mobility in any case. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional approach in selected cases. Larger series with direct comparison to the conventional approach will be required to demonstrate clinical benefit presumed to be associated with a minimally invasive approach.

  13. Atlantoaxial subluxation after otoplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, E J

    2012-02-03

    A case of iatrogenic atlantoaxial subluxation after bilateral otoplasty is presented. Cineradiography was required for definitive diagnosis. Bed rest and Halter traction successfully resolved the condition. Great care is required while turning the head during skin preparation, draping, planning, and surgery, especially in young children. A high index of suspicion is necessary when a child develops torticollis after otoplasty.

  14. Atlantoaxial instability in Down's synarome

    OpenAIRE

    Kafadar, Ali; Hanci, Murat; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Sarioglu, Ali Cetin; Erginel, Ayten; Cenani, Asim

    2004-01-01

    9-31 % of children with Down syndrome have atlantoaxial instability. These children might have the risk of atlantoaxial dislocation and spinal cord compression if they play sport or take part actively in daily Iife. The purpose of our study was to assess the presumed risk. We examined and followed up one year Iong 35 children with Down syndrome through a series of Iateral cervical spine x-ray and neurological examination. Those children with an atlantoaxial distance => 5mm were considered uns...

  15. Atlantoaxial instability in Down's synarome

    OpenAIRE

    Kafadar, Ali; Hanci, Murat; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Sarioglu, Ali; Erginel, Ayten; Cenani, Asim

    2004-01-01

    9-31 % of children with Down syndrome have atlantoaxial instability. These children might have the risk of atlantoaxial dislocation and spinal cord compression if they play sport or take part actively in daily Iife. The purpose of our study was to assess the presumed risk. We examined and followed up one year Iong 35 children with Down syndrome through a series of Iateral cervical spine x-ray and neurological examination. Those children with an atlantoaxial distance => 5mm were considered ...

  16. Traumatic Posterior Atlantoaxial Dislocation Without Associated Fracture but With Neurological Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Feng; Guan, Hanfeng; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture is extremely rare and often results in fatal spinal cord injury. According to the reported literature, all cases presented mild or no neurologic deficit, with no definite relation to upper spinal cord injury. Little is reported about traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation, with incomplete quadriplegia associated with a spinal cord injury. We present a case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without associated fracture, but with quadriplegia, and accompanying epidural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient underwent gentle traction in the neutral position until repeated cranial computed tomography revealed no progression of the epidural hematoma. Thereafter, the atlantoaxial dislocation was reduced by using partial odontoidectomy via a video-assisted transcervical approach and maintained with posterior polyaxial screw-rod constructs and an autograft. Neurological status improved immediately after surgery, and the patient recovered completely after 1 year. Posterior fusion followed by closed reduction is the superior strategy for posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture, according to literature. But for cases with severe neurological deficit, open reduction may be the safest choice to avoid the lethal complication of overdistraction of the spinal cord. Also, open reduction and posterior srew-rod fixation are safe and convenient strategies in dealing with traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation patients with neurological deficit. PMID:26512572

  17. Atlantoaxial dislocation and os odontoideum in two identical twins: perspectives on etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangsheng; Tan, Mingsheng; Yi, Ping; Yang, Feng; Hao, Qingying

    2017-05-15

    There are two theories about the origin of os odontoideum: traumatic or congenital. However, most studies favor the hypothesis of traumatic theory. To emphasize the congenital theory, we report a pair of identical twins both with atlantoaxial dislocation and os odontoideum, which is believed to be a congenital defect. We present two 14-year-old identical twins with atlantoaxial dislocation and os odontoideum. Neither of the twins had history of trauma in head nor cervical spine. We reviewed and compared the cervical radiographs of the identical twins. Posterior atlantoaxial reduction, pedicle screw fixation and atlantoaxial fusion were performed for the two twins. Radiological examination showed the identical twins had typical atlantoaxial dislocation and os odontoideum. The twins had high similarity in the appearance of atlantoaxial dislocation and os odontoideum. The etiology of the os odontoideum in the twins is believed to be congenital. Both the twins had improvement in neurological function after surgery. Although a great number of cases with os odontoideum have been reported to be traumatic, there are some cases believed to be congenital.

  18. Vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha; Rajan, Sanjay

    2009-07-01

    The authors' experience with treatment of 8 patients with "vertical mobile and reducible" atlantoaxial dislocation is reviewed. The probable pathogenesis, radiological and clinical features, and management issues in such cases are discussed. Between January 2006 and March 2008, 8 patients who presented with vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocations were treated at the Department of Neurosurgery at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai, India. The vertical atlantoaxial dislocation/basilar invagination reduced completely on extension of the neck, with no need of any cervical traction. According to the extent of superior migration of the odontoid process, and measurements based on the vertical atlantoaxial instability index, the dislocation was graded as mild, moderate, or severe. All patients were treated using the C-1 lateral mass and C-2 pars plate and screw method of fixation. The study group was composed of 5 male and 3 female patients (mean age 24 years, age range 8-54 years). All patients presented with the physical features of short neck, torticollis, pain in the nape of the neck, and varying degrees of quadriparesis. In 6 patients there was a history of trauma prior to the onset of major neurological symptoms. The dislocation was mild in 3 cases, moderate in 1, and severe in 4. All patients had clinical neurological improvement following surgery. The follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 30 months (mean 18 months). Vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation is a discrete clinical entity. Abnormal inclination and incompetence of the facet joint appears to be the primary causative factor that resulted in vertical dislocation or basilar invagination. Posterior fixation in the reduced dislocation position forms the basis of treatment.

  19. Atlantoaxial Joint Interlocking Following Type II Odontoid Fracture Associated with Posterolateral Atlantoaxial Dislocation: a Case Report and Review of Published Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Deng-Wei; Huang, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Li-Jun; Fan, Shun-Wu

    2016-08-01

    A rare case of atlantoaxial lateral mass joint interlocking secondary to traumatic posterolateral C1,2 complete dislocation associated with type II odontoid fracture is herein reported and the impact of atlantoaxial joint interlocking on fracture reduction discussed. A 72-year-old man presented with traumatic atlantoaxial lateral mass joint interlocking without spinal cord signal change, the diagnosis being confirmed by radiography and 3-D reconstruction digital anatomy. Posterior internal fixation was performed after failure to achieve closed reduction by skull traction. After many surgical attempts at setting had failed because of interlocking of the lateral mass joints, reduction was achieved by compressing the posterior parts of the atlantal and axial screws. Odontoid bone union and C1,2 posterior bone graft fusion were eventually obtained by the 12-month follow-up. The patient had a complete neurological recovery with no residual neck pain or radiculopathy. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Shi; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Xia, Hong; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Ai, Fu-Zhi; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Mai, Xiao-Hong; Yin, Qing-Shui

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications. PMID:25518033

  1. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Shi Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications.

  2. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkar, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins) rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases. PMID:27630481

  3. Posterior atlantal lateral mass fixation technique with polyaxial screw and rod fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calişaneller, Tarkan; Yilmaz, Cem; Ozdemir, Ozgür; Caner, Hakan

    2008-04-01

    Atlantoaxial instability may result from various pathologic conditions and operative treatment may be required to correct the deformity, provide stability and prevent neurological deficits. We presented our clinic's experience using C1-C2 fusion with polyaxial screw and rod fixation for C1 and C2 instability for various reasons. Four patients with atlantoaxial instability were operated using polyaxial C1 lateral mass and C2 lateral mass or pedicle screws. The mean age of the patients was 44+/-14,07 years. Satisfactory screw placement was achieved in all patients. There were no vertebral artery injuries, C2 nerve root injuries or spinal cord injuries. No per-operative or early postoperative instrumentation failure was observed. C1 lateral mass/C2 pedicle polyaxial screw fixation is a safe technique and can be used to achieve rigid and immediate atlantoaxial stabilization.

  4. Microscope-assisted transoral-transpharyngeal reduction and fixation of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation

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    ZHU Wei-jie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the outcome of the transoral reduction and fixation of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation, to evaluate this novel technique involving a microscope-assisted anterior release and reduction and fixation through a transoral-transpharyngeal approach and describe the safety and efficacy of a new minimal invasive technique for the irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IADD. Methods A prospective clinical study was performed. Three consecutive irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation patients underwent a microscope-assisted anterior release and reduction and fixation through transoral-transpharyngeal approach. Transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP for anterior fixation and autologous morselized bone grafting were used during the operation. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scoring system was used to evaluate each patient's neurological status pre- and post-operatively, and serial MRI and radiographs were used to evaluate the status of the reduction including the atlantoaxial interval and cervicomedullary angle were also measured. The clinical features, imaging data, special preoperative preparation, surgical approach, skills and postoperative complications of the 3 cases were analyzed. Results The average operation time was 130 min (110 min, 130 min, 150 min, respectively and the mean estimated blood loss was 150 ml (100 ml, 200 ml, 150 ml, respectively. According to the postoperative CT all the 3 plates and 12 screws were appropriately placed and fixed. All cases of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation were corrected differentially in terms of anatomic reduction and neurological disturbances were reversed remarkably. The improvement rate of spinal cord function was 75.00%, 40.00%, 56.25%, respectively according to JOA score, average improvement rate was 57.08%, and average recovery rating was "good". Postoperative nosocomial intracranial infection occurred in one case and was cured finally

  5. Transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate internal fixation for the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: a 2- to 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-shui; Ai, Fu-zhi; Zhang, Kai; Mai, Xiao-hong; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zeng-hui

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the mid-term outcomes of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP) internal fixation for the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. From April 2003 to April 2005, 31 patients with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation were treated with TARP internal fixation. The average age was 37.9 years (range, 15-69 years). The subjective symptoms, objective signs, and neurological function of the patients were assessed. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and the results analyzed according to the Symon and Lavender clinical standard, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for spinal cord function and imaging standard for spinal cord decompression. Complete or almost complete anatomical reduction was obtained in all 31 patients. No screw-loosening or atlantoaxial redislocation was found in 29 cases. According to the Symon and Lavender clinical standard, 14 cases had recovered completely, 7 to mild, 6 to moderate, and 4 to severe type by final follow-up, compared to the preoperative classifications of 4 as moderate, 15 as severe, and 12 as extra severe type. The outcome for 26 patients was evaluated as excellent and in 5 as adequate. The average postoperative improvement in spinal cord function was 73.3% and of decompression of the cervical cord 92.6%. The only complication was loosening of screws in two cases with senile osteoporosis. One case underwent TARP revision surgery and the other posterior occipitocervical internal fixation. Both of them were eventually cured. The TARP operation is a good choice for patients with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation and has valuable clinical application. © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Traumatic Posterior Atlantoaxial Dislocation Without Associated Fracture but With Neurological Deficit: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Feng; Guan, Hanfeng; Xiong, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture is extremely rare and often results in fatal spinal cord injury. According to the reported literature, all cases presented mild or no neurologic deficit, with no definite relation to upper spinal cord injury. Little is reported about traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation, with incomplete quadriplegia associated with a spinal cord injury.We present a case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without associated fracture, but with quadriplegia, and accompanying epidural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage.The patient underwent gentle traction in the neutral position until repeated cranial computed tomography revealed no progression of the epidural hematoma. Thereafter, the atlantoaxial dislocation was reduced by using partial odontoidectomy via a video-assisted transcervical approach and maintained with posterior polyaxial screw-rod constructs and an autograft. Neurological status improved immediately after surgery, and the patient recovered completely after 1 year.Posterior fusion followed by closed reduction is the superior strategy for posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture, according to literature. But for cases with severe neurological deficit, open reduction may be the safest choice to avoid the lethal complication of overdistraction of the spinal cord. Also, open reduction and posterior srew-rod fixation are safe and convenient strategies in dealing with traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation patients with neurological deficit.

  7. Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation complicating odontoid fracture without neurologic deficit: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Gao, Yuan; Li, Mo; Luo, Zhuojing; Du, Junjie

    2014-07-01

    Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation associated with odontoid fracture is extremely rare, with only eight cases reported thus far in the English literature. This report concerns a 47-year-old female who presented with considerable pain and stiffness in the neck without a neurologic deficit after injury due to a fall. Radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a posterior dislocation of the atlas with respect to the axis with an odontoid fracture. No cord compression or intramedullary cord signal abnormalities were detected at the level of the atlantoaxial dislocation. A pedicle screw fixation/fusion was performed via a posterior approach following successful closed reduction.

  8. Efficacy of posterior reduction and internal fixation for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation in complex craniovertebral junction region malformation: preliminary observation

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    JIA Gui-jun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical effect of posterior reduction and screw-rod (plate internal fixation technique for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation in complex craniovertebral junction region malformation. Methods Clinical data of 18 patients suffered from atlantoaxial dislocation with complex craniovertebral junction region malformation were analysed retrospectively, including 15 cases of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation, 1 case with aggravated symptoms of cervico-occipital unstability after anterior odontoid process grinding, 2 cases with trauma-induced dislocation. All patients underwent posterior decompressive reduction and screw-rod internal fixation. During surgical procedure, senory evoked potential (SEP and electromyography (EMG monitorings were used. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score and imaging were used to evaluate the surgical effect. Results Postoperative imaging examination showed that fixed system and atlantoaxial reduction were good in 16 cases and bad in 1 cases. The bony fusion was good in 16 cases and bad in 1 case. The patients' clinical symptoms were improved to different degree, but one patient suddenly occurred respiratory arrest and died. Patients were followed up for 3 to 28 months (mean 6.62 months. After operation the average JOA score was 11.62 ± 3.23, while before operation it was 7.51 ± 3.82. The difference was significant (t = -5.476, P = 0.004. Conclusion Posterior decompressed reduction and screw-rod (plate internal fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation with complex craniovertebral junction region malformation is save and effective. It will be widely used in the future.

  9. [Posterior fixation and fusion for treatment of Os odontoideum complicated by atlantoaxial dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jin, Anmin; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Zhilai; Duan, Yang; Min, Shaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    To summarize the techniques and evaluate the therapeutic effect of posterior fixation and fusion in the treatment of Os odontoideum complicated by atlantoaxial dislocation. From March, 2007 to October, 2010, 10 patients with Os odontoideum (including 6 male and 4 female patients aged from 20 to 65 years, mean 39.8 years) were treated in our hospital. Before and after the operation, the patients underwent X ray, CT and MRI examinations to measure and evaluate the degree of dislocation and neural compression. After preoperative traction for 1-2 weeks, all the 10 patients showed deductible atlantoaxial dislocation. Through a posterior approach, Atlantoaxial pedicle screws fixation were performed in 9 cases, and C2/3 pedicle-Occiput screw fixation was performed in 1 case. All the patients wore cervical collars as external support for 3 months after the operation. The mean operative time was 3 h in these patients with a mean intraoperative blood loss of 420 ml. The symptoms were relieved after the surgery in all the patients, who showed no neck pain or neurological defects. The patients were followed up for 6 to 52 months (mean 22 months), and bony fusion was observed in all the 10 cases within 6 to 8 months without such complications as internal fixation failure or redislocation of the atlas. Patients with Os odontoideum complicated by atlantoaxial dislocation should undergo surgical stabilization to avoid severe neurological injury. Pedicle screw instrument in the atlas allows restoration of the spinal stability, short-segment fusion, and maximal preservation of the mobility of the neck.

  10. Atlantoaxial joint jamming as a treatment for atlantoaxial dislocation: a preliminary report. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul

    2007-07-01

    In this report the author describes an alternative technique of atlantoaxial fixation that involves blocking or "jamming" of movements of the atlantoaxial joint. The technique involves forcible impaction of spiked titanium metal spacers and bone grafts within the distracted atlantoaxial facet joints. Between January 2003 and January 2006, four patients underwent this method of fixation at the Department of Neurosurgery at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai, India. All four patients had posttraumatic mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. The mean follow-up period was 16 months (range 5-35 months). Successful atlantoaxial stabilization along with ultimate bone fusion was achieved in all patients and was documented on dynamic radiographs. There were no neurological, vascular, or infection-associated complications. The author concludes that the described method of atlantoaxial fixation provides an alternative treatment strategy. "Joint jamming" as a stand-alone method or in combination with other fixation methods may provide firm stabilization in cases of atlantoaxial dislocation.

  11. Type II Odontoid Fracture with Atlantoaxial Dislocation Presenting as Symptomatic Seizures: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guoyun; Shuang, Feng; Liu, Gang; Wu, Ye; Hou, Shuxun; Ren, Dongfeng

    2016-12-01

    To report symptomatic seizures of a patient with an old type II odontoid fracture with atlantoaxial dislocation. The type II odontoid fracture is a dangerous disease and presents as neurological deficits. Because of the compression of upper cervical cord, without timely diagnosis and treatment, a type II odontoid fracture may result in sudden death. Although it has been shown that epileptic seizures may lead to type II odontoid fracture, there is no report of symptomatic seizures in patients with odontoid fracture. A 16-year-old adolescent boy with neurological deficits, especially grand mal seizures for duration of 5 years, was diagnosed as an old type II odontoid fracture with atlantoaxial dislocation and treated in our hospital. A 1-year follow-up was performed. Systematic analyses of the clinical history, manifestations, physical examination, and radiologic results of the patient revealed an old type II odontoid fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord compression and degeneration. The patient received posterior atlantoaxial fixation and fusion procedure following successful closed reduction. The frequency of seizures was reduced to once a month and there was a thorough recovery in other neurological functions 1 year after the operation. Old type II odontoid fracture might present as symptomatic seizures in addition to other neurological deficits. Posterior atlantoaxial screw-plate fixation and fusion is an effective treatment for old type II odontoid fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

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    Pravin Padalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD. Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases.

  13. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed ...

  14. Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Reema; Raut, Abhijit [King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parel, Mumbai (India); Chaudhary, Kshitij; Metkar, Umesh; Rathod, Ashok [King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Parel, Mumbai (India); Sanghvi, Darshana [King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parel, Mumbai (India); DMRD, DNB, Dadar, Mumbai (India)

    2008-04-15

    We report a case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without a fracture of the odontoid in a 35-year-old woman. There have been nine reported cases of similar injury in the English literature. The integrity of the transverse ligament following posterior atlantoaxial dislocations has not been well documented in these reports. In the present case, MRI revealed an intact transverse ligament, which probably contributed to the stability of the C1-C2 complex following closed reduction. (orig.)

  15. Atlantoaxial dislocation and Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, W J; Gray, W D

    1980-01-01

    The phenotypic features of Down's syndrome are easily recognized and include characteristic facial features, hypotonia, ligament laxity, transverse palmar creases and mental subnormality. Associated manifestations and complications are also familiar and involve almost every organ system. Congenital heart defects, bowel malformations and a tendency to leukemia are common attendant problems. Less common, however, are defects of the skeletal system; in fact, the most recent edition of a standard pediatric textbook makes no mention of anomalies of the vertebral column. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the association between Down's syndrome and atlantoaxial dislocation, which in our patient resulted in quadriplegia and eventually death. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:6448087

  16. Long-term results of transarticular pinning for surgical stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 20 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, T R; Whitelock, R G; Langley-Hobbs, S J

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe initial and long-term results of open reduction and transarticular pinning for treatment of coxofemoral luxations in cats. Cats were treated by open reduction and transarticular pinning for coxofemoral luxation over a five year period at two institutions. Follow-up assessment included orthopaedic examination, radiography and owner questionnaires. Twenty cats were included in the study (14 males and six females). One cat was affected bilaterally. Mean time to follow-up was 21 months. Seventeen joints were stabilised with a 1.6 mm pin, three with 2.0 mm pins and a 1.2 mm pin was used in the remaining joint. An Ehmer sling was not utilised in any case. All transarticular pins except one were removed (mean 3.5 weeks), with all hips still in reduction The overall success rate was 77 per cent, with two reluxations and one resorbed femoral head noted on radiographs of 13 joints followed long term. All 20 owners reported good to excellent long-term functional outcome for their cats. Results from this study indicate that transarticular pinning for stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in cats can provide a good long-term outcome without sacrificing the integrity of the coxofemoral joint.

  17. Goel's technique for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation with basilar invagination

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    QIAO Guang-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the surgical feasibility and clinical outcome of translateral mass and pars screws fixation (Goel's technique in the treatment of atlantoaxial instability and dislocation. Methods Seventy-six patients were diagnosed as atlantoaxial dislocation, including 50 cases combined with occipitalization, and 26 patients with os odontoideum. Fifty-seven patients presented signs and symptoms of myelopathy or spinal cord injury. All of the patients underwent posterior operation of open reduction and arthrodesis with C1, 2 joint fixation with rods and screws in the lateral masses and pars articulars of the atlas and axis. Results Seventy-four cases obtained good outcome. The main Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scale increased from 9.43 ± 3.16 preoperation to 13.80 ± 2.07 postoperation (t = 4.063, P = 0.037. According to Odom's scoring system, 19 patients were assessed as excellent, 49 good, 7 fair and 1 poor. A complete reduction was achieved in 15 cases, 35 patients obtained partial reduction. Twenty-six patients underwent transoral anterior decompression. One patient occurred respiratory and cardiac arrest at 12 h after operation. One patient subjected disturbances of blood coagulation tetraplegia and recovered muscle power gradually recovered to grade 3. Fifty patients were followed up more than 3 months, all of them achieved articular fixation. JOA scale improved from 8.90 ± 1.22 before operation to 14.72 ± 1.57 (t = 4.914, P = 0.015 at the follow up period. In Odom's rank: assessment 18 patients were excellent, 30 good, 2 fair and 0 poor. Conclusion Posterior reduction and arthrodesis with rigid internal fixators by Goel's technique could achieve satisfactory outcomes in patients with atlantoaxial dislocation.

  18. Atlantoaxial Subluxation due to an Os Odontoideum in an Achondroplastic Adult: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

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    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the first example of an adult achondroplastic dwarf with progressive quadriparesis secondary to atlantoaxial subluxation as a consequence of an os odontoideum. Actually, craniocervical region is a frequent site of compression and myelopathy in achondroplasia particularly in children as a result of small foramen magnum and hypertrophied opisthion. Moreover, very rarely in achondroplastic patients, coexistence of atlantoaxial instability as the sequel of os odontoideum can result in further compression of the already compromised cervicomedullary neural tissues, the scenario that has been reported only in five achondroplastic children. Herein, a 39-year-old achondroplastic male suffering such an extremely rare combination is presented. With C1-C2 screw rod instrumentation, atlas arch laminectomy, limited suboccipital craniectomy, and release of dural fibrous bands, reduction, decompression, and stabilization could be achieved properly resulting in steady but progressive recovery.

  19. [Dislocation of the atlantoaxial joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, D; Markart, M; Ertel, W

    2014-06-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine in adolescents only occur in 0.2 % of cases. Due to the mismatch of size of the head in comparison to the relatively weakly developed neck muscles at this age, the cranial section is more vulnerable to injuries of any kind compared to the lower sections of the cervical spine. In children isolated ligament trauma is more common than fractures due to the relatively good bone structure combined with a lower bone density but the risk for fractures increases with the age of the patient. Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) in children is a very rare mostly ligamentous injury. A differentiation is made between traumatic AAD and the much more common non-traumatic AAD described in the literature. Although the cause is still unknown different risk factors have been isolated that seem to increase the risk for non-traumatic AAD. The following article presents guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this rare type of injury and also describes the case of a 19-year-old female who presented at the emergency department with an AAD without a history of trauma. After successful closed repositioning the neck was stabilized in a semi-rigid cervical collar for 6 weeks.

  20. Treatment of basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation: atlantoaxial joint distraction and fixation with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP) without odontoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Yin, QingShui; Ai, FuZhi; Ma, XiangYang; Wang, JianHua; Wu, ZengHui; Zhang, Kai; Liu, JingFa; Xu, JunJie

    2014-08-01

    Although direct transoral decompression and one-stage posterior instrumentation can obtain satisfactory cord decompression for the treatment of basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation, surgical injuries run high as combinative anterior-posterior approaches were necessary. Furthermore, the complications will rise notably when involvement of dens and/or clivus in the decompression necessitates relatively complicated surgical techniques. First initiated in 2005, transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP) works as an internal fixation for the treatment of basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Therefore, this article aimed to describe several operative experiences about this approach, which has delivered successful decompression, fixation and fusion. 21 consecutive patients with basilar invagination underwent the TARP operation. The pre- and postoperative medulla-cervical angles were measured and compared. The JOA scores of spinal cord function were calculated pre- and post-operatively. 20 cases (20/21) were followed up to average 12.5 months. Symptoms of all the 20 cases were relieved in different degrees. The postoperative imaging showed the odontoid processes obtained ideal reduction and the internal fixators were all in good position. The medulla-cervical angle was correctd from an average (± standard deviation) 128.7° + 11.9° (n = 20) before surgery to 156.5° + 8.1° (n = 20) after surgery (P atlantoaxial joints through a single transoral approach without the need of a posterior operation. In this stury, 21 patients were evaluated and 20 did well with TARP operation. The preliminary clinical result was satisfactory.

  1. Posterior Fixation with C1 Lateral Mass Screws and C2 Pars Screws for Type II Odontoid Fracture in the Elderly: Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobran, Mauro; Nasi, Davide; Esposito, Domenico Paolo; Iacoangeli, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    We sought to evaluate the long-term C1-C2 fusion rates, fracture healing, and functional outcomes in geriatric patients with type II odontoid fracture treated with posterior fixation with polyaxial C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pars screws. Twenty-one consecutive patients between 2005 and 2011 with Anderson and D'Alonzo type II odontoid fracture underwent a posterior atlantoaxial fixation with polyaxial C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pars screws. A long-term clinical and radiologic follow-up was achieved in all patients with a mean follow-up period of 53.28 ± 15.41 months (range 38-91 months). All 21 patients had bilateral C1 lateral mass screws and bilateral C2 pars screws. Correct positioning of the C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pars screws was observed in all 42 placements by postoperative computed tomography scans. No vascular or neurologic complication was noted. At the last follow-up, 20 patients (95.24%) had a solid fusion (defined as Lenke fusion grade A or B) while 1 patient (4.76%) had a partial fusion (Lenke fusion grade C). Overall, no hardware failures occurred in any patient. Odontoid fracture healing was achieved in 18 patients out of 21 (85.71%). The mean postoperative Neck Disability Index score was 12.73%, and neck motion was within normal physiologic limits at 12 months. This study adds to the evidence that posterior atlantoaxial fixation with polyaxial C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pars screws is a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment of odontoid fractures including long-term stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Caudal Elbow Luxation in a Dog Managed by Temporary Transarticular External Skeletal Fixation

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    K. Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report details a caudal unilateral traumatic elbow luxation in a 4-year-old male neutered Labrador following a road traffic trauma. This is a highly unusual injury in the dog. The pathogenesis and successful treatment by closed reduction followed by stabilisation with a temporary transarticular external skeletal fixator are discussed. The dog was assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Findings at 6 months after treatment demonstrated a normal gait with no pain or crepitation. A mild amount of soft tissue thickening around the elbow was noted. The range of motion of the elbow was limited to 45 degrees of flexion and 150 degrees of extension. This is the first case of a traumatic caudal luxation of the elbow in a dog described in the English veterinary literature and the first report of successful management of an elbow luxation in a dog by closed reduction and temporary transarticular fixation.

  3. A novel computed method to reconstruct the bilateral digital interarticular channel of atlas and its use on the anterior upper cervical screw fixation

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    Ai-Min Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate a novel computed method to reconstruct the bilateral digital interarticular channel of atlas and its potential use on the anterior upper cervical screw fixation. Methods. We have used the reverse engineering software (image-processing software and computer-aided design software to create the approximate and optimal digital interarticular channel of atlas for 60 participants. Angles of channels, diameters of inscribed circles, long and short axes of ellipses were measured and recorded, and gender-specific analysis was also performed. Results. The channels provided sufficient space for one or two screws, and the parameters of channels are described. While the channels of females were smaller than that of males, no significant difference of angles between males and females were observed. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates the radiological features of approximate digital interarticular channels, optimal digital interarticular channels of atlas, and provides the reference trajectory of anterior transarticular screws and anterior occiput-to-axis screws. Additionally, we provide a protocol that can help make a pre-operative plan for accurate placement of anterior transarticular screws and anterior occiput-to-axis screws.

  4. Anterior submandibular retropharyngeal odontoid osteotomy and posterior atlantoaxial fusion for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation associated with odontoid fracture malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Duan, Jingzhu; Li, Lei

    2017-06-12

    To report a case of complex odontoid fracture malunion accompanied by atlantoaxial dislocation which was treated with a new surgical approach. A 53-year-old female was admitted due to progressive symptoms with a stiff limp and unsteady gait. Preoperative examination, diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed following admission. The examinations showed odontoid fracture malunion, an old right axial zygapophyseal fracture, atlantoaxial dislocation, and spinal cord injury. Anterior submandibular retropharyngeal odontoid osteotomy and posterior atlantoaxial fusion were then performed. Good reduction of the atlantoaxial dislocation was gained. The cervical spinal cord compression was significantly relieved and neurological function was also significantly improved. Anterior submandibular retropharyngeal odontoid osteotomy and posterior atlantoaxial fusion fixation is an effective method for treating IAAD associated with odontoid fracture malunion, it avoids the adverse effects of anterior transoral odontoid osteotomy and provides a new option for the treatment of odontoid fracture malunion associated with atlantoaxial dislocation.

  5. Surgical Management of Adult Reducible Atlantoaxial Dislocation, Basilar Invagination and Chiari Malformation with Syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhui, Gong; Jiagang, Liu; Haifeng, Chen; Hao, Zhao Bo; Qing, Huang Si

    To analyze retrospectively the surgical management of reducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD), basilar invagination (BI) and Chiari malformation (CHM) with syringomyelia through a single-stage posterior approach. Forty-three patients with reducible AAD, BI and CHM with syringomyelia underwent surgery from January 2009 to January 2013. Intraoperative restoration followed by posterior decompression and plate-rod placement with occipital cortical screws and C2/C3 lateral mass cortical screws fixation devices were used in all patients. Results were recorded both pre- and postoperatively and these outcome measures included Nurick grading (NG) and radiology findings (atlantodental interval (ADI), space available for the spinal cord (SAC), interval between odontoid and Chamberlain's line (IOC), and the cervicomedullary angle (CMA)). Forty (93%) of the 43 patients were followed up. Thirty-six (90%) patients' symptoms improved and four (10%) stabilized. No patients became progressively worse. The difference between preoperative and postoperative Nurick grades was statistically significant. All patients achieved restoration, including thirty (75%) patients had full restoration and ten (25%) had part restoration. The size of syringomyelia was obviously decreased in 32 (80%) patients and stable in 8 (20%) patients. All radiology findings (ADI, IOC, SAC, CMA) showed significant changes from pre- to postoperative (p < 0.01). Intraoperative distraction, extension combined posterior decompression with use of plate-rod-screws occipitocervical fusion device is an effective method to treat AAD, BI and CHM with syringomyelia.

  6. Clinical Significance of Articulating Facet Displacement of Lateral Atlantoaxial Joint on 3D CT in Diagnosing Atlantoaxial Subluxation

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    Shaoyin Duan

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Once AFDLAJ appears in neutral position and rotational fixation or asymmetry in rotary position, atlantoaxial subluxation can be ascertained, as well as the type and extent of subluxation, and fake subluxation due to the head's rotation or normal lateralized odontoid can be excluded. AFDLAJ is a vital direct sign in diagnosing atlantoaxial subluxation.

  7. Rigid Occipitocervical Instrumented Fusion for Atlantoaxial Instability in an 18-month-old Toddler with Brachytelephalangic Chondrodysplasia Punctata: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Hiroki; Takahashi, Jun; Takano, Kyoko; Inaba, Yuji; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Gen; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Uehara, Masashi; Kosho, Tomoki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Uno, Koki

    2017-03-23

    Case report OBJECTIVE.: We report here on an 18-month-old boy with brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (BCDP), whose atlantoaxial instability was successfully managed with occipitocervical instrumented fusion (OCF) using screw and rod instrumentations. Recently, there have been a number of reports on BCDP with early onset of cervical myelopathy. Surgical OCF is a vital intervention to salvage affected individuals from the life-threatening morbidity. Despite recent advancement of instrumentation techniques, however, rigid OCF is technically demanding in very young children with small and fragile osseous elements. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on application of the instrumentation technique to a toddler patient with BCDP. A 16-month-old boy with BCDP presented with tetraplegia and swallow obstacle. Hypoplasia of the odontoid process and atlantoaxial instability were present in lateral radiographs. T2 weighted MR images revealed a high signal region in the spinal cord at the C1-2 and C7-T1 levels. Cervical CT showed the pedicles and lateral masses in the cervical spine were small and immature but the laminae were comparatively thick. One week prior to surgery, the patient was fitted with a Halo-body jacket. We performed plate-rod placement with occipital cortical screws and C2/C3 interlaminar screws, and added an autogenous bone graft using the right 8 and 9 ribs. Rigid fixation of the occipito-cervical spine was completed successfully without major complications. Postoperative halo-body jacket immobilization was continued for 3 months, after which Aspen collar was fitted. CT confirmed occipitocervical bone fusion at 6 months after surgery. Mild clinical improvements in motor power of the affected muscles and swallowing were witnessed at one year postoperatively. Rigid fixation using screw, rod, and occipital plate instrumentation was successful in a 18-month-old toddler with BCDP and atlantoaxial instability. Bone fusion was achieved at

  8. [Treatment strategy of rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui; Cai, Xian-hua; Xu, Feng; Huang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To analyze appropriate strategy about treatment of rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation in children. From March 2005 to February 2009, 36 patients with rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation were retrospectively analyzed, including 25 males and 11 females, with the average age of 7.8 years (ranged 3 - 14 years). According to Fielding-Hawkins clinical classification, type I 24 cases, type II 8 cases, type III 2 cases, type IV 2 cases. All of the patients were assessed rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation and whether or not upper cervical spine malformation by X-ray, MRI and CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction. Thirty-two cases received observational treatments which were reduction after cervical traction, without appearance of the deformity, without neurological symptoms. And another 4 serious cases (irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation or with os odontoideum) received posterior atlantoaxial fixed autograft fusion. Rotation of atlas decreased from 16.0° ± 4.4° (range, 5° to 26°) pre-therapy to 4.5° ± 1.5° (range, 0° to 8°) post-therapy in 35 cases, rotation of atlas had significant difference between pre-therapy and post-therapy (t = 14.75, P dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation in children. However, operative treatment should be considered in the following situations: irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation or patients with os odontoideum.

  9. Transarticular plating for acute posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocations: a valid treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Juan C; Herbert, Benoit; Chadayammuri, Vivek P; Kim, Ji Wan; Hao, Jiandong; Hake, Mark; Hak, David J; Stahel, Philip F; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2016-07-01

    Restoration of the sternoclavicular joint after posterior dislocation is important for upper limb function. The proximity of neuro-vascular mediastinal structures makes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) a high-risk procedure. The ideal treatment strategy is still debated. Our aim is to review the treatment of acute posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation with a locking compression plate. We present our experience of transarticular plating using a locking compression plate for the treatment of three consecutive patients with posterior sternoclavicular dislocation (SCD). Our primary outcome measure was objective functional outcome using DASH (disability of the arm, shoulder and hand) and PROMIS (patient-reported outcomes measurement information system) questionnaires. All patients had a minimum follow-up of six months, and serial radiographs were reviewed to evaluate maintenance of reduction. All three patients presented a posterior SCD with instability refractory to closed reduction. In all three patients, we opted for surgical management using open reduction and fixation with a locking compression plate and allowed early mobilization at two weeks postoperatively. No complications were encountered during follow-up. Good functional outcomes were evidenced by DASH scores of 7.5, 20 and 30, and PROMIS scores were 53.8, 53.8 and 38.1 in each patient, respectively. Our experience of transarticular plating using a locking compression plate for posterior SCD is positive, as it allows early mobilization and resulted in good functional outcomes.

  10. Study on the causes and mechanism of atlantoaxial dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-wen LIU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Atlantoaxial joint, which is located in the body of the upper cervical spine, plays an important role in bearing and motion. It is the nerve center of medulla oblongata and spinal cord, and a lot of other important structures, such as neck arteriovenous and great occipital nerve, were distributed in this area, therefore the study on reasons and mechanism of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD is of great guiding significance for clinical treatment. This article will explore the specific mechanisms of AAD from the aspects of anatomy of atlantoaxial joint and surrounding structures, biomechanics and histology. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.03.012

  11. The surgical treatment for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Kun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (CAAD is one common disease of craniovertebral junction (CVJ malformations, which diagnosis depends on CT and MRI. The treatment of CAAD is complex, as a result, the corresponding surgical techniques are different, mainly includes anterioposterior combined approach surgery, single anterior approach surgery and single posterior approach surgery. There is also simple posterior decompression surgery, but it seems not convincible. The complications related to different surgical techniques are various, hence we suggest the experienced neurosurgeons to investigate such operations.

  12. Posterior Reduction of Fixed Atlantoaxial Dislocation and Basilar Invagination by Atlantoaxial Facet Joint Release and Fixation: A Modified Technique With 174 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi-heng; Tong, Huai-yu; Qiao, Guang-yu; Yu, Xin-guang

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of fixed atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) with basilar invagination (BI) is challenging. To introduce a modified technique to reduce fixed AAD and BI through a posterior approach. From 2007 to 2013, 174 patients with fixed AAD and BI underwent surgical reduction by posterior atlantoaxial facet joint release and fixation technique. There was 1 death in the series, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 52 months (mean: 35.2 months) for the remaining 170 patients. Neurological improvement was observed in 168 of 170 patients (98.8%), and was stable in 1 (0.06%) and exacerbated in 1 (0.06%), with the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores increasing from 11.4 preoperatively to 15.8 postoperatively (P 90% reduction was attained in 107 patients (62.9%), 60% to 90% reduction was attained in 51 patients (30%), and <50% reduction was attained in 12 patients (7.1%), who underwent additional transoral decompression. Complete decompression was demonstrated in all 170 patients. Solid bony fusion was demonstrated in 167 patients at follow-up (98.2%). This series showed the safety and efficacy of the posterior C1-2 facet joint release and reduction technique for the treatment of AAD and BI. Most fixed AAD and BI cases are reducible via this method. In most cases, this method avoids transoral odontoidectomy and cervical traction. Compared with the occiput-C2 screw method, this short-segment C1-2 technique exerts less antireduction shearing force, guarantees longer bone purchase, and provides more immediate stabilization.

  13. Asymptomatic atlantoaxial subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Nazarinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis patients by plain radiographs and its relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity measures and medications. 100 rheumatoid arthritis patients (18 male and 82 female were selected randomly, according to the American college of Rheumatology Criteria, who were under follow up in the rheumatology clinic. A complete history was taken, and physical examination has been done with focus on the cervical spine to determine their demographic data, disease duration, age of disease onset, drug history, swollen and tender joint counts, and ESR, Hb, CRP, RF levels. The disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was measured using the disease activity score 28. Radiographs of the cervical spine included lateral views taken in flexion, extension, neutral position of the neck and anterioposterior and odontoid projection view. Asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation was found in 17 of the 100 patients (17%. The prevalence of, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, atlantoaxial impaction and subaxial subluxation was 10(10%, 5(5% and 6(6%, respectively. Posterior subluxation was not detected. The only characteristic that showed meaningful relationship with cervical spine subluxation was CRP (P=0.036. Our results showed that patients with RA, who have cervical spine subluxation cannot be distinguished on the basis of symptoms. Cervical spine involvement is common and may be asymptomatic, indicating routine cervical spine imaging is needed in patients with RA.

  14. Radiological assessment of the atlantoaxial distance in Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Bol, E.; van Gijn, J

    1993-01-01

    People with Down's syndrome are pre-disposed to atlantoaxial instability. As part of a study to determine whether those with Down's syndrome should be screened for atlantoaxial instability before they participate in sport, a series of 279 children, aged 6 to 17 years was investigated radiologically. Lateral radiographs of the cervical spine were taken in neutral position and in flexion. The magnification factor was assessed by means of a marker attached to the nape of the neck. After correcti...

  15. Atlantoaxial Synovial Cyst Associated with Instability in a Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Forterre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe an atlantoaxial degenerative cyst associated with instability. Animal. Chihuahua, male, 5 years old. Methods. Ever since colliding with a large dog two years prior to presentation, the dog suffered recurrent episodes of intractable cervical pain. Over time, the pain attacks increased in frequency and intensity. On presentation, pain was clinically localized to the high cervical region. No neurological deficits were observed. CT and MRI revealed an atlantoaxial degenerative articular cyst associated with instability, causing cervicomedullary compressive myelopathy. On MRI the cyst appeared hypointense in T1W and hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences, with rim enhancement. The dog was treated surgically by cyst fenestration and ventral stabilization using a 1.5 mm Butterfly Locking plate and cancellous bone graft placed within the atlantoaxial joint after cartilage removal. Histological examination of a sample of the cyst wall confirmed a degenerative articular cyst. The dog recovered uneventfully after surgery and remained pain free throughout the 2-year followup. Conclusion. Atlantoaxial degenerative articular cyst associated with instability is a rare finding in dogs. Clinical Relevance. The presence of an atlantoaxial degenerative articular cyst appears not to worsen the prognosis of instability treatment. Atlantoaxial fusion and cyst fenestration may provide good long-term results.

  16. Clinical analysis of posterior lamina internal fixation for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation with craniovertebral junction region malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Xing-sen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the efficacy of posterior lamina internal fixation for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation with craniovertebral junction region malformation. Methods In April 2010 to November 2011, 12 patients suffered from atlantoaxial dislocation complicated with craniovertebral junction region malformation were treated at our department. All patients underwent posterior decompressed reduction and screw-titanium rod (plate system internal fixation. CT thin layer scanning and 3D CT reconstruction were performed. Pre-and post-operative atlanto-dental interval (ADI, Chamberlain's line (CL distance and McRae's line (ML distance were measured. The degree of spinal cord compression was evaluated by cervicomedullary angle (CMA. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score was used to assess the improvement of cervical medullary function. Electroneurophysiology was applied to detect nerve conduction function. Clinical effect of this surgical procedure was analysed. Results All patients were followed up for 4-20 months (mean 13 months. The differences of preoperative and postoperative ADI [(4.42 ± 2.91 mm vs (2.96 ± 2.08 mm], CL [(10.31 ± 3.80 mm vs (7.16 ± 3.19 mm], ML [(3.24 ± 2.92 mm vs (0.29 ± 2.36 mm], CMA [(127.83 ± 8.75° vs (134.10 ± 8.38°] and JOA [(9.75 ± 2.59 scores vs (14.83 ± 2.94 scores] were all statistically significant. In electroneurophysiological examination, preoperative waveform was abnormal in 10 cases, while 7 cases recovered to normal. Imaging examination showed bony fusion at bone grafting area, and no abnormal appearances after internal fixation. In follow-up period no complication occurred. Conclusion Posterior lamina internal fixation for the treatment of craniovertebral junction region malformation with atlantoaxial dislocation is safe, feasible and effective.

  17. Posterior Open Reduction and Interlaminae Compression Fusion for Os Odontoideum with Atlantoaxial Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bin; Wu, Lecheng; Guo, Qunfeng; Lu, Xuhua; Chen, Fei; Guo, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome of posterior open reduction and interlaminae compression fusion using a screw-rod system combined with a structural iliac bone graft in the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) secondary to os odontoideum. A retrospective study was performed on 24 patients with AAD secondary to os odontoideum. All cases were with partial reduction after skeletal traction. Intraoperative open reduction and fixation were performed with a posterior screw-rod system, followed by interlaminae compression of an autologous iliac bone graft for fusion. The modified atlanto-dental interval (MADI) was measured to assess the degree of dislocation before traction, after traction, and postoperatively. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Nurick scale score, visual analog scale score for neck pain (VASSNP), Neck Disability Index (NDI) score, and neck stiffness were used to evaluate functional outcomes. The mean duration of follow-up was 43.0 ± 24.0 months. All patients achieved relief of symptoms and solid bone fusion. There were no complications associated with instrumentation and operation. At the final follow-up, the average MADI was reduced to 2.0 ± 0.8 mm (pretraction: 9.2 ± 1.1 mm; post-traction: 6.6 ± 0.7 mm; P < 0.001). The neck stiffness was significantly relieved (P < 0.001), and function of the spinal cord manifested by the JOA score and Nurick scale score significantly improved (all P < 0.001). The NDI score and VASSNP markedly decreased (all P < 0.001). Intraoperative open reduction and interlaminae compression fusion using a posterior screw-rod system combined with a structural iliac bone graft is a safe and effective procedure for AAD secondary to os odontoideum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone Grafting of Atlantoaxial Joints and Occipitocervical or Atlantoaxial Fusion for the Reduction and Fixation of Basilar Invagination with Atlantoaxial Dislocation by a Posterior Approach: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Meng, Yibin; Zhang, Jianan; Hang, Yunfei; Yang, Junsong; Wu, Qining; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-04-01

    Basilar invagination (BI) with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a complex disease to manage. We have developed a new technique of bone grafting the atlantoaxial joints and occipitocervical fusion using a posterior approach for the reduction and fixation of BI with AAD with complete retention of the C2 nerve root. Thirty-two patients underwent bone grafting of the atlantoaxial joints and occipitocervical fusion for the reduction and fixation of BI with AAD by the posterior approach in our department between January 2015 and February 2016. All patients underwent plain radiography, computed tomography (CT) scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. The atlantodens interval and cervicomedullary angle were evaluated preoperatively and 5 days after surgery on sagittal reconstructed CT scans to evaluate BI with AAD. CT scans of sagittal reconstruction were acquired at each follow-up until bone fusion was confirmed. All patients were followed up for 6-19 months. No patient required re-exploration for failure of implant fixation. At the last follow-up, all patients had achieved fusion (32/32). Japanese Orthopedic Association score, atlantodens interval, and cervicomedullary angle were significantly improved in these patients compared with preoperative measurements (P atlantoaxial joints. This technique may be extended to other diseases requiring treatment by C1-C2 fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. C2 pars/pedicle screws in management of craniocervical and upper cervical instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshra, Mohammed Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    A retrospective study. To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of craniocervical and upper cervical stabilization by using C2 pars/pedicle screw fixations. The management of craniocervical and upper cervical instability has progressed over the past two decades due to good achievements in the instrumentation and the increased awareness on spinal anatomy and biomechanics. However, there is insufficient studies or solid conclusions on this topic, thus, we tried to investigate and present our findings. Twenty-two patients were operated upon and were followed up from March 2008 to October 2010. One patient had craniocervical instability (post-surgical), 15 patients had atlantoaxial instability of different etiologies (trauma, tumors, inflammatory and degenerative) and 6 patients had hangman fractures. Patients' ages ranged from 18 to 52 years old. with 5 female patients and 17 male patients. Radiological follow ups performed immediately post-operation showed good screw positioning and complete reductions in nearly all the cases. All patients were followed up for more than one year. Sound fusions were observed among all patients. The use of pars/pedicle screws is a very effective, sound, safe and easy surgical modality for treating craniocervical, atlantoaxial and upper cervical instabilities. Increasing studies for the biomechanics of this important region and longer periods of follow-ups are necessary to document the usefulness of this modality when treating such patients.

  20. Transoral anterior release, odontoid partial resection, and reduction with posterior fusion for the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation caused by odontoid fracture malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng-wei; Liu, Tuan-jiang; He, Bao-rong; Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yong-hong; Hao, Ding-jun

    2015-04-01

    Several techniques have been introduced to manage irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD). However, no study has reported the surgical method for the management of IAAD caused by odontoid fracture malunion. This study aimed to introduce a surgical method of transoral anterior release, odontoid partial resection, and reduction with sequential posterior fusion for the treatment of IAAD caused by odontoid fracture malunion. We also evaluated the clinical efficacy of this surgery. This study included seven cases of IAAD caused by odontoid fracture malunion, collected from January 2008 to January 2011. Anterior atlantoaxial release was performed through anterior transoral approach, followed by partial resection of the odontoid process. C1-C2 were then fixed through pedicle screws and rods, and then fused posteriorly by single stage. Neurologic status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system. All seven patients had complete release, and satisfactory reduction. Bony fusion was seen in all patients postoperatively. The patients were followed up for an average of 19.6 months (ranged from 9 to 36 months). The average of patients JOA scores at the final follow-up was significantly higher than that of their preoperative scores. Furthermore, the average improvement in neurological function was 87.4 %. No screw loosening, implant migration or implant failures, atlantoaxial redislocation, or signs of instability were observed in any of the patients during the follow-up period. Transoral anterior release, odontoid partial resection, and reduction combined with posterior fusion are effective, reliable, and safe procedures for the treatment of IAAD caused by odontoid fracture malunion.

  1. [Fusion of reconstructed titanic plate, vertebral pedical screws and autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft in posterior occipitocervical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dejun; Song, Yueming

    2006-08-01

    To explore the technique of fusing the reconstructed titanic plate, the C2 pedical screws, and the autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft in the occipitocervical region. From April 2002 to January 2005, 19 patients aged 31-67 years with occipitocervical instability underwent the occipitocervical fusion using the reconstructed plate, C2 pedical screws, and autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft. Of the patients, 8 had complex occipitocervical deformity, 8 had old atlantoaxial fracture and dislocation, 2 had rheumatoid arthritis and anterior dislocation of the atlantoaxial joint, and 1 had cancer of the deltoid process of the axis. No complication occurred during and after operation. The follow-up for an average of 16 months in 19 patients showed that all the patients achieved solid bony fusion in the occipitocervical region. There was no broken plate, broken screw, looseness of the internal fixation or neurovascular injury. The fixation of the C2 pedical screws with the reconstructed titanic plate is reliable, the insertion is easy, and the autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft has a high fusion rate, thus resulting in a satisfactory effect in the occipitocervical fusion.

  2. Lateral Atlantoaxial Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraimoh, Morenikeji A; Massie, Lara W; Montgomery, David M

    2017-12-01

    Lateral atlantoaxial osteoarthritis (AAOA), or C1-C2 lateral mass arthritis (LMA), is an unfamiliar degenerative cervical disease with a clinical presentation that markedly differs from subaxial spondylosis. The prevalence of LMA in the nonsurgical outpatient setting is 4%. Risk factors include age and occupation. The typical patient is between 50 and 90 years old, presents with upper cervical or occipital pain, has limited rotation, and has pain provocation during passive rotation to the affected side. Pain stems from degeneration of the lateral C1-C2 articulation and may be referred or radicular, through the greater occipital nerve. Although there is no consensus on diagnostic work-up, the disease is classically seen on the open-mouth odontoid radiograph. Computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan, and diagnostic injections are also useful. Initial treatment is conservative, and upwards of two-thirds of LMA patients obtain lasting relief with noninvasive measures and injections. In patients with severe, recalcitrant pain, limited C1-C2 fusion offers satisfactory and reliable relief. The goals of this review article are to provide a synthesis of the literature on LMA, to offer a treatment approach to LMA, and to identify problems with the current state of knowledge on LMA.

  3. Traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation with Hangman fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Saad B; Martinez, Maximilian; Shah, Neel P; Vives, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic bilateral-atlantoaxial dislocations are rare injuries. Hangman fractures, conversely, represent 4% to 7% of all cervical fractures and frequently involve a combination C1-C2 fracture pattern. Presently, there is no report in the English literature of a traumatic C2-spondylolisthesis associated with a C1-C2 rotatory dislocation. This injury complex cannot be cataloged using current classification schemes and no established treatment recommendations exist. To report a unique case of a Hangman fracture associated with bilateral C1-C2 rotatory-dislocation, which does not fit into existing classification systems, and discuss our treatment approach. A clinical case report and review of the literature. Chart review and analysis of relevant literature. There were no study-specific conflicts of interest. A 26-year-old man sustained a traumatic C2-spondylolisthesis along with C1-C2 rotatory subluxation in an automobile collision. The patient was originally placed in a halo crown and vest and then taken for an open reduction and stabilization through a posterior approach for persistent C1-C2 subluxation. The patient is currently 16 months postoperative and back to work as a plumber. The injury complex encountered cannot be described using the available classification systems. Our treatment included initial stabilization with halo placement, followed by a posterior C1, C2, and C3 segmental reduction and fixation resulting in radiographic fusion and a good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Current Trends in Management of Atlantoaxial Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-shui; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD), often caused by trauma, tumors or congenital malformations, is a challenging disorder of the craniocervical junction. Because of its deep location and intricate anatomic structure, the craniocervical junction is always a difficult region for spine surgery. With recent developments in medical science, great progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of AAD such that more instructive clinical classifications and efficacious treatment strategies, various novel operation techniques including innovative posterior or transoral anterior reduction, and novel fixation instruments are now widely used in clinical practice for managing AAD. However, surgeons continue to face more special characteristics and difficulty in carrying out upper cervical surgery than they encounter in other regions of the spine. Consequently, this high risk surgery should only be performed by extremely skilled and experienced surgeons and only when stringent indications have been met. Therefore, the aim of this course is to assist surgeons who are dealing with AAD by providing comprehensive information about AAD, including related anatomy, classification, clinical manifestations and diagnosis, imaging examinations and surgical techniques, thus decreasing the occurrence of complications and improving the level of diagnosis and treatment. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Atlanto-axial instability in rheumatoid arthritis: a review | Omar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High index of suspicion and early intervention results in good outcomes and prevents neurological outcome. Conclusion: Cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis is common and debilitating. Atlanto-axial instability is the commonest form. Early diagnosis and treatment is key in management. Early selective choice ...

  6. Fixed atlantoaxial rotary deformity with bilateral facet dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y.; Clark, C.R.; Wroble, R.R.

    1985-03-01

    A 21-year-old patient with Down syndrome who developed rotary atlantoaxial dislocation of C1 and C2 following an upper respiratory infection is presented. Techniques for detection and quantification of this potentially serious dislocation using multidirectional tomography and computerized tomography are described.

  7. Atlantoaxial Langerhans cell histiocytosis radiographic characteristics and corresponding prognosis analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The atlas and axis were affected by LCH, mainly in children. The lateral mass was easily affected and compressed, destruction of the atlas and axis could lead to atlantoaxial joint instability. The prognosis was good in most of the patients.

  8. Sacroiliac Screw Fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. van den Bosch

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to evaluate three major aspects of the use of sacroiliac screws in patients with unstable pelvic ring fractures: the optimal technique for sacroiliac screw fixation, the reliability of peroperative fluoroscopy and the late results. We focused on the questions

  9. Posterior distraction reduction and occipitocervical fixation for the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Chen, Hua; Lou, Jigang; Rong, Xin; Wang, Beiyu; Deng, Yuxiao; Ding, Chen; Hong, Ying; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    To introduce a novel distraction technique for the treatment of basilar invagination (BI) and atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) via a posterior-only approach. Twenty-one consecutive patients with BI and AAD who underwent posterior distraction reduction and occipitocervical fixation between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in the present study. This novel distraction technique included two steps. First, the distraction between the occipitocervical junction of the rod (OCJR) and the occipital screws was performed to achieve horizontal and partial vertical reduction. Secondly, the distraction was performed between the C2 screws and OCJR to achieve complete vertical reduction. The pre- and postoperative JOA score, the extent of reduction, the fusion status, and the complications were recorded and analyzed. The mean follow-up was 18.3 months with a range of 10-32 months. No patient incurred neurovascular injury during surgery. The mean JOA score at the last follow-up (15.4) showed significant improvement (P<0.01) compared with the pre-operative parameters (11.2). Complete horizontal reduction was achieved in 18 patients (85.7%), and complete vertical reduction was achieved in 17 patients (80.9%). The rest patients are all received greater than 50% horizontal and vertical reduction. Solid fusion was achieved in 20 patients (95.2%). Mild dysphagia was observed in two patients. One patient suffered from postoperative fever and pulmonary infection. This novel distraction technique may provide satisfactory reduction via a posterior-only approach without exposure of the C1/2 facet joint. Therefore, it is a safe and effective method for the treatment of BI with AAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transoral Atlantoaxial Release and Posterior Reduction by Occipitocervical Plate Fixation for the Treatment of Basilar Invagination with Irreducible Atlantoaxial Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingde; Mao, Kezheng; Wang, Chunli; Mei, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Background Prior studies have mainly assessed transoral odontoidectomy for basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. However, studies evaluating transoral release and posterior reduction with occipitocervical fixation in this setting are scarce. Methods From 2008 to 2013, 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; 23-67 years of age) with basilar invagination and irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation underwent surgery. They presented signs and symptoms of myelopathy or significant spinal cord injury, and were treated by transoral soft tissue release without odontoidectomy, under skull traction with heavy weight and by posterior reduction with occipitocervical plate fixation. Results Patients were followed up for 10 to 42 months (average: 25.4 months). All achieved bony fusion; radiologically complete reduction was achieved in 10 cases, and partial reduction in 1. All patients showed an improved postoperative neurologic condition, indicated by increased muscle strength and decreased or now absent pathologic symptoms. The average Japanese Orthopaedic Association preoperative score of 10.5 points increased to 15.5 points postoperatively. These findings indicated an improvement rate of 76.1%. The efficiency rate was 90.9%. Conclusions Anterior transoral atlantoaxial release without odontoidectomy and posterior fixation is an efficient treatment of basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Traumatic Posterior Atlantoaxial Dislocation Without Associated Fracture but With Neurological Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Li, Feng; Guan, Hanfeng; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture is extremely rare and often results in fatal spinal cord injury. According to the reported literature, all cases presented mild or no neurologic deficit, with no definite relation to upper spinal cord injury. Little is reported about traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation, with incomplete quadriplegia associated with a spinal cord injury. We present a case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without associated fract...

  12. Atlantoaxial Ankylosis Detected on Neck CT Scans in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Rheynmatology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that principally affects the axial skeleton. The cervical spine is also vulnerable to this disease process and the characteristic feature of cervical involvement is atlantoaxial subluxation. However, only a few cases of atlantoaxial ankylosis have been reported to date. We report a case of atlantoaxial ankylosis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with radiologic findings incidentally detected on neck CT scans.

  13. Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture of the odontoid process: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Yong Kyun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Jung, Hyun Nyeong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Won [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Bitgoeul Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture is very rare. Patient prognosis depends on the neurologic symptoms or the extent of damage to the structures. In this case, a 78-year-old-male suffered a posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without odontoid fracture after a traffic accident. We report this case because an exact diagnosis and proper treatment can reduce the neurologic complications in patients with posterior atlantoaxial dislocation.

  14. Minimally invasive technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using transarticular toggle system: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, U; Shani, J; Joseph, R

    2017-11-03

    To present a novel, semi-closed, surgical technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using a transarticular toggle rod. Cadaveric study. Craniodorsal luxation was generated by transecting the ligamentum teres in 12 coxofemoral joints and was then reduced using a closed technique. Anteversion and inclination angles were measured using fluoroscopic projections. An arthroscope was inserted through a bone tunnel drilled from the third trochanter through the femoral neck. Following retraction of the arthroscope, a hole was drilled through the acetabular fossa via the femoral bone tunnel. A standard Arthrex® TightRope toggle button was pushed through the femoral bone tunnel into the acetabular fossa hole and tied over the oval metallic button above the third trochanter site. The exit point of the drill hole over the femoral head and that in the acetabular fossa were evaluated by surgical exposure of the coxofemoral articular surfaces. The TightRope entrance point into the acetabular fossa was accurate in all joints, with a mean distance from the acetabular fossa centre of 0·06 ±0·1 mm. The measured distance of the TightRope exit point from the femoral head to the fovea capitis was 2·04 ±1·7 mm. Femoral head cartilage damage was detected in nine of 12 joints. Closed reduction and stabilisation of coxofemoral luxations can be achieved using this minimally invasive technique. Refinements to the technique may be needed for its application in clinical cases due to relative high incidence of femoral head cartilage damage. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Deviation analysis for C1/2 pedicle screw placement using a three-dimensional printed drilling guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinghuo; Liu, Rong; Yu, Jie; Lu, Lin; Yang, Cao; Shao, Zengwu; Ye, Zhewei

    2017-06-01

    Cervical transarticular fixation is a technically demanding procedure. This study aimed to develop a safer and more accurate method for C1/2 pedicle screw placement using a three-dimensional printed drilling guide. A total of 20 patients with C1/2 fractures and dislocations were recruited, and their computed tomography scans were evaluated. Under the assistance of the three-dimensional printed drilling guide, bilateral C1/2 pedicle screws were successfully placed in the three-dimensional C1/2 models. Then, sagittal and axial computed tomography scans were obtained, and the accuracy and safety of screw placement were evaluated based on X-Y-Z axis setup. The average depths for C1 and C2 pedicle screws were 30.1 ± 1.12 and 31.81 ± 0.85 mm on the left side and 29.54 ± 1.01 and 31.35 ± 0.27 mm on the right side, respectively. The average dimensional parameters for C1/C2 pedicle screw of both sides were measured and analyzed, which showed no statistically significant differences in the ideal and the actual entry points, inclined angles, and tailed angles. The method of developing a three-dimensional printed drilling guide is an easy and safe technique. This novel technique is applicable for C1/2 pedicle screw fixation; the potential use of the three-dimensional printed guide to place C1/2 pedicle screw is promising.

  16. DLC screw preload. Loosening prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida de Mattias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The screw loosening is a reason to prosthetic rehabilitation failure. However, the DLC (Diamond-like carbon screw treatment lead thefriction decrease and sliding between the components, which increases the screw preload benefit and decreases the chance of looseningoccurrence. This case shows a clinical indication of the association of the correct preload applied and the DLC screw, which can be considered an optimized protocol to solve screw loosening recidivate of unitary prosthesis in anterior maxillary site.

  17. Nontraumatic posterior atlantooccipital dislocation associated with atlantoaxial instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-Long; Jia, Jing-Yu; Chen, Wei-Cai; He, Ding-Wen; Cheng, Xi-Gao

    2015-05-01

    Nontraumatic posterior atlantooccipital dislocation has only been rarely reported. In the current study, the authors reported an extremely rare case of nontraumatic posterior atlantooccipital dislocation associated with atlantoaxial instability. A 47-year-old female was referred with a history of neck pain for 5 years. The patient had no history of trauma. The axial rotation of range of motion of the cervical spine was severely restricted. Posterior atlantooccipital dislocation with atlantoaxial instability was confirmed through conventional radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We performed realignment of the dislocation and posterior occipitocervical (C0-C2) fusion. After the surgery, the patient's symptoms improved significantly and she manifested neurological improvement. To our knowledge, this lesion has not been reported previously. Anomalies of upper cervical spine may have induced this instability.

  18. Adult Traumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaw Min Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a very rare case of adult Fielding type I atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF. We performed awake manual reduction of the dislocation without need for anesthesia, achieving excellent outcomes, and no previous reports have described awake reduction without the need for anesthesia. AARF in this case was attributed to excessive extension and rotation forces applied to the cervical spine. For the management of adult Fielding type I AARF, early diagnosis and early reduction may lead to excellent outcomes.

  19. Novel surgical classification and treatment strategy for atlantoaxial dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenglin; Wang, Chao; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Haitao; Dang, Gengting

    2013-10-01

    Retrospective study of 904 patients with a diagnosis of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD), using a novel surgical classification and treatment strategy. To describe a novel surgical classification and treatment strategy for AADs. AADs can result from a variety of etiologies, yet no comprehensive classification has been accepted that guides treatment. Because of the rarity of the cases, however, the treatment strategy has also been debated. During a period of 12 years, a total of 904 patients with a diagnosis of AAD were recruited from a single academic institution. According to the treatment algorithm that included preoperative evaluation using dynamic radiograph, reconstructive computed tomography, and skeletal traction test, the cases were classified into 4 types: I to IV. Types I and II were fused in the reduced position from a posterior approach. Type III, which were irreducible dislocations, were converted to reducible dislocations using a transoral atlantoaxial release, followed by a posterior fusion. Type IV presented with bony dislocations and required transoral osseous decompressions prior to posterior fusion. Four hundred seventy-two cases were classified as type I, 160 as type II, 268 as type III, and 4 cases as type IV. Follow-up was in the range of 2 to 12 years (average: 60.5 mo). Eight hundred and ninety-nine cases (99.4%) achieved a solid atlantoaxial fusion. Anatomic atlantoaxial reduction was achieved in 892 cases (98.7%), whereas 12 cases had a partial reduction. Neurological improvement was seen in 84.1% (512/609) of the patients with myelopathy. The overall complication rate was 9.1% (82/949). Our surgical classification and treatment strategy for AADs was applied in those 904 cases and associated with excellent clinical results with a minimal risk of complications. 4.

  20. Structural Allograft versus Autograft for Instrumented Atlantoaxial Fusions in Pediatric Patients: Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes in Series of 32 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Hui; Shen, Lei; Shao, Jiang; Chou, Dean; Song, Jia; Zhang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Allograft with wire techniques showed a low fusion rate in pediatric atlantoaxial fusions (AAFs) in early studies. Using allograft in pediatric AAFs with screw/rod constructs has not been reported. Thus we compared the fusion rate and clinical outcomes in pediatric patients who underwent AAFs with screw/rod constructs using either a structural autograft or allograft. Pediatric patients (aged ≤12 years) who underwent AAFs between 2007 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups (allograft or autograft). Clinical and radiographic results were collected from hospital records and compared. A total of 32 patients were included (18 allograft, 14 autograft). There were no significant group differences in age, sex, weight, diagnosis, or duration of follow-up. A similar fusion rate was achieved (allograft: 94%, 17/18; autograft: 100%, 14/14); however, the average fusion time was 3 months longer in the allograft group. Blood loss was significantly lower in the allograft group (68 ± 8.5 mL) than the autograft group (116 ± 12.5 mL). Operating time and length of hospitalization were slightly (nonsignificantly) shorter for the allograft group. A significantly higher overall incidence of surgery-related complications was seen in the autograft group, including a 16.7% (2/14) rate of donor-site-related complications. The use of allograft for AAF was safe and efficacious when combined with rigid screw/rod constructs in pediatric patients, with a similar fusion rate to autografts and an acceptable complication rate. Furthermore, blood loss was less when using allograft and donor-site morbidity was eliminated; however, the fusion time was increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The fate of syndesmotic screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kyle; Panchbhavi, Vinod K

    2011-05-01

    A standard protocol for the management of syndesmosis injuries has yet to be established. Debate persists regarding number of screws, screw diameter, number of cortices purchased, and the need for and timing of screw removal. The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to screw fixation that may lead to the ultimate failure of syndesmosis fixation defined as a loss of reduction of the syndesmosis, screw breakage, screw loosening, or widening of the medial clear space. A retrospective assessment of 137 consecutive patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the distal tibiofibular joint at a single institution from 2004 to 2008 was performed. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded regarding problems with questionable clinical significance (number of syndesmotic screws, number of cortices, screw diameter, screw location, hardware failure) and loss of syndesmosis reduction. A series of Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate outcomes. A p value of 0.05 defined as significant. The 3.5-mm diameter screws were statistically more likely to break than 4- or 4.5-mm screws, but there was no difference in frequency of loss of reduction of the syndesmosis as a function of screw diameter; however, a power study revealed an n value of 1656 would be required to show a significant difference. Screw diameter may have an effect on screw breakage but clinical significance of hardware failure itself is unknown including whether or not it results in a loss of reduction or failure of syndesmotic fixation.

  2. Does atlantoaxial dislocation influence the subaxial cervical spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenglin; Passias, Peter G; Cui, Libin; Li, Gang; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Chao

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have reported that the alignments of the occipital-cervical and subaxial spine were closely interrelated in asymptomatic individuals; however, none have focused on a population with atlantoaxial dislocation. From 2007 to 2011, 298 patients with atlantoaxial dislocation and atlas occipitalization were studied. Angles formed between Occiput-C2 and C2-C7 were measured. The relationship between the alignment of the occipital-cervical junction and the subaxial cervical spine was evaluated. The range of values for the angles measured was as followed: the Occiput-C2 angles were -35.2° to 44.8°, and the C2-C7 angles were -17.4° to 77.8°. Statistically significant negative correlations were observed between the Occiput-C2 and C2-C7 angles. Anterior dislocations of the atlas are associated with diminished lordosis or even kyphosis of the occipital-cervical junction, and result in compensatory hyperlordosis of the subaxial cervical spine, collectively presenting as a "swan neck" deformity. Atlantoaxial dislocation may influence the global cervical alignment.

  3. A Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Atlantoaxial Dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Y.; Boniello, Anthony J.; Poorman, Caroline E.; Chang, Andy L.; Wang, Shenglin; Passias, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a rare and potentially fatal disturbance to the normal occipital-cervical anatomy that affects some populations disproportionately, which may cause permanent neurologic deficits or sagittal deformity if not treated in a timely and appropriate manner. Currently, there is a lack of consensus among surgeons on the best approach to diagnose, characterize, and treat this condition. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature to identify timely and effective diagnostic techniques and treatment modalities of AAD. Methods This review examined all articles published concerning “atlantoaxial dislocation” or “atlantoaxial subluxation” on the PubMed database. We included 112 articles published between 1966 and 2014. Results Results of these studies are summarized primarily as defining AAD, the normal anatomy, etiology of dislocation, clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, classification, and recommendations for timely treatment modalities. Conclusions The Wang Classification System provides a practical means to diagnose and treat AAD. However, future research is required to identify the most salient intervention component or combination of components that lead to the best outcomes. PMID:25083363

  4. Redundant anomalous vertebral artery in a case of congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: Emphasizing on the differences from the first intersegemental artery and operative steps to prevent injury while performing C1-2 joint manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Devi P; Salunke, Pravin S; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Ghuman, Mandeep S

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous vertebral artery (VA), commonly the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA) is often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). An unusual redundant/ectatic loop of VA passing below the C1 (upside down VA) has been described below and appears to be different from FIA. The operative technique to protect it while C1-2 joint manipulation has been described. A 35 year old male presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis after trivial trauma. Radiology showed irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation with occipitalised C1 and C2-3 fusion. The left VA was anomalous passing beneath the C1 arch with a redundant loop lying posterior to the C1-2 joint. This was unlike the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA) and was safeguarded while dissecting the C1-2 facet. The artery was dissected and safeguarded while performing C1-2 joint manipulation. A redundant/ectatic loop lying posterior to C1-2 joint is an unusual variant of anomalous VA. Evaluation of preoperative radiology helps in diagnosing such anomalous VA. Dissection of the entire redundant loop of the anomalous artery is important in opening the C1-2 joint required for reduction and placement of spacer/ bone grafts to achieve good bony fusion. Also mobilizing the loop allows safe insertion of lateral mass screw. Care needs to be taken while fastening screws to prevent compression of the loop.

  5. Treatment of dens fractures with posterior atlantoaxial dislocation with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate surgery: case report and introduction of a novel treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Xu, JunJie; Wang, Qing; Wang, GaoJu; Wu, ZengHui; Xia, Hong; Yin, Qing Shui

    2012-04-01

    Case report. To describe a rare old dens fracture with posterior atlantoaxial dislocation that was treated with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate surgery. Dens fractures with posterior atlantoaxial displacement are not common and cause ventral compression of the spinal cord. Management of this type of fracture is through skull traction and external fixation, posterior laminectomy and fusion, or transoral reduction and posterior fusion. A 38-year-old man sustained a car accident and was diagnosed with type II dens fractures (the classification system of Anderson and D'Alonzo) and posterior atlantoaxial dislocation. The neurological function of the patient was C grade according to the standard neurological classification of spinal cord injury from the American Spinal Association. Because of multiple trauma involving the head, lung, and the abdomen, he was treated with skull traction with about 10° of flexion. No signs of reduction were observed. The patient was treated operatively 70 days after the injury. We performed a transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate surgery using a transoral approach for release, reduction, and fixation. Finally, anterior fusion with iliac bone graft was applied. Complete atlantoaxial reduction and decompression of the spinal cord were achieved. The patient felt better after surgery. Movement of his extremities raised from grade II-III force to grade IV-V, and neurological status improved from American Spinal Association grade C to D. The treatment option achieved instant reduction, decompression, and fixation. A new treatment option for this type of injury is recommended.

  6. When does intraoperative 3D-imaging play a role in transpedicular C2 screw placement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cornelius; Roessler, Philip P; Scheidt, Sebastian; Plöger, Milena M; Jacobs, Collin; Disch, Alexander C; Schaser, Klaus D; Hartwig, Tony

    2017-11-01

    The stabilization of an atlantoaxial (C1-C2) instability is demanding due to a complex atlantoaxial anatomy with proximity to the spinal cord, a variable run of the vertebral artery (VA) and narrow C2 pedicles. We perfomed the Goel & Harms fusion in combination with an intraoperative 3D imaging to ensure correct screw placement in the C2 pedicle. We hypothesized, that narrow C2 pedicles lead to a higher malposition rate of screws by perforation of the pedicle wall. The purpose of this study was to describe a certain pedicle size, under which the perforation rate rises. In this retrospective study, all patients (n=30) were operated in the Goel & Harms technique. The isthmus height and pedicle diameter of C2 were measured. The achieved screw position in C2 was evaluated according to Gertzbein & Robbin classification (GRGr). A statistically significant correlation was found between the pedicles size (isthmus height/pedicle diameter) and the achieved GRGr for the right (p=0.002/p=0.03) and left side (p=0.018/p=0.008). The ROC analysis yielded a Cut Off value for the pedicle size to distinguish between an intact or perforated pedicle wall (GRGr 1 or ≥2). The Cut-Off value was identified for the isthmus height (right 6.1mm, left 5.4mm) and for the pedicle diameter (6.6mm both sides). The hypothesis, that narrow pedicles lead to a higher perforation rate of the pedicle wall, can be accepted. Pedicles of important in cases with thin pedicles. The rising risk of VA injury in these cases support the additional use of navigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Operative nuances to safeguard anomalous vertebral artery without compromising the surgery for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: untying a tough knot between vessel and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Futane, Sameer; Sahoo, Sushant K; Ghuman, Mandeep S; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Stabilization of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) by using lateral masses requires extensive dissection. The vertebral artery (VA) is commonly anomalous in patients with congenital CVJ anomaly. Such a vessel is likely to be injured during dissection or screw placement. In this study the authors discuss the importance of preoperative evaluation and certain intraoperative steps that reduce the chances of injury to such vessels. A 3D CT angiogram was obtained in 15 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation. The course of the VA and its relationship to the C1-2 facets was studied in these patients. The anomalous VA was exposed intraoperatively, facet surfaces were drilled in all, and the screws were placed according to the disposition of the vessel. A skeletal anomaly was found in all 10 patients who had an anomalous VA. Four types of variations were noted: 1) the first intersegmental artery in 5 patients (bilateral in 1); 2) fenestration of VA in 1 patient; 3) anomalous posterior inferior cerebellar artery crossing the C1-2 joint in 1 patient; and 4) medial loop of VA in 5 patients. The anomalous vessel was dissected and the facet surfaces were drilled in all. The C-1 lateral mass screw was placed under vision, taking care not to compromise the anomalous vessel, although occipital screws or sublaminar wires were used in the initial cases. A medial loop of the VA necessitated placement of transpedicular or C-2 lateral mass screws instead of pars interarticularis screws. The anomalous vessel was injured in none. Preoperative 3D CT angiography is a highly useful method of imaging the artery in patients with CVJ anomaly. It helps in identifying the anomalous VA or its branch and its relationship to the C1-2 facets. The normal side should be surgically treated and distracted first because this helps in opening the abnormal side, aiding in dissection. In the posterior approach the C-2 nerve root is always encountered before the

  8. Condylus tertius with atlanto-axial rotatory fixation: an unreported association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udare, Ashlesha Satish [M.G.M. Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai (India); Global Hospital Super Speciality and Transplant Centre, Department of Radiology, Mumbai (India); Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Bansal, Divya; Patel, Bhavin [M.G.M. Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai (India); Mondel, Prabath Kumar [P.D. Hinduja Hospital, Department of Radiology, Mahim, Mumbai (India); Aiyer, Siddharth [Shatabdi Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Chembur, Mumbai (India)

    2014-04-15

    The ''condylus tertius'' or the ''third occipital condyle'' is an embryological remnant of the proatlas sclerotome. Anatomically, it is attached to the basion and often articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas and the odontoid apex; hence, it is also called the ''median occipital condyle''. It is a rare anomaly of the cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) that can lead to instability and compression of important surrounding neurovascular structures. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who presented with suboccipital neck pain, torticollis and right sided hemiparesis. Plain radiographs revealed an increased atlanto-dental interspace (ADI) with a retroflexed odontoid. Open mouth view showed asymmetry of the articular processes of the atlas with respect to the dens. Computed tomography (CT) of the CVJ delineated the third occipital condyle. Furthermore, on dynamic CT study, a type 3 atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (AARF) was clearly demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the CVJ revealed severe right-sided spinal cord compression by the retroflexed and rightward deviated dens. It also revealed disruption of the left alar and transverse ligaments. The patient was treated with 8 weeks of cranial traction and reasonable alignment was obtained. This was followed by C1-C2 lateral mass screw fixation and C1-C2 interlaminar wiring to maintain the alignment. A review of the literature did not reveal any cases of condylus tertius associated with non-traumatic AARF. An accurate knowledge of the embryology and imaging features of this rare CVJ anomaly is useful in the prompt diagnosis and management of such patients. (orig.)

  9. 'Pseudofacets' or 'supernumerary facets' in congenital atlanto-axial dislocation: boon or bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Futane, Sameer; Sharma, Manish; Sahoo, Sushant; Kovilapu, Udaybhanu; Khandelwal, N K

    2015-01-01

    Certain abnormal contact points, appearing like additional joints (pseudofacets) were observed between atlas and axis in a subset of patients with congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (CAAD). The origin, function and bearing on management of such pseudofacets remain largely undetermined. The object is to study 'pseudofacets'or 'accessory joints' in patients with CAAD and to analyze the possible genesis, role and bearing of these on surgery and fusion rates. 35 patients with CAAD were analyzed. Reconstructed images of CT craniovertebral junction passing through these pseudo and true facets were studied. A novel method was devised to measure the faceto-isthmic angle of axis, both in patients with CAAD and normal subjects. Operative details and fusion rates were studied in patients with pseudofacets and compared with those without it. Eight out of 35 patients (6 Irreducible CAAD and 2 with RCAAD) had pseudofacets. These are seen posterior to the true facets and resemble partially formed joints. The C2 facet was acutely bent over its isthmus in these patients. The direction of these pseudofacets appeared to counter the abnormal mobility at C1-2 true facets. Intraoperatively, they posed a visual hindrance to reach up to true facets for placement of spacers and lateral mass screws, requiring extensive drilling. At the same time, they did help in distraction and increased the surface for fusion between C1 and C2 in cases where sublaminar wiring alone was used. Fusion rates were 100 % in patients with pseudofacets. Pseudofacets may be a result of genetic aberration and nature's mechanism to restrict abnormal C1-2 mobility in CAAD by imparting some stability. Their presence hinders the visualization making it difficult to reach upto the true facets, thus a bane. They may require extensive drilling when direct posterior approach is used, thereby disrupting the natural restrictive mechanism. However, the flattened surfaces provide an increased area for postoperative bony

  10. The reversibility of swan neck deformity in chronic atlantoaxial dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Wang, Shenglin; Zhao, Deng; Wang, Shaobai; Kozanek, Michal; Wang, Chao

    2013-04-01

    Prospective case series and radiographical analysis. This study aimed to characterize the changes in subaxial alignment after surgical correction of occipitoaxial kyphosis, establish normal parameters, and report on clinical outcomes in a population of patients with chronic atlantoaxial dislocation patients presenting with swan neck deformities. Swan neck deformity of the cervical spine is a term used to describe the simultaneous development of both abnormal kyphosis and hyperlordosis malalignments. Currently, there are no published series that discuss their outcomes after treatment and, more specifically, the subsequent changes that occur in the subaxial spine after the correction of the primary deformity in cases of chronic hyperkyphosis at the occipitoaxial segment. This was a prospective clinical and radiographical study in a population of patients with chronic atlantoaxial dislocation presenting with swan neck deformities. C0-C2 and C2-C7 angles were measured using plain radiographs pre- and postsurgery. The relationship between the alignment of the occipitoaxial joint and the subaxial cervical spine was evaluated. Japanese Orthopaedic Society scores were used to assess functional outcomes. C0-C2 improved from a mean of -14.4° (SD, 9.5°) preoperatively to a mean of 7.8° (SD, 1.0°) postoperatively (P = 0.02). C2-C7 changed from a mean of 43° (SD, 2.8°) to a mean of 18.6° (SD, 11.2°) postoperatively (P = 0.02). A significant correlation was detected between the changes that occurred in the upper and lower cervical alignments (R = 0.133; P atlantoaxial dislocation are favorable and associated with a low complication rate.

  11. Endoscopic transcervical anterior release and posterior fixation in the treatment of irreducible vertical atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Lv, Guohua; Wang, Bing; Kuang, Lei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-08-01

    Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation is a type of atlantoaxial instability with upper cervical spinal cord compression. The transoral ondontoid resection with posterior fixation is the gold standard for ventral decompression. Results are satisfying though surgery can be challenging due to its invasiveness. The endoscopic transcervical anterior release could provide sufficient ventral decompression with less collateral damage. In the illustrative case, anatomic reduction was achieved with significant improvement in neurological function and radiographic parameters. Endoscopic transcervical anterior release and posterior fixation appears to be a viable and interesting alternative for the treatment of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation in properly selected individuals, and its implementation could significantly reduce the post-surgical complications.

  12. Thalamic syndrome as the heralding manifestation of atlantoaxial dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Sahu, Ritesh; Ojha, B K; Junewar, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    In India, Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is the commonest skeletal craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomaly, followed by occipitalisation of atlas and basilar invagination. The usual presentation is progressive neurological deficit (76–95% cases) involving the high cervical cord, lower brainstem and cranial nerves. The association between vertebro-basilar insufficiency and skeletal CVJ anomalies is well recognised and angiographic abnormalities of the vertebrobasilar arteries and their branches have been reported; however, initial presentation of CVJ anomaly as thalamic syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke is extremely rare. Here, we report one such rare case of thalamic syndrome as the initial presentation of CVJ anomaly with AAD. PMID:23314448

  13. Selection of surgical procedures for basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Pu, Lati; Guo, Hailong; Mai, Erdan; Liang, Weidong; Deng, Qiang; Xu, Tao; Sheng, Jun; Sheng, Weibin

    2016-10-01

    Basilar invagination (BI) is a malformation of craniovertebral junction. However, surgical procedures on BI with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) remain controversial. This research aimed to investigate the selection of surgical procedures and its significance in the surgical treatment of patients with BI and AAD. This was a retrospective study. This study enrolled 33 patients who were diagnosed with BI and AAD and were followed up for at least 6 months. All of the patients were assessed for neurologic recovery observation in terms of Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and Odom criteria. X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, or computed tomography scanning was used to determine reduction, compression, bone graft, and internal fixation before and after operation. Thirty-three patients who suffered from BI with AAD were treated in our department from July 2000 to October 2014. Preoperatively, the patients were divided into two types on the basis of whether dislocation was reduced after anesthesia and traction were performed: reducible dislocation (Type A) and irreducible dislocation (Type B). Reducible dislocation was further divided into two subtypes: full reducible dislocation (Type A1) and partial reducible dislocation (Type A2). Type A1 patients were treated with direct posterior fixation and fusion after traction and reduction. Type A2 patients received posterior atlantoaxial release, fixation, and fusion under traction. Type B patients underwent transoral atlantoaxial release, posterior fixation, and fusion. There were 5 Type A1 patients, 10 Type A2 patients, and 18 Type B patients treated in accordance with the proposed scheme. Postoperatively, sufficient reduction and decompression were achieved for all cases. Two Type B patients died. Other patients were followed up from 6 months to 42 months (average=16.6 months); follow-up results showed sufficient decompression, effective fixation and fusion, and no reduction loss. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  14. One-off surgery of posterior reduction and fixation for the treatment of basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jia-gang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the surgical treatment and clinical results for the primary basilar invagination (BI with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD. Methods A retrospective study was performed. The study included 89 patients who had primary BI and AAD were surgically treated in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2011. There were 28 males and 61 females, aged between 10 and 69 years (mean 45.42 years. All patients were treated by the same 3-step surgical method. The first step, reduction of the AAD was performed by homemade odontoid repositor intraoperatively through posterior approach; the second step, AO stainless steel plates were fixed between the occiput and C2, 3 lateral mass screws; and the third step, occipitocervical fusion were completed by autologous iliac crest graft. Operation effect was recorded during follow-up period. Results Follow-up period was 6 to 48 months. Clinical symptoms were improved in 82.93% patients after the surgery. Japanse Orthopaedic Association (JOA score increased from preoperative (8.80 ± 1.36 points to postoperative (15.35 ± 1.47 points (t = 17.225, P = 0.001. In general, satisfactory decompression and bony fusion were shown on postoperative radiological examinations for all patients. Compared with pretreatment data, the postoperative imaging measurement showed that the mean data of atlanto-dental interval (ADI, 9.22 mm vs 3.72 mm and vertical dimension from the top of odontoid process to Chamberlain line (10.41 mm vs 3.23 mm were all reduced, and the cervicomedullary angle (130° vs 150° and space available of spinal cord (SAC, 11.13 mm vs 15.54 mm were all improved. Conclusion The one-off surgery of posterior reduction technique and fixing between occiput and C2, 3 lateral mass screws is a safe, easy, and effective treatment for patients with p

  15. NUT SCREW MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J.A.F.

    1958-07-01

    A reactor control mechanism is described wherein the control is achieved by the partial or total withdrawal of the fissile material which is in the form of a fuel rod. The fuel rod is designed to be raised and lowered from the reactor core area by means of two concentric ball nut and screw assemblies that may telescope one within the other. These screw mechanisms are connected through a magnetic clutch to a speed reduction gear and an accurately controllable prime motive source. With the clutch energized, the fuel rod may be moved into the reactor core area, and fine adjustments may be made through the reduction gearing. However, in the event of a power failure or an emergency signal, the magnetic clutch will become deenergized, and the fuel rod will drop out of the core area by the force of gravity, thus shutting down the operation of the reactor.

  16. Traumatic atlantoaxial subluxation, posterior transfacet fixation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cahueque Lemus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injuries are often described as catastrophic events in neurological terms, with very low survival rate. Lesions to C3-C7 segment are the most common (about 80% followed by segment C1-C2 (20%. The cervical spine injuries are of great importance, both by severity as the neurological implications. It is important to consider that among cervical traumas that do not present neurological damage at the time of the accident, 10% have deficits later, so all cervical trauma should be considered as potential spinal cord traumas, until the evolution of the case shows that definitively there is no spinal cord or nerve root damage. Cases have been reported with both atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial dislocations without neurological deficit, so these lesions went unnoticed in the emergency services. Some of the events to be considered at the time of the accident are suboccipital pain on axial skull pressure and spontaneous stiffness of the patient's neck. Dysphagia, pain on palpation of the anterior neck and a visible increase of prepharyngeal mass can also be observed, which is why it is important to keep the suspicion of craniocervical trauma in all patients who have these symptoms and carry out the relevant tests. This paper presents a case of post-traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation, which showed no neurological deficit at the time of the accident, but was later presented, as well as the surgical procedure carried out.

  17. Atlantoaxial Subluxation after Pyogenic Spondylitis around the Odontoid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hasegawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design. A case report and review of the literature. Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the conservative management of pyogenic spondylitis around the odontoid process. Summary of Background Data. Atlantoaxial subluxation after pyogenic spondylitis is rare. The therapeutic approach to infection of the upper cervical spine is controversial. Methods. Medical chart and radiological images of a 76-year-old male patient were retrospectively reviewed. Radiography revealed atlantoaxial subluxation, and an abscess was seen around the odontoid process on magnetic resonance images. Intravenous antibiotics and a halo vest were used to treat the patient. We then observed the patient’s conservative treatment course. Results. C-reactive protein levels returned to normal 4 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. The patient’s muscle weakness also completely recovered 8 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. Because the patient was able to walk without any support, surgical treatment was not necessary. Conclusions. Pyogenic spondylitis of the upper cervical spine is a rare manifestation. Surgical or conservative treatment must be selected carefully based on the patient’s symptoms. If early diagnosis and treatment can be provided to the patients, conservative treatment can be achieved.

  18. Atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging correlated to myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, R.

    Twenty-nine patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (18 with rheumatoid arthritis, 2 due to trauma, 4 with os odontoideum, and one each with polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatic fever, Klippel-Feil syndrome, achondroplasia, and cause unknown) were evaluated using a 0.22 tesla resistive MRI unit. Cord compression was classified into four grades according to the degree on magnetic resonance imaging. There were 7 patients with no thecal sac compression (grade 0), 10 with a minimal degree of subarachnoid space compression without cord compression (grade 1), 7 with mild cord compression (grade 2), and 5 with severe cord compression or cord atrophy (grade 3). Although the severity of myelopathy showed poor correlation with the atlantodental interval on conventional radiography, high correlation was observed between MR grading and the degree of myelopathy. The high signal intensity foci were observed in 7 or 12 patients with cord compression (grades 2 and 3) on T2 weighted images. Other frequently observed findings in rheumatoid arthritis included soft tissue masses of low to intermediate signal intensity in the paraodontoid space, erosions of the odontoid processes, and atlanto-axial impaction on T1 and T2 weighted images.

  19. Posterior atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial area and its surgical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton José Godoy Pimenta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classic anatomical studies describe two membranes – atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial in the posterior aspect of the craniocervical region. During many surgical procedures in this area, however, we have not found such membranes. Objective To clarify the anatomical aspects and structures taking part of the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial area. Method Analysis of histological cuts of three human fetuses and anatomical studies of 8 adult human cadavers. Results In both atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial areas, we have observed attachment between suboccipital deep muscles and the spinal cervical dura. However, anatomical description of such attachments could not be found in textbooks of anatomy. Conclusion Our study shows the absence of the classical atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial membranes; the occipito-C1 and C1-C2 posterior intervals are an open area, allowing aponeurotic attachment among cervical dura mater and posterior cervical muscles.

  20. Atlantoaxial dislocation adjacent to kyphotic deformity in a case of adult Larsen syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahoo, Sushanta K; Deepak, Arsikere N; Salunke, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    ... (sequelae of Larsen syndrome) with atlantoaxial dislocation. Cord compression was apparent at both levels but careful evaluation showed C1-2 level compression and some compression below the kyphotic deformity...

  1. Spontaneous rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation without neurological compromise in a child with Down syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Au-Yong, Iain; Boszczyk, Bronek; Mehdian, Hossein; Kerslake, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous atlantoaxial dislocation is a rare recognised complication of Down syndrome. In the majority of cases, dislocation takes place in an anteroposterior direction and is often associated with abnormalities of odontoid development or ossification. Rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation is extremely rare in Down syndrome and this is to our knowledge the first reported case in which modern imaging methods have been described; surface shaded reformats derived from a multislice CT scan were of ...

  2. Bilateral inverted vertebral arteries (V3 segment) in a case of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: Distinct entity or a lateral variant of persistent first intersegmental artery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K.; Ghuman, Mandeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs), commonly involving the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), are often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). Here we describe an unusual variant consisting of bilateral VAs with normal loops but passing below the C1 (inverted VA) arch, distinctly different from the FIA. Case Description: A 9-year-old boy presented with a spastic quadriparesis. Preoperative radiographic studies showed an irreducible AAD with an occipitalized CO-C1 and C2-3 fusion. Although both VAs exhibited proximal and distal loops like normal VA, the distal loops did not pass through the C1 transverse foramina and coursed inferior to the C1 arch instead. With this critical preoperative information, both VAs could be better safeguarded during dissection of the C1-2 facets. Conclusion: In the case presented, although the course of the inverted VAs is similar, the norm, they coursed inferior to both C1 arches. Careful evaluation of the preoperative radiological studies allowed for careful dissection of the inverted VA (horizontal loop) while opening the C1-2 joint for subsequent alignment (e.g. reduction) and bony fusion. This information also facilitates safer insertion of lateral mass screws (e.g. choosing the appropriate C1 screw length to gain adequate bony purchase without compromising anomalous VA). PMID:25024882

  3. SCREW SELECTION FOR SCREW OPERATION USING EXPERT SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim BAŞAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a expert system has been developed using Leonardo expert system package programming for screw operation, According to DIN standard norm. The designed program decide the most suitable screw type considering to material, cutting speed, working condition etc. This program also directs to user.

  4. Atlantoaxial subluxation and nasopharyngeal necrosis complicating suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Anand; Holekamp, Terrence F; Diaz, Jason A; Zebala, Lukas; Brasington, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Granulomatosis polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener granulomatosis) is a vasculitis that typically involves the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and kidneys. The 2 established methods to confirm a suspicion of GPA are the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) test and biopsy. However, ANCA-negative cases have been known to occur, and it can be difficult to find biopsy evidence of granulomatous disease.We report a case of suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis limited to the nasopharynx. With a negative ANCA and no histological evidence, our diagnosis was founded on the exclusion of other diagnoses and the response to cyclophosphamide therapy. This case is unique because the patient's lesion resulted in atlantoaxial instability, which required a posterior spinal fusion at C1-C2. This is the first reported case of suspected GPA producing damage to the cervical spine and threatening the spinal cord.

  5. Traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation with odontoid fracture: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P E; Nguyen, V; Atallah, A; Kassab, G; Thiong'o, M W; Laporte, C

    2012-09-01

    We are reporting the one-year follow-up for a case of traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation associated with an odontoid fracture. This injury combination is rare and serious because of its resulting instability. After an unsuccessful attempt at closed reduction with traction, an open reduction with occipitocervical fixation was performed using a posterior approach. Based on our experience and a review of the published literature, the method for managing such an injury is discussed. If closed reduction with traction is successful, subsequent treatment is based on the algorithms for isolated odontoid fractures. If the closed reduction fails, surgical treatment consists of an open reduction using a posterior or lateral retropharyngeal approach, and then fixation of C1-C2, which is the key procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Atlantoaxial dislocation with special emphasis on computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasaka, Kazuo; Isu, Toyohiko; Abe, Satoru; Takei, Hidetoshi; Irie, Goro

    1983-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). On the basis of CT evidence of Cl-2 interrelationship, AAD in 26 patients was classified into 4 major types; anteroposterior dislocation in 13 patients, transverse dislocation in 2, anteroposterior-transverse dislocation in 3, and rotatory dislocation in 8. A thick wad of soft tissue on the posterior aspect of the odontoid was found in as many as 38% of the patients and related to compromise the spinal canal. Association of atlantooccipital subluxation with AAD was not rarely encountered in this series (6 out of 26 patients). CT can most optimally and noninvasively demonstrate relationship among the occipitoatlanto-axial complex and associated soft tissue abnormalities. (author).

  7. Acquired atlantoaxial instability in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Chang, Wei-Ning; Shah, Suken A; Miller, Freeman

    2003-01-01

    The development of nontraumatic atlantoaxial instability in children with spastic cerebral palsy has not been reported. The authors present three patients with severe spastic quadriplegia who developed C1-C2 instability and cervical myelopathy at mean age 12.6 years. These patients demonstrated a similar clinical picture with symptoms attributed to cervical myelopathy in varied severity including apneic episodes, opisthotonus, alteration in muscle tone, torticollis, respiratory problems, hyperreflexia, and bradycardia. Patient 1 was scheduled for surgery but died due to an apneic episode. Patient 2 refused surgery and has been followed for 3 years while his neurologic condition remains unchanged. Patient 3 underwent occipitocervical decompression and fusion, recovered neurologically, and resumed his previous functional skills. Patients demonstrating considerable functional deterioration or insidious change in their established neurologic status should undergo detailed screening to rule out developing upper cervical instability. Early surgical intervention consisting of spinal decompression and fusion may prevent the development of myelopathy.

  8. An 11-Year Review of the TARP Procedure in the Treatment of Atlantoaxial Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-Shui; Li, Xue-Shi; Bai, Zhao-Hui; Mai, Xiao-Hong; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Ai, Fu-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective study. The aim of the study was to introduce the surgical techniques and evaluate the clinical outcomes of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP) for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation. Researchers have reported on transoral plate internal fixation for the treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) without long-term follow-up and detailed clinical experience. The clinical records of 388 patients with atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD, 340 cases; fixed atlantoaxial dislocation [FAAD], 48 cases) who received the TARP procedure from April 2003 to September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. They were treated separately with TARP-I or TARP-II (82 cases), TARP-III (248 cases), or TARP-IV (58 cases). X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate the efficacy of reduction and the degree of decompression, respectively. The long-term clinical outcome was evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring and the Symon and Lavender standard. Immediate reduction was achieved for all the patients with IAAD (340/340), whereas anatomical reduction was achieved for 98.2% of patients (334/340). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 87.5% of patients with FAAD (42/48). The average degree of spinal cord decompression ranged from 75% to 100% with an average of 88.4%. The clinical data of 106 patients were evaluated in the latest follow-up (12-108 mo, average 60.5 mo). The average spinal cord improvement rate by Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring was 62.1%. According to the Symon and Lavender standard, there were 85 cases rated as markedly effective, 104 cases as effective, and 2 cases as noneffective. The overall markedly effective rate was 80% and the effective rate was 98%. The TARP procedure showed good anterior atlantoaxial release, reduction, decompression, and internal fixation for patients with IAAD and FAAD through a single anterior approach. It has the advantages of three-dimensional immediate atlantoaxial

  9. Combined circular external fixation and open reduction internal fixation with pro-syndesmotic screws for repair of a diabetic ankle fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia Facaros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of ankle fractures among the diabetic population is associated with higher complication rates compared to the general population. Efforts toward development of better methods in prevention and treatment are continuously evolving for these injuries. The presence of peripheral neuropathy and the possible development of Charcot neuroarthropathy in this high risk patient population have stimulated much surgical interest to create more stable osseous constructs when open reduction of an ankle fracture/dislocation is required. The utilization of multiple syndesmotic screws (pro-syndesmotic screws to further stabilize the ankle mortise has been reported by many foot and ankle surgeons. In addition, transarticular Steinmann pins have been described as an adjunct to traditional open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF of the ankle to better stabilize the talus, thus minimizing risk of further displacement, malunion, and Charcot neuroarthropathy. The authors present a unique technique of ORIF with pro-syndesmotic screws and the application of a multi-plane circular external fixator for management of a neglected diabetic ankle fracture that prevented further deformity while allowing a weight-bearing status. This technique may be utilized for the management of complex diabetic ankle fractures that are prone to future complications and possible limb loss.

  10. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  11. Atlantoaxial Misalignment Causes High Blood Pressure in Rats: A Novel Hypertension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Bao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantoaxial disorders are often correlated with hypertension in practice. In order to study the relationship between atlantoaxial disorder and hypertension, we attempted to construct an animal model. In this work, we presented an animal model where their atlantoaxial joints were misaligned. We investigated the changes of blood pressure before and after treatments of the modeled rats. We had the following results. (1 SBP and DBP of each surgery group were significantly higher than those of control and sham groups. (2 After the second operation (the fixture was removed, SBP and DBP of both surgery groups decreased and got closer to the control and sham groups after 7 days. (3 Heart rates got significantly higher in both surgery groups, compared to control and sham groups. (4 The blood Ach levels of the surgery groups were significantly lower than those of control and sham groups. With these results, we concluded that we successfully constructed cervical atlantoaxial disorder models in rats that showed hypertension symptom. However, the underlying mechanism connecting atlantoaxial disorder and hypertension still requires further study.

  12. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) causing atlantoaxial instability: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Anand; Khan, Taleef; Diaz, Jason; Brasington, Richard; Zebala, Lukas P

    2016-10-01

    No previous cases of atlantoaxial instability due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis have been reported. The aim of this study was to report a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis causing atlantoaxial instability. This is a case report. A 45-year-old woman participated in this study. The patient's pain and atlantoaxial instability were resolved. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a large ulcerative lesion in her oropharynx initially presented with chronic sinusitis, pharyngitis, and severe odynophagia. Years after her original symptoms began, she developed neck pain radiating into her upper trapezial region and shoulders. Atlantoaxial fusion was performed on the patient, resolving her neck, upper trapezial, and shoulder pain. She was diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) and treated with cyclophosphamide. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis should be part of the working differential diagnosis for non-traumatic cervical spine injury. The atlantoaxial instability can be managed with stabilization, and the disease process itself can be treated with cyclophosphamide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atlas shrugged: cervical myelopathy caused by congenital atlantoaxial dislocation aggravated by child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Roneil N; Muranjan, Mamta; Karande, Sunil; Sankhe, Shilpa

    2014-04-01

    Symptomatic atlantoaxial dislocation is common in predisposing genetic or acquired disorders. However, an isolated atlantoaxial dislocation frequently is congenital and silent unless discovered during course of evaluation for neurological symptoms of cervical spinal cord injury attributed to minor or chronic, repetitive trauma. A 12-year-old girl working as a farm laborer developed calf pain provoked by walking, which increased in severity and progressed to involve the upper limbs. It was followed by progressive ascending quadriplegia. The illness resembled acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with respiratory involvement. Presence of "claw" hands bilaterally and wasting of intrinsic muscles of the hands led to the suspicion of a cervical myelopathy. Neuroimaging confirmed a congenital atlantoaxial dislocation with basilar invagination. The absence of abnormal signals in the cervical spinal cord was unusual. The symptomatic congenital atlantoaxial dislocation was postulated to be precipitated by chronic trauma suffered while habitually carrying heavy loads on the head and leading to spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities. Correction via surgery was successful. Congenital atlantoaxial dislocation should be suspected in a clinical setting of neurological symptoms of cervical spinal cord injury without obvious trauma or predisposing primary diseases. Prompt cervical spine imaging reveals the correct diagnosis. Physicians in countries in which child labor is rampant should be aware of the potential complications of cervical cord injuries from child labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A screwing device for handling and assembly of micro screws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    specific requirements for the torque and displacement regarding precision and repeatability. Micro screws are used as critical mechanical components in micro assemblies such as watches, dials, computers and hearing aids. These miniature parts normally require manual assembly processes under magnification...

  15. The pullout performance of pedicle screws

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-01-01

    This brief book systematically discusses all subjects that affect the pullout strength of pedicle screws. These screws are used in spinal surgeries to stabilize the spine. The holding strength of the pedicle screw is vital since loosening of the pedicle screws can cause revision surgeries. Once the pedicle screw is pulled out, it is harder to obtain same stabilization for the fused vertebrae. The book reviews the effect of screw designs, application techniques, cement augmentation, coating of the screw and test conditions on the pullout strength. The studies with finite element analysis were also included.

  16. Designing screws for polymer compounding in twin-screw extruders =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Cristina Ferreira

    Considering its modular construction, co-rotating twin screw extruders can be easily adapted to work with polymeric systems with more stringent specifications. However, their geometrical flexibility makes the performance of these machines strongly dependent on the screw configuration. Therefore, the definition of the adequate screw geometry to use in a specific polymer system is an important process requirement which is currently achieved empirically or using a trial-and-error basis. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic optimization methodology able to define the best screw geometry/configuration to use in a specific compounding/reactive extrusion operation, reducing both cost and time. This constitutes an optimization problem where a set of different screw elements are to be sequentially positioned along the screw in order to maximize the extruder performance. For that, a global modeling program considering the most important physical, thermal and rheological phenomena developing along the axis of an intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder was initially developed. The accuracy and sensitivity of the software to changes in the input parameters was tested for different operating conditions and screw configurations using a laboratorial Leistritz LSM 30.34 extruder. Then, this modeling software was integrated into an optimization methodology in order to be possible solving the Twin Screw Configuration Problem. Multi-objective versions of local search algorithms (Two Phase Local Search and Pareto Local Search) and Ant Colony Optimization algorithms were implemented and adapted to deal with the combinatorial, discrete and multi-objective nature of the problem. Their performance was studied making use of the hypervolume indicator and Empirical Attainment Function, and compared with the Reduced Pareto Search Genetic Algorithm (RPSGA) previously developed and applied to this problem. In order to improve the quality of the results and/or to decrease the

  17. A Case of Delayed Myelopathy Caused by Atlantoaxial Subluxation without Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Takamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of delayed myelopathy caused by atlantoaxial subluxation without fracture. The patient was a 38-year-old male who became aware of weakness in extremities. The patient had a history of hitting his head severely while diving into a swimming pool at the age of 14 years old. At that time, cervical spine plain X-ray images showed no fracture, and the cervical pain disappeared after use of a collar for several weeks. At his first visit to our department, X-ray images showed an unstable atlantoaxial joint. After surgery, weakness of the extremities gradually improved. At 6 months after surgery, bone union was completed and the symptoms disappeared. This case shows that atlantoaxial ligament injuries are difficult to diagnose and may easily be missed. A high level of suspicion is important in such cases, since neurological compromise or deterioration may occur many years after the injury.

  18. Technique for direct posterior reduction in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: multi-planar realignment of C1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta; Khandelwal, N K; Ghuman, Mandeep S

    2015-04-01

    Apart from the commonly seen antero-posterior subluxation of C1 over C2, the dislocation may occur in vertical, lateral or rotational plane. Desired C1-2 realignment can be achieved by corrrecting its dislocation in all planes. We describe a technique for the same. The clinical and radiological features of 16 patients (4 – traumatic and 12 – congenital) with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) admitted in the last 1.5 years were studied. Specific attention was paid to vertical dislocation with lateral and rotational components, apart from anterior-posterior subluxation. They were operated through direct posterior approach. The technique using a long rod holder as lever and screw head (tulip) as fulcrum was employed to achieve C1-2 realignment in all planes. The postoperative clinical and radiological data was analyzed and compared with preoperative data. Patients presented with progressive myelopathy and/or progressive worsening of neck pain. Vertical dislocation was seen in 11 patients with congenital AAD in addition to the antero-posterior subluxation seen in all. Three patients with traumatic AAD and 8 with congenital AAD had additional lateral dislocation or lateral tilt. Three patients with traumatic AAD and 7 with congenital AAD showed rotational component. Postoperatively, all patients showed clinical improvement. The antero-posterior and vertical realignment could be achieved in all except one. Similarly, rotational and lateral components could be completely corrected in 8 out of 10 patients. The technique appears to realign the C1-2 in all planes and provides good anatomical restoration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Atlas shrugged': congenital lateral angular irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: a case series of complex variant and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Futane, Sameer; Deepak, A N; Khandelwal, N K

    2016-04-01

    The commonly described congenital atlanto-axial dislocation and Basilar-Invagination is antero-posterior or rotational or vertical plane. However, congenital dislocation in lateral plane has received scant attention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe this unusual entity and discuss its management. The clinic-radiological feature of seven patients with congenital lateral angular AAD (CLAAAD) were studied and managed. The unilateral C1 facet had subluxed lateral to C2-3 complex. The C1 and C2 facets were drilled comprehensively and repositioned with distraction, placement of metallic spacers and facet manipulation after insertion of screws. The post operative outcome was studied. The presentation is usually with neck tilt (progressive in 3) and/or progressive spastic quadriparesis. The mean C1-2 tilt was 25.2°. C1 was bifid in six patients. C1 lateral mass was assimilated with occipital condyle on dislocated side in and the other side was normal (6 patients). The dislocated C1-2 joint was abnormally oblique as compared to contralateral side. The relationship of occiput and C1 was normal. Correction of dislocation and lateral tilt was achieved in all patients with subsequent correction of neck tilt and deficits. One patient required reoperation. The acute angulation of joint on one side and near normal on other side leads to differential vertical movement, further accentuated by splaying of bifid C1. The entity is seen in young patients and often present with neck tilt and spastic quadriparesis. Management requires reshaping the joints and facet manipulation. If the reshaping is inappropriate, the joint is likely to redislocate before fusion occurs.

  20. Transoral approach for revision surgery of os odontoideum with atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ZengHui; Xu, JunJie; Wang, ZhiYun; Xia, Hong; Zhang, Qingshun; Ma, XiangYang; Zhang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    Revision surgery for os odontoideum with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation with a transoral approach is not commonly seen. Typically, management of this type of atlantoaxial dislocation is through posterior fixation and fusion or transoral decompression and posterior fusion. This report describes revision surgery in a patient with os odontoideum who was treated with a transoral approach. A 50-year-old man was diagnosed with os odontoideum and atlantoaxial dislocation in 2007 and was treated surgically with posterior occipitocervical internal fixation and fusion. In 2012, he had recurrence of neck pain and numbness of the limbs. Neurologic function was grade D according to the standard neurologic classification of spinal cord injury from the American Spinal Injury Association. Because this was a revision surgery, the internal fixation implant was removed through a posterior approach and a transoral approach was used for release, reduction, internal fixation, and fusion. Two 6-mm cages filled with autogenous bone were introduced into the lateral mass spaces for bony fusion and distraction, and 2 cervical compressive mini-frames were used for fixation. Complete atlantoaxial reduction and decompression of the spinal cord were achieved. The patient reported improvement of symptoms after surgery. Movement of the extremities increased from grade III force to grade V, and neurologic status improved from American Spinal Injury Association grade D to grade E. A transoral approach for release, reduction, bony fusion, and fixation could be an effective procedure for the treatment of os odontoideum with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. It provides a new option for bony fusion and internal fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Spontaneous rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation without neurological compromise in a child with Down syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yong, Iain; Boszczyk, Bronek; Mehdian, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous atlantoaxial dislocation is a rare recognised complication of Down syndrome. In the majority of cases, dislocation takes place in an anteroposterior direction and is often associated with abnormalities of odontoid development or ossification. Rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation is extremely rare in Down syndrome and this is to our knowledge the first reported case in which modern imaging methods have been described; surface shaded reformats derived from a multislice CT scan were of fundamental importance in making the diagnosis. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0596-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18236086

  2. Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation associated with C2 articular facet fracture in adult patient: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bellil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is a very rare injury in adults which is often misdiagnosed initially. Its combination with C2 fractures is predominated by dens lesions. Therapeutic management is challenging because of the difficulty to achieve optimal reduction and permanent stability. We report a rare case of traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation in a 56-year-old women associated with C2 articular facet fracture successfully treated by conservative means after patient-awake manual reduction with optimal functional and radiographic outcome.

  3. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation as a cause of failure of midline fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2010-10-01

    We report an 11-year-old girl who had previously undergone an operation for basilar invagination involving a foramen magnum decompression and midline wire fixation. After improving initially, her neurological condition worsened again. Repeated investigations showed a firm midline craniovertebral fixation and bone fusion. However, she was found to have a vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Treatment of the vertical dislocation by lateral mass fixation resulted in lasting relief from her symptoms. Vertical instability at the atlantoaxial joints needs to be identified and appropriately treated as it may be a cause of failure of midline fixation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ossification of the posterior atlantoaxial membrane associated with atlas hypoplasia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yichen; Zhou, Dongxiao; Gao, Rui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Ce; Zhou, Xuhui

    2016-11-01

    Hypoplasia with an intact posterior arch of the atlas and ossification of the posterior atlantoaxial membrane (PAAM) are individually rare. The patient presented with a 6-month history of progressive weakness and paresthesia of his lower extremities. Cervical myelopathy resulting from atlas hypoplasia and ossification of the posterior atlantoaxial membrane. Laminectomy of the atlas with duroplasty. Preoperative symptoms were alleviated. In most reported cases, either atlas hypoplasia or ossification of the PAAM is responsible for patients' myelopathy. The case illustrated here, to the best of our knowledge, is the first one with coexistent atlas hypoplasia and ossification of the PAAM. And laminectomy of the atlas with duroplasty provided satisfied outcome.

  5. Surgeon perception of cancellous screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, Michael J; Gustafson, Peter A; Patel, Bipinchandra V; Jastifer, James R; Chess, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    The ability of surgeons to optimize screw insertion torque in nonlocking fixation constructs is important for stability, particularly in osteoporotic and cancellous bone. This study evaluated screw torque applied by surgeons during synthetic cancellous fixation. It evaluated the frequency with which screws were stripped by surgeons, factors associated with screw stripping, and ability of surgeons to recognize it. Ten surgeons assembled screw and plate fixation constructs into 3 densities of synthetic cancellous bone while screw insertion torque and axial force were measured. For each screw, the surgeon recorded a subjective rating as to whether or not the screw had been stripped. Screws were then advanced past stripping, and stripped screws were identified by comparing the insertion torque applied by the surgeon to the measured stripping torque. Surgeons stripped 109 (45.4%) of 240 screws and did not recognize stripping 90.8% of the time when it occurred. The tendency to strip screws was highly variable among individual surgeons (stripping ranging from 16.7% to 83.3%, P perception is not reliable at preventing and detecting screw stripping at clinical torque levels in synthetic cancellous bone. Less aggressive insertion or standardized methods of insertion may improve the stability of nonlocking screw and plate constructs.

  6. Posterior atlantoaxial fusion as treatment option for extracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Naokado; Hayashi, Hideki; Goto, Masanori; Satoi, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Koichi; Toda, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection may need surgery. We describe such a case successfully treated with atlantoaxial fusion based on its rare dynamic angiographic findings. A 27-year-old woman suffered from repeated brainstem and cerebellar infarctions from a left extracranial VA dissecting aneurysm. Dynamic angiography showed the dissecting aneurysm of the V3 segment in the neutral head position, and deflation of the aneurysm during rightward head rotation. She underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion, and the lesion was repaired with no subsequent ischemia. Posterior atlantoaxial fusion can be an option for some extracranial VA dissections with preserving its anterograde blood flow.

  7. Airtraq® aided tracheal intubation in a patient of Down′s syndrome with traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaid A Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Down′s syndrome is a genetic disorder that is associated with multiple congenital anomalies having great impact on anaesthetic management. Apart from this, it also predisposes the patient to the atlantoaxial dislocation making the management of airway a difficult task. In our case, the child already had traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation that further makes the successful airway management without progression of any neurological injury a challenge. Hereby, we report the successful management of an 8-year-old child with Down′s syndrome and traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation using Airtraq® optical laryngoscope.

  8. [Biomechanical performance of different wires and cable fixation devices in posterior instrumentation for atlantoaxial instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie-long; Yan, Wang-jun; Han, Yu; Ye, Xiao-jian; Jia, Lian-shun; Li, Jia-shun; Yuan, Wen

    2010-05-01

    To compare the biomechanical performances of different wires and cable fixation devices in posterior instrumentation for atlantoaxial instability, and test the effect of different fixation strengths and fixation approaches on the surgical outcomes. Six specimens of the atlantoaxial complex (C0-C3) were used to establish models of the normal complex, unstable complex (type II odontoid fracture) and fixed complex. On the wd-5 mechanical testing machine, the parameters including the strength and rigidity of anti-rotation, change and strength of stress, and stability were measured for the normal complex, atlantoaxial instability complex, the new type titanium cable fixation system, Atlas titanium cable, Songer titanium cable, and stainless wire. The strength and rigidity of anti-rotation, change and strength of stress, stability of flexion, extension and lateral bending of the unstable atlantoaxial complex fixed by the new double locking titanium cable fixation system were superior to those of the Songer or Atlas titanium cable (Pmedical stainless wire (P<0.05). Simultaneous cable fastening on both sides resulted in better fixation effect than successive cable fastening (P<0.05). Better fixation effect was achieved by fastening the specimen following a rest (P<0.05). The fixation effects can be enhanced by increased fastening strengths. The new type double locking titanium cable fixation system has better biomechanical performance than the conventional Songer and Atlas titanium cables. Fastening the unstable specimens after a rest following simultaneous fastening of the specimen on both sides produces better fixation effect.

  9. Prevalence of atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial instability in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khouri, Marcelo; Mourão, Marcelo Alves; Tobo, Andrea; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Riberto, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the presence of atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial instabilities as well as their clinical significance in patients with Down syndrome. The present study retrospectively evaluated 80 adults with Down syndrome for the presence of atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial instability in lateral craniocervical radiographic images. Atlanto-occipital instability was defined by the Rules of 12 or Harris measurements, using the values of the basion-dens interval or the basion-axial interval. Atlantoaxial instability was radiologically identified by the space between the anterior border of the odontoid apophysis and the posterior border of the atlas arch, as well as by the Wiesel-Rothman line. Eighty patients were assessed; 14 (17.5%) presented with atlanto-occipital instability and 9 (11.2%) with atlantoaxial instability. Only 3 patients (3.8%) had specific symptoms for cervical instability. There was no statistical correlation with patient age or gender. High cervical instability in patients with Down syndrome can also be observed among adults, and there is a low correlation between the radiological findings and symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of periodic follow-up on these patients, particularly when sports activities are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of distal soft-tissue procedures combined with a distal chevron osteotomy for moderate to severe hallux valgus: first web-space versus transarticular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu-Bok; Lee, Keun-Bae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-11-06

    There are two surgical approaches for distal soft-tissue procedures for the correction of hallux valgus-the dorsal first web-space approach, and the medial transarticular approach. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes achieved after use of either of these approaches combined with a distal chevron osteotomy in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus. One hundred and twenty-two female patients (122 feet) who underwent a distal chevron osteotomy as part of a distal soft-tissue procedure for the treatment of symptomatic unilateral moderate to severe hallux valgus constituted the study cohort. The 122 feet were randomly divided into two groups: namely, a dorsal first web-space approach (group D; sixty feet) and a medial transarticular approach (group M; sixty-two feet). The clinical and radiographic results of the two groups were compared at a mean follow-up time of thirty-eight months. The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores improved from a mean and standard deviation of 55.5 ± 12.8 points preoperatively to 93.5 ± 6.3 points at the final follow-up in group D and from 54.9 ± 12.6 points preoperatively to 93.6 ± 6.2 points at the final follow-up in group M. The mean hallux valgus angle in groups D and M was reduced from 32.2° ± 6.3° and 33.1° ± 8.4° preoperatively to 10.5° ± 5.5° and 9.9° ± 5.5°, respectively, at the time of final follow-up. The mean first intermetatarsal angle in groups D and M was reduced from 15.0° ± 2.8° and 15.3° ± 2.7° preoperatively to 6.5° ± 2.2° and 6.3° ± 2.4°, respectively, at the final follow-up. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. The final clinical and radiographic outcomes between the two approaches for distal soft-tissue procedures were comparable and equally successful. Accordingly, the results of this study suggest that the medial transarticular

  11. Focusing on the delayed complications of fusing occipital squama to cervical spine for stabilization of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Sood, Sudhir; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Gupta, Sunil K

    2016-06-01

    Occipito-cervical(OC) fusion is often practiced for congenital atlanto-axial dislocation (CAAD) and basilar invagination (BI) with claims of good long term outcome. Little has been discussed about the delayed complications following fusing occipital squama to cervical spine (OC fusion). We have described and analyzed delayed complications with OC fusion in our patients that helps us understand the underlying dynamics and biomechanics. Twenty seven patients of CAAD and BI underwent OC fusion (between 2008 and 11) after transoral odontoidectomy or direct posterior reduction with OC distraction. OC fusion was achieved using either sublaminar wiring or with precurved rods and screws or contoured loop. One patient was referred after OC fusion with contoured loop and wires with additional C1 laminectomy. The outcome (>12months) and delayed complications in these patients were analyzed. Five types of delayed complications were noticed in 6 of the 28 patients who underwent OC fusion. Five of 6 patients were adults. Vertical redislocation with posterior midline fusion (n=2), adjacent level angular listhesis (n=1) and swan neck deformity (n=1) was seen in cases of OC fusion with sublaminar wires alone. Progressive C1 dislocation was seen in the lone patient who was referred after OC fusion with loop and wires. Vertical and angular dislocation was seen in 1 patient of OC fusion with precurved rod and screws. Progressive redislocation and adjacent level dislocation are delayed complications seen after OC2 fusion. These complications are more often seen in adults, especially with sublaminar wiring/semi rigid OC fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital Spondylolytic Spondylolisthesis of C2 Vertebra Associated With Atlanto-Axial Dislocation, Chiari Type I Malformation, and Anomalous Vertebral Artery: Case Report With Review Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardhara, Jayesh; Pavaman, Sindgikar; Das, Kuntal; Srivastava, Arun; Mehrotra, Anant; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    Congenital spondylolytic spondylolisthesis of C2 vertebra resulting from deficient posterior element of the axis is rarely described in the literature. We describe a unique case of agenesis of posterior elements of C2 with craniovertebral junction anomalies consisting of osseous, vascular, and soft tissue anomalies. A 26-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper cervical myelopathy of 12 months' duration. A computed tomography scan of the cervical spine including the craniovertebral junction revealed spondylolisthesis of C2 over C3, atlantoaxial dislocation, occipitalization of the atlas, hypoplasia of the odontoid, and cleft posterior C1 arch. Additionally, the axis vertebra was found devoid of its posterior elements except bilaterally rudimentary pedicles. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed tonsilar herniation, suggesting associated Chiari type I malformation. CT angiogram of the vertebral arteries displayed persistent bilateral first intersegmental arteries crossing the posterior aspect of the C1/2 facet joint. This patient underwent foramen magnum decompression, C3 laminectomy with occipito-C3/C4 posterior fusion using screw and rod to maintain the cervical alignment and stability. We report this rare constellation of congenital craniovertebral junction anomaly and review the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. comparative effects of screw press for honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    . Different local methods of honey extraction, their strengths and weaknesses were discussed. A screw press was fabricated to facilitate honey extraction. The fabricated screw honey extractor is good alternative to the existing ...

  14. Effect of surface coating on the screw loosening of dental abutment screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ik; Choe, Han-Cheol; Chung, Chae-Heon

    2004-12-01

    Regardless of the type of performed restoration, in most cases, a screw connection is employed between the abutment and implant. For this reason, implant screw loosening has remained a problem in restorative practices. The purpose of this study was to compare the surface of coated/plated screws with titanium and gold alloy screws and to evaluate the physical properties of coated/plated material after scratch tests via FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) investigation. GoldTite, titanium screws provided by 3i (Implant Innovation, USA) and TorqTite, titanium screws by Steri-Oss (Nobel Biocare, USA) and gold screws and titanium screws by AVANA (Osstem Implant, Korea) were selected for this study. The surface, crest, and root of the abutment screws were observed by FE-SEM. A micro-diamond needle was also prepared for the scratch test. Each abutment screw was fixed, and a scratch on the surface of the head region was made at constant load and thereafter the fine trace was observed with FE-SEM. The surface of GoldTite was smoother than that of other screws and it also had abundant ductility and malleability compared with titanium and gold screws. The scratch tests also revealed that teflon particles were exfoliated easily in the screw coated with teflon. The titanium screw had rough surface and low ductility. The clinical use of gold-plated screws is recommended as a means of preventing screw loosening.

  15. Anatomical Location of the Common Iliac Veins at the Level of the Sacrum: Relationship between Perforation Risk and the Trajectory Angle of the Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Akhgar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the safety of transarticular surface screw (TASS insertion and the anatomical location of the common iliac veins (CIVs at the level of the promontorium. Materials and Methods. The locations of the CIVs on 1 mm computed tomography-myelography slices of 50 patients at the level of the promontorium and 20 human cadavers were investigated. Results. Among the patients, the left CIV was closer to the S1 anterior wall than the right CIV (mean distance: 5.0 ± 3.0 and 7.0 ± 4.2 mm, resp.. The level of the inferior vena cava (IVC formation varied among the cadavers. The mean distance between the IVC formation and promontorium tip was 30.2 ± 12.8 mm. The height of the IVC formation and distance between the right and the left CIVs at the level of the promontorium were significantly correlated (P<0.001. Conclusion. The TASS trajectory is safe as long as the screw does not penetrate the anterior cortex of S1. The level of the IVC formation can help to predict the distance between the right and the left CIVs at the level of the promontorium. The CIVs do not have a uniform anatomical location; therefore, preoperative computed tomography is necessary to confirm their location.

  16. Successful conservative treatment for neglected rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechik, Ofir; Wientroub, Shlomo; Danino, Barry; Lebel, David E; Ovadia, Dror

    2013-06-01

    Rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation (RAS) is a rare condition that is often misdiagnosed and therefore incorrectly managed. We describe our experience and propose an algorithm for treating neglected RAS nonoperatively. All consecutive children with neglected (>6 wk) RAS were treated in our department between 2005 and 2010 by cervical traction using a Gleason traction device and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. When reduction was not achieved, the Gleason device was replaced by a halo device without manipulative reduction, and weight was added as necessary until reduction was successful. Fixation of reduction was either by a sternooccipital mandibular immobilizer or a halo vest for 3 to 4 months. All 5 children (4 boys and 1 girl, aged 4 to 11 y) were successfully treated for neglected RAS. The mean duration from symptom onset (eg, limited neck range of motion, discomfort) to treatment initiation was 11.6 weeks (range, 6 to 16 wk). Closed reduction was achieved by a Gleason or a noninvasive halo device within 1 to 2 weeks in 4 cases. The fifth case was reduced after 5 weeks of traction using a halo with a 5 kg weight. All children had symmetrical full range of motion, normal neurological examination, and were fully engaged in educational and sports activities without recurrent dislocations at final follow-up (mean, 30 mo; range, 18 to 49 mo). Conservative treatment by gradual and prolonged traction without manipulative reduction in neglected RAS might be a successful method. Reduction can often be achieved within 2 weeks of treatment onset. Level IV (retrospective case series).

  17. Arthroscopic Screw Removal After Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Lafosse, Thibault; Amsallem, Lior; Delgrande, Damien; Gerometta, Antoine; Lafosse, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure is an efficient and reliable approach for the treatment of shoulder instability. Nevertheless, the screws fixing the bone block may sometimes be responsible for pain and uncomfortable snapping in the shoulder that is triggered during active external rotation. We propose an all-arthroscopic technique for screw removal in cases of complications involving the screws from a Latarjet procedure. The all-arthroscopic screw removal is reliable and efficient. This proce...

  18. Surgical treatment of nonrheumatoid atlantoaxial degenerative arthritis producing pain and myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael; Fassett, Daniel R; Apfelbaum, Ronald I

    2007-12-15

    A retrospective review. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic findings and surgical treatment outcomes for atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. Nonrheumatoid atlantoaxial osteoarthritic degeneration can occur at either the atlantodental articulation or lateral mass articulations. This condition may present with neck pain or myelopathy in the setting of a compressive degenerative pannus. There is a paucity of literature on this topic with only case reports and small case series. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients treated for C1-C2 osteoarthritis. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, neurologic examination, visual analog pain scores, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, outcomes, and complications were recorded for each patient. Twenty-six patients (18 with pannus at the atlantodental articulation and 8 primarily with lateral mass articulation arthritis; 10 men, 16 women; mean age 74 years) were surgically treated for atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. Eleven patients presented primarily with complaints related to myelopathy (all with a degenerative pannus) and 15 presented with cervicalgia only. All patients were treated with posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis, and 13 patients with myelopathy or severe canal compromise from an irreducible subluxation also had transoral odontoidectomy. All myelopathic patients had improvement in neurologic function (10 of 11 improved 1 Ranawat grade). Neck pain improved in 93% of patients with preoperative neck pain complaints (mean visual analog score before surgery = 7.0, follow-up = 1.3). Fusion was demonstrated in all patients with adequate follow-up. Atlantoaxial osteoarthritis can result in neck pain and myelopathy. In the setting of a degenerative pannus and myelopathy, most patients will improve neurologically after transoral decompression and arthrodesis. Patients with pannus and no myelopathy were effectively treated with posterior fusion alone, although 2 with

  19. Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixed Dislocation: Report on a Series of 32 Pediatric Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenglin; Yan, Ming; Passias, Peter G; Wang, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective case series of atlantoaxial rotatory fixed dislocation (AARFD). To describe clinical features and the surgical treatment of AARFD. The classification and treatment strategy for atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) were previously described and remained controversial. AARF concomitant with atlantoaxial dislocation has different clinical features and treatment strategy with the most AARF. Due to deficiency of the transverse ligament or odontoid, the atlantoaxial remains unstable even after the torticollis relieved or cured. Because of the rarity, treatment strategy for this special condition has not been specialized and fully explored in the literatures. Thirty-two children with AARFD (sustained torticollis more than 6 weeks and atlanto-dental internal more than 5 mm) were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment methodology, pearls, and pitfalls of the treatment were discussed. Thirty-two cases had sustained torticollis for an average of 5.7 months. ADI of them ranged from 8 to 22 mm, with a mean of 11.3 mm. Eight cases presented with signs and symptoms of spinal cord dysfunction. All 32 cases underwent surgery and had no spinal cord or vertebral artery injury. The surgery included posterior reduction and fusion (reducible dislocation and torticollis, 16 cases), and transoral release followed by posterior reduction and fusion (irreducible dislocation and torticollis, 16 cases). The average follow-up time was 42 months. Solid fusion and torticollis healing were achieved in 31 patients (96.9%) as detected radiologically. Two cases (6.3%, 2/32) suffered complications (cerebrospinal fluid leakage and recurred torticollis followed by revision). AARFD had distinct clinical features relative to common presentations of AARF. Because of deficiency of the transverse ligament or odontoid and subsequent atlantoaxial dislocation, surgical treatments are applied for this condition, including transoral release and posterior C1-2 reduction and fusion. AARFD cases

  20. Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopesh Kumar, V R; Madhguiri, Venkatesh S; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Gundamaneni, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a clinical case report with a review of relevant literature. To describe a case of Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in a middle-aged female patient and to discuss management strategies. Spondyloptosis of the cervical spine is relatively rare and is caused by trauma, destruction of the vertebral bodies by tumors, or tuberculosis. Such gross vertebral displacement is usually associated with significant neurological deficits. Larsen syndrome is characterized by multiple joint displacements and can, very rarely, be associated with nontraumatic spondyloptosis of the cervical vertebra. A single case report of C1-C2 joint laxity causing atlantoaxial dislocation in a patient with Larsen syndrome is available in literature. No reports of any patient (with Larsen syndrome or nonsyndromic) who had both cervical spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation are available in literature. A 36-year-old female presented with chronic neck pain, bilateral hand deformity, and mild spasticity involving all 4 limbs. Cervical radiograph, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance image revealed C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation. A combined ventral decompression of subaxial spine and instrumentation from C2 to C5, followed by posterior C1-C2 distraction arthroplasty and lateral mass stabilization of the subaxial spine up to C6, was done. The cervical deformity was corrected, and the patient remains symptom free. Patients with spondyloptosis of the cervical spine can rarely present with chronic neck pain and minimal neurological deficits. An additional pathology, such as atlantoaxial dislocation, can add to the complexity. Circumferential stabilization and fusion would be required in such cases to achieve a good outcome. Larsen syndrome is a rare cause of nontraumatic cervical displacements.

  1. The changes of syrinx volume after posterior reduction and fixation of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation with syringomyelia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zuowei; Wang, Xingwen; Jian, Fengzeng; Zhang, Can; Wu, Hao; Chen, Zan

    ...) and atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) with syringomyelia.We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcome and syrinx volume changes in 71 patients with BI, AAD and syringomyelia treated with the posterior reduction and fixation...

  2. Using Ultrasound to Prevent Screw Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, George W

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound is a readily available, inexpensive, easy-to-use, and rapid diagnostic tool. Physicians can use ultrasound to identify excessively long screws or screw penetration into joints. This article illustrates ultrasound identification of problem screws. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, E.L.; Clift, T.L.

    1996-06-01

    The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.

  4. Fatigue Performance of Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw Compared With Standard Trajectory Pedicle Screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpolat, Yusuf Tahiri; İnceoğlu, Serkan; Kinne, Nolan; Hunt, Devon; Cheng, Wayne K

    2016-03-01

    Cadaveric biomechanical study. To determine fatigue behavior of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screws. Cortical bone trajectory screws have been becoming popular in spine surgery; however, the long-term fatigue behavior of the new CBT screws remains understudied and limitations not well defined. Twelve vertebrae from six cadaveric lumbar spines were obtained. After bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, each vertebral body was instrumented with screws from each group, that is, CBT (4.5 × 25 mm) or standard pedicle screw (6.5 × 55 mm). A load (± 4 Nm sagittal bending) was applied under displacement control at 1 Hz. Each construct was loaded for 100 cycles or until 6° of loosening was observed. After fatigue testing, the screws were pulled out axially at 5 mm/min. The standard pedicle screw showed better resistance against 100 cycle loading compared with the CBT screws (P standard pedicle screw testing usually required more than 100 cycles of loading to achieve the critical loosening (3592 ± 4564 cycles), whereas the CBT screw never exceeded 100 cycles (84 ± 24 cycles) (P = 0.002). Increased BMD was significantly associated with a higher number of cycles and less loosening. The standard pedicle screw group had a higher postfatigue pullout load than the CBT screw group (P = 0.001, 776 ± 370 N and 302 ± 232 N, respectively). The standard pedicle screw had a better fatigue performance compared with the CBT screw in vertebra with compromised bone quality. The proper insertion of the CBT screw might be prevented by the laminar anatomy depending on the screw head design. The CBT screw damaged the bone along its shaft by rotating around a fulcrum, located at either the pars, pedicle isthmus, or the junction of the pedicle and superior endplate, contingent upon the strength of the bone.

  5. One-stage anterior release and reduction with posterior fusion for treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ding-jun; He, Bao-rong; Wu, Qi-ning

    2009-11-01

    To analyze the approach and feasibility of one-stage anterior release and reduction with posterior fusion for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Ten male and 6 female patients, with an average age of 36 years, including 13 patients with old trauma, 2 with rheumatoid disease, and 1 with os odontoideum were studied. Anterior release and reduction was performed in the supine position. The atlas and vertebra dentate were fixed posteriorly and fused by one stage. All patients were followed up from 15 to 40 months (mean, 23 months), and all gained anatomic reduction and bone fusion. Six months postoperatively, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score of the 12 patients with cord symptoms had improved from 8.3 preoperatively to 13.9, with a mean improvement of 87.5%. Treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation with one-stage anterior release and reduction with posterior fusion is a reliable method. © 2009 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Posterior atlantoaxial ′facetal′ instability associated with cervical spondylotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The association of single or multiple level cervical spondylotic disease with atlantoaxial instability is assessed. The implications of identifying and treating atlantoaxial instability in such an association are highlighted. Materials and Methods: The analysis is based on an experience with 11 patients treated during the period June 2013-June 2014. All patients had single or multilevel cervical spondylotic disease. The spinal canal compromise and evidence of cord compression was evident on imaging in the cervical subaxial spine and was related to disc bulges and osteophytic bars. There was no or relatively insignificant compression of the cervicomedullary cord by the odontoid process. There was no evidence of odontoid process-related instability on dynamic imaging. Apart from presence of features of cervical spondylosis, investigations and surgical exploration and direct manual handling of the facets revealed evidence of Type B (posterior atlantoaxial′facetal′ instability in all patients. Our 5-point clinical grading system and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scores were used to monitor the patients both before and after surgery and at follow-up. Surgery involved both at lantoaxial and subaxial cervical fixation. During the average period of follow-up of 9 months (5-17 months, all patients showed remarkable and gratifying neurological recovery. Conclusion: We conclude that atlantoaxial facetal instability can be ′frequently′ associated with cervical spondylosis and needs surgical stabilization. Our surgical outcome analysis suggests that missing or ignoring the presence of atlantoaxial facetal instability can be an important cause of suboptimal result or failure of surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

  7. [In vivo studies of screw-bone contact of drill-free screws and conventional self-tapping screws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, W; Terheyden, H; Gerlach, K L

    2001-01-01

    Screw-bone contact (SBC) and bone remodeling of titanium drill-free screws or self-tapping screws should be compared. Each 10 titanium self-tapping miniscrews or microscrews, and each 10 titanium drill-free miniscrews or microscrews were inserted into the anterior wall of the frontal sinus of 5 Göttingen minipigs. Intraperitoneal injections of fluochromes (Xylenol, Calcein, Alizarincomplexon and Tetrazyklin) were performed between the 2nd and 9th postoperative week. The pigs were sacrificed after 6 months, the screw-bone blocks were resected and microradiographic, histologic and fluorescence microscopic examinations were carried out. In drill-free screws mean SBC was 88.4 (miniscrews) or 93.8% (microscrews). In self-tapping miniscrews mean SBC was 54.9, in microscrews 81%; the differences were significant in statistical analysis (t-test: p ratio of residual versus newly formed bone) was measured. Significantly more of the residual bone was found in the region of the screw threads of drill-free screws (miniscrews: mean 71.8, microscrews: mean 67.9%) than in the region of screw threads of self-tapping screws (miniscrews: mean 33.1, microscrews: mean 42.4%; t-test: p midface.

  8. Syringomyelia with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, basilar invagination and Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenglin; Wang, Chao; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Haitao; Jiang, Liang

    2010-03-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with bilateral weakness of her all extremities for 5 years. She had a spastic gait and was unable to ambulate without assistance. Neurologic examination revealed increased deep tendon reflexes and positive pathologic reflexes. Radiographs showed occipitalization of the atlas, C2-C3 congenital fusion and fixed atlantoaxial dislocation with an atlanto-dental interval of 10 mm. MRI demonstrated cervicomedullary junction (CMJ) compression from the odontoid, a Chiari type I malformation, and syringomyelia extending from the foramen magnum to C5. The patient underwent transoral atlantoaxial release followed by posterior internal fixation from the occiput to the axis, which resulted in a significant improvement in motor function in all extremities. Post-operative images showed anatomical reduction of the atlantoaxial joint. However, an MRI performed 8 days following surgery showed a new retro-odontoid pannus had developed that was compressing the spinal cord at CMJ. A follow-up CT scan performed at 6 months post-operatively demonstrated a solid bony fusion between the occiput and C2, while an MRI at that time showed complete resolution of the retro-odontoid soft tissue mass with correction of the Chiari I malformation, and resolution of the syringomyelia. Final follow-up at 2-years revealed an excellent clinical outcome.

  9. Endoscopically assisted anterior release and reduction through anterolateral retropharyngeal approach for fixed atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Guohua; Passias, Peter G; Li, Gang; Kozanek, Michal; Rehak, Lubos; Wood, Kirkham B; Li, Guoan; Deng, Youwen

    2010-03-01

    A prospective study. To evaluate a novel technique involving an endoscopically assisted anterior release and reduction through an anterolateral retropharyngeal approach with minimum follow-up interval of 31 months. Irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation is typically a chronic process that requires surgical treatment. However, the current literature does not agree on the single best method of treatment. Previously, the best outcomes have been reported with transoral reduction followed by anterior or posterior fixation. Despite recent innovations, numerous complications remain associated with this approach. About 21 consecutive irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation patients with mean age of 32 years underwent endoscopically assisted anterior release and reduction through the anterolateral retropharyngeal approach followed by posterior fixation. The primary pathologies included 8 late odontoid fractures, 7 cases of os odontoideum, 5 with laxity of the transverse ligament, and 1 with atlanto-occipital assimilation with a hypoplastic odontoid. Neurologic status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association scoring system. Radiographic parameters including the atlantodental interval (ADI) and cervicomedullary angle were also measured. Follow-up data were obtained for a minimum of 31 months. Anatomic reduction was achieved in 20 cases and near-anatomic reduction in 1 case. All patients had an uneventful recovery with significant improvement in neurologic function and radiographic parameters. No complications were seen. The atlantodental interval was corrected from an average 6.3 mm before surgery to 2.7 mm after surgery (P atlantoaxial dislocation.

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of Latarjet Screw Fixation: Comparison of Screw Types and Fixation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jason J; Hamamoto, Jason T; Leroux, Timothy S; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Jain, Akshay; Khair, Mahmoud M; Mellano, Christen R; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Nicholson, Gregory P; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-09-01

    To compare the initial fixation stability, failure strength, and mode of failure of 5 different screw types and fixation methods commonly used for the classic Latarjet procedure. Thirty-five fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens were allocated into 5 groups. A 25% anteroinferior glenoid defect was created, and a classic Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure was performed. All grafts were fixed with 2 screws, differing by screw type and/or fixation method. The groups included partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with unicortical fixation, fully threaded solid 3.5-mm cortical screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, and partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm captured screws with bicortical fixation. All screws were stainless steel. Outcomes included cyclic creep and secant stiffness during cyclic loading, as well as load and work to failure during the failure test. Intergroup comparisons were made by a 1-way analysis of variance. There were no significant differences among different screw types or fixation methods in cyclic creep or secant stiffness after cyclic loading or in load to failure or work to failure during the failure test. Post-failure radiographs showed evidence of screw bending in only 1 specimen that underwent the Latarjet procedure with partially threaded solid cancellous screws with bicortical fixation. The mode of failure for all specimens analyzed was screw cutout. In this biomechanical study, screw type and fixation method did not significantly influence biomechanical performance in a classic Latarjet procedure. When performing this procedure, surgeons may continue to select the screw type and method of fixation (unicortical or bicortical) based on preference; however, further studies are required to determine the optimal method of treatment. Surgeons may choose the screw type and

  11. Hollow Abutment Screw Design for Easy Retrieval in Case of Screw Fracture in Dental Implant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyun Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.

  12. Hollow Abutment Screw Design for Easy Retrieval in Case of Screw Fracture in Dental Implant System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Bo Kyun; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Guk Hyun; Ju, Kyung Won; Shin, Yoo Jin; Kim, Man Yong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA) and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.

  13. [Fracture of implant abutment screws and removal of a remaining screw piece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, S.M. van den; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Fracture of the implant abutment screws is a complication which can render an implant useless. The prevalence of abutment screw fracture does not exceed 2.5% after 10 years. Causes are loosening of implant abutment screw, too few, too short or too narrow implants, implants not inserted perpendicular

  14. Analysis of the osseous/metal interface of drill free screws and self-tapping screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, W; Terheyden, H; Gerlach, K L

    2001-04-01

    A comparison of metal/osseous interface and bone remodelling after insertion of different types of titanium bone screws in vivo. Samples of five of each of the following bone screw types were inserted into the anterior wall of the frontal sinus of five Göttingen minipigs: self-tapping micro- (1.5mm) and miniscrews (2.0 mm) or drill free micro- (1.5 mm) and miniscrews (2.0 mm) (Martin Medizintechnik, Tuttlingen, Germany). Screw length was 7mm. Sequential intraperitoneal injections of fluorochromes were performed between the second and ninth postoperative week. After 6 months the pigs were sacrificed, the screw-bone-blocks resected, and microradiographic, histological and fluorescence microscopical examinations were carried out. Using drill free screws, mean screw/bone contact was 88.4% (miniscrews), or 93.8% (microscrews). With self-tapping miniscrews it was 54.9%, but in microscrews 81%; the differences were statistically significant (t-test: pratio of residual vs. newly formed bone) was measured. Significantly more of the residual bone was found in the region of the screw threads using drill free screws (miniscrews: mean 71.8%, microscrews: mean 67.9%) than in the region of screw threads with self-tapping screws (miniscrews: mean 33.1%, microscrews: mean 42.4%). The present data support the view that screw/bone contact with drill free screws was superior to that of self-tapping screws; the greater amount of original bone in the threads of drill free screws demonstrated that the insertion of drill free screws did not cause harm to the surrounding bone. Both results are important for osteosynthesis in regions where thin cortical bone is present, such as the central midface.

  15. Atlanto-axial malformation and instability in dogs with pituitary dwarfism due to an LHX3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbij, A M W Y; Meij, B P; van Bruggen, L W L; Grinwis, G C M; Stassen, Q E M; Kooistra, H S

    2015-01-01

    Canine pituitary dwarfism or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in shepherd dogs is associated with an LHX3 mutation and can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations. Some dogs with CPHD have neurological signs that are localized to the cervical spine. In human CPHD, caused by an LHX3 mutation, anatomical abnormalities in the atlanto-axial (C1-C2) joint have been described. To evaluate the presence of atlanto-axial malformations in dogs with pituitary dwarfism associated with an LHX3 mutation and to investigate the degree of similarity between the atlanto-axial anomalies found in canine and human CPHD patients with an LHX3 mutation. Three client-owned Czechoslovakian wolfdogs and 1 client-owned German shepherd dog, previously diagnosed with pituitary dwarfism caused by an LHX3 mutation, with neurological signs indicating a cervical spinal disorder. Radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cranial neck and skull, necropsy, and histology. Diagnostic imaging identified abnormal positioning of the dens axis and incomplete ossification of the suture lines between the ossification centers of the atlas with concurrent atlanto-axial instability and dynamic compression of the spinal cord by the dens axis. The malformations and aberrant motion at C1-C2 were confirmed at necropsy and histology. The atlanto-axial abnormalities of the dwarf dogs resemble those encountered in human CPHD patients with an LHX3 mutation. These findings suggest an association between the LHX3 mutation in dogs with CPHD and atlanto-axial malformations. Consequently, pituitary dwarfs should be monitored closely for neurological signs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Simple Technique for Removing Broken Pedicular Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for removing a broken pedicle screw should ideally be technically easy and minimally invasive, as any damage to the pedicle, during removal of the broken screw, may weaken the pedicle, thus compromising on the success of re-instrumentation. We describe the case of a 32-year old man who had undergone surgery for traumatic third lumbar vertebral body fracture three years prior to current admission and had developed the complication of pedicle screw breakage within the vertebral body. The patient underwent re-exploration and removal of the distal screws. Through a paravertebral incision and muscle separation, the screws and rods were exposed and the implants were removed.

  17. Twin screw subsurface and surface multiphase pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, P. [CAN-K GROUP OF COMPANIES, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new subsurface twin screw multiphase pump has been developed to replace ESP and other artificial lift technologies. This technology has been under development for a few years, has been field tested and is now going for commercial applications. The subsurface twin screw technology consists of a pair of screws that do not touch and can be run with a top drive or submersible motor; and it carries a lot of benefits. This technology is easy to install and its low slippage makes it highly efficient with heavy oil. In addition twin screw multiphase pumps are capable of handling high viscosity fluids and thus their utilization can save water when used in thermal applications. It also induces savings of chemicals because asphaltenes do not break down easily as well as a reduction in SOR. The subsurface twin screw multiphase pump presented herein is an advanced technology which could be used in thermal applications.

  18. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissection caused by compression from a giant osteophyte due to atlantoaxial osteoarthritis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Sano, Noritaka; Nagata, Manabu; Okada, Yumiko; Kawakami, Taichiro; Murata, Takaho

    2017-10-01

    Deformed osseous structures have been reported as rare causes of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection, including the styloid process and the hyoid bone. Here, the authors describe the first known case of symptomatic ICA dissection caused by a giant osteophyte due to atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. The left ICA was fixed at the skull base and at the ICA portion compressed by the osteophyte, and it was highly stretched and injured between the two portions during neck rotation. The patient was successfully treated with ligation of the affected ICA following balloon test occlusion. Atlantoaxial osteoarthritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ICA dissection in patients with a severely deformed cervical spine.

  19. Complete Atlantooccipital Assimilation with Basilar Invagination and Atlantoaxial Subluxation Treated Non-Surgically: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electricwala, Ali J; Harsule, Amita; Chavan, Vishwajeet; Electricwala, Jaffer T

    2017-06-09

    Atlantooccipital assimilation is a partial or complete congenital fusion between the atlas and the base of the occiput. Most patients with atlas assimilation are asymptomatic, but some may present with neurological problems such as myelopathy. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with neck and occipital pain, episodic neck stiffness, and dizziness. Medical imaging revealed complete atlantooccipital assimilation associated with basilar invagination, atlantoaxial subluxation, and predisposing anterior spinal cord compression. The patient was treated non-operatively with medications, cervical interferential therapy, and a rigid cervical orthosis.

  20. Screw-released roller brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  1. Extraction of sunflower oil by twin screw extruder: screw configuration and operating condition effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartika, I.A. [FATETA-IPB, Bogor (Indonesia). Department of Agroindustrial Technology; Pontalier, P.Y.; Rigal, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the screw configuration allowing oil extraction from sunflower seeds with a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Five screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality) by studying the influence of operating conditions, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate. Generally, the position and spacing between two reversed screw elements affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as the reversed screw elements were moved with increased spacing between two elements and with smaller pitch elements. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate were decreased. Highest oil extraction yield (85%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 13%) was obtained under operating conditions of 120 {sup o}C, 75 rpm and 19 kg/h. Furthermore, the operating parameters influenced energy input. A decrease in barrel temperature and feed rate followed by an increase in screw speed increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. Effect of the operating parameters on oil quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the oil quality was very good. The acid value was below 2 mg of KOH/g of oil and total phosphorus content was low, below 100 mg/kg. (author)

  2. Twin Screw Mixer/Fine Grind Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 40-mm Twin-Screw Mixer/Extruder (TSE) pilot plant is a continuous, remotely operated, flexible facility that can significantly enhance safety and environmental...

  3. Maxillary sinus perforation by orthodontic anchor screws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Sanuki-Suzuki, Rina; Uchida, Yasuki; Saiki, Akari; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    .... The placement torque and screw mobility of each implant were determined using a torque tester and a Periotest device, and variability in these values in relation to sinus perforation was evaluated...

  4. The comparison of clinical outcome of fresh type II odontoid fracture treatment between anterior cannulated screws fixation and posterior instrumentation of C1-2 without fusion: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suomao; Wei, Bin; Tian, Yonghao; Yan, Jun; Xu, Wanlong; Wang, Lianlei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-01-08

    achieved by both ACSF and PIWF. For most fresh type II odontoid fractures, anterior screw fixation was the best option for its simplicity and preservation of normal atlanto-axial rotary function. Posterior instrumentation without fusion could preserve most of the atlanto-axial rotary function and lead to moderate neck discomfort and is also a good alternative if anterior screw fixation is contraindicated.

  5. Unilateral axis facet hypertrophy--a rare case of irreducible rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Basar; Türe, Ugur

    2014-04-01

    Fixed atlantoaxial dislocations are difficult to treat and there is no consensus in the treatment protocol. Unilateral enlargement of the atlas-axis facet complex in fixed atlantoaxial dislocations is a very rare condition. These pathologies are usually quite unstable and surgical treatment is necessary in unreductable cases. A 52-year-old woman with a diagnosis of irreducible-fixed rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation presented with acute onset of dizziness, loss of balance, and tetraparesis. She was under 8 years of conservative follow-up. Review of radiology revealed unilateral C2 superior facet hypertrophy compressing the medulla and obstructing the vertebral artery. To treat this condition, we have used a posterior midline approach and removed the lateral portions of the posterior rim of the foramen magnum and the assimilated posterior arch of C1. The V3 segments of the vertebral arteries were exposed bilaterally. The atlantoaxial joint complex on the left was hypertrophied compressing V3. We have removed hypertrophied lateral mass of the atlas and the hypertrophic superior articular facet of C2 for decompression. Patency of both vertebral arteries were checked intraoperatively by Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. We have fixated craniocervical junction on the same session. Patient was neurologically intact and she had confirmed fusion on the surgical site after three years of follow-up. This is a rare case of unilateral hypertrophy of the C2 superior articular facet in a fixed atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation. Progressive compression of medulla and the left vertebral artery leaded to clinical worsening of neurology in this case after 8 years of follow-up. Surgical treatment was necessary for neurological decompression and to establish stability.

  6. The rate of screw misplacement in segmental pedicle screw fixation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Ohlin, Acke

    2011-02-01

    There are no reports in the literature on the influence of learning on the pedicle screw insertion. We studied the effect of learning on the rate of screw misplacement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with segmental pedicle screw fixation. We retrospectively evaluated low-dose spine computed tomography of 116 consecutive patients (aged 16 (12-24) years, 94 females) who were operated during 4 periods over 2005-2009 (group 1: patients operated autumn 2005-2006; group 2: 2007; group 3: 2008; and group 4: 2009). 5 types of misplacement were recorded: medial cortical perforation, lateral cortical perforation, anterior cortical perforation of the vertebral body, endplate perforation, and perforation of the neural foramen. 2,201 pedicle screws were evaluated, with an average of 19 screws per patient. The rate of screw misplacement for the whole study was 14%. The rate of lateral and medial cortical perforation was 7% and 5%. There was an inverse correlation between the occurrence of misplacement and the patient number, i.e. the date of operation (r = -0.35; p skillfulness of screw insertion improved with reduction of the rate of screw misplacement from 20% in 2005-2006 to 11% in 2009, with a breakpoint at the end of the first study period (34 patients). We found a substantial learning curve; cumulative experience may have contributed to continued reduction of misplacement rate.

  7. Minimizing Pedicle Screw Pullout Risks: A Detailed Biomechanical Analysis of Screw Design and Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Rohan-Jean; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Wagnac, Eric; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Aubin, Carl-Éric

    2017-04-01

    Detailed biomechanical analysis of the anchorage performance provided by different pedicle screw designs and placement strategies under pullout loading. To biomechanically characterize the specific effects of surgeon-specific pedicle screw design parameters on anchorage performance using a finite element model. Pedicle screw fixation is commonly used in the treatment of spinal pathologies. However, there is little consensus on the selection of an optimal screw type, size, and insertion trajectory depending on vertebra dimension and shape. Different screw diameters and lengths, threads, and insertion trajectories were computationally tested using a design of experiment approach. A detailed finite element model of an L3 vertebra was created including elastoplastic bone properties and contact interactions with the screws. Loads and boundary conditions were applied to the screws to simulate axial pullout tests. Force-displacement responses and internal stresses were analyzed to determine the specific effects of each parameter. The design of experiment analysis revealed significant effects (Pdesign characteristics and surgical choices, enabling to recommend strategies to improve single pedicle screw performance under axial loading.

  8. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  9. Transpedicular screw fixation in the thoracic and lumbar spine with a novel cannulated polyaxial screw system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Weise

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Weise, Olaf Suess, Thomas Picht, Theodoros KombosNeurochirurgische Klinik, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyObjective: Transpedicular screws are commonly and successfully used for posterior fixation in spinal instability, but their insertion remains challenging. Even using navigation techniques, there is a misplacement rate of up to 11%. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a novel pedicle screw system.Methods: Thoracic and lumbar fusions were performed on 67 consecutive patients for tumor, trauma, degenerative disease or infection. A total of 326 pedicular screws were placed using a novel wire-guided, cannulated, polyaxial screw system (XIA Precision®, Stryker. The accuracy of placement was assessed post operatively by CT scan, and the patients were followed-up clinically for a mean of 16 months.Results: The total medio-caudal pedicle wall perforation rate was 9.2% (30/326. In 19 of these 30 cases a cortical breakthrough of less than 2 mm occurred. The misplacement rate (defined as a perforation of 2 mm or more was 3.37% (11/326. Three of these 11 screws needed surgical revision due to neurological symptoms or CSF leakage. There have been no screw breakages or dislocations over the follow up-period.Conclusion: We conclude that the use of this cannulated screw system for the placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine is accurate and safe. The advantages of this technique include easy handling without a time-consuming set up. Considering the incidence of long-term screw breakage, further investigation with a longer follow-up period is necessary.Keywords: spinal instrumentation, pedicle screws, misplacement, pedicle wall perforation

  10. Compression-distraction reduction surgical verification and optimization to treat the basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xuefeng; Wang, Weida; Chen, Zan; Liu, Zhicheng

    2016-12-28

    Basilar invagination (BI) combined with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) leads to foramen magnum stenosis and medullary spinal cord compression, causing nerve dysfunction. The purpose of the surgery is to remove the bony compression at brainstem ventral side and fix the unstable spinal segment and make it fused stably. Occipital cervical internal fixation system that simultaneously reduces atlantoaxial horizontal and vertical dislocation are established. We propose here a new compression-distraction reduction (CDR) technique. We aimed to construct a congenital BI-AAD preoperative finite element model (FEM) to simulate the CDR technique for AAD reduction surgery. Based on computed tomographic scans of patients' cervical vertebrae, a three-dimensional (3D) geometric model of the cervical spine (C0-C4) of congenital BI-AAD patients was established using Mimics13.1, Geomagic2012, and Space Claim14.0 softwares. The mechanical parameters of the tissues were assigned according to their material characteristics using ANSYS Workbench 14.0 software. A 3D FEM was established using the tetrahedral mesh method. The bending moment was loaded on C0. Physiological conditions-anteflexion, retroflexion, left and right flexion, left and right rotation-were simulated for preoperative verification. The occipital cervical fixation system FEM was established. The CDR technique was simulated to perform AAD reduction surgery. Data were obtained when the atlantoaxial horizontal and vertical dislocation reductions were verified postoperatively. Stress data for the two surgical schemes were analyzed, as was the reduction surgery optimization scheme for congenital BI-AAD patients with abnormal lateral atlantoaxial articulation ossification. Cervical spine (C0-C4) FEM of congenital BI-AAD patients was established. The CDR technique was simulated for AAD reduction. We obtained the mechanical data when the atlantoaxial horizontal and vertical dislocation reductions were satisfied for the two

  11. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Impact of screw configuration on the particle size distribution of granules produced by twin screw granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Burggraeve, A; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-02-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) has been reported by different research groups as an attractive technology for continuous wet granulation. However, in contrast to fluidized bed granulation, granules produced via this technique typically have a wide and multimodal particle size distribution (PSD), resulting in suboptimal flow properties. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of granulator screw configuration on the PSD of granules produced by TSG. Experiments were performed using a 25 mm co-rotating twin screw granulator, being part of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line from GEA Pharma Systems). Besides the screw elements conventionally used for TSG (conveying and kneading elements), alternative designs of screw elements (tooth-mixing-elements (TME), screw mixing elements (SME) and cutters) were investigated using an α-lactose monohydrate formulation granulated with distilled water. Granulation with only conveying elements resulted in wide and multimodal PSD. Using kneading elements, the width of the PSD could be partially narrowed and the liquid distribution was more homogeneous. However, still a significant fraction of oversized agglomerates was obtained. Implementing additional kneading elements or cutters in the final section of the screw configuration was not beneficial. Furthermore, granulation with only TME or SME had limited impact on the width of the PSD. Promising results were obtained by combining kneading elements with SME, as for these configurations the PSD was narrower and shifted to the size fractions suitable for tableting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomass granular screw feeding: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jianjun; Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6 T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Successful feeding is critical to biomass utilization processes, but difficult due to the heterogeneity, physical properties and moisture content of the particles. The objectives of the present study were to find the mechanisms of blockage in screw feeding and to determine the effects of particle mean size (0.5-15 mm), size distribution, shape, moisture content (10-60%), density and compressibility on biomass particle feeding at room temperature. Wood pellets, sawdust, hog fuel and wood shavings were tested in a screw feeder/lock hopper system previously employed to feed sawdust into a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. Experimental results showed that large particles, wide size distributions, large bulk densities and high moisture contents generally led to larger torque requirements for screw feeding. The ''choke section'' and seal plug play important roles in determining the torque requirements. (author)

  14. The accuracy and the safety of individualized 3D printing screws insertion templates for cervical screw insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ting; Jiang, Minghui; Lei, Qing; Cai, Lihong; Chen, Li

    2016-12-01

    Clinical trial for cervical screw insertion by using individualized 3-dimensional (3D) printing screw insertion templates device. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and accuracy of the individualized 3D printing screw insertion template in the cervical spine. Ten patients who underwent posterior cervical fusion surgery with cervical pedicle screws, laminar screws or lateral mass screws between December 2014 and December 2015 were involved in this study. The patients were examined by CT scan before operation. The individualized 3D printing templates were made with photosensitive resin by a 3D printing system to ensure the screw shafts entered the vertebral body without breaking the pedicle or lamina cortex. The templates were sterilized by a plasma sterilizer and used during the operation. The accuracy and the safety of the templates were evaluated by CT scans at the screw insertion levels after operation. The accuracy of this patient-specific template technique was demonstrated. Only one screw axis greatly deviated from the planned track and breached the cortex of the pedicle because the template was split by rough handling and then we inserted the screws under the fluoroscopy. The remaining screws were inserted in the track as preoperative design and the screw axis deviated by less than 2 mm. Vascular or neurologic complications or injuries did not happen. And no infection, broken nails, fracture of bone structure, or screw pullout occurred. This study verified the safety and the accuracy of the individualized 3D printing screw insertion templates in the cervical spine as a kind of intraoperative screw navigation. This individualized 3D printing screw insertion template was user-friendly, moderate cost, and enabled a radiation-free cervical screw insertion.

  15. [Selection of indications and surgical treatment of basilar invagination with atlantoaxial dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Maimaiti, Pulati; Guo, Hailong; Maimaiti, Maierdan; Sheng, Jun; Liang, Weidong; Deng, Qiang; Xun, Chuanhui; Zhang, Jian; Sheng, Weibin

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the indications and effect of surgical treatment of basilar invagination (BI) with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) on the basis of retrospective analysis of the clinical and imaging data of patients. Consecutive 21 patients with BI and AAD were surgically treated in Department of Spinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from July 2000 to December 2013. There were 10 males and 11 females, aged from 7 to 59 years, with a mean of 36.4 years. The clinical symptoms and signs was recorded, and preoperative imaging examination including anteroposterior, lateral, dynamic films, MRI, CT and 3-dimensional reconstruction views of cervical spine were performed to identify the series. All cases were treated with operation. Neurological function was assessed by JOA scale and NDI score before, after surgery and at final follow-up. The postoperative X-rays, MRI or CT was taken to observed the results of decompression, fixation and fusion. There were 5 cases operated by posterior approach, combined anterior and posterior approach in 16 cases, atlantoaxial fixation in 2 cases, occipitocervical fixation in 19 cases. The average operation time was 200 mins, blood loss was 230 ml. Except for 2 death cases, 19 cases were followed up, the followed-up was arranged from 13 to 42 months, with an average of 21.6 months. Compared with preoperative parameters (7.8±1.3), the postoperative scores of JOA decreased significantly (14.1±0.5) and at the final follow-up (16.2±0.7) (P0.05). The perioperative complications was discovered in 6 cases, including infection in 2 cases, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in 2 cases, respiratory dysfunction, cleft palate in 1 case, respectively. BI with AAD can be treated by anterior, posterior or combined approaches. Careful evaluation, proper selection of indications and prevention of perioperative complications are important consideration to ensure the success of surgery.

  16. Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation caused by spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombogiorgas, Dimitris; Hussain, Ihsan; Sgouros, Spyros

    2006-09-01

    Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation is rare in children and usually associated with upper respiratory tract infection or trauma. We present a patient who developed the condition acutely as a consequence of rapidly evolving hemiplegia secondary to intracerebral haemorrhage. A previously well 12-year-old boy suddenly developed left hemiparesis within 30 min. Soon after, he developed painful torticollis. On examination, a dense left hemiplegia was associated with left facial and hypoglossal weakness. On computerised tomography (CT) scan there was an intracerebral haemorrhage in the deep aspect of the right frontal lobe in the corona radiata, with extension in the ventricular system. The plain radiographs of the cervical spine, and CT scan later, confirmed the presence of C1-C2 rotatory subluxation. The haematoma was aspirated stereotactically through a burr hole, and at the same session, the subluxation was reduced by manipulation and traction of the cervical spine. The patient was treated with a hard collar. The torticollis did not recur. The hemiparesis resolved within 6 months. A subsequent magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography scan indicated possible arterio-venous malformation (AVM) at the site of the haemorrhage, which was confirmed with digital subtraction angiography. The AVM was surgically excised 1 year from the original haemorrhage. In the absence of any other predisposing factor, it is postulated that the acute atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation was secondary to the acute loss of muscular tone due to the acute hemiparesis. This explains that the subluxation has not recurred a year after, while the hemiparesis has completely resolved.

  17. Recurrent dislocations of the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints in a halo vest fixator are resolved by backrest elevation in an elevation angle-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Go; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Tsukamoto, Nobuaki; Komiyama, Keisuke; Mizuta, Kazutaka; Onohara, Takayuki; Okano, Hirofumi; Hotokezaka, Shunsuke; Mae, Takao

    2015-10-01

    Halo fixation is now universally performed in the initial reduction and fixation of unstable upper cervical spine injuries; however, persistent high instability and recurrent dislocations of the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints after fixation are not well recognized. The aim was to describe persistent instability of traumatic dislocations of the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints after halo fixation and a useful method for preventing instability. This was a case report of a patient who survived traumatic dislocations of the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints. A 73-year-old woman diagnosed with dislocations of the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints along with multiple other injuries sustained in a traffic accident was included. After initial closed reduction and halo fixation, congruity of the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints was evaluated using, condylar gap, atlantodental interval, and flexion angulation of C1-C2 after the initial examination and before surgery. Changes in parameters 12 hours after halo fixation revealed re-dislocations and instability of the joints. Backrest elevation with halo fixation tended to reduce re-dislocations. Therefore, we carefully increased the backrest angle and measured the parameters at several angles of elevation within a range that did not affect vital signs to observe the effectiveness of elevation against re-dislocations. Elevation changed the parameters in an elevation angle-dependent manner, and these changes suggested that elevation was effective for reducing re-dislocation of both the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints during halo fixation. With no major complications, this method enabled us to maintain good congruity of the joints for approximately 2 weeks until posterior spinal fusion with internal fixation. Backrest elevation with halo fixation appears safe to be performed without any other devices and is beneficial for blocking re-dislocation of both the atlantooccipital and

  18. [Contralateral preventive screwing in proximal femoral epiphysiolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, I; Damsin, J P; Carlioz, H

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of bilaterality in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) ranges, in the literature, from 19 per cent to 80 per cent. The role of contralateral pinning is to prevent late slipping of the femoral epiphysis and its complications. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of routine preventive contralateral pinning in SCFE, and to evaluate its complications. We reviewed retrospectively 74 consecutive patients treated for unilateral SCFE by associated routine preventive contralateral pinning. The age at surgery ranged from 10 years and 6 months to 16 years and 10 months. The osteosynthesis was achieved by a single cannulated holothreaded screw with a cross grooved head, with or without the use of washers. An accidental pin penetration was noted in 4 cases. The epiphyseal position of the screw was satisfactory in 56 cases. The patient was allowed to walk the second or third day after surgery with the use of crutches. All our patients were reviewed after the end of squeletal growth. The follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 years and 8 months. The age at which the patient was last seen ranged from 15 years and 7 months to 27 years. Two major complications were noted: a femoral fracture at the level of the screw penetration in one case, and secondary slipping of the epiphysis after premature removal of the screw in two cases. The removal of the screw was considered to be very difficult in 10 cases. A relative overgrowth of the greater trochanter was noted in 8 cases, and was of no clinical significance. No infection was noted. At last follow-up, the shape of the femoral head and the function of the hip were normal in all cases except for one hip where severe coxa vara developed because of a secondary slip after premature removal of the screw. There is a lot of controversy about the real necessity of routine preventive contralateral osteosynthesis in SCFE. In our experience this surgery succeeded in reducing the incidence of secondary contralateral

  19. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  20. Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation and displaced ossiculum terminale epiphysiolysis treated with a halo device: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbom, Jonas; Kruse, Anders

    2016-07-01

    The horizontal synchondroses of the infant axis are biomechanical weak regions in trauma. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented with delayed atlantoaxial dislocation and displaced ossiculum terminale epiphysiolysis after a fall from a tree. The patient was treated with halo traction for 3 days after which a CT scan showed normal position of the C1/C2 joint, and an acceptable position of the ossiculum terminale whereafter a halo brace was applied. Because of delayed union on CT scans, the treatment was prolonged to a total of 21 weeks. At final follow-up 26 months after halo brace removal, the patient demonstrated normal range of movement of the neck on clinical examination and radiographs of the cervical spine including lateral flexion/extension radiographs showed no sign of instability of the atlantoaxial joint. Conservative treatment with a halo device versus surgical treatment is discussed.

  1. A method for removal of broken vertebral screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, R A

    1992-06-01

    A method for removal of a broken vertebral screw is described using an easily obtained 5/64-inch tungsten drill bit and a #1 screw extractor. It allows removal of the screw while retaining pedicle integrity and also minimizes potential nerve root compromise.

  2. Transoral anterior revision surgeries for basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation after posterior decompression: a retrospective study of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jincheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zenghui; Ai, Fuzhi; Yin, Qingshui

    2014-05-01

    To report the surgical techniques and clinical results of one-stage transoral anterior revision surgeries for basilar invagination (BI) with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) after posterior decompression. From September 2008 to June 2012, 30 patients (16 men and 14 women) who had BI with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) after posterior decompression underwent anterior revision surgeries in our department. Dynamic cervical radiographs, computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging were obtained pre- and postoperatively to assess the degree of AAD and ventral compression on the cervical cord. The JOA scoring system was used to evaluate the neurological status. The revision surgeries were conducted by anterior approach, using the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate (TARP) system. The revision surgeries were successfully performed in all of the cases. The average follow-up duration was 16 months (range 6-39 months). For all of the cases, complete or more than 50 % reduction and decompression of C1-C2 were achieved. The cervicomedullary angle was improved by an average of 32.9°. Bone fusion was achieved within 3-6 months in all of the cases. Clinical symptoms were alleviated in 29 patients (96.7 %) and stabilised in 1 patient (3.3 %). No patients have developed recurrent or progressive atlantoaxial instability so far. Anterior revision surgeries using the TARP system achieved reduction, decompression and fixation of C1-C2 in one stage for BI with IAAD. This technique offers an effective, simple and safe method for the revision of such cases after posterior decompression.

  3. Retro-odontoid ''ghost'' pseudotumours in atlanto-axial instability caused by rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenez, J. (Dept. of Neurology, Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Turoczy, L. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, National Inst. of Traumatology, Budapest (Hungary)); Barsi, P. (Dept. of Neurology, Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Veres, R. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, National Inst. of Traumatology, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-05-01

    Among 27 cases of marked atlanto-axial instability investigated in the last 10 years we found three with reducible dislocation, in which a cystic 'ghost' pseudo-tumours appeared behind the odontoid, maintaining cord compression even in the reduced position, thus influencing the strategy of operative treatment. The cervical spine and the craniocervical region were examined by conventional tomogrpaphy, myelotomography, CT, CT myelography (following melography), and recently in some cases with MRI. (orig./UWA)

  4. Traumatic Posterior Atlantoaxial Dislocation Without Fracture of Odontoid Process: A Case Report and Systematic Analysis of 19 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongcai; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the ideal treatment strategy for traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture of odontoid process. Case report and systematic analysis based on the methodology of evidence-based medicine. Level IV trauma center. Nineteen patients who suffered from traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture of odontoid process. Closed reduction, open reduction, internal fixation, and fusion. Neurologic status, range of motion, and radiographs for stability or fusion. Nineteen cases were included in this analysis. The mean age was 37.7 ± 13.8 years (range, 20-65 years). Sixteen cases (84%) were male, and 3 cases (16%) were female. Thirteen cases (68%) have a transient loss of consciousness. Ten cases (53%) presented no neurologic deficits. All 9 patients (47%) with neurologic deficits recovered without any residual deficits. Eleven dislocations (58%) were reduced by closed reduction, followed by fusion in 5 of them (45%), and the remaining 6 dislocations (55%) were treated conservatively. Eight dislocations (42%) were treated by open reduction and fusion. Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture of odontoid process usually presents without a severe neurologic deficit. Even if it presents with mild or transient neurologic deficit, it would be restored without any residual deficits. Closed reduction is usually successful and safe. The need for fusion after successful closed reduction depends on the integrity of the transverse ligament and the stability of cervical spine. If anatomic reduction is not achieved by closed reduction, open reduction and fusion should be performed.

  5. Upper cervical manipulation combined with mobilization for the treatment of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis: a report of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Hou, Shuxun; Wu, Wenwen; He, Xiaohua

    2011-02-01

    This study presents the outcomes of patients with idiopathic degenerative and posttraumatic atlantoaxial osteoarthritis who were treated with upper cervical manipulation in combination with mobilization device therapy. A retrospective case review of 10 patients who were diagnosed with either degenerative or posttraumatic atlantoaxial arthritis based on histories, clinical symptoms, physical examination, and radiographic presentations was conducted at a multidisciplinary integrated clinic that used both chiropractic and orthopedic services. All 10 patients selected for this series were treated with a combination of upper cervical manipulation and mechanical mobilization device therapy. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Assessments were measured using patients' self-report of pain using a numeric pain scale (NPS), physical examination, and radiologic changes. Average premanipulative NPS was 8.6 (range, 7-10), which was improved to a mean NPS of 2.6 (range, 0-7) at posttreatment follow-up. Mean rotation of C1-C2 at the end of treatment was improved from 28° (±3.1) to 52° (±4.5). Restoration of joint space was observed in 6 patients. Overall clinical improvement was described as "good" or "excellent" in about 80% of patients. Clinical improvements in pain and range of motion were seen in 80% and 90% of patients, respectively. Chiropractic management of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis yielded favorable outcomes for these 10 patients. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of a 1.5 mm butterfly locking plate for stabilization of atlantoaxial pathology in three toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickomeit, M; Alves, L; Pekarkova, M; Gorgas, D; Forterre, F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the use of a titanium 1.5 mm locking plate in the stabilization of atlantoaxial pathology in three toy breed dogs. Two dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation and another dog with an axial fracture, confirmed by diagnostic imaging, were stabilized via a ventral approach with a 1.5 mm titanium 5-hole locking butterfly-plate. Surgical reduction and stabilization were assessed by computed tomography and radiography after surgery. Follow-up evaluation for resolution of neurological signs and possible complications was performed in all three dogs. For long-term assessment, a telephone follow-up was performed. A considerable improvement of neurological signs occurred within two to four weeks after surgery. An excellent clinical outcome was identified in all three patients. Adequate stabilization and resolution of neurological signs in all three dogs was achieved. The stabilization of atlantoaxial surgical conditions in toy breeds with the 1.5 mm titanium 5-hole butterfly locking plate appears to be an effective means of surgical treatment.

  7. Clinical pedicle screw accuracy and deviation from planning in robot-guided spine surgery: robot-guided pedicle screw accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Joris David; Ende, Roy P.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Köchling, Matthias; Höss, Norbert

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was performed for 112 consecutive minimally invasive spinal surgery patients who underwent pedicular screw fixation in a community hospital setting. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical accuracy and deviation in screw positions in robot-assisted pedicle screw

  8. Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.

    1978-01-01

    Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

  9. [Clinical application of percutaneous iliosacral screws combined with pubic ramus screws in Tile B pelvic fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Fei; Lin, Kui-Ran; Zhao, Dai-Jie; Zhang, Song-Qin; Feng, Sheng-Kai; Li, Chen

    2017-03-25

    To investigate the application and effect of minimally invasive percutaneous anterior pelvic pubic ramus screw fixation in Tile B fractures. A retrospective review was conducted on 56 patients with posterior pelvic ring injury combined with fractures of anterior pubic and ischiadic ramus treated between May 2010 and August 2015, including 31 males and 25 females with an average age of 36.8 years old ranging from 35 to 65 years old. Based on the Tile classification, there were 13 cases of Tile B1 type, 28 cases of Tile B2 type and 15 cases of Tile B3 type. Among them, 26 patients were treated with sacroiliac screws combined with external fixation (external fixator group) and the other 30 patients underwent sacroiliac screw fixation combined with anterior screw fixation (pubic ramus screw group). Postoperative complications, postoperative ambulation time, fracture healing, blood loss, Majeed pelvic function score and visual analogue scale(VAS) were compared between two groups. Fifty-four patients were followed up from 3 to 24 months with a mean of 12 months. There were no significant difference in the peri-operative bleeding and operation time between two groups( P >0.05). The postoperative activity time and fracture healing time of pubic ramus screw group were shorter than those of the external fixator group, the differences were statistically significant( P safty treatment method to the Tile B pelvic fracture. It has advantages of early ambulation, relief of the pain and few complications.

  10. Research and application of absorbable screw in orthopedics: a clinical review comparing PDLLA screw with metal screw in patients with simple medial malleolus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Jin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of absorbable screw in medial malleolus fracture and discuss its clinical application in orthopedics. Methods: A total of 129 patients with simple medial malleolus fracture were studied. Among them, 64 patients were treated with poly-D, L-lactic acid (PDLLA absorbable screws, while the others were treated with metal screws. All the patients were followed up for 12-20 months (averaged 18.4 months and the therapeutic effect was evaluated ac-cording to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Soci-ety clinical rating systems. Results: In absorbable screw group, we obtained excel-lent and good results in 62 cases (96.88%; in steel screw group, 61 cases (93.85% achieved excellent and good results. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: In the treatment of malleolus fracture, absorbable screw can achieve the same result compared with metal screw fixation. Absorbable screw is preferred due to its advantages of safety, cleanliness and avoiding the removal procedure associated with metallic implants. Key words: Ankle; Bone screws; Fractures, bone

  11. Biomechanical analysis of an interference screw and a novel twist lock screw design for bone graft fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnis, S; Mullen, J; Asnis, P D; Sgaglione, N; LaPorta, T; Grande, D A; Chahine, N O

    2017-12-01

    Malpositioning of an anterior cruciate ligament graft during reconstruction can occur during screw fixation. The purpose of this study is to compare the fixation biomechanics of a conventional interference screw with a novel Twist Lock Screw, a rectangular shaped locking screw that is designed to address limitations of graft positioning and tensioning. Synthetic bone (10, 15, 20lb per cubic foot) were used simulating soft, moderate, and dense cancellous bone. Screw push-out and graft push-out tests were performed using conventional and twist lock screws. Maximum load and torque of insertion were measured. Max load measured in screw push out with twist lock screw was 64%, 60%, 57% of that measured with conventional screw in soft, moderate and dense material, respectively. Twist lock max load was 78% and 82% of that with conventional screw in soft and moderate densities. In the highest bone density, max loads were comparable in the two systems. Torque of insertion with twist lock was significantly lower than with conventional interference screw. Based on geometric consideration, the twist lock screw is expected to have 35% the holding power of a cylindrical screw. Yet, results indicate that holding power was greater than theoretical consideration, possibly due to lower friction and lower preloaded force. During graft push out in the densest material, comparable max loads were achieved with both systems, suggesting that fixation of higher density bone, which is observed in young athletes that require reconstruction, can be achieved with the twist lock screw. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is atlantoaxial instability the cause of "high" cervical ossified posterior longitudinal ligament? Analysis on the basis of surgical treatment of seven patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multilevel ossified posterior longitudinal ligaments (OPLLs, particularly those that extend into the high cervical region, are formidable and challenging surgical problems. The aim of the presentation is to analyze the results of surgical treatment of seven consecutive patients having high cervical OPLL with atlantoaxial and subaxial facetal fixations. Objectives: We analyze the role of atlantoaxial instability in the management of OPLL that extended into the high cervical region, above the lower border of C3 vertebra. Materials and Methods: All patients in the series were males. The age of the patients ranged 48-65 years. Clinical evaluation was done by a 5-point clinical grading scale described by us, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, and visual analog scale (VAS. All patients were identified to have relatively "subtle" but definite atlantoaxial facetal instability on sagittal imaging and the instability was confirmed by direct handling of the facets during surgery. All patients were treated by multilevel facetal fixation that included fixation of atlantoaxial facets. The aim of surgery was stabilization and arthrodesis of the involved spinal segments, as instability was considered to be the prime pathogenetic factor of OPLL. Spinal canal decompression, either by anterior corpectomy or discoidectomy or by posterior laminectomy or laminoplasty was not done and no attempts were made to remove the OPLL. At an average follow-up of 8 months, all patients showed progressive symptomatic recovery. Conclusion: Atlantoaxial facetal instability can be a cause or an association of high cervical OPLL. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial joint forms a remarkably effective method of treatment.

  13. Analysis of Modeling Parameters on Threaded Screws.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, Miquela S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vangoethem, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Assembled mechanical systems often contain a large number of bolted connections. These bolted connections (joints) are integral aspects of the load path for structural dynamics, and, consequently, are paramount for calculating a structure's stiffness and energy dissipation prop- erties. However, analysts have not found the optimal method to model appropriately these bolted joints. The complexity of the screw geometry cause issues when generating a mesh of the model. This paper will explore different approaches to model a screw-substrate connec- tion. Model parameters such as mesh continuity, node alignment, wedge angles, and thread to body element size ratios are examined. The results of this study will give analysts a better understanding of the influences of these parameters and will aide in finding the optimal method to model bolted connections.

  14. Screw as a Bladder Foreign Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the bladder are among the strangest differential diagnoses in the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and may be missed in initial medical evaluations. We present a 63-year-old man who was visited in the emergency department because of obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms. Two months earlier, he had a pelvic fracture due to motor vehicle accident and underwent an open reduction and internal fixation of the pubic rami and right acetabulum by an anterior ilioinguinal approach. After initial evaluation, an abdominopelvic X-ray revealed a 3 cm screw in the suprapubic area. He underwent urethrocystoscopy and a 3 cm screw was extracted by forceps.

  15. Calculating Characteristics of the Screws with Constant And Variable Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to creating a technique for calculating power characteristics of the screws with constant and variable step for the centrifugal pumps. The technique feature is that the reverse currents, which are observed in screws working at low flow, are numerically taken into account. The paper presents a diagram of the stream in the screw with flow to the network Q=0, and the static pressure of the screw in this mode is computed according to reverse current parameters. Maximum flow of screw is determined from the known formulas. When calculating the power characteristics and computing the overall efficiency of the screw, for the first time a volumetric efficiency of the screw is introduced. It is defined as a ratio between the flow into the network and the sum of the reverse current flows and a flow into the network. This approach allowed us to determine the efficiency of the screw over the entire range of flows.A comparison of experimental characteristics of the constant step screw with those of calculated by the proposed technique shows their good agreement.The technique is also used in calculating characteristics of the variable step screws. The variable step screw is considered as a screw consisting of two screws with a smooth transition of the blades from the inlet to the outlet. Screws in which the step at the inlet is less than that of at the outlet as well as screws with the step at the inlet being more than that of at the outlet were investigated. It is shown that a pressure of the screw with zero step and the value of the reverse currents depend only on the parameters of the input section of the screw, and the maximum flow, if the step at the inlet is more than the step at the outlet, is determined by the parameters of the output part of the screw. Otherwise, the maximum flow is determined a little bit differently.The paper compares experimental characteristics with characteristics calculated by the technique for variable step

  16. Accurate and Simple Screw Insertion Procedure With Patient-Specific Screw Guide Templates for Posterior C1-C2 Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Taku; Higashiyama, Naoki; Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi

    2017-03-15

    Prospective clinical trial of the screw insertion method for posterior C1-C2 fixation utilizing the patient-specific screw guide template technique. To evaluate the efficacy of this method for insertion of C1 lateral mass screws (LMS), C2 pedicle screws (PS), and C2 laminar screws (LS). Posterior C1LMS and C2PS fixation, also known as the Goel-Harms method, can achieve immediate rigid fixation and high fusion rate, but the screw insertion carries the risk of injury to neuronal and vascular structures. Dissection of venous plexus and C2 nerve root to confirm the insertion point of the C1LMS may also cause problems. We have developed an intraoperative screw guiding method using patient-specific laminar templates. Preoperative bone images of computed tomography (CT) were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D)/multiplanar imaging software to plan the trajectories of the screws. Plastic templates with screw guiding structures were created for each lamina using 3D design and printing technology. Three types of templates were made for precise multistep guidance, and all templates were specially designed to fit and lock on the lamina during the procedure. Surgery was performed using this patient-specific screw guide template system, and placement of the screws was postoperatively evaluated using CT. Twelve patients with C1-C2 instability were treated with a total of 48 screws (24 C1LMS, 20 C2PS, 4 C2LS). Intraoperatively, each template was found to exactly fit and lock on the lamina and screw insertion was completed successfully without dissection of the venous plexus and C2 nerve root. Postoperative CT showed no cortical violation by the screws, and mean deviation of the screws from the planned trajectories was 0.70 ± 0.42 mm. The multistep, patient-specific screw guide template system is useful for intraoperative screw navigation in posterior C1-C2 fixation. This simple and economical method can improve the accuracy of screw insertion, and reduce operation time and

  17. 2D and 3D assessment of sustentaculum tali screw fixation with or without Screw Targeting Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, A Siebe; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Vellekoop, Leonie; Knops, Simon P; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Verhofstad, Michael H J

    2017-10-26

    Precise placement of sustentaculum tali screw(s) is essential for restoring anatomy and biomechanical stability of the calcaneus. This can be challenging due to the small target area and presence of neurovascular structures on the medial side. The aim was to evaluate the precision of positioning of the subchondral posterior facet screw and processus anterior calcanei screw with or without a Screw Targeting Clamp. The secondary aim was to evaluate the added value of peroperative 3D imaging over 2D radiographs alone. Twenty Anubifix™ embalmed, human anatomic lower limb specimens were used. A subchondral posterior facet screw and a processus anterior calcanei screw were placed using an extended lateral approach. A senior orthopedic trauma surgeon experienced in calcaneal fracture surgery and a senior resident with limited experience in calcaneal surgery performed screw fixation in five specimens with and in five specimens without the clamp. 2D lateral and axial radiographs and a 3D recording were obtained postoperatively. Anatomical dissection was performed postoperatively as a diagnostic golden standard in order to obtain the factual screw positions. Blinded assessment of quality of fixation was performed by two surgeons. In 2D, eight screws were considered malpositioned when placed with the targeting device versus nine placed freehand. In 3D recordings, two additional screws were malpositioned in each group as compared to the golden standard. As opposed to the senior surgeon, the senior resident seemed to get the best results using the Screw Targeting Clamp (number of malpositioned screws using freehand was eight, and using the targeting clamp five). In nine out of 20 specimens 3D images provided additional information concerning target area and intra-articular placement. Based on the 3D assessment, five additional screws would have required repositioning. Except for one, all screw positions were rated equally after dissection when compared with 3D examinations

  18. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ABUTMENT SCREW LOOSENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Kirov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To establish the influence of various factors upon the loosening of abutment screw. Material and Methods: The current study has analyzed the factors leading to loosening of the abutment screws implant-supported restorations. 116 patients have been examined with 234 setting implants for a period of 2 to 9 years. Factors related to the planning of implant prostheses such as area of implantation, available bone volume have been registered, as well as those related to the functional loading of dental implants. The impact of their effect has been calculated. Results: Abutment screw loosening has been registered in 6.8% of the monitored cases. Regarding the type of connection between the implant and abutment a higher prevalence has been reported in connection with an internal octagon - 4.7% compared to the conical connection - 2.1%. It was found that the type of prosthesis, bruxism, cantilevers, non-balanced occlusion, crestal bone resorption and time of this complication setting in are factors of statistically significant influence. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the optimal choice and number of implant positions, the design of prosthesis, achieving optimal occlusion as well as reporting cases of bruxism, leading to functional overload of dental implants are of particular importance in order to avoid bio-mechanical long-term complications.

  20. In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshagh Morteza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. Materials and Methods : A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel. In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Results : Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds for every 4 mm of expansion. Conclusion : In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.

  1. Nontraumatic atlantoaxial subluxation (Grisel syndrome): a rare complication of otolaryngological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kathy K; White, David R; Weissler, Mark C; Pillsbury, Harold C

    2003-06-01

    At the conclusion of the report, the readers should be able to recognize the rare complication of adenotonsillectomy of Grisel syndrome, discuss its pathogenesis, and provide early, effective treatment. Analysis of the clinical presentation, plain radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a child with Grisel syndrome after adenotonsillectomy. Retrospective study of the case record and a review of the literature regarding the pathogenesis, treatment modalities, outcome, and prognosis after early and delayed treatment of Grisel syndrome. Pathophysiology of atlantoaxial subluxation revolves around the periodontoid vascular plexus that drains the posterosuperior pharyngeal region. Infectious and inflammatory emboli cause synovial engorgement, weakening paraspinal ligaments. Radiological studies play an important role in diagnosis. Treatment consists of cervical immobilization, muscle relaxants, analgesics, and antibiotics. Full resolution is expected with early conservative management. Failure to recognize the syndrome can lead to catastrophic results. Recognition of Grisel syndrome in addition to other rare complications of adenotonsillectomy requires a high index of suspicion. Early intervention is the critical factor for a positive outcome. However, delayed diagnosis is common and can result in catastrophic consequences, including neurological deficits, cosmetic deformity and, in rare instances, paralysis and death in the short term.

  2. Atlantoaxial dislocation adjacent to kyphotic deformity in a case of adult Larsen syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sushanta K; Deepak, Arsikere N; Salunke, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Kyphotic deformity is often seen in Larsen syndrome. However, its progress in adults is not clear. The adjacent level compression in these patients adds to the difficulty regarding the level that needs to be operated. A 56-year-old male presented with neck pain and spastic quadriplegia. Radiology showed kyphotic deformity (sequelae of Larsen syndrome) with atlantoaxial dislocation. Cord compression was apparent at both levels but careful evaluation showed C1-2 level compression and some compression below the kyphotic deformity. The kyphotic spine was already fused and the canal diameter was adequate. The adjacent level C1-2 was fused and he improved dramatically. Correction of long-standing kyphotic deformity may not be necessary, as it unlikely to progress because of its tendency to fuse naturally. Rather, the adjacent levels are likely to compress the cord due to excessive stress. A proper clinical history and a thorough radiological examination help the surgeon to make an appropriate decision. PMID:27217658

  3. Trauma of the upper cervical spine: focus on vertical atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissonnier, M L; Lazennec, J Y; Renoux, J; Rousseau, M A

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic ligament injuries of the craniovertebral junction, either isolated or associated with bone avulsion or fracture, often lead to death. These injuries are rare and underrated but are increasingly seen in emergency departments due to the improvement in initial on-scene management of accidents. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a specific lesion that was barely reported. Based on our experience, our goal was to systematically investigate the prevalence and prognosis of traumatic vertical AAD and discuss its management. All cervical CT scans performed at our institution between 2006 and 2010 for cervical trauma in adults were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the measurement of lateral mass index (LMI), defined as the gap between C1 and C2 articular facets, we identified three cases of traumatic vertical AAD in 300 CT scans. Their medical records were investigated. The incidence of vertical AAD was 1% in the exposed population. One case was an isolated vertical AAD and two were associated with a type II odontoid fracture. We report the first case in the literature of unilateral vertical AAD. Two patients died rapidly; the survivor was treated with occipitocervical fixation. Specific maneuvers were used for immobilization and reduction. This study found a not insignificant incidence of vertical AAD and a high lethality rate. LMI appears to be a relevant radiological criterion for this diagnosis, for which traction is contraindicated. Associated neurological or vascular damage should be suspected and investigated. In our experience, spinal surgical fixation is required because of major instability.

  4. Atlantoaxial dislocation adjacent to kyphotic deformity in a case of adult Larsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta K Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kyphotic deformity is often seen in Larsen syndrome. However, its progress in adults is not clear. The adjacent level compression in these patients adds to the difficulty regarding the level that needs to be operated. A 56-year-old male presented with neck pain and spastic quadriplegia. Radiology showed kyphotic deformity (sequelae of Larsen syndrome with atlantoaxial dislocation. Cord compression was apparent at both levels but careful evaluation showed C1-2 level compression and some compression below the kyphotic deformity. The kyphotic spine was already fused and the canal diameter was adequate. The adjacent level C1-2 was fused and he improved dramatically. Correction of long-standing kyphotic deformity may not be necessary, as it unlikely to progress because of its tendency to fuse naturally. Rather, the adjacent levels are likely to compress the cord due to excessive stress. A proper clinical history and a thorough radiological examination help the surgeon to make an appropriate decision.

  5. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Niknejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64 year old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions.

  6. MRI of atlantoaxial subluxation; Correlating with plain X-ray films and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Yuko; Nishi, Naoko; Saitoh, Yoko; Akimura, Rumiko; Sasaki, Taisuke; Yodono, Hiraku; Takekawa, Shoichi; Harata, Seikou; Sannohe, Akio (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-three patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (14 with rheumatoid arthritis, one each with rheumatoid arthritis and Arnold-Chiari malformation, os odontoideum, Klippel-Feil syndrome, trauma, and 5 with unknown causes) were evaluated with MRI. We used 0.5 T MRI unit (RESONA; Yokogawa Medical Systems, Japan) and 1.5 T MRI unit (SMT 150; Shimazu, Japan) with head or flexible coils. We compared the usefulness of MRI with those of plain X-ray films and CT regarding several points. MRI provided better image of the soft tissue mass around the odontoid process, compression of cord or subarachnoid space than plain X-ray films and CT. Atlanto-odontoid distance on MRI is nearer to that on plain X-ray films than CT. MRI is useful in analyzing the anatomic details such as transverse ligament, alar ligament, tectorial membrane and thickened synovium. Both MRI and CT provided detailed bony changes. High correlation was observed between MRI grading of cord compression and the degree of myelopathy. (author).

  7. Treatment of Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation With Botulinum Toxin Muscle Block and Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Slippage after reduction of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF is usually treated with repeated cervical traction and brace immobilization. To date, no data have been published on the management of muscle spasm during treatment. Here, we describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with AARF for 1 month who visited our hospital for treatment. During physical examination, spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle was noted. The patient was treated with manipulative reduction, and slippage after reduction was managed with botulinum spasticity block of the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles, and repeated manipulation. Cervical orthosis immobilization with a rehabilitation program of isometric contract–relax exercise for the neck was conducted for 3 months. The subject had full recovery from AARF at 1-year follow-up. This report demonstrates that, in selected cases of slippage after reduction from AARF, conservative management with manipulation under anesthesia is a good method, and the muscle components may play a crucial role in AARF.

  8. Intrapelvic Migration of the Lag Screw in Intramedullary Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal fixation with intramedullary devices has gained popularity for the treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures, which are common injuries in the elderly. The most common complications are lag screw cut out from the femoral head and femoral fracture at the distal tip of the nail. We report here a rare complication of postoperative lag screw migration into the pelvis with no trauma. The patient was subsequently treated with lag screw removal and revision surgery with total hip arthroplasty. This case demonstrated that optimal fracture reduction and positioning of the lag screw are the most important surgical steps for decreasing the risk of medial migration of the lag screw. Furthermore, to prevent complications, careful attention should be paid to subsequent steps such as precise insertion of the set screw.

  9. Facet violation with the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh D; Graziano, Gregory P; Vanderhave, Kelly L; Patel, Alpesh A; Gerling, Michael C

    2011-12-15

    Independent review and classification of therapeutic procedures performed on cadavers by surgeons blinded to purpose of study. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of facet violation with the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws. Improvements in percutaneous instrumentation and fluoroscopic imaging have led to a resurgence of percutaneous pedicle screw insertion in lumbar spine surgery in an attempt to minimize many of the complications associated with open techniques of pedicle screw placement. Rates of pedicle breech and neurologic injury resulting from percutaneous insertion are reportedly similar to those of open techniques. Postoperative pain because of impingement and instability is believed to result from violation of the facet capsule or facet joint. To the authors' knowledge, however, the rate of facet injury associated with the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws is unreported in the literature. Percutaneous pedicle screw placement was performed on 4 cadaveric specimens by 4 certified orthopedic surgeons who had clinical experience in the procedure and who were blinded to the study's purpose. The surgeons were instructed to place pedicle screws from L1-S1 using their preferred clinical techniques and a 5.5-mm screw system with which they were all familiar. All surgeons utilized 1 OEC C-arm for fluoroscopic imaging. After insertion, 2 independent spine surgeons each reviewed and classified the placement of all facet screws. A total of 48 screws were inserted and classified. The placement of 28 screws (58%) resulted in violation of facet articulation, with 8 of these screws being intra-articular. Interobserver reliability of the classification system was 100%. Percutaneous pedicle screw placement may result in a high rate of facet violation. Facet injury can be reliability classified and therefore, perhaps, easily prevented.

  10. Discrete element modelling of screw conveyor-mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Screw conveyors are used extensively in food, plastics, mineral processing, agriculture and processing industries for elevating and/or transporting bulk materials over short to medium distances. Despite their apparent simplicity in design, the transportation action is very complex for design and constructors have tended to rely heavily on empirical performance data. Screw conveyor performance is affected by its operating conditions (such as: the rotational speed of the screw, the inclination of the screw conveyor, and its volumetric fill level. In this paper, horizontal, several single-pitch screw conveyors with some geometry variations in screw blade was investigated for mixing action during transport, using Discrete Element Method (DEM. The influence of geometry modifications on the performance of screw conveyor was examined, different screw designs were compared, and the effects of geometrical variations on mixing performances during transport were explored. During the transport, the particle tumbles down from the top of the helix to the next free surface and that segment of the path was used for auxiliary mixing action. The particle path is dramatically increased with the addition of three complementary helices oriented in the same direction as screw blades (1458.2 mm compared to 397.6 mm in case of single flight screw conveyor Transport route enlarges to 1764.4 mm, when installing helices oriented in the opposite direction from screw blades. By addition of straight line blade to single flight screw conveyor, the longest particle path is being reached: 2061.6 mm [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31055

  11. Geometry of the articular facets of the lateral atlanto-axial joints in the case of occipitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A M; Skrzat, J; Ryniewicz, A; Ryniewicz, W; Walocha, J

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates if atlanto-occipital fusion affects the size and geometrical configuration of the articular facets of the atlanto-axial joint. Morphometric analysis was performed on the male adult skull, the occipital bone of which is assimilated with the first cervical vertebrae (the atlas). The perimeter, Feret's diameter, surface area, and circularity of the inferior articular fa-cets were measured. However, we did not observe significant bilateral differences in size of the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas compared to normal first cervical vertebrae. Geometrical conformation of the articular facets of the atlas and axis was assessed using a coordinate measuring machine (PMM - 12106, Leitz). The results obtained from this machine indicated that the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas presented asymmetrical orientation compared to the normal anatomy of the atlas. Hence, in the case of occipitalization, the gap between the articulating facets of the atlas and the axis was measured to be greater than in the normal atlanto-axial joint. Computer assisted tomography was applied to visualise the anatomical relationship between the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas and the corresponding facets located on the axis. In this case, radiographic examination revealed that the bilaterally articulating facets (inferior and superior) showed disproportion in their adjustment within the lateral atlanto-axial joints. Thus, we concluded that the fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone altered the geometry of the inferior articular facets of the atlas and influenced the orientation of the superior articular facets of the axis.

  12. Unilateral atlanto-axial fractures in near side impact collisions: An under recognized entity in cervical trauma

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    Andrew M Lozen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nearside impact collisions presenting with lateral mass fractures of atlanto-axial vertebrae contralateral to the impact site represents a rare fracture pattern that does not correlate with previously described injury mechanism. We describe our clinical experience with such fractures and propose a novel description of biomechanical forces involved in this unique injury pattern. The findings serve to alert clinicians to potentially serious consequences of associated unrecognized and untreated vertebral artery injury. Material and Methods : In addition to describing our clinical experience with three of these fractures, a review of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN database was conducted to further characterize such fractures. A descriptive analysis of three recent lateral mass fractures of the atlanto-axial segment is coupled with a review of the CIREN database. A total of 4047 collisions were screened for unilateral fractures of atlas or axis. Information was screened for side of impact and data regarding impact velocity, occupant injuries and use of restraints. Results: Following screening of unilateral fractures of atlas and axis for direct side impacts, 41 fractures were identified. Cross referencing these cases for occurrence contralateral to side of impact identified four such fractures. Including our recent clinical experience, seven injuries were identified: Five C1 and two C2 fractures. Velocity ranged from 14 to 43 km/h. Two associated vertebral artery injuries were identified. Conclusions: Complexity of the atlanto-axial complex is responsible for a sequence of events that define load application in side impacts. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of vertebral artery to injury under unique translational forces and supports the use or routine screening for vascular injury. Diminished sensitivity of plain radiography in identifying these injuries suggests that computerized tomography should be used in

  13. Photoelastic Analysis of the Vertebral Fixation System Using Different Screws

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    A. C. Shimano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare using photoelasticity, the internal stresses produced by two types of pedicular screws (Synthes™ with three different diameters, when submitted to different pullout strengths. The fringe orders were evaluated around the screws using the Tardy compensation method. In all the models analyzed, the shear stress was calculated. Results showed that, independently of the applied load, the screw of smaller outer diameter had larger values of shear stress. According to the analysis realized, we observed that the place of highest stress was in the last thread, close to the head of the screws.

  14. Studies on positive conveying in helically channeled single screw extruders

    OpenAIRE

    L. Pan; M. Y. Jia; Jin, Z. M.; Wang, K. J.; Xue, P

    2012-01-01

    A solids conveying theory called double-flight driving theory was proposed for helically channeled single screw extruders. In the extruder, screw channel rotates against static barrel channel, which behaves as cooperative embedded twin-screws for the positive conveying. They turn as two parallel arc plates, between which an arc-plate solid-plug was assumed. By analyzing the forces on the solid-plug in the barrel channel and screw channel, the boundary conditions when the solid-plug is waived ...

  15. Tai Chi pedicle screw placement for severe scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Wha; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Zhi; Cheng, Ching-Wei; Chen, Hung-Yi; Leng, Xiangyang; Chen, Yin-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Retrospective. To evaluate the clinical safety and accuracy of the Tai Chi ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) technique for placing pedicle screws, without intraoperative radiographic imaging, in severe scoliotic spines. The current techniques for pedicle screw placement have a number of drawbacks in cases of severe scoliosis, including difficulty or impossibility to use, delayed operative time, requiring the presence of trained personnel for the duration of the surgery, high cost issues, increased radiation exposure, and technical challenges. No previous report has described the application of the Tai Chi pedicle screw placement technique for severe scoliosis. Between 2006 and 2008, the cases of 39 consecutive patients with severe scoliosis (Cobb angle >100 degrees) who underwent posterior correction and stabilization (from T1 to L5) using 992 transpedicular screws were examined. The mean patient age was 25.7 (range, 11 to 63) years at the time of surgery. Pedicle screws were inserted by the Tai Chi technique using anatomic landmarks and preoperative radiographs as a guide. Tai Chi drilling fully utilizes the natural anatomic and physical characteristics of pedicles and unconstrained circular force. By nature, a drill bit driven by unconstrained circular force would migrate within the pedicle along a path of least resistance, advancing along the central cancellous bone tunnel spontaneously. Accurate drilling was achieved by following the nature and sticking to the hand sensation when the drill bit broke through the cancellous bone. The total time for inserting all pedicle screws in each case was recorded. Postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the position of the inserted pedicle screws. The screw position was classified as "in" or "out." The distance of perforation was measured. The average Cobb angle was 127 degrees (range, 100 to 153 degrees). The number of screws inserted at each level were as follows: T1 (n=10), T2 (n

  16. Posttraumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Dislocation in a Healthy Adult Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Giuseppe; Marcati, Eleonora; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation (AARD) is a rare complication in adults usually leading to pain, spinal cord injury, or death. Clinical and radiological diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. We report a rare case of posttraumatic AARD in a neurological intact 27-year-old male in which initial radiographic evaluation was negative. A computed tomography (CT) scan was promptly done because the patient showed a severe torticollis. Therefore, early diagnosis, immobilisation, and surgical fusion and arthrodesis were performed. After surgery, cervical pain and torticollis were resolved and the patient remained neurologically intact with a CT scan documentation of fusion at the 3-year followup. PMID:23227389

  17. Posttraumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Dislocation in a Healthy Adult Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation (AARD is a rare complication in adults usually leading to pain, spinal cord injury, or death. Clinical and radiological diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. We report a rare case of posttraumatic AARD in a neurological intact 27-year-old male in which initial radiographic evaluation was negative. A computed tomography (CT scan was promptly done because the patient showed a severe torticollis. Therefore, early diagnosis, immobilisation, and surgical fusion and arthrodesis were performed. After surgery, cervical pain and torticollis were resolved and the patient remained neurologically intact with a CT scan documentation of fusion at the 3-year followup.

  18. Finite element analysis of osteosynthesis screw fixation in the bone stock: an appropriate method for automatic screw modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The use of finite element analysis (FEA) has grown to a more and more important method in the field of biomedical engineering and biomechanics. Although increased computational performance allows new ways to generate more complex biomechanical models, in the area of orthopaedic surgery, solid modelling of screws and drill holes represent a limitation of their use for individual cases and an increase of computational costs. To cope with these requirements, different methods for numerical screw modelling have therefore been investigated to improve its application diversity. Exemplarily, fixation was performed for stabilization of a large segmental femoral bone defect by an osteosynthesis plate. Three different numerical modelling techniques for implant fixation were used in this study, i.e. without screw modelling, screws as solid elements as well as screws as structural elements. The latter one offers the possibility to implement automatically generated screws with variable geometry on arbitrary FE models. Structural screws were parametrically generated by a Python script for the automatic generation in the FE-software Abaqus/CAE on both a tetrahedral and a hexahedral meshed femur. Accuracy of the FE models was confirmed by experimental testing using a composite femur with a segmental defect and an identical osteosynthesis plate for primary stabilisation with titanium screws. Both deflection of the femoral head and the gap alteration were measured with an optical measuring system with an accuracy of approximately 3 µm. For both screw modelling techniques a sufficient correlation of approximately 95% between numerical and experimental analysis was found. Furthermore, using structural elements for screw modelling the computational time could be reduced by 85% using hexahedral elements instead of tetrahedral elements for femur meshing. The automatically generated screw modelling offers a realistic simulation of the osteosynthesis fixation with screws in the adjacent

  19. Finite element analysis of osteosynthesis screw fixation in the bone stock: an appropriate method for automatic screw modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wieding

    Full Text Available The use of finite element analysis (FEA has grown to a more and more important method in the field of biomedical engineering and biomechanics. Although increased computational performance allows new ways to generate more complex biomechanical models, in the area of orthopaedic surgery, solid modelling of screws and drill holes represent a limitation of their use for individual cases and an increase of computational costs. To cope with these requirements, different methods for numerical screw modelling have therefore been investigated to improve its application diversity. Exemplarily, fixation was performed for stabilization of a large segmental femoral bone defect by an osteosynthesis plate. Three different numerical modelling techniques for implant fixation were used in this study, i.e. without screw modelling, screws as solid elements as well as screws as structural elements. The latter one offers the possibility to implement automatically generated screws with variable geometry on arbitrary FE models. Structural screws were parametrically generated by a Python script for the automatic generation in the FE-software Abaqus/CAE on both a tetrahedral and a hexahedral meshed femur. Accuracy of the FE models was confirmed by experimental testing using a composite femur with a segmental defect and an identical osteosynthesis plate for primary stabilisation with titanium screws. Both deflection of the femoral head and the gap alteration were measured with an optical measuring system with an accuracy of approximately 3 µm. For both screw modelling techniques a sufficient correlation of approximately 95% between numerical and experimental analysis was found. Furthermore, using structural elements for screw modelling the computational time could be reduced by 85% using hexahedral elements instead of tetrahedral elements for femur meshing. The automatically generated screw modelling offers a realistic simulation of the osteosynthesis fixation with

  20. Biomechanical efficacy of monoaxial or polyaxial pedicle screw and additional screw insertion at the level of fracture, in lumbar burst fracture: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The addition of intermediate screws at the level of a burst fracture significantly increased the stability of short-segment pedicle screw fixation in both the MPS and PPS groups. However, in short-segment fixation group, monoaxial pedicle screw exhibited more stability in flexion and extension than the polyaxial pedicle screw.

  1. Stability analysis of craniovertebral junction fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttlitz, Christian M; Melcher, Robert P; Kleinstueck, Frank S; Harms, Juergen; Bradford, David S; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2004-03-01

    Craniovertebral arthrodesis in the upper cervical spine is challenging because of the high degree of mobility afforded by this region. A novel method for achieving atlantoaxial fixation with use of polyaxial screws inserted bilaterally into the lateral masses of C1 and transpedicularly into C2 with longitudinal rod connection has recently been introduced. The question remains as to whether this technique provides adequate stability when extended cephalad to include the occiput. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary stability afforded by this novel construct and compare its stability with the current standard of bilateral longitudinal plates combined with C1-C2 transarticular screws. We used ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric cervical spines (C0-C4). Pure moment loads were applied to the occiput, and C4 was constrained during the testing protocol. We evaluated four conditions: (1) intact, (2) destabilized by means of complete odontoidectomy, (3) stabilization with longitudinal plates with C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation, and (4) stabilization with a posterior rod system with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws. Rigid-body three-dimensional rotations were detected by stereophotogrammetry by means of a three-camera system with use of marker triads. The range of motion data (C0-C2) for each fixation scenario was calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed. Destabilization of the specimen significantly increased C0-C2 motion in both flexion-extension and lateral bending (p motion in the destabilized spine by over 90% for all motions tested (p < 0.05). No significant differences were detected between the two constructs in any of the three rotational planes. Both hardware systems provide equivalent construct stability in the immediate postoperative period when it is critical for the eventual success of a craniovertebral arthrodesis. On the basis of this work, we believe that the decision to use either construct should be determined by

  2. Wet granulation in a twin-screw extruder: implications of screw design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R; Sun, J

    2010-04-01

    Wet granulation in twin-screw extrusion machinery is an attractive technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals. The performance of this machinery is integrally tied to its screw design yet little fundamental knowledge exists in this emerging field for granulation to intelligently create, troubleshoot, and scale-up such processes. This study endeavored to systematically examine the influence of different commercially available screw elements on the flow behavior and granulation mechanics of lactose monohydrate saturated at low concentration (5-12%, w/w) with an aqueous polyvinyl-pyrrolidone binder. The results of the work showed that current screw elements could be successfully incorporated into designs for wet granulation, to tailor the particle size as well as particle shape of an agglomerate product. Conveying elements for cohesive granular flows were shown to perform similar to their use in polymer processing, as effective transport units with low specific mechanical energy input. The conveying zones provided little significant change to the particle size or shape, though the degree of channel fill in these sections had a significant influence on the more energy-intensive mixing elements studied. The standard mixing elements for this machine, kneading blocks and comb mixers, were found to be effective for generating coarser particles, though their mechanisms of granulation differed significantly. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  3. Magnesium alloys as a biomaterial for degradable craniofacial screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N; Almarza, Alejandro J

    2014-05-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as potential biomaterials for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available pure Mg and alloy AZ31 in vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg and AZ31 screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (∼40N). A finite-element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and this model can be used for future Mg alloy screw design. Then, Mg and AZ31 screws were implanted for 4, 8 and 12weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12weeks. Microcomputed tomography was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg/AZ31 degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histological analysis was also completed for the Mg and AZ31 at 12weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg and AZ31 screws. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31; however, bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg and AZ31 screws in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg alloys for craniofacial applications. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are pedicular screws and lateral hook screws more resistant against pullout than conventional spinal hooks and screws in terminal vertebral segment fixation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Sekik, Eyad; Karaarslan, Ahmet; Kızmazoğlu, Ceren; Havıtçıoğlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to biomechanically evaluate and compare four well-known types of terminal spinal constructs to a novel construct composed of a transpedicular screw with a lateral hook screw in terms of axial pullout strength in terminal vertebral segment fixation. Forty fresh-frozen lamb spines were divided into five groups with eight spines each. To stabilize the transverse process, a pedicular screw alone was used in group 1, a sublaminar hook alone was used in group 2, a sublaminar hook and a pedicular screw were used in group 3, claw hook alone was used in group 4, and a pedicular screw with a lateral hook screw was used in group 5. Biomechanical tests were performed using an axial compression testing machine and two noncontact camera systems. The mean pullout strength value was 927 N for group 1, 626 N for group 2, 988 N for group 3, 972 N for group 4, and 1194 N for group 5. Pullout strength values were statistically significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 compared to groups 1 and 2. There was no statistically significant difference between groups 3 and 4. Pullout strength value of group 5 was statistically significantly higher than the other groups. Pedicular screw with a lateral hook screw had the highest fixation value. Lateral hook screw may assist to prevent pullout in patients with pullout risk and hyperkyphosis and after hyperkyphosis surgery. Further prospective clinical studies are needed to show the benefit of such a construct in reducing the risk of distal instrumentation pullout.

  5. Closed manual reduction maneuver of atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation in pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbay, Atilla; Bilginer, Burçak; Akalan, Nejat

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterize the clinical and radiological features of type 1 and type 2 atlantoaxial rotatory dislocations (AARD) and to evaluate the outcome of the manual reduction maneuver for these types of dislocations in pediatric patients. This study considered 12 pediatric patients with AARD who were treated between January 2003 and March 2013. The diagnosis was established by clinical findings and 3D-CT. All of the patients were treated by closed manual reduction and then a cervical orthosis was performed. All of the patients were followed up at regular intervals. The causes of the AARD were trauma (91.67 %) and infection (8.33 %). The time between onset of symptoms and admission to the hospital ranged from 16 days to 6 months. In radiological evaluation, the mean rotational angulation of the patients was 30.58°. The 3D-CT examination showed that six patients (50 %) had type 1 dislocation and six patients (50 %) had type 2 dislocation. All of the patients were treated by closed manual reduction and then a cervical orthosis was performed. For 11 patients (91.67 %), dislocation was successfully reducted and maintained. One patient (8.33 %) underwent surgery, following recurrence of the second closed reduction maneuver. This preceding treatment method has successfully produced a fast and recurrence-free alignment on all except one of our patients. This technique can be a useful treatment alternative in carefully selected AARD cases. Future research is encouraged to improve decision making in the application of this treatment method and provide additional validation of the current findings.

  6. Endoscopic transoral excision of odontoid process in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: our experience of 34 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Madhariya, Satya Narayan; Parihar, Vijay Singh; Namdev, Hehant; Bhatele, Pushp Raj

    2013-05-01

    The endoscopic excision of the odontoid process in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) can be achieved by transnasal, transoral, and transcervical approaches. Endoscopic transoral technique has been found to be effective and safe. It avoids palatal splitting or prolonged retraction. We are reporting our experience of 34 cases. The relevant literature is reviewed. This was a prospective study of 34 patients treated during the past 5 years. Detailed history was taken and a thorough physical examination was made to record preoperative status. X-ray cervical spine lateral view (in neutral, flexion, and extension), anteroposterior (AP), and transoral view for the odontoid process were taken. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and postoperative CT scans were done in all cases. Postoperative status at 1, 6, and 12 months was recorded. Age ranged from 15 to 56 years. There were 22 male and 12 female patients. Symptom duration ranged from 6 to 18 months.Preoperatively, there were 26 and 8 patients in Ranawat grades 3A and 3B, respectively. Five patients had tenth cranial nerve paresis. There were 23, 10, and 1 cases of AAD, AAD with basilar invasion, and tuberculosis, respectively. Palatal splitting was not required in any of the cases. All patients improved after surgery. No deaths occurred. One patient had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, which stopped after external lumbar drainage. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 65 months. Endoscopic transoral odontoidectomy is a safe and effective alternative technique for odontoid excision. It can be performed in patients with small oral openings. Angled scopes improved exposure of clivus and palatal splitting was not required even in basilar invasion. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Spontaneous Ankylosis of Occiput to C2 following Closed Traction and Halo Treatment of Atlantoaxial Rotary Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Walter F.; Kim, Paul H.; Wiater, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report a case of spontaneous atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) presenting 9 months after onset in an 11-year-old boy. Methods This is a retrospective case report of spontaneous ankylosis of occiput to C2 following traction, manipulative reduction, and halo immobilization for refractory atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Results The patient underwent traction followed by close manual reduction and placement of halo immobilization after 6 months of severe spontaneous-onset AARF that had been refractory to chiropractic manipulation and physical therapy. Imaging demonstrated dislocation of the left C1–C2 facet joint and remodeling changes of the C2 superior facet prior to reduction, followed by near complete reduction of the dislocation after manipulation and halo placement. Symptoms and clinical appearance were satisfactorily improved and the halo vest was removed after 3 months. At late follow-up, computed tomography demonstrated complete bony ankylosis of the occiput to C2. The patient was found to be HLA B27-positive, but he had no family history of ankylosing spondyloarthropathy or other joint symptoms. The underlying reasons for spontaneous fusion of the occiput to C2 could include the traction, HLA-B27-related spondyloarthropathy, or arthropathic changes caused by traction, reduction, the inciting insult, or immobilization. Conclusion When discussing treatment of childhood refractory AARF by traction, closed manipulation, and halo immobilization, the possibility of developing “spontaneous” ankylosis needs to be considered. PMID:26131392

  8. Cadaveric study for ideal dorsal pedicle screw entry point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sonone

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the ideal pedicle entry point described here should be considered by surgeons during thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation. The notch at the base of the superior articular process will always remain constant and therefore an important anatomical landmark in guiding the screw toward the entry of the pedicle.

  9. Determination of the of rate cross slip of screw dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; Rasmussen, Torben; Leffers, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The rate for cross slip of screw dislocations during annihilation of screw dipoles in copper is determined by molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the rate is seen to obey an Arrhenius behavior in the investigated temperature range: 225-375 K. The activation energy...

  10. (TAD) in Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) Fixation of Femoral Fractures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femoral neck fractures commonly occur in elderly osteoporotic females, and include extra-capsular fractures (intertrochanteric and pertrochanteric), and usually treated with the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS). This is based on tension band principle which allows the screw to slide within the barrel to enable compression of the ...

  11. Technical Note: Comparative Effects of Screw Press for Honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey extraction is the removal of honey from the honey bearing combs. Different local methods of honey extraction, their strengths and weaknesses were discussed. A screw press was fabricated to facilitate honey extraction. The fabricated screw honey extractor is good alternative to the existing methods of extraction.

  12. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...

  13. Bone impregnated hip screw in femoral neck fracture Clinicoradiological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Sundar Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are treated either by internal fixation or arthroplasty. Usually, cannulated cancellous screws are used for osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur. The bone impregnated hip screw (BIHS is an alternative implant, where osteosyntehsis is required in femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: The BIHS is a hollow screw with thread diameter 8.3 mm, shank diameter 6.5 mm and wall thickness 2.2 mm and holes in the shaft of the screw with diameter 2 mm, placed in a staggered fashion. Biomechanical and animal experimental studies were done. Clinical study was done in two phases: Phase 1 in a group of volunteers, only with BIHS was used in a pilot study and phase 2 comparative study was done in a group with AO cannulated screws and the other group treated with BIHS. Results: In the phase 1 study, out of 15 patients, only one patient had delayed union. In phase 2, there were 78 patients, 44 patients in BIHS showed early union, compared to the rest 34 cases of AO cannulated screws Out of 44 patients with BIHS, 41 patients had an excellent outcome, 2 had nonunions and one implant breakage was noted. Conclusions: Bone impregnated hip screw has shown to provide early solid union since it incorporates the biomechanical principles and also increases the osteogenic potential and hence, found superior to conventional cannulated cancellous screw.

  14. Performance of Screw Compressor for Small-Capacity Helium Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashin, Masayuki; Matsubara, Katsumi; Izunaga, Yasushi

    A helium compressor is one of the important components comprising a cryogenic refrigerator. The purpous of this investigation is to develop a new small-capacity helium screw compressor. The performance of a single-stage compressor at high compression ratio and the cooling performance of the compressor are investigated. A semi-hermetic screw compressor with new profile screw rotors, with which high performance can be obtained, is utilized in this investigation. Lubricating oil is applied to cool the compressor motor and the compressed gas. As a result, an overall isentropic efficiency of 80% is obtained when helium is compressed to a compression ratio of 19.8 with a single-stage screw compressor. At the same time, the temperature of a compressor motor and discharge gas can be maintained at low levels. Therefore, it is found that a single-stage screw compressor can compress helium to high compression ratio.

  15. A four lumen screwing device for multiparametric brain monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, T H; Langemann, H; Gratzl, O; Mendelowitsch, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe multiparametric monitoring in severe head trauma using a new screwing device. Our aim was to create a screw which would make the implantation of the probes and thus multiparametric monitoring easier. The new screw allows us to implant 3 probes (microdialysis, Paratrend and an intracranial pressure device) through one burr hole. The screw has four channels, the fourth being for ventricular drainage. We monitored 13 patients with severe head trauma (GCS = 3-8) for up to 7 days. Brain tissue pO2, pCO2, pH, and temperature were measured on-line with the Paratrend 7 machine. The microdialytic parameters glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate were determined semi on-line with a CMA 600 enzymatic analyser. There were no complications in any of the patients that could be ascribed to the screw.

  16. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  17. Intermaxillary Fixation Screw Morbidity in Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florescu, Vlad-Andrei; Kofod, Thomas; Pinholt, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the morbidity of screws used for intermaxillary fixation (IMF) in the treatment of mandibular fractures. A review of the published data was also performed for a comparison of outcomes. Our hypothesis was that the use of screws...... for IMF of mandibular fractures would result in minimal morbidity. Materials and Methods Patients treated for mandibular fractures from 2007 to 2013, using screws for IMF, using the international diagnosis code for mandibular fracture, DS026, were anonymously selected (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial...... retrospective study have shown that the use of screws is a valid choice for IMF in mandibular fracture treatment with minimal morbidity. The 793 screws used for IMF resulted in a negligible amount of central and peripheral tooth root trauma. © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons...

  18. Lateral Movement of Screw Dislocations During Homoepitaxial Growth and Devices Yielded Therefrom Free of the Detrimental Effects of Screw Dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention is related to a method that enables and improves wide bandgap homoepitaxial layers to be grown on axis single crystal substrates, particularly SiC. The lateral positions of the screw dislocations in epitaxial layers are predetermined instead of random, which allows devices to be reproducibly patterned to avoid performance degrading crystal defects normally created by screw dislocations.

  19. Biomechanical Testing of Unstable Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Screw Fixation: Worth the Risk of a Second Screw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthew R; Farnsworth, Christine L; Doan, Joshua D; Glaser, Diana A; Scannell, Brian P; Edmonds, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    In a prior biomechanical study, 2-screw fixation of anatomically reduced slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) demonstrated marginally greater stability than single-screw fixation. However, the authors judged the benefits of a second screw to be minimal compared with the additional complication risk. A similar evaluation of fixation stability in unstable moderately displaced SCFE is performed. SCFE model: Transverse periosteal incision and epiphyseal separation from the metaphysis by leveraging in 25-month-old porcine femurs. Four groups were evaluated: pinned (3.5 mm cortex screws; Synthes, Monument, CO) with no displacement (1 screw=group N1; 2 screws=group N2) or with moderate posterior-inferior displacement of 50% of the epiphyseal diameter (1 screw=group D1; 2 screws=group D2). Biomechanical testing: Cyclical shear forces (40 to 200 N, 1 Hz) were applied along the physeal plane. Maximum load increased by 100 N every 500 cycles until failure (epiphyseal translation greater than one third the epiphyseal diameter). Force cycles (the sum of the maximum cycle loads) and number of cycles to failure were reported. A sample from each D1 and D2 had fixation problems (D1, D2: n=4; N1, N2: n=5). One D1 failed through the femoral neck; all others failed through the epiphysis. The data showed nonsignificant trends of greater force cycles for nondisplaced over displaced (P=0.13) and for 2 screws over 1 (P=0.19). Number of cycles to failure showed similar trends, with no significant differences between nondisplaced and displaced (P=0.10) and screw number (P=0.13). Force cycles were significantly greater in the N2 group than in the D1 group. A trend toward higher force cycles to failure in nondisplaced and 2-screw groups was observed. Higher force cycles correspond to greater physeal stability and thus decreased risk for subsequent displacement. Within displacement groups, adding a second screw did not significantly increase stability. Reduction of displaced SCFE also did

  20. A COMPARISON OF PULLOUT STRENGTH OF PEDICULAR SCREWS BETWEEN DIFFERENT METHODS OF SCREW INSERTION IN POSTERIOR FIXATION OF THORACIC SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Habib-Allah -Zadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPedicle screws provide rigid fixation for instabilities in the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. Anatomical consideration and potential risk of neurologic complications are the reasons to hesitate using pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. Twenty moulages similar to human vertebrae were instrumented with Cotrel-Dubousset (CD system pedicle screw by intratransverse process, extrapedicular and intrapedicular methods and pullout strength was measured. There was statistically significant difference between three techniques. By increasing the length of screw in any method, pullout strength increased. Average pullout strength in extrapedicular technique was less than two other techniques in dynamic state. The strongest technique for screw placement was intratransverse process technique. It seems that intratransverse process technique is safe for posterior fixation of spine.

  1. The biomechanics of pedicle screw augmentation with cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu L; Holmes, Christina; Goodwin, Courtney R; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2015-06-01

    A persistent challenge in spine surgery is improving screw fixation in patients with poor bone quality. Augmenting pedicle screw fixation with cement appears to be a promising approach. The purpose of this study was to survey the literature and assess the previous biomechanical studies on pedicle screw augmentation with cement to provide in-depth discussions of the biomechanical benefits of multiple parameters in screw augmentation. This is a systematic literature review. A search of Medline was performed, combining search terms of pedicle screw, augmentation, vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, polymethylmethacrylate, calcium phosphate, or calcium sulfate. The retrieved articles and their references were reviewed, and articles dealing with biomechanical testing were included in this article. Polymethylmethacrylate is an effective material for enhancing pedicle screw fixation in both osteoporosis and revision spine surgery models. Several other calcium ceramics also appear promising, although further work is needed in material development. Although fenestrated screw delivery appears to have some benefits, it results in similar screw fixation to prefilling the cement with a solid screw. Some differences in screw biomechanics were noted with varying cement volume and curing time, and some benefits from a kyphoplasty approach over a vertebroplasty approach have been noted. Additionally, in cadaveric models, cemented-augmented screws were able to be removed, albeit at higher extraction torques, without catastrophic damage to the vertebral body. However, there is a risk of cement extravasation leading to potentially neurological or cardiovascular complications with cement use. A major limitation of these reviewed studies is that biomechanical tests were generally performed at screw implantation or after a limited cyclic loading cycle; thus, the results may not be entirely clinically applicable. This is particularly true in the case of the bioactive calcium ceramics, as these

  2. Positioning of pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira Gavassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of poor positioning of pedicle screws inserted with the aid of intraoperative electromyographic stimulation in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS.METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including all patients undergoing surgical treatment for AIS, between March and December 2013 at a single institution. All procedures were monitored by electromyography of the inserted pedicle screws. The position of the screws was evaluated by assessment of postoperative CT and classified according to the specific AIS classification system.RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included in the study, totalizing 281 instrumented pedicles (17.5 per patient. No patient had any neurological deficit or complaint after surgery. In the axial plane, 195 screws were found in ideal position (69.4% while in the sagittal plane, 226 screws were found in ideal position (80.4%. Considering both the axial and the sagittal planes, it was observed that 59.1% (166/281 of the screws did not violate any cortical wall.CONCLUSION: The use of pedicle screws proved to be a safe technique without causing neurological damage in AIS surgeries, even with the occurrence of poor positioning of some implants.

  3. The effect of screw tunnels on the biomechanical stability of vertebral body after pedicle screws removal: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Xuan-Yin; Huang, Shan-Hu; Hua, Zi-Kai; Liu, Zhi-Li

    2017-06-01

    Posterior reduction and pedicle screw fixation is a widely used procedure for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae fractures. Usually, the pedicle screws would be removed after the fracture healing and screw tunnels would be left. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of screw tunnels on the biomechanical stability of the lumbar vertebral body after pedicle screws removal by finite element analysis (FEA). First, the CT values of the screw tunnels wall in the fractured vertebral bodies were measured in patients whose pedicle screws were removed, and they were then compared with the values of vertebral cortical bone. Second, an adult patient was included and the CT images of the lumbar spine were harvested. Three dimensional finite element models of the L1 vertebra with unilateral or bilateral screw tunnels were created based on the CT images. Different compressive loads were vertically acted on the models. The maximum loads which the models sustained and the distribution of the force in the different parts of the models were recorded and compared with each other. The CT values of the tunnels wall and vertebral cortical bone were 387.126±62.342 and 399.204±53.612, which were not statistically different (P=0.149). The models of three dimensional tetrahedral mesh finite element of normal lumbar 1 vertebra were established with good geometric similarity and realistic appearance. After given the compressive loads, the cortical bone was the first one to reach its ultimate stress. The maximum loads which the bilateral screw tunnels model, unilateral screw tunnel model, and normal vertebral model can sustain were 3.97 Mpa, 3.83 Mpa, and 3.78 Mpa, respectively. For the diameter of the screw tunnels, the model with a diameter of 6.5 mm could sustain the largest load. In addition, the stress distributing on the outside of the cortical bone gradually decreased as the thickness of the tunnel wall increased. Based on the FEA, pedicle screw tunnels would not decrease the

  4. Screw Compressor Characteristics for Helium Refrigeration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Creel, J.; Arenius, D.; Casagrande, F.; Howell, M.

    2008-03-01

    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss mechanisms, as well as to implement practical solutions.

  5. Surgical management of remote, isolated type II odontoid fractures with atlantoaxial dislocation causing cervical compressive myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirankumar, Markani V; Behari, Sanjay; Salunke, Pravin; Banerji, Deepu; Chhabra, Devendra K; Jain, Vijendra K

    2005-05-01

    The remote (more than 6 mo after injury) and isolated (not associated with any other cervical spinal fractures) Type II fractures of the odontoid (RI IIO) are unique in being inherently unstable and prone to malunion or nonunion, leading to cervical compressive myelopathy. The present study discusses their surgical management. Nineteen patients with RI IIO with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) causing compressive myelopathy were treated. Their preoperative disability was graded as Grade I: neurologically intact (presented with hyperreflexia and mild spasticity; n = 3); Grade II: independent with minor disability (n = 7); Grade III: partially dependent for daily needs (n = 6); and Grade IV: totally dependent (n = 3). They were classified as irreducible AAD caused by 1) malunited fracture of the odontoid (n = 2), 2) fixed anterolisthesis of the anterior arch of a C1-fractured odontoid complex (n = 3), and 3) fixed retrolisthesis of the anterior arch of a C1-fractured odontoid complex (n = 1); and reducible AAD caused by 1) mobile AAD (n = 11) and 2) hypermobile AAD (n = 2). The patients with irreducible AAD underwent a transoral decompression and posterior fusion; those with a malunited fracture underwent surgery immediately, whereas those with fixed anterolisthesis or retrolisthesis were initially placed in cervical traction. The patients with reducible AAD underwent a direct posterior fusion. In the patient with "hypermobile" AAD, a proper alignment of the fractured segment of the odontoid relative to the body of the axis in a neutral position of the neck was ensured before the posterior fusion was performed. At follow-up (mean, 15.37 +/- 9.67 mo), three patients in Grade I maintained their neurological status. Of the seven patients in Grade II and six in Grade III, five had improved to Grade I, and eight were in Grade II. The three patients in Grade IV improved to Grade I, II, and III, respectively. The patients with RI IIO may be divided into five groups on the

  6. Congenital paediatric atlantoaxial dislocation: clinico-radiological profile and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, A; Nair, A P; Das, K; Chunnilal, J S; Srivastava, A K; Sahu, R; Kumar, Raj

    2012-11-01

    Congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is the most common bony abnormality affecting the craniovertebral junction. The paediatric population has specific problems like preoperative diagnostic difficulties, precise neurological examination, radiological diagnosis, surgical problems including physical fitness to tolerate surgery (including problems of anaesthesia), technical difficulties in surgery and problems related to immobilization. A total of 229 consecutive paediatric (≤18 years) patients of AAD visited our centre from the period of January 1997 to August 2011. Twenty-nine cases were excluded from the study as these cases were diagnosed as CVJ tuberculosis, 31 cases were excluded as they were traumatic and the remaining 169 cases were retrospectively analysed. These patients were operated by a single experienced surgeon (the senior author) at the Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow. The preoperative and the postoperative clinical evaluation of the patient was done by the Kumar and Kalra myelopathic scoring system. The score was recorded in the preoperative period, at the time of discharge, at 3 months follow-up and at 6 months follow-up. Ninety-four were males and 75 were females. The age range was 4 to 18 years with mean age 9.96±3.78 years. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 120 months with mean follow-up being 39.03±13.38 months. One hundred five cases were of fixed/irreducible AAD, and 64 were cases of mobile/reducible AAD. Majority of these cases presented with features of pyramidal tract involvement, and 108 cases had compromised pulmonary function test. One hundred thirty-seven cases had improved outcome, and 18 cases were in the same grade in the postoperative period with only 14 cases either deteriorated or died. Congenital paediatric AAD are a different subset of abnormalities and have a satisfactory outcome. Preoperative evaluation must also include identification of various syndromes associated with paediatric AAD

  7. Congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: a dynamic process and role of facets in irreducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sharma, Manish; Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir Singh; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Khandelwal, Niranjan K

    2011-12-01

    Patient age at presentation with congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (CAAD) is variable. In addition, the factors determining irreducibility or reducibility in these patients remain unclear. The facets appear to contribute to the stability of the joint, albeit to an unknown extent. The objective of this paper was to study the characteristics of C1-2 facets in these patients and their bearing on the clinicoradiological presentation and management. Twenty-four patients with CAAD were studied. Fifteen patients had irreducible CAAD (IrAAD); 3 of these patients experienced incomplete reduction after traction, and 9 had reducible CAAD (RAAD). The images (CT scans of the craniovertebral junction in a neutral position) obtained in the parasagittal, axial, and coronal planes were studied with respect to the C1-2 facets and were compared with 32 control scans. The inferior sagittal and coronal C-1 facet angles were measured. The lordosis of the cervical spine (cervical spine angle calculated on radiographs of the cervical spine, neutral view) in these patients was compared with normal. The management of these patients is described. The inferior sagittal C-1 facet angle and at least one coronal angle in patients with IrAAD were significantly acute compared with those in patients with RAAD and the control population. A significant correlation was found between age and the acuteness of the inferior sagittal C-1 facet angle (that is, the more acute the angle, the earlier the presentation). The lordosis of the cervical spine was exaggerated in patients with IrAAD. Three patients with IrAAD who had smaller acute angles experienced a partial reduction after traction and a complete reduction after intraoperative distraction of the facets, thereby avoiding a transoral procedure. An inferior sagittal C-1 facet angle of more than 150° in the sagittal plane predicted reducibility. Drilling a wedge off the facet in the sagittal plane to make the inferior sagittal C-1 facet angle 150

  8. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting rolling screw mechanisms service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ball screw mechanisms (BSM and planetary roller screw mechanisms (PRSM belong to promising energy-saving mechanisms converting rotary motion into linear motion. To calculate and design these mechanisms the static and dynamic load capacities are used. In case a standard size of the mechanism to be designed is available in manufacturer’s catalog, the specified load capacities can be taken from the catalog, and if not, then the static load for the mechanism being designed can be calculated. To determine the dynamic load capacity, long-term and costly experimental studies are to be conducted. Therefore, the crucial task is to forecast the BSM and PRSM dynamic load capacity and, further, the service life of these mechanisms. As follows from the analysis of information provided in manufacturers’ catalogs, there were established correlative relationships of static and dynamic load capacities for BSM and PRSM with the parameters determining their standard sizes. Using these relationships and methods of power regression enable us to obtain empirical dependences linking the factor equal to the ratio of static load capacity to dynamic load capacity with parameters defining standard sizes of the mechanisms. To predict BSM and PRSM service lives the said ratio is calculated using the empirical dependence, static load capacity of the mechanism being designed is determined by means of calculation using known procedures, and then dynamic load capacity is determined as the quotient of static load capacity division by the said factor. Then, having determined the equivalent load acting on the mechanism being designed the service life value is predicted based on known procedures. The developed procedure for predicting dynamic load capacity and service life can be used for calculation of newly developed BSM and PRSM designs when determining reasonable parameters of these mechanisms and their parts. The article cites an example of forecasting PRSM service life

  10. Design of platform for removing screws from LCD display shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zimei; Qin, Qin; Dou, Jianfang; Zhu, Dongdong

    2017-11-01

    Removing the screws on the sides of a shield is a necessary process in disassembling a computer LCD display. To solve this issue, a platform has been designed for removing the screws on display shields. This platform uses virtual instrument technology with LabVIEW as the development environment to design the mechanical structure with the technologies of motion control, human-computer interaction and target recognition. This platform removes the screws from the sides of the shield of an LCD display mechanically thus to guarantee follow-up separation and recycle.

  11. Modelling of porous biomass pyrolysis in screw reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, A. A.; Kozlov, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a model of wood pyrolysis in a screw reactor as the first stage of the multistage gasification process. To prevent clinkering of particles and thermal inhomogeneities, screw-type transportation is used to transport fuel. In order to describe kinetics of pyrolysis and transport of volatiles within the wood particles and their transition to the gas phase we carried out the studies using a complex of synchronous thermal analysis. A detailed numerical modeling of pyrolyzer was performed with the Comsol Multiphysics software which makes it possible to optimize the design and operating parameters of the pyrolysis process in a screw reactor.

  12. A power recirculating test rig for ball screw endurance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual design of an innovative test rig for endurance tests of ball screws is presented in this paper. The test rig layout is based on the power recirculating principle and it also allows to overtake the main critical issues of the ball screw endurance tests. Among these there are the high power required to make the test, the lengthy duration of the same and the high loads between the screw and the frame that holds it. The article describes the test rig designed scheme, the kinematic expedients to be adopted in order to obtain the required performance and functionality and the sizing procedure to choose the actuation system.

  13. Noninvasive method for retrieval of broken dental implant abutment screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Reddy Gooty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants made of titanium for replacement of missing teeth are widely used because of ease of technical procedure and high success rate, but are not free of complications and may fail. Fracturing of the prosthetic screw continues to be a problem in restorative practice and great challenge to remove the fractured screw conservatively. This case report describes and demonstrates the technique of using an ultrasonic scaler in the removal of the fracture screw fragment as a noninvasive method without damaging the hex of implants.

  14. [Positions of Sustentacular Screw in Osteosynthesis of Calcaneal Fractures: Clinical and Radiographic Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazour, J; Křivohlávek, M; Lukáš, R

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to analyse the options for sustentacular screw placement in osteosynthesis of intra-articular fractures of the heel bone and to assess the effect of various screw positions on failure to maintain the reduction in the postoperative period. In addition, problems related to screw-end protrusion over the medial cortical bone or to screw penetration into the talocalcaneal joint were assessed. MATERIAL AND METHODS The group comprised 23 patients with a total of 25 intra-articular fractures of the heel bone treated by surgery. The procedure involved insertion of a sustentacular screw under fluoroscopic guidance. Post-operatively, screw position in the sustentacular fragment was evaluated on CT scans. During follow-up, attention was focused on the effect of screw placement on maintenance of fracture reduction, and clinical symptoms potentially associated with screw malposition were recorded. RESULTS All sustentacular screws were fixed sustentacular fragments. Seven screws (28%) were inserted in the talar shelf, seven (28%) were placed under and nine (36%) over the sustentaculum tali. Two screws penetrated into the talocalcaneal joint (8%). The end of a screw projecting by 2 mm over the medial wall of the calcaneus was found in 11 cases (44%). Two patients with screws penetrating into the talocalcaneal joint had problems. On the other hand, no clinical effect of a screw extending over the medial wall of the calcaneus was recorded. No significant association of screw position with late //delayed failure of fracture reduction was detected. DISCUSSION Although the ideal trajectory for a sustentacular screw have been defined using a model of the calcaneus, it is not easy to achieve optimal screw placement due to the complex anatomy of the calcaneus and limited possibilities of intra-operative control of screw insertion. Any sustentacular screw malposition is a potential risk factor, particularly if the screw has penetrated into the

  15. Preliminary Design on Screw Press Model of Palm Oil Extraction Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhammad; Salleh, S. M.; Nawi, I.; Ngali, Z.; Siswanto, W. A.; Yusup, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the screw press is to compress the fruit bunch between the main screw and travelling cones to extract the palm oil. Visual inspection, model development and simulation of screw press by using Solidworks 2016 and calculation of design properties were performed to support the investigation. The project aims to analyse different design of screw press which improves in reducing maintenance cost and increasing lifespan. The currently existing of screw press can endure between 500 to 900 hours and requires frequent maintenance. Different configurations have been tried in determination of best design properties in screw press. The results specify that screw press with tapered inner shaft has more total lifespan (hours) compared existing screw press. The selection of the screw press with tapered inner shaft can reduce maintenance cost and increase lifespan of the screw press.

  16. Measurement of Tip Apex Distance and Migration of Lag Screws and Novel Blade Screw Used for the Fixation of Intertrochanteric Fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Chieh-Szu Yang

    Full Text Available Fixation with a dynamic hip screw (DHS is one of the most common methods for stabilizing intertrochanteric fractures, except for unstable and reverse oblique fracture types. However, failure is often observed in osteoporotic patients whereby the lag screw effectively 'cuts out' through the weak bone. Novel anti-migration blades have been developed to be used in combination with a lag screw ('Blade Screw' to improve the fixation strength in osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures. An in-vitro biomechanical study and a retrospective clinical study were performed to evaluate lag screw migration when using the novel Blade Screw and a traditional threaded DHS. The biomechanical study showed both the Blade Screw and DHS displayed excessive migration (≥10 mm before reaching 20,000 loading cycles in mild osteoporotic bone, but overall migration of the Blade Screw was significantly less (p ≤ 0.03. Among the patients implanted with a Blade Screw in the clinical study, there was no significant variation in screw migration at 3-months follow-up (P = 0.12. However, the patient's implanted with a DHS did display significantly greater migration (P<0.001 than those implanted with the Blade Screw. In conclusion, the Blade Screw stabilizes the bone fragments during dynamic loading so as to provide significantly greater resistance to screw migration in patients with mild osteoporosis.

  17. Acute Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis in an Unusual Location: a Case Report in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Atlantoaxial Subluxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Uhm, Wan Sik [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is defined as inflammation of the longus colli muscle and is caused by the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals, which usually involves the superior oblique fibers of the longus colli muscle from C1-3. Diagnosis is usually made by detecting amorphous calcification and prevertebral soft tissue swelling on radiograph, CT or MRI. In this report, we introduce a case of this disease which was misdiagnosed as a retropharyngeal tuberculous abscess, or a muscle strain of the ongus colli muscle. No calcifications were visible along the vertical fibers of the longus colli muscle. The lesion was located anterior to the C4-5 disc, in a rheumatoid arthritis patient with atlantoaxial subluxation. Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle at this location in a rheumatoid arthritis patient has not been reported in the English literature.

  18. Characteristics of immediate and fatigue strength of a dual-threaded pedicle screw in cadaveric spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Lazaro, Bruno C R; Reyes, Phillip M; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Turner, Joseph L; Crandall, Dennis G; Crawford, Neil R

    2013-08-01

    Novel dual-threaded screws are configured with overlapping (doubled) threads only in the proximal shaft to improve proximal cortical fixation. Tests were run to determine whether dual-threaded pedicle screws improve pullout resistance and increase fatigue endurance compared with standard pedicle screws. In vitro strength and fatigue tests were performed in human cadaveric vertebrae and in polyurethane foam test blocks. Seventeen cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (14 pedicles) and 40 test sites in foam blocks were tested. Measures for comparison between standard and dual-threaded screws were bone mineral density (BMD), screw insertion torque, ultimate pullout force, peak load at cyclic failure, and pedicular side of first cyclic failure. For each vertebral sample, dual-threaded screws were inserted in one pedicle and single-threaded screws were inserted in the opposite pedicle while recording insertion torque. In seven vertebrae, axial pullout tests were performed. In 10 vertebrae, orthogonal loads were cycled at increasing peak values until toggle exceeded threshold for failure. Insertion torque and pullout force were also recorded for screws placed in foam blocks representing healthy or osteoporotic bone porosity. In bone, screw insertion torque was 183% greater with dual-threaded than with standard screws (pscrews pulled out at 93% of the force required to pull out dual-threaded screws (p=.42). Of 10 screws, five reached toggle failure first on the standard screw side, two screws failed first on the dual-threaded side, and three screws failed on both sides during the same round of cycling. In the high-porosity foam, screw insertion torque was 60% greater with the dual-threaded screw than with the standard screw (p=.005), but 14% less with the low-porosity foam (p=.07). Pullout force was 19% less with the dual-threaded screw than with the standard screw in the high-porosity foam (p=.115), but 6% greater with the dual-threaded screw in the low-porosity foam (p=.156

  19. Odontoid screw fixation for fresh and remote fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rao, Ganesh; Apfelbaum, Ronald I

    2005-01-01

    .... If a patient requires surgical treatment of an odontoid process fracture, the timing of treatment may affect fusion rates, particularly if direct anterior odontoid screw fixation is selected as the treatment method...

  20. Kinematic analysis of parallel manipulators by algebraic screw theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the fundamentals of screw theory concerned with velocity analysis of rigid-bodies, confirmed with detailed and explicit proofs. The author additionally investigates acceleration, jerk, and hyper-jerk analyses of rigid-bodies following the trend of the velocity analysis. With the material provided in this book, readers can extend the theory of screws into the kinematics of optional order of rigid-bodies. Illustrative examples and exercises to reinforce learning are provided. Of particular note, the kinematics of emblematic parallel manipulators, such as the Delta robot as well as the original Gough and Stewart platforms are revisited applying, in addition to the theory of screws, new methods devoted to simplify the corresponding forward-displacement analysis, a challenging task for most parallel manipulators. Stands as the only book devoted to the acceleration, jerk and hyper-jerk (snap) analyses of rigid-body by means of screw theory; Provides new strategies to simplify the forward kinematic...

  1. Centrifuging Step-Screw Conveyor for Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A variety of ISRU operations will utilize lunar regolith as feedstock. The proposed centrifuging step-screw conveyor concept will provide a well controlled robust,...

  2. Lumbar pedicle screw placement: Using only AP plane imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Placement of pedicle screws under fluoroscopic guidance using AP plane imaging alone with tactile guidance is safe, fast, and reliable. However, a good understanding of the radiographic landmarks is a prerequisite.

  3. Biomechanical efficacy of monoaxial or polyaxial pedicle screw and additional screw insertion at the level of fracture, in lumbar burst fracture: An experimental study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Hongwei; Li, Changqing; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Use of a pedicle screw at the level of fracture, also known as an intermediate screw, has been shown to improve clinical results in managing lumbar fracture, but there is a paucity of biomechanical...

  4. Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without related fractures of C1-C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior dislocation without any associated fracture of odontoid is exceedingly rare and only 11 cases have been reported so far. A 32 year old male presented with pain, stiffness in neck, difficulty in breathing, associated lacerations on face and deformity of mandible and inability to open mouth. His plain radiographs, CT scan, MRI demonstrated a posterior dislocation of the atlas with respect of axis and a flake of bone from odontoid process on CT scan. He was successfully managed by closed reduction, C1C2 lateral mars pedicular screw stabilization and inter facetal fusion with synthetic bone graft substitute. At 10 months followup he had lost only 30° cervical rotation. The case is reported in view of rarity and to discuss the treatment rationale.

  5. Posterior reduction and internal fixation with posterior cranial fossa cranioectomy decompression for Chiari malformation type Ⅰ with basilar invagination, atlantoaxial subluxation, and syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Peng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Chiari malformation type Ⅰ(CM-Ⅰ is one of the soft tissue anomalies in craniovertebral junction (CVJ. This kind of soft tissue anomaly usually develops with bone anomaly, such as atlantoaxial subluxation, basilar invagination, platybasia, C1 assimilation, etc. For these complex combined anomalies, the treatment remains unaddressed. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of posterior reduction and internal fixation with posterior cranial fossa cranioectomy decompression for Chiari malformation type Ⅰ with basilar invagination, atlantoaxial subluxation, and syringomyelia. Methods Patients with basilar invagination and atlantoaxial subluxation treated from July 2004 to September 2011 were reviewed. Including criterions were made to screen matching patients. Including patients were retrospectively analyzed on both clinical outcomes and radiographical results. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score was used to evaluate the clinical outcomes, while the syrinx maximum size was measured on transverse view of MRI T2 image. The results were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 using t -text. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. Results Fourteen patients met the including criterions, including 4 male patients and 10 female patients, with a mean age of 31.86 ± 11.36 (standard deviation, range: 17-51 years. Mean JOA score preoperatively of 14 patients was 13.07 ± 1.59 (standard deviation, while that was 15.57 ± 1.02 (standard deviation postoperatively (t = 9.946, P = 0.000. The mean syrinx size was (7.05 ± 1.98 mm (standard deviation, while that was (2.21 ± 1.91 mm (standard deviation postoperatively (t = 7.271, P = 0.000. There were no procedure-related morbidity or mortality happened. Conclusion Direct posterior reduction and internal fixation with posterior cranial fossa cranioectomy decompression can obviously improve the clinical outcomes and shrink syrinx for patients suffered from Chiari malformation typeⅠ with

  6. Screw driver: an unusual cause of cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Aremu, Abayomi Adeniran; Amao, Olusegun Adetunji; Awoleke, Jacob Olumuyiwa

    2011-01-01

    Non-missile penetrating spinal injuries are rare. Screw driver injury, more especially to the cervical spine, represents an even rarer subset. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case from West Africa of cervical spinal cord injury from a screw driver. A middle-aged man was stabbed from the back with a screw driver. He presented with right-sided C4 Brown-Sequard syndrome with the impaling object in situ. Cervical spine x-rays showed the screw driver to have gone into the spine between the spinous processes of C4 and C5, traversing the spinal canal and lodged in the anterior part of the C4/5 intervertebral disc space. C4 and C5 laminectomies were performed and the screw driver removed under vision. The object was found to have traversed the right side of the cervical spinal cord. The dural tear was repaired. He had some neurologic improvement initially, but later declined. He died from severe pulmonary complications 2 weeks postinjury. Screw driver represents an unusual cause of non-missile penetrating cervical spinal injury. Its neurological effects and complications of the cord injury lead to significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:22679187

  7. Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD, diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10-L2 were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation; b screw with medial cortical perforation; and c screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra ( P = 0.105, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD ( P = 0.901. Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.

  8. Fixation strength of biocomposite wedge interference screw in ACL reconstruction: effect of screw length and tunnel/screw ratio. A controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary stability of the graft is essential in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. An optimal method of fixation should be easy to insert and provide great resistance against pull-out forces. A controlled laboratory study was designed to test the primary stability of ACL tendinous grafts in the tibial tunnel. The correlation between resistance to traction forces and the cross-section and length of the screw was studied. Methods The tibial phase of ACL reconstruction was performed in forty porcine tibias using digital flexor tendons of the same animal. An 8 mm tunnel was drilled in each specimen and two looped tendons placed as graft. Specimens were divided in five groups according to the diameter and length of the screw used for fixation. Wedge interference screws were used. Longitudinal traction was applied to the graft with a Servohydraulic Fatigue System. Load and displacement were controlled and analyzed. Results The mean loads to failure for each group were 295,44 N (Group 1; 9 × 23 screw, 564,05 N (Group 2; 9 × 28, 614,95 N (Group 3; 9 × 35, 651,14 N (Group 4; 10 × 28 and 664,99 (Group 5; 10 × 35. No slippage of the graft was observed in groups 3, 4 and 5. There were significant differences in the load to failure among groups (ANOVA/P Conclusions Longer and wider interference screws provide better fixation in tibial ACL graft fixation. Short screws (23 mm do not achieve optimal fixation and should be implanted only with special requirements.

  9. Timing of PMMA cement application for pedicle screw augmentation affects screw anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoelz, Werner; Heinrichs, Christian Heinz; Schmidt, Sven; Piñera, Angel R; Tome-Bermejo, Felix; Duart, Javier M; Bauer, Marlies; Galovich, Luis Álvarez

    2017-04-03

    Cement augmentation is an established method to increase the pedicle screw (PS) anchorage in osteoporotic vertebral bodies. The ideal timing for augmentation when a reposition maneuver is necessary is controversial. While augmentation of the PS before reposition maneuver may increase the force applied it on the vertebrae, it bears the risk to impair PS anchorage, whereas augmenting the PS after the maneuver may restore this anchorage and prevent early screw loosening. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cement application timing on PS anchorage in the osteoporotic vertebral body. Ten lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) were used for testing. The left and right pedicles of each vertebra were instrumented with the same PS size and used for pairwise comparison of the two timing points for augmentation. For the reposition maneuver, the left PS was loaded axially under displacement control (2 × ±2 mm, 3 × ±6 mm, 3 × ±10 mm) to simulate a reposition maneuver. Subsequently, both PS were augmented with 2 ml PMMA cement. The same force as measured during the left PS maneuver was applied to the previously augmented right hand side PS [2 × F (±2 mm), 3 × F (±6 mm), 3 × F (±10 mm)]. Both PS were cyclically loaded with initial forces of +50 and -50 N, while the lower force was increased by 5 N every 100 cycles until total failure of the PS. The PS motion was measured with a 3D motion analysis system. After cyclic loading stress, X-rays were taken to identify the PS loosening mechanism. In comparison with PS augmented prior to the reposition maneuver, PS augmented after the reposition maneuver showed a significant higher number of load cycles until failure (5930 ± 1899 vs 3830 ± 1706, p = 0.015). The predominant loosening mechanism for PS augmented after the reposition maneuver was PS toggling with the attached cement cloud within the trabecular bone. While PS augmented prior to the reposition, maneuver showed a motion of

  10. Parafuso de massa lateral do atlas para fixação da coluna cervical superior: resultados cirúrgicos Tornillos de masa lateral del atlas para la fijación de la columna cervical superior: resultados quirúrgicos Lateral mass screws of the atlas for upper cervical spine fixation: surgical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ghizoni

    2011-01-01

    alcanzar la fusión y la estabilidad de la columna cervical, y con el conocimiento de la anatomía y de la técnica quirúrgica es posible obtenerse excelentes resultados.OBJECTIVE: To present the surgical results of a case series of upper cervical spine stabilization with the use of lateral mass screws of the atlas. METHODS: Retrospective review of the surgical results of patients submitted to upper cervical spine stabilization with the use of lateral mass screws of the atlas. RESULTS: Six patients were operated in the period between January 2009 to April 2010, four men and two women. There was no permanent morbidity or mortality in the presented series. The main cause of atlanto-axial instability was trauma and there was just one case of odontoid pathologic fracture from a prostate metastasis. Axis fixation was achieved with the use of three different screw techniques (pars, pedicle and laminar, with equal distribution among the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The use of lateral mass screws of the atlas is an important technique to achieve fusion and stability of the upper cervical spine and with the knowledge of the anatomy and of the surgical technique good results can be achieved.

  11. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  13. Prediction of Deformity Correction by Pedicle Screw Instrumentation in Thoracolumbar Scoliosis Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Nagura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    In segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, the relationship between the combinations of pedicle screw placements and the degree of deformity correction was investigated with a three-dimensional rigid body and spring model. The virtual thoracolumbar scoliosis (Cobb’s angle of 47 deg.) was corrected using six different combinations of pedicle-screw placements. As a result, better correction in the axial rotation was obtained with the pedicle screws placed at or close to the apical vertebra than with the screws placed close to the end vertebrae, while the correction in the frontal plane was better with the screws close to the end vertebrae than with those close to the apical vertebra. Additionally, two screws placed in the convex side above and below the apical vertebra provided better correction than two screws placed in the concave side. Effective deformity corrections of scoliosis were obtained with the proper combinations of pedicle screw placements.

  14. Development and Testing of X-Ray Imaging-Enhanced Poly-L-Lactide Bone Screws.

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    Wei-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Nanosized iron oxide particles exhibit osteogenic and radiopaque properties. Thus, iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles were incorporated into a biodegradable polymer (poly-L-lactic acid, PLLA to fabricate a composite bone screw. This multifunctional, 3D printable bone screw was detectable on X-ray examination. In this study, mechanical tests including three-point bending and ultimate tensile strength were conducted to evaluate the optimal ratio of iron oxide nanoparticles in the PLLA composite. Both injection molding and 3D printing techniques were used to fabricate the PLLA bone screws with and without the iron oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated screws were implanted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. Bone blocks containing the PLLA screws were resected 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the surrounding bone and the radiopacity of the iron-oxide-containing PLLA screws were evaluated. Our results indicated that addition of iron oxide nanoparticles at 30% significantly decreased the ultimate tensile stress properties of the PLLA screws. The screws with 20% iron oxide exhibited strong radiopacity compared to the screws fabricated without the iron oxide nanoparticles. Four weeks after surgery, the average bone volume of the iron oxide PLLA composite screws was significantly greater than that of PLLA screws without iron oxide. These findings suggested that biodegradable and X-ray detectable PLLA bone screws can be produced by incorporation of 20% iron oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, these screws had significantly greater osteogenic capability than the PLLA screws without iron oxide.

  15. In-vitro comparison of biomechanical efficiency of three cannulated screws for arthrodesis of the hindfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Wolfgang O; Reihsner, Roland; Trieb, Klemens; Wanivenhaus, Axel Hugo; Beer, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    Sufficient inter-fragmentary compression is helpful to achieve successful bony fusion in hindfoot arthrodesis using internal fixation by screws. Beside bone quality, the design of a screw influences inter-fragmentary compression. Compressive force is achievable for any kind of screw system; however, the primary deformation of the bone is different for the different screw systems. The work necessary to achieve compressive force for primary stability was measured for different screw systems and compared to an AO screw with washer. The compressive force was determined as a function of screw advancement for 3 different cannulated screw types (7.3-mm AO screw with and without washer, the 6.5-mm Herbert screw and the 6.5-mm Ideal Compression Screw (I.CO.S) using different synthetic bone density (0.16, 0.24, 0.48 g/ccm). Compressive force was measured indirectly, via screw tension measurement with strain gauges. We calculated the work to reach a limit of 60 N and the corresponding ratios to the value of the golden standard: I.CO.S (35.2%), Herbert (89.0%), AO screw without washer (116%). All screw systems yielded acceptable results but the ICOS did produce greater compression. The essential differences were the primary deformation of the bone before reaching the sufficient compressive force for primary stability.

  16. Biomechanical comparison of two locking plate constructs under cyclic torsional loading in a fracture gap model. Two screws versus three screws per fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmont, A; Palierne, S; Verset, M; Swider, P; Autefage, A

    2015-01-01

    The number of locking screws required per fragment during bridging osteosynthesis in the dog has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to assess the survival of two constructs, with either two or three screws per fragment, under cyclic torsion. Ten-hole 3.5 mm stainless steel locking compression plates (LCP) were fixed 1 mm away from bone surrogates with a fracture gap of 47 mm using two bicortical locking screws (10 constructs) or three bicortical locking screws (10 constructs) per fragment, placed at the extremities of each LCP. Constructs were tested in cyclic torsion (range: 0 to +0.218 rad) until failure. The 3-screws constructs (29.65 ± 1.89 N.m/rad) were stiffer than the 2-screws constructs (23.73 ± 0.87 N.m/rad), and therefore, were subjected to a greater torque during cycling (6.05 ± 1.33 N.m and 4.88 ± 1.14 N.m respectively). The 3-screws constructs sustained a significantly greater number of cycles (20,700 ± 5,735 cycles) than the 2-screws constructs (15,600 ± 5,272 cycles). In most constructs, failure was due to screw damage at the junction of the shaft and head. The remaining constructs failed because of screw head unlocking, sometimes due to incomplete seating of the screw head prior to testing. Omitting the third innermost locking screw during bridging osteosynthesis led to a reduction in fatigue life of 25% and construct stiffness by 20%. Fracture of the screws is believed to occur sequentially, starting with the innermost screw that initially shields the other screws.

  17. Influence of a Number of Screw and Nut Thread Starts of Planetary Roller-Screw Mechanisms on Their Main Parameters

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    D. S. Blinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements imposed to the modern mechanisms is economic feasibility. Therefore, considered as advanced are mechanical transducers of rotary motion to translational one, where rolling friction is mainly realized. They include planetary roller-screw mechanisms (PRSM.PRSM has a large variety of features. The design feature of PRSM is multiple starts of screw and nut thread. Rollers, as a rule, are made single-threaded. Number of screw thread starts which equals to a number of nut thread starts, has an effect on almost all performance characteristics of PRSM.This article covers comprehensively enough the influence of screw thread starts quantity on: kinematical parameters of PRSM, transfer function, mechanism radial dimensions, efficiency, power values, required characteristics of electric motor. As a result of investigations the graphs of dimensionless parameters vs. number of screw thread starts have been plotted, which are demonstrative and common.Being high enough the PRSM efficiency can vary within 20…25% and more. It depends on a variety of mechanism part parameters; primarily on geometrical ones, as well as on a number of screw thread starts. Previously the methods of PRSM design calculation consisted in determination of the main geometric parameters of mechanism parts, then in determination of mechanism efficiency. At that, it was not always possible to design the economically feasible PRSM structure.Introduction of a dimensionless value – a relation of PRSM part thread pitch to average screw thread diameter – contributed to successive plotting of the assemblage of curves for relation of efficiency to the indicated ratio and a number of screw thread starts. By taking this assemblage of curves as a basis, the method of economically feasible PRSM structures calculation and design was proposed.  The essence of the developed method lies in that selection or definition of a number of screw thread starts helps to

  18. Biomechanical comparison of the bioabsorbable RetroScrew system, BioScrew XtraLok with stress equalization tensioner, and 35-mm Delta Screws for tibialis anterior graft-tibial tunnel fixation in porcine tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haw Chong; Nyland, John; Nawab, Akbar; Burden, Robert; Caborn, David N M

    2005-07-01

    Achieving effective soft tissue graft-tibial tunnel fixation remains problematic. No differences would exist for tibialis anterior graft-tibial tunnel fixation when comparing the RetroScrew System (20-mm retrograde screw, 17-mm antegrade screw), the 35-mm tapered Delta Screw (manual tensioning), and the 35-mm BioScrew XtraLok (applied using an instrumented tensioner). Controlled laboratory study. Porcine tibiae (apparent bone mineral density, 1.3 g/cm(2)) and human tendon allografts were divided into 3 matched groups of 6 specimens each before cyclic (500 cycles, 50-250 N, 1 Hz) and load-to-failure (20 mm/min) tests. The BioScrew XtraLok (210.9 +/- 54.9 N/mm) and the 35-mm Delta Screw (224.3 +/- 43.7 N/mm) displayed superior stiffness to the RetroScrew System (114.1 +/- 23.3 N/mm) (P = .0004) during cyclic testing. The BioScrew XtraLok (1.0 +/- 0.2 mm) and the Delta Screw (0.9 +/- 0.2 mm) also displayed less displacement during cyclic testing than the RetroScrew System (1.8 +/- 0.5 mm) (P = .001). During load-to-failure testing, the BioScrew XtraLok withstood greater loads (1436.3 +/- 331.3 N) (P = .001) and displayed greater stiffness (323.6 +/- 56.8 N/mm) (P = .002) than the 35-mm Delta Screw (load, 1042.2 +/- 214.4 N; stiffness, 257.2 +/- 22.2 N/mm) and the RetroScrew System (load, 778.7 +/- 177.5 N; stiffness, 204.4 +/- 52.9 N/mm). The BioScrew XtraLok with instrumented tensioning displayed superior fixation to the RetroScrew System and the 35-mm Delta Screw applied with manual tensioning. The BioScrew XtraLok may provide superior soft tissue graft-tibial tunnel fixation. Further in vitro studies using human tissue and in vivo clinical studies are needed.

  19. Preoperative CT planning of screw length in arthroscopic Latarjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Alexandre; Gerometta, Antoine; Granger, Benjamin; Massein, Audrey; Casabianca, Laurent; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues; Loriaut, Philippe

    2016-08-25

    The Latarjet procedure has shown its efficiency for the treatment of anterior shoulder dislocation. The success of this technique depends on the correct positioning and fusion of the bone block. The length of the screws that fix the bone block can be a problem. They can increase the risk of non-union if too short or be the cause of nerve lesion or soft tissue discomfort if too long. Suprascapular nerve injuries have been reported during shoulder stabilisation surgery up to 6 % of the case. Bone block non-union depending on the series is found around 20 % of the cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of this CT preoperative planning to predict optimal screws length. The clinical importance of this study lies in the observation that it is the first study to evaluate the efficiency of CT planning to predict screw length. Inclusion criteria were patients with chronic anterior instability of the shoulder with an ISIS superior to 4. Exclusion criteria were patients with multidirectional instability or any previous surgery on this shoulder. Thirty patients were included prospectively, 11 of them went threw a CT planning, before their arthroscopic Latarjet. Optimal length of both screws was calculated, adding the size of the coracoid at 5 and 15 mm from the tip to the glenoid. Thirty-two-mm screws were used for patients without planning. On a post-operative CT scan with 3D reconstruction, the distance between the screw tip and the posterior cortex was measured. A one-sample Wilcoxon test was used to compare the distance from the tip of the screw to an acceptable positioning of ±2 mm from the posterior cortex. In the group without planning, screw 1 tended to differ from the acceptable positioning: mean 3.44 mm ± 3.13, med 2.9 mm, q1; q3 [0.6; 4.75] p = 0.1118, and screw 2 differed significantly from the acceptable position: mean 4.83 mm ± 4.11, med 3.7 mm, q1; q3 [1.7; 5.45] p = 0.0045. In the group with planning, position of

  20. The Study of Vibration Processes in Oil Flooded Screw Compressors

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    I. V. Filippov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration processes that accompany most of machines and mechanisms are of interest to the researcher, as a source of information about the technical condition and the nature of the business processes flow. Vibration-based diagnostics of oil flooded screw compressors allows us to estimate the deviation of their operation from the main mode in accordance with changing the settings of vibration processes.The oil flooded screw compressor transition from the main mode of operation to the abnormal one is accompanied by complex gas-dynamic phenomena i.e. the initial gaps and their decays. This leads to changes in the nature of vibration processes, prompting suggestions that there is a relationship to a change of vibration parameters and mode of compressor operation.Studies were conducted by combined method using an analytical calculation of the decay parameters of the initial discontinuity and an experimental one based on the measurement of acceleration on the body of the real oil flooded screw compressor. A virtually adequate reaction of the decay parameters of the initial gap and the peak values of vibration acceleration to the change of operation mode of oil flooded screw compressor has been received. The peak value of the vibration acceleration was selected by the method of Gating being time-coinciding with the beginning discharge phase of the oil flooded screw compressor, and therefore, with the decay time of the initial discontinuity.This indicates a large degree of hypothesis likelihood on an existing initial break in oil flooded screw compressor when operating in abnormal conditions. This work contains the study results of vibration processes and their relationship to the operating mode of the oil flooded screw compressor, which distinguish it from the other works studied vibration processes in reciprocating compressors. The vibration parameters control of operating oil flooded screw compressor allows us to create an automatic capacity control

  1. The effect of the screw pull-out rate on cortical screw purchase in unreamed and reamed synthetic long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdero, R; Shah, S; Mosli, M; Bougherara, H; Schemitsch, E H

    2010-01-01

    Orthopaedic fracture fixation constructs are typically mounted on to human long bones using cortical screws. Biomechanical studies are increasingly employing commercially available synthetic bones. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the screw pull-out rate and canal reaming on the cortical bone screw purchase strength in synthetic bone. Cylinders made of synthetic material were used to simulate unreamed (foam-filled) and reamed (hollow) human long bone with an outer diameter of 35 mm and a cortex wall thickness of 4 mm. The unreamed and reamed cylinders each had 56 sites along their lengths into which orthopaedic cortical bone screws (major diameter, 3.5 mm) were inserted to engage both cortices. The 16 test groups (n = 7 screw sites per group) had screws extracted at rates of 1 mm/ min, 5 mm/min, 10 mm/min, 20 mm/min, 30 mm/min, 40 mm/min, 50 mm/min, and 60 mm/ min. The failure force and failure stress increased and were highly linearly correlated with pull-out rate for reamed (R2 = 0.60 and 0.60), but not for unreamed (R2 = 0.00 and 0.00) specimens. The failure displacement and failure energy were relatively unchanged with pull-out rate, yielding low coefficients for unreamed (R2 = 0.25 and 0.00) and reamed (R2 = 0.27 and 0.00) groups. Unreamed versus reamed specimens were statistically different for failure force (p = 0.000) and stress (p = 0.000), but not for failure displacement (p = 0.297) and energy (0.054 < p < 1.000). This is the first study to perform an extensive investigation of the screw pull-out rate in unreamed and reamed synthetic long bone.

  2. Palliative dual iliac screw fixation for lumbosacral metastasis. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    Spinal fixation for destructive metastatic lesions at the lumbosacral junction is challenging because of the large and unique load-bearing characteristics present. In particular, caudal fixation is difficult in cases of sacral destruction because of insufficient S-1 pedicle screw anchorage. The authors describe their surgical technique for secure iliac screw placement and the clinical results obtained in five patients with metastatic spinal disease. All patients in this study underwent palliative operations with dual iliac screw fixation between April 1999 and October 2002, and the clinical and radiological findings were assessed. In all five patients, spinal metastases extended into the sacrum. The metastases were from renal cell carcinomas in two patients, lung cancer in two, and a paraganglioma in one patient. Postoperative follow-up periods ranged from 3 months to 6 years (mean 28.4 months). Preoperatively, four patients could not walk due to severe pain or neurological compromise. Postoperatively, all patients reported a reduction in pain and regained the ability to walk. Complications included one case of early wound infection. In the patients with long survival after the operation, there was one case of iliac screw loosening and one case of rod breakage. The dual iliac screw fixation technique provided sufficient immediate stability for destructive lumbosacral metastasis.

  3. Studies on positive conveying in helically channeled single screw extruders

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    L. Pan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A solids conveying theory called double-flight driving theory was proposed for helically channeled single screw extruders. In the extruder, screw channel rotates against static barrel channel, which behaves as cooperative embedded twin-screws for the positive conveying. They turn as two parallel arc plates, between which an arc-plate solid-plug was assumed. By analyzing the forces on the solid-plug in the barrel channel and screw channel, the boundary conditions when the solid-plug is waived of being cut off on barrel wall, were found to have the capacity of the positive conveying. Experimental data were obtained using a specially designed extruder with a helically channeled barrel in the feeding zone and a pressure-adjustable die. The effects of the barrel channel geometry and friction coefficients on the conveying mechanism were presented and compared with the experimental results. The simulations showed that the positive conveying could be achieved after optimizing extruder designs. Compared with the traditional design with the friction-drag conveying, the throughput is higher while screw torque and energy consumption are decreased. Besides, the design criteria of the barrel channel were also discussed.

  4. Screw dislocations in GaN grown by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliental-Weber, Z; Zakharov, D; Jasinski, J; O'Keefe, M A; Morkoc, H

    2004-02-01

    A study of screw dislocations in hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy (HVPE) template and molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) overlayers was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plan view and in cross section. It was observed that screw dislocations in the HVPE layers were decorated by small voids arranged along the screw axis. However, no voids were observed along screw dislocations in MBE overlayers. This was true both for MBE samples grown under Ga-lean and Ga-rich conditions. Dislocation core structures have been studied in these samples in the plan-view configuration. These experiments were supported by image simulation using the most recent models. A direct reconstruction of the phase and amplitude of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images was applied. It was shown that the core structures of screw dislocations in the studied materials were filled. The filed dislocation cores in an MBE samples were stoichiometric. However, in HVPE materials, single atomic columns show substantial differences in intensities and might indicate the possibility of higher Ga concentration in the core than in the matrix. A much lower intensity of the atomic column at the tip of the void was observed. This might suggest presence of lighter elements, such as oxygen, responsible for their formation.

  5. Freehand technique for C2 pedicle and pars screw placement: safe or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyarat, Prachya; Riew, K Daniel; Klawson, Benjamin T; Peters, Colleen; Lertudomphonwanit, Thamrong; Buchowski, Jacob M

    2017-11-16

    During placement of C2 pedicle and pars screws, intraoperative fluoroscopy is used so that neurovascular complications can be avoided, and screws can be placed in the proper position. However, this method is time consuming and increases radiation exposure. Furthermore, it does not guarantee completely safe and accurate screw placement. To evaluate the safety of the C2 pedicle and pars screw placement without fluoroscopic or other guidance methods. Retrospective comparative study. One hundred and ninety-eight patients who underwent placement of C2 pedicle or pars screws without any intraoperative radiographic guidance were included. Medical records and postoperative CT scans were evaluated. Clinical data were reviewed for intraoperative and postoperative complications. Accuracy of screw placement was evaluated with post-op CT scans using a previously published cortical-breach grading system (described by location and percentage of screw diameter over cortical edge (0 = none; grade I = pars screws were inserted by two experienced surgeons. There were no cases of CSF leakage and no neurovascular complications during screw placement. Postoperative CT scans were available for 76 patients, which included 52 pedicle and 87 pars screws. For cases with C2 pedicle screws, there were 12 breaches (23%); these included 10 screws with a grade I breach (19%), 1 screw with a grade II breach (2%), and 1 screw with a grade IV breach (2%). Lateral breaches occurred in 7 screws (13%), inferior breaches in 3 (6%), and superior breaches in 2 (4%). For cases with C2 pars screws, there were 10 breaches (11%); these included 6 screws with a grade I breach (7%), 2 screws with a grade II breach (2%), and 2 screws with a grade IV breach (2%). Medial breaches were found in 4 (5%), lateral breaches in 2 (2%), inferior breaches in 2 (2%), and superior breaches in 2 (2%). 2 of the cases with superior breaches (1 for pedicle and 1 for pars) experienced occipital neuralgia months after surgery

  6. Modified technique of transoral release in one-stage anterior release and posterior reduction for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haoning; Dong, Liang; Liu, Chuyin; Yi, Ping; Yang, Feng; Tang, Xiangsheng; Tan, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    One-stage anterior release and posterior reduction is one of the most effective methods for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. However, the criteria of appropriate tissue release for successful posterior reduction is yet to be confirmed. Hence, an assistant technique using the transoral approach to verify satisfactory release is required. To evaluate the efficacy of the modified technique of transoral release for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) with patients underwent one-stage anterior release and posterior reduction. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 23 consecutive patients diagnosed with IAAD free from bony union between the C1-C2 facet joints on reconstructive computed tomography scan underwent one-stage anterior release and posterior reduction after no response to 2 weeks of skull traction. During transoral release, an elevator was used as a lever repeatedly to confirm a 3-5 mm bilateral joint space between the lateral masses of the atlas and axis. The release was accomplished since a 3-5 mm joint space was achieved. After anterior release, posterior reduction and instrumented fusion were subsequently performed. All patients were observed for an average of 18 (range 6-50) months. Nineteen of 23 patients achieved complete reduction while four had an incomplete reduction. Significant differences in pre- and postoperative JOA scores and cervicomedullary angle (CMA) were found. Twenty-one patients presenting with myelopathy had a JOA score of 12.9 at final follow-up, improved from 7.8 before surgery. The mean CMA improved to 143.5° postoperatively from 101.8° preoperatively. Bony fusion was confirmed in all cases under radiologic assessment during follow-up; there were no instrument failures. The modified technique of transoral release provides appropriate criteria for anterior release, to achieve good posterior reduction without excessive tissue release or intraspinal manipulation, proving its value as an assistant technique in one

  7. Experimental determination of bone cortex holding power of orthopedic screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolliger Neto Raul

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical specimens of bone measuring 15 mm in diameter were obtained from the lateral cortical layer of 10 pairs of femurs and tibias. A central hole 3.2 mm in diameter was drilled in each specimen. The hole was tapped, and a 4.5 mm cortical bone screw was inserted from the outer surface. The montage was submitted to push-out testing up to a complete strip of the bone threads. The cortical thickness and rupture load were measured, and the shear stress was calculated. The results were grouped according to the bone segment from which the specimen was obtained. The results showed that bone cortex screw holding power is dependent on the bone site. Additionally, the diaphyseal cortical bone tissue is both quantitatively and qualitatively more resistant to screw extraction than the metaphyseal tissue.

  8. Odontoid screw fixation for fresh and remote fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ganesh; Apfelbaum, Ronald I

    2005-12-01

    Fractures of the odontoid process are common, accounting for 10% to 20% of all cervical spine fractures. Odontoid process fractures are classified into three types depending on the location of the fracture line. Various treatment options are available for each of these fracture types and include application of a cervical orthosis, direct anterior screw fixation, and posterior cervical fusion. If a patient requires surgical treatment of an odontoid process fracture, the timing of treatment may affect fusion rates, particularly if direct anterior odontoid screw fixation is selected as the treatment method. For example, type II odontoid fractures treated within the first 6 months of injury with direct anterior odontoid screw fixation have an 88% fusion rate, whereas fractures treated after 18 months have only a 25% fusion rate. In this review, we discuss the etiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment (including factors affecting fusion such as timing and fracture orientation) options available for odontoid process fractures.

  9. New concept single screw compressors and their manufacture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q.; Liu, F.; Chang, L.; Feng, C.; Peng, C.; Xie, J.; van den Broek, M.

    2017-08-01

    Single screw compressors were generally acknowledged as one of the nearly perfect machines by compressor researchers and manufacturers. However the rapid wear of the star-wheel in a single screw compressor during operation is a key reason why it hasn’t previously joined the main current compressors’ market. After more than ten years of effective work, the authors of this paper have proposed a new concept single screw compressor whose mesh-couple profile is enveloped with multi-column. Also a new design method and manufacture equipment for this kind of compressor have been developed and are described in this paper. A lot of prototype tests and a long period of industrial operations under full loading conditions have shown that the mesh-couple profiles of the new concept single compressors have excellent anti-wearness.

  10. Bioabsorbable metal screws in traumatology: A promising innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Biber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available MAGNEZIX® CS (Syntellix AG, Hanover, Germany is a bioabsorbable compression screw made of a magnesium alloy (MgYREZr. Currently there are only two clinical studies reporting on a limited number of elective patients who received this screw in a hallux valgus operation. We applied MAGNEZIX® CS for fixation of distal fibular fracture in a trauma patient who had sustained a bimalleolar fracture type AO 44-B2.3. Clinical course was uneventful, fracture healing occurred within three months. Follow-up X-rays showed a radiolucent area around the implant for some months, yet this radiolucent area had disappeared in the 17-months follow-up X-ray. Keywords: Magnesium, Bioabsorbable, Compression screw, Osteosynthesis, Ankle fracture

  11. Influence of bacterial colonization of the healing screws on peri-implant tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta D'Ercole

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The healing screws left in situ for a period of 90 days caused a peri-implant inflammation and the presence of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in the peri-implant sulcus, due to the plaque accumulation on screw surfaces.

  12. Correlation of bone equivalent mineral density to pull-out resistance of triangulated pedicle screw construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, A G; Nicodemus, C L; al-Hamdan, F A; Simmons, J W; Pope, M H

    1997-02-01

    Thirty single-pedicle and triangulated pedicle screws were subjected to pull-out tests until complete dislodgment was achieved. Peak load, displacement curves, angle of triangulation, and equivalent mineral density were recorded. Dual pedicle screw triangulation produced a 154.4% increase in peak pull-out strength compared with that of the single pedicle screw. Salvage triangulation (replacing failed screws with a triangulation construct) produced a 127.4% increase in peak strength over that of the single screw. Positive correlation was found between individual screw peak strength, bone mineral density, and displacement at peak load. Primary and salvage triangulation produced higher resistance to pull-out than a single pedicle screw, which reflects the potential, beneficial effect of using this technique. Triangulation, therefore, can be used as primary (prophylactic) technique to enhance pedicular screw pull-out during forceful vertebral manipulation.

  13. Torsional stability of interference screws derived from bovine bone - a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Jan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present biomechanical study, the torsional stability of different interference screws, made of bovine bone, was tested. Interference screws derived from bovine bone are a possible biological alternative to conventional metallic or bioabsorbable polymer interference screws. Methods In the first part of the study we compared the torsional stability of self-made 8 mm Interference screws (BC and a commercial 8 mm interference screw (Tutofix®. Furthermore, we compared the torsional strength of BC screws with different diameters. For screwing in, a hexagon head and an octagon head were tested. Maximum breaking torques in polymethyl methacrylate resin were recorded by means of an electronic torque screw driver. In the second part of the study the tibial part of a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft was fixed in porcine test specimens using an 8 mm BC screw and the maximum insertion torques were recorded. Each interference screw type was tested 5 times. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the different 8 mm interference screws (p = 0.121. Pairwise comparisons did not reveal statistically significant differences, either. It was demonstrated for the BC screws, that a larger screw diameter significantly leads to higher torsional stability (p = 9.779 × 10-5. Pairwise comparisons showed a significantly lower torsional stability for the 7 mm BC screw than for the 8 mm BC screw (p = 0.0079 and the 9 mm BC screw (p = 0.0079. Statistically significant differences between the 8 mm and the 9 mm BC screw could not be found (p = 0.15. During screwing into the tibial graft channel of the porcine specimens, insertion torques between 0.5 Nm and 3.2 Nm were recorded. In one case the hexagon head of a BC screw broke off during the last turn. Conclusions The BC screws show comparable torsional stability to Tutofix® interference screws. As expected the torsional strength of the screws increases significantly with the

  14. Comparison of fatigue strength of C2 pedicle screws, C2 pars screws, and a hybrid construct in C1-C2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Brian W; Shimer, Adam L; Chinthakunta, Suresh; Salloum, Kanaan; Ames, Christopher P; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Bucklen, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    A biomechanical study comparing the fatigue strength of different types of C2 fixation in a C1-C2 construct. To determine the pullout strength of a C2 pedicle screw and C2 pars screw after cyclical testing and differentiate differences in stiffness pre- and post-cyclical loading of 3 different C1-C2 fixations. Some surgeons use a short C2 pars screw in a C1-C2 construct, because it is less technically demanding and/or when the vertebral artery is high riding. Difference in construct stiffness between use of bilateral C2 pedicle screws, bilateral C2 pars screws, or a hybrid construct is unknown. Biomechanical testing was performed on 15 specimens. A bicortical C1 lateral mass screw was used in combination with 1 of 3 methods of C2 fixation: (1) bilateral long C2 pedicle screws (LL), (2) bilateral 14-mm C2 pars screws (SS), and (3) unilateral long C2 pedicle screw with a contralateral 14-mm C2 pars screw (LS). Each construct was subject to 16,000 cycles to simulate the immediate postoperative period. Changes in motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. This was followed by pullout testing. The ability to limit range of motion significantly decreased after cyclical testing in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation for all 3 groups. After loading, the LL and LS groups had less percentage of increase in motion in flexion-extension and lateral bending than the SS group. Overall, the average pullout strength of a pedicle screw was 92% stronger than a pars screw. C2 pedicle screws have twice the pullout strength of C2 pars screws after cyclical loading. In cases in which the anatomy limits placement of bilateral C2 pedicle screws, a construct using a unilateral C2 pedicle screw with a contralateral short pars screw is a viable option and compares favorably with a bilateral C2 pedicle screw construct. N/A.

  15. Patient's perception on mini-screws used for molar distalization

    OpenAIRE

    Blaya, Micéli Guimarães; Blaya, Diego Segatto; Guimarães, Magáli Beck; Hirakata, Luciana M.; Marquezan, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the perceived pain intensity, side effects and discomfort related to the moment of placement, during mechanics and removal of a mini-screw for molar distalization in orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 adult patients with a mean age of 30 years old, with class II malocclusion subdivision right or left. A mini-screw was installed in each patient, in the maxillary arch to provide a molar distalization. The p...

  16. Role of oxygen at screw dislocations in GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, I; Browning, N D

    2003-10-17

    Here we report the first direct atomic scale experimental observations of oxygen segregation to screw dislocations in GaN using correlated techniques in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The amount of oxygen present in each of the three distinct types of screw dislocation core is found to depend on the evolution and structure of the core, and thus gives rise to a varying concentration of localized states in the band gap. Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, the substitution of oxygen for nitrogen is observed to extend over many monolayers for the open core dislocation.

  17. A simple technique for on-table confirmation of locking screw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiographs to confirm whether or not the locking screws were correctly placed. Objective: We present a simple, inexpensive, fool-proof technique that confirms the correct placement of the locking screws on table thus allowing for revision at the time of surgery in case the locking screw missed the locking hole in the nail.

  18. The best location for proximal locking screw for femur interlocking nailing: A biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A Karaarslan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: According to our findings, there is twice as much difference in locking screw bending resistance between these two application levels. To avoid proximal locking screw deformation, locking screws should be placed in the level of the lesser trochanter in nailing of 1/3 middle and distal femur fractures.

  19. Fracture resistance of abutment screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone, and carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eduardo Aloisio Fleck; Villar, Cristina Cunha; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Fractured abutment screws may be replaced; however, sometimes, the screw cannot be removed and the entire implant must be surgically removed and replaced. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of abutment retention screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK, using an external hexagonal implant/UCLA-type abutment interface assembly. UCLA-type abutments were fixed to implants using titanium screws (Group 1), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) screws (Group 2), and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (Group 3). The assemblies were placed on a stainless steel holding apparatus to allow for loading at 45o off-axis, in a universal testing machine. A 200 N load (static load) was applied at the central point of the abutment extremity, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute, until failure. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's range test. The titanium screws had higher fracture resistance, compared with PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p> 0.05). Finally, visual analysis of the fractions revealed that 100% of them occurred at the neck of the abutment screw, suggesting that this is the weakest point of this unit. PEEK abutment screws have lower fracture resistance, in comparison with titanium abutment screws.

  20. Screw angulation affects bone-screw stresses and bone graft load sharing in anterior cervical corpectomy fusion with a rigid screw-plate construct: a finite element model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mozammil; Natarajan, Raghu N; Fayyazi, Amir H; Braaksma, Brian R; Andersson, Gunnar B J; An, Howard S

    2009-12-01

    Anterior corpectomy and reconstruction with bone graft and a rigid screw-plate construct is an established procedure for treatment of cervical neural compression. Despite its reliability in relieving symptoms, there is a high rate of construct failure, especially in multilevel cases. There has been no study evaluating the biomechanical effects of screw angulation on construct stability; this study investigates the C4-C7 construct stability and load-sharing properties among varying screw angulations in a rigid plate-screw construct. A finite element model of a two-level cervical corpectomy with static anterior cervical plate. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of an intact C3-T1 segment was developed and validated. From this intact model, a fusion model (two-level [C5, C6] anterior corpectomy) was developed and validated. After corpectomy, allograft interbody fusion with a rigid anterior screw-plate construct was created from C4 to C7. Five additional FE models were developed from the fusion model corresponding to five different combinations of screw angulations within the vertebral bodies (C4, C7): (0 degrees, 0 degrees), (5 degrees, 5 degrees), (10 degrees, 10 degrees), (15 degrees, 15 degrees), and (15 degrees, 0 degrees). The fifth fusion model was termed as a hybrid fusion model. The stability of a two-level corpectomy reconstruction is not dependent on the position of the screws. Despite the locked screw-plate interface, some degree of load sharing is transmitted to the graft. The load seen by the graft and the shear stress at the bone-screw junction is dependent on the angle of the screws with respect to the end plate. Higher stresses are seen at more divergent angles, particularly at the lower level of the construct. This study suggests that screw divergence from the end plates not only increases load transmission to the graft but also predisposes the screws to higher shear forces after corpectomy reconstruction. In particular, the inferior screw

  1. The changes of syrinx volume after posterior reduction and fixation of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation with syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Wang, Xingwen; Jian, Fengzeng; Zhang, Can; Wu, Hao; Chen, Zan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study focuses on the changes of the syrinx volume after posterior reduction and fixation of the basilar invagination (BI) and atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) with syringomyelia. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcome and syrinx volume changes in 71 patients with BI, AAD and syringomyelia treated with the posterior reduction and fixation technique. Clinical improvement was observed in 64 (90.1 %) patients postoperatively; 5 (7.0 %) were stable and 2 (2.8 %) were clinically aggravated. The postoperative Atlantodental interval became normal in 61 patients (86.0 %); showed reduction that was greater than 50 % but not complete in 5 patients (7.0 %); and reduction which was less than 50 % in 5 patients (7.0 %). The size of the syrinx was reduced postoperatively in 66 patients (93.0 %) while no change in the remaining 5 patients (7.0 %). Posterior reduction and fixation of the AAD and BI can effectively enlarge the foramen magnum, improve the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and consequently reduce the volume of the syrinx.

  2. Establishment and evaluation of a prognostic model for surgical outcomes of patients with atlanto-axial dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Yang, Baohui; Li, Haopeng

    2016-12-01

    Objective Atlanto-axial dislocations (AADs) are potentially fatal disturbances with high spinal cord compression syndrome. As surgeons are still uncertain who is likely to benefit the most from surgery, a prediction tool is needed to provide decision-making support. Methods The model was established based on 108 patients with AADs using multiple binary logistic regression analysis and evaluated by calibration plot and the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Bootstrapping was used for internal validation. Results The prognostic model can be expressed as: logit(P) = -2.2428 + 0.3168SCOPE - 2.0375SIGNAL, in which two covariates were accepted (SCORE represents the preoperative modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score and SIGNAL represents the intramedullary hyperintense T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with AUC = 0.8081). Conclusions The model was internally valid, and the preoperative mJOA score and hyperintense T2WI were important predictors of outcomes. The threshold was defined as logit(P) = -0.7282 according to the receiver operating curve (ROC).

  3. Influence of screw diameter and number on reduction loss after plating of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobetz, Herwig; Schueller, Michael; Tschegg, Elmar Karl; Heal, Clare; Redl, Heinz; Muller, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The current options for plate-screw combinations in volar locking distal radius plates used for the treatment of distal radius fractures are either plates with a single distal screw row or plates with multiple distal screw rows. Additionally, the screws themselves may have either fixed angle locking or polyaxial locking mechanisms. To date, there is no evidence or consensus regarding the optimal plate-screw combination. The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanical behaviour of different plate-screw combinations with respect to total distal screw number, number of distal screw rows and screw projection surface area of the most distal row. Biomechanical study to assess six different plating configurations in five different volar locking plate models in a Sawbone distal radius fracture model. The specimens were loaded with 800 Newton loads for 2.000 cycles at 1 Hz. After cyclic loading, load-to-failure testing was performed.   With cyclical testing, there was a significant and positive correlation between rigidity and a greater projection area of the most distal screws. Dorsal tilting was significantly more pronounced in plate models with a lesser projection area of the most distal screws and a smaller number of distal screws. With load-to-failure testing, there was a significant increase in rigidity with increasing screw projection area of the most distal row and total number of distal screws. Additional distal screw rows in volar locking distal radius plates might not add substantially to resistance against loss of reduction in the post-operative period. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. A biomechanical evaluation of three revision screw strategies for failed lateral mass fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostin, Richard A; Wu, Chunhui; Perra, Joseph H; Polly, David W; Akesen, Burak; Wroblewski, Jill M

    2008-10-15

    This is a biomechanical study evaluating 3 revision strategies for failed cervical lateral mass screw fixation. Our primary objective was to compare, following a Magerl trajectory screw failure in the subaxial cervical spine, the pullout strength of (1) a revision screw in the same trajectory, (2) a Roy-Camille trajectory, and (3) pedicle screw fixation. We additionally analyzed the contributions of bone mineral density (BMD) and peak insertional torque to pullout strength. Biomechanical studies that have examined revision screw strategies for lateral mass fixation have found either unsatisfactory or highly variable performance. Fresh frozen cervical spinal segments were harvested and BMD testing performed. Bicortical (3.5-mm Vertex) lateral mass screws were placed in a Magerl trajectory in 57 fresh frozen human subaxial cervical vertebrae. All screws were then stripped and revision screws (4.0-mm Vertex) placed using either the same screw path or conversion to a Roy-Camille trajectory. In line pullout testing was performed on each of the revision screws (57 in Magerl revision group, 55 in Roy-Camille). Specimens that had not fractured during testing then had cervical pedicle screws (3.5-mm Vertex) placed and in-line pullout testing repeated (64 pedicles were instrumented) The pullout failure results of the Magerl revision, Roy-Camille revision, and pedicle screw revision groups were compared. No significant difference was noted in insertional torque (0.28-Nm Magerl, 0.35 Nm Roy-Camille, P > 0.05) or pullout (382-N Magerl, 351 N Roy-Camille, P > 0.05) between the Magerl and Roy-Camille revision groups. Pedicle screw revision had greater pullout strength (566 N) when compared with either the Magerl (382 N) or Roy-Camille (351 N) revision groups (P advantage over placement of an increased diameter salvage screw using the same trajectory. Pedicle screw fixation provides superior biomechanical fixation but was associated with a significant breech rate.

  5. Resorbable screws for fixation of autologous bone grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; Bos, RRM; van der Wal, JE; Vissink, A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of resorbable screws made of poly (D,L-lactide) acid (PDLLA) for fixation of autologous bone grafts related to graft regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. In eight edentulous patients suffering from insufficient retention of their

  6. Modeling The Effect Of Extruder Screw Speed On The Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical properties of HDPE blown films produced at extruder screw speed between 15 and 40 rpm were measured experimentally. The results were modeled using LINEST function in Microsoft Excel. Two sets of multiple linear regression models were developed to predict impact failure weight and tenacity respectively.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular fractures. Date of Acceptance: 10-Aug- .... miniplates were based on physical specimens of W. Lorenz (Walter Lorenz .... placement via intraoral approach, the small size of the plate, and adaptability ...

  8. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in sagittal split ramus osteotomies. F Atik, MS Ataç1, A Özkan2, Y Kılınç1, M Arslan1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Science, Düzce University,. 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Düzce ...

  9. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  10. Residence time distribution in twin-screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.

    1992-01-01

    For the twin-screw extruders used in the food industry at short time high temperature processes the knowledge of their reactor properties is incomplete for mass- and heat flow. Therefore each process change such as: scale-up or product development requires a great number of measurements

  11. Atomistic simulations of jog migration on extended screw dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, T.; Leffers, T.; Pedersen, O.B.

    2001-01-01

    We have performed large-scale atomistic simulations of the migration of elementary jogs on dissociated screw dislocations in Cu. The local crystalline configurations, transition paths. effective masses. and migration barriers for the jogs are determined using an interatomic potential based...

  12. The harmonic oscillator in a space with a screw dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.

    2018-01-01

    We obtain the eigenvalues of the harmonic oscillator in a space with a screw dislocation. By means of a suitable nonorthogonal basis set with variational parameters we obtain sufficiently accurate eigenvalues for an arbitrary range of values of the space-deformation parameter. The energies exhibit a rich structure of avoided crossings in terms of such model parameter.

  13. Design of new silencers for a screw compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, L.J. van; Korst, H.J.C.; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two screw compressors used for the recycling of waste gas showed high vibration in the discharge piping. To mitigate the vibration problems new silencers had to be designed. A great challenge was the large variation in operating conditions, especially the variation of the molecular weight of the

  14. Internally geared screw machines with ported end plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. G.; Smith, I. K.; Stosic, N.

    2017-08-01

    It is possible to design cylindrical helical gearing profiles such that an externally lobed inner gear rotates inside an internally lobed outer gear while maintaining continuous lines of contact between the gears. The continuous contact between the inner and outer rotors (analogous to the main and gate rotors in a conventional screw machine) creates a series of separate working chambers. In this type of machine the rotors have parallel axes of rotation, and if both rotors are free to rotate about their own axes, these axes can be fixed in space. The use of ported end plates is proposed to control the period during which fluid is allowed to enter or leave the working chambers of the internally geared screw machine. As with conventional screw machines, these internally geared rotors can then be used to achieve compression or expansion of a trapped mass of fluid, and the machine geometry can be designed in order to optimise performance for particular applications. This paper describes the geometrical analysis of some simple rotor profiles and explores the effect on rotor torques for particular applications of this novel screw configuration.

  15. Cellulose and the twofold screw axis: Modeling and experimental arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystallography indicates that molecules in crystalline cellulose either have 2-fold screw-axis (21) symmetry or closely approximate it, leading to short distances between H4 and H1' across the glycosidic linkage. Therefore, modeling studies of cellobiose often show elevated energies for 21 structur...

  16. Use of locking plate and screws for triple pelvic osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Scott A; Bruecker, Ken A; Petersen, Steve W; Uddin, Nizam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and complication rate associated with use of a purpose-specific locking triple pelvic osteotomy (LTPO) plate. Prospective study. Dogs (n = 9; 15 hips). Physical examination, plain film radiography, computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and coxofemoral arthroscopy were performed before unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) or staged bilateral TPO. Radiographs were taken after each procedure and 3-5, 6-8, and ≥12 weeks postoperatively. Pelvic width was measured at 3 locations to evaluate pelvic canal narrowing. No screw loosening occurred. Complications occurred in only 1 hip (7%) where pullout of the locking plate-screw construct from the caudal iliac segment occurred because of a fracture of the cis-cortex; the dog made a full recovery after a salvage procedure. There was no significant reduction in the cranial pelvic width but a small reduction at the level of the acetabuli and ischiatic tuberosities was noted 3-5 weeks after the 2nd TPO. The LTPO plate was associated with a lower complication rate than previously reported for TPOs using Slocum canine pelvic osteotomy plates (CPOP) and warrants further investigation. Pullout of the caudal plate-screw construct is a complication specific to LTPO implants. Bicortical screw purchase is recommended to prevent fracture of the cis-cortex and implant pullout. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [5] However, the risk of causing a new fracture in the bone in using an osteotome for cutting the screw or plate can lead to a difficult situation especially in revision trauma surgery for non union or peri‑implant fracture. We herewith report a technique of removal of titanium plate in a case of peri‑implant fracture of the radius by.

  18. Effect of twin-screw extrusion parameters on mechanical hardness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the food industry, the following operations take place during raw-material processing by extrusion: gelation, extrusion cooking, molecular disintegration, sterilization, mixing, shaping and expansional drying. In the course of conveying the raw material through the extruder by screw-turning, mechanical energy is created ...

  19. Kinematics and Dynamic Evaluation of the Screw Conveyor of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the volumetric performance of a horizontal enclosed screw conveyor with reference to the influence of vortex motion. Vortex motion is as a result of internal friction, friction between the granular material and surface of the helical blade, and the variable helix angle of the helical flight from the outer ...

  20. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of different rigid fixation methods in mandibular angle fractures. Materials and Methods: Three different three-dimensional finite element models of the mandible were developed to simulate the biomechanical responses of titanium plates and screws.

  1. Pedicle screw versus hybrid posterior instrumentation for dystrophic neurofibromatosis scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jr-Yi; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Wen-Jer; Niu, Chi-Chien; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Lih-Huei

    2017-06-01

    Surgical management of severe rigid dystrophic neurofibromatosis (NF) scoliosis is technically demanding and produces varying results. In the current study, we reviewed 9 patients who were treated with combined anterior and posterior fusion using different types of instrumentation (i.e., pedicle screw, hybrid, and all-hook constructs) at our institute.Between September 2001 and July 2010 at our institute, 9 patients received anterior release/fusion and posterior fusion with different types of instrumentation, including a pedicle screw construct (n = 5), a hybrid construct (n = 3), and an all-hook construct (n = 1). We compared the pedicle screw group with the hybrid group to analyze differences in preoperative curve angle, immediate postoperative curve reduction, and latest follow-up curve angle.The mean follow-up period was 9.5 ± 2.9 years. The average age at surgery was 10.3 ± 3.9 years. The average preoperative scoliosis curve was 61.3 ± 13.8°, and the average preoperative kyphosis curve was 39.8 ± 19.7°. The average postoperative scoliosis and kyphosis curves were 29.7 ± 10.7° and 21.0 ± 13.5°, respectively. The most recent follow-up scoliosis and kyphosis curves were 43.4 ± 17.3° and 29.4 ± 18.9°, respectively. There was no significant difference in the correction angle (either coronal or sagittal), and there was no significant difference in the loss of sagittal correction between the pedicle screw construct group and the hybrid construct group. However, the patients who received pedicle screw constructs had significantly less loss of coronal correction (P instrumentation, one with an all-hook construct and the other with a hybrid construct, required surgical revision because of progression of deformity.It is difficult to intraoperatively correct dystrophic deformity and to maintain this correction after surgery. Combined anterior release/fusion and posterior fusion using either a pedicle screw

  2. Use of computational fluid dynamics simulations for design of a pretreatment screw conveyor reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, R Eric; Hanley, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations were employed to compare performance of various designs of a pretreatment screw conveyor reactor. The reactor consisted of a vertical screw used to create cross flow between the upward conveying solids and the downward flow of acid. Simulations were performed with the original screw design and a modified design in which the upper flights of the screw were removed. Results of the simulations show visually that the modified design provided favorable plug flow behavior within the reactor. Pressure drop across the length of the reactor without the upper screws in place was predicted by the simulations to be 5 vs 40 kPa for the original design.

  3. A technique for the management of screw access opening in cement-retained implant restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kermanshah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abutment screw loosening has been considered as a common complication of implant-supported dental prostheses. This problem is more important in cement-retained implant restorations due to their invisible position of the screw access opening. Case Report: This report describes a modified retrievability method for cement-retained implant restorations in the event of abutment screw loosening. The screw access opening was marked with ceramic stain and its porcelain surface was treated using hydrofluoric acid (HF, silane, and adhesive to bond to composite resin. Discussion: The present modified technique facilitates screw access opening and improves the bond between the porcelain and composite resin.

  4. Covering the screw-access holes of implant restorations in the esthetic zone: a clinical report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Saboury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screw-retained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention as well as retrievability, and obviate the risk of excessive sub-gingival cement commonly associated with cement retained implant restorations. Screw-retained restorations generally have screw access holes, which can compromise esthetics and weaken the porcelain around the holes. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of a separate overcasting crown design to cover the screw access hole of implant screw-retained prosthesis for improved esthetics.

  5. Direct anterior screw fixation for recent and remote odontoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, R I; Lonser, R R; Veres, R; Casey, A

    2000-10-01

    The management of odontoid fractures remains controversial. Only direct anterior screw fixation provides immediate stabilization of the spine and may preserve normal C1-2 motion. To determine the indications, optimum timing, and results for direct anterior screw fixation of odontoid fractures, the authors reviewed the surgery-related outcome of patients who underwent this procedure at two institutions. One hundred forty-seven consecutive patients (98 males and 49 females) who underwent direct anterior screw fixation for recent ( or = 18 months postinjury [18 patients]) Type II (138 cases) or III (nine cases) odontoid fractures at the University of Utah (94 patients) and National Institute of Traumatology in Budapest, Hungary (53 patients) between 1986 and 1998 are included in this study (mean follow up 18.2 months). Data obtained from clinical examination, review of hospital charts, operative findings, and imaging studies were used to analyze the surgery-related results in these patients. In patients with recent fractures there was an overall bone fusion rate of 88%. The rate of anatomical bone fusion of recent fractures was significantly (p or = 0.05) of age, sex, number of screws placed (one or two), and the degree or the direction of odontoid displacement. In patients with remote fractures there was a significantly lower rate of bone fusion (25%). Overall, complications related to hardware failure occurred in 14 patients (10%) and those unrelated to hardware in three patients (2%). There was one death (1%) related to surgery. Direct anterior screw fixation is an effective and safe method for treating recent odontoid fractures ( or = 18 months postinjury) a significantly lower rate of fusion is found when using this technique, and these patients are believed to be poor candidates for this procedure.

  6. A rationale method for evaluating unscrewing torque values of prosthetic screws in dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALIBA, Felipe Miguel; CARDOSO, Mayra; TORRES, Marcelo Ferreira; TEIXEIRA, Alexandre Carvalho; LOURENÇO, Eduardo José Veras; TELLES, Daniel de Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw. Material and methods Twenty hexagonal abutments without the hexagon in their bases were fixed with a screw to 20 dental implants. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 used titanium screws and Group 2 used titanium screws covered with a solid lubricant. A torque of 32 Ncm was applied to the screw and then a custom-made wrench was used for rotating the abutment counterclockwise, to loosen the screw. A digital torque meter recorded the torque required to loosen the abutment. Results There was a significant difference between the means of Group 1 (38.62±6.43 Ncm) and Group 2 (48.47±5.04 Ncm), with p=0.001. Conclusion This methodology was effective in comparing unscrewing torque values of the implant-abutment junction even with a limited sample size. It confirmed a previously shown significant difference between two types of screws. PMID:21437472

  7. A rationale method for evaluating unscrewing torque values of prosthetic screws in dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Miguel Saliba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty hexagonal abutments without the hexagon in their bases were fixed with a screw to 20 dental implants. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 used titanium screws and Group 2 used titanium screws covered with a solid lubricant. A torque of 32 Ncm was applied to the screw and then a custom-made wrench was used for rotating the abutment counterclockwise, to loosen the screw. A digital torque meter recorded the torque required to loosen the abutment. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the means of Group 1 (38.62±6.43 Ncm and Group 2 (48.47±5.04 Ncm, with p=0.001. CONCLUSION: This methodology was effective in comparing unscrewing torque values of the implant-abutment junction even with a limited sample size. It confirmed a previously shown significant difference between two types of screws.

  8. Evaluation of different screw fixation techniques and screw diameters in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: finite element analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindel, A; Demiralp, S; Colok, G

    2014-09-01

    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is used for correction of numerous congenital or acquired deformities in facial region. Several techniques have been developed and used to maintain fixation and stabilisation following SSRO application. In this study, the effects of the insertion formations of the bicortical different sized screws to the stresses generated by forces were studied. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis (FEA) and static linear analysis methods were used to investigate difference which would occur in terms of forces effecting onto the screws and transmitted to bone between different application areas. No significant difference was found between 1·5- and 2-mm screws used in SSRO fixation. Besides, it was found that 'inverted L' application was more successful compared to the others and that was followed by 'L' and 'linear' formations which showed close rates to each other. Few studies have investigated the effect of thickness and application areas of bicortical screws. This study was performed on both advanced and regressed jaws positions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Latarjet Fixation: A Cadaveric Biomechanical Study Evaluating Cortical and Cannulated Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Hasham M; Monroe, Emily J; Muriuki, Muturi; Verma, Rajat N; Marra, Guido; Saltzman, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    Attritional bone loss in patients with recurrent anterior instability has successfully been treated with a bone block procedure such as the Latarjet. It has not been previously demonstrated whether cortical or cancellous screws are superior when used for this procedure. To assess the strength of stainless steel cortical screws versus stainless steel cannulated cancellous screws in the Latarjet procedure. Controlled laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen matched-pair shoulder specimens were randomized into 2 separate fixation groups: (1) 3.5-mm stainless steel cortical screws and (2) 4.0-mm stainless steel partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissue and a 25% glenoid defect was created. The coracoid process was osteomized, placed at the site of the glenoid defect, and fixed in place with 2 parallel screws. All 10 specimens failed by screw cutout. Nine of 10 specimens failed by progressive displacement with an increased number of cycles. One specimen in the 4.0-mm screw group failed by catastrophic failure on initiation of the testing protocol. The 3.5-mm screws had a mean of 274 cycles (SD, ±171 cycles; range, 10-443 cycles) to failure. The 4.0-mm screws had a mean of 135 cycles (SD, ±141 cycles; range, 0-284 cycles) to failure. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 types of screws for cycles required to cause failure (P = .144). There was no statistically significant difference in energy or cycles to failure when comparing the stainless steel cortical screws versus partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Latarjet may be performed using cortical or cancellous screws without a clear advantage of either option.

  10. Interfragmentary compression profile of 4 headless bone screws: an analysis of the compression lost on reinsertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A W; Yew, Y T; Neo, P Y; Lau, C C; Tay, S C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the interfragmentary compression force generated by 4 different types of headless compression screws and to examine the effects of removal and reinsertion of the screw. We chose foot bones rather than scaphoids for the model because they were larger and would enable comparison of 2 screw designs in the same bone, thereby controlling for the effect of interspecimen variability. A transverse osteotomy was made in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric navicular bones and 10 medial cuneiforms. A load cell was used to measure compression between the 2 fragments as a screw was inserted across the fracture. Each bone was tested twice, with an Acutrak Mini (Acumed, Hillsboro, OR; n = 10) and an SBi AutoFIX screw (SBi, Morrisville, PA; n = 10) or an Extremifix (Osteomed, Addison, TX; n = 10) and a Barouk screw (Depuy, Warsaw, IN; n = 10). Compression was recorded at initial insertion and on removal and reinsertion of the screw twice to the same position. Compression was also measured after one additional full turn further than the initial position. The mean interfragmentary compression generated by the Acutrak Mini screw was greater than that of the SBi AutoFIX screw (96 N vs 22 N). There was a trend toward a greater mean compression generated by the Extremifix screw compared to the Barouk screw (85 N vs 22 N). There was a significant loss of compression upon removal and reinsertion of the screws. An additional full turn of the screw was able to re-establish a large proportion of the original compression. The compression forces achieved by headless screw systems appeared to vary according to the screw design, depth of insertion, and the quality of the bone. Substantial compression was lost if the screw was removed and replaced. Some screw designs appeared to require a greater depth of insertion to achieve effective compression, and the number of additional turns required to re-establish compression might vary according to the thread design. Surgeons should be aware of the

  11. Placement of thoracic transvertebral pedicle screws using 3D image guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottmeier, Eric W; Pirris, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Transvertebral pedicle screws have successfully been used in the treatment of high-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. An advantage of transvertebral pedicle screws is the purchase of multiple cortical layers across 2 vertebrae, thereby increasing the stability of the construct. At the lumbosacral junction, transvertebral pedicle screws have been shown to be biomechanically superior to pedicle screws placed in the standard fashion. The use of transvertebral pedicle screws at spinal levels other than L5-S1 has not been reported in the literature. The authors describe their technique of transvertebral pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine using 3D image guidance. Twelve patients undergoing cervicothoracic or thoracolumbar fusion had 41 thoracic transvertebral pedicle screws placed across 26 spinal levels using this technique. Indications for placement of thoracic transvertebral pedicle screws in earlier cases included osteoporosis and pedicle screw salvage. However, in subsequent cases screws were placed in patients undergoing multilevel thoracolumbar fusion without osteoporosis, particularly near the top of the construct. Image guidance in this study was accomplished using the Medtronic StealthStation S7 image guidance system used in conjunction with the O-arm. All patients were slated to undergo postoperative CT scanning at approximately 4-6 months for fusion assessment, which also allowed for grading of the transvertebral pedicle screws. No thoracic transvertebral pedicle screw placed in this study had to be replaced or repositioned after intraoperative review of the cone beam CT scans. Review of the postoperative CT scans revealed all transvertebral screws to be across the superior disc space with the tips in the superior vertebral body. Six pedicle screws were placed using the in-out-in technique in patients with narrow pedicles, leaving 35 screws that underwent breach analysis. No pedicle breach was noted in 34 of 35 screws. A Grade 1 (image-guided placement

  12. A Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Constructs for Metacarpal Spiral Fracture Fixation in a Cadaver Model: 2 Large Screws Versus 3 Small Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eu-Jin Cheah, Andre; Behn, Anthony W; Comer, Garet; Yao, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Surgeons confronted with a long spiral metacarpal fracture may choose to fix it solely with lagged screws. A biomechanical analysis of a metacarpal spiral fracture model was performed to determine whether 3 1.5-mm screws or 2 2.0-mm screws provided more stability during bending and torsional loading. Second and third metacarpals were harvested from 12 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric hands and spiral fractures were created. One specimen from each matched pair was fixed with 2 2.0-mm lagged screws whereas the other was fixed with 3 1.5-mm lagged screws. Nine pairs underwent combined cyclic cantilever bending and axial compressive loading followed by loading to failure. Nine additional pairs were subjected to cyclic external rotation while under a constant axial compressive load and were subsequently externally rotated to failure under a constant axial compressive load. Paired t tests were used to compare cyclic creep, stiffness, displacement, rotation, and peak load levels. Average failure torque for all specimens was 7.2 ± 1.7 Nm. In cyclic torsional testing, the group with 2 screws exhibited significantly less rotational creep than the one with 3 screws. A single specimen in the group with 2 screws failed before cyclic bending tests were completed. No other significant differences were found between test groups during torsional or bending tests. Both constructs were biomechanically similar except that the construct with 2 screws displayed significantly less loosening during torsional cyclic loading, although the difference was small and may not be clinically meaningful. Because we found no obvious biomechanical advantage to using 3 1.5-mm lagged screws to fix long spiral metacarpal fractures, the time efficiency and decreased implant costs of using 2-2.0 mm lagged screws may be preferred. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Transpedicular Screw Design on Its Performance in Vertebral Bone Under Tensile Loads: A Parametric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaly, Ron N; Bader, Dan L

    2016-12-01

    A biomechanical study using bovine thoracolumbar spines. To study investigated whether thread design parameters aimed at altering the state of stress at the screw-bone interface increase the screw's holding power. Internal spinal fixators utilizing transpedicular screw fixation are used to achieve early stabilization of the injured spine in a range of clinical conditions. Despite advances in the design of internal spinal fixation systems, implant loosening, and catastrophic failures at the screw-bone interface remains a serious complication in adult spine surgery. Although the performance of the screws in the vertebral bone critically depends on ability of screw thread design to provide and maintain adequate bone purchase, the effect of individual thread design parameters on screw performance and the failure process of the screw-bone interface, remains unclear. On the basis of the AO Schanz thread, this parametric study used 96 lumbar bovine vertebrae instrumented with 19 screw designs to investigate the effects of pitch, ratio of major to minor diameter, screw insertion depth, and major diameter, on screw performance under pure tensile loading. The effect of vertebral morphometry on screw performance and the extent of damage within the failed screw-bone interface were evaluated. The increase in screw insertion depth, screw pitch, and the ratio of major to minor diameter, significantly affected screw performance under tensile loads. Complex interactions existed between the major diameter and each of the design variables. Vertebral morphometry had little effect on screw performance while the damage within the failed bone-screw interface confined to the immediate region of the screw threads. Design variables, able to reduce shear stresses or modify the complex stress profile at the bone-screw interface, are more effective in preventing early failure of the interface.

  14. Comprehensive drilling of the C1-2 facets to achieve direct posterior reduction in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Deepak, Arsikere N; Ghuman, Mandeep S; Khandelwal, Niranjan K

    2015-09-01

    The cause of irreducibility in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) appears to be the orientation of the C1-2 facets. The current management strategies for irreducible AAD are directed at removing the cause of irreducibility followed by fusion, rather than transoral decompression and posterior fusion. The technique described in this paper addresses C1-2 facet mobilization by facetectomies to aid intraoperative manipulation. Using this technique, reduction was achieved in 19 patients with congenital irreducible AAD treated between January 2011 and December 2013. The C1-2 joints were studied preoperatively, and particular attention was paid to the facet orientation. Intraoperatively, oblique C1-2 joints were opened widely, and extensive drilling of the facets was performed to make them close to flat and parallel to each other, converting an irreducible AAD to a reducible one. Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs) were addressed appropriately. Further reduction was then achieved after vertical distraction and joint manipulation. Adequate facet drilling was achieved in all but 2 patients, due to VA injury in 1 patient and an acute sagittal angle operated on 2 years previously in the other patient. Complete reduction could be achieved in 17 patients and partial in the remaining 2. All patients showed clinical improvement. Two patients showed partial redislocation due to graft subsidence. The fusion rates were excellent. Comprehensive drilling of the C1-2 facets appears to be a logical and effective technique for achieving direct posterior reduction in irreducible AAD. The extensive drilling makes large surfaces raw, increasing fusion rates.

  15. Comparison of migration behavior between single and dual lag screw implants for intertrochanteric fracture fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katonis Pavlos G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lag screw cut-out failure following fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in osteoporotic bone remains an unsolved challenge. This study tested if resistance to cut-out failure can be improved by using a dual lag screw implant in place of a single lag screw implant. Migration behavior and cut-out resistance of a single and a dual lag screw implant were comparatively evaluated in surrogate specimens using an established laboratory model of hip screw cut-out failure. Methods Five dual lag screw implants (Endovis, Citieffe and five single lag screw implants (DHS, Synthes were tested in the Hip Implant Performance Simulator (HIPS of the Legacy Biomechanics Laboratory. This model simulated osteoporotic bone, an unstable fracture, and biaxial rocking motion representative of hip loading during normal gait. All constructs were loaded up to 20,000 cycles of 1.45 kN peak magnitude under biaxial rocking motion. The migration kinematics was continuously monitored with 6-degrees of freedom motion tracking system and the number of cycles to implant cut-out was recorded. Results The dual lag screw implant exhibited significantly less migration and sustained more loading cycles in comparison to the DHS single lag screw. All DHS constructs failed before 20,000 cycles, on average at 6,638 ± 2,837 cycles either by cut-out or permanent screw bending. At failure, DHS constructs exhibited 10.8 ± 2.3° varus collapse and 15.5 ± 9.5° rotation around the lag screw axis. Four out of five dual screws constructs sustained 20,000 loading cycles. One dual screw specimens sustained cut-out by medial migration of the distal screw after 10,054 cycles. At test end, varus collapse and neck rotation in dual screws implants advanced to 3.7 ± 1.7° and 1.6 ± 1.0°, respectively. Conclusion The single and double lag screw implants demonstrated a significantly different migration resistance in surrogate specimens under gait loading simulation with

  16. Efficacy and accuracy of a novel rapid prototyping drill template for cervical pedicle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sheng; Xu, Yong Q; Chen, Guo P; Zhang, Yuan Z; Lu, Di; Chen, Yu B; Shi, Ji H; Xu, Xing M

    2011-01-01

    To develop and validate the efficacy and accuracy of a novel drill template for cervical pedicle instrumentation. A CT scan of the cervical vertebrae was performed, and a 3D model of the vertebrae was reconstructed using MIMICS 10.01 software. The 3D vertebral model was then exported in STL format, and opened in a workstation running UGS Imageware 12.0 software to determine the optimal pedicle screw size and orientation. A virtual navigational template was established according to the laminar anatomic trait, and physical navigational templates were manufactured using rapid prototyping. The navigational templates were used intraoperatively to assist in the placement of cervical pedicle screws. In all, 84 pedicle screws were placed, and the accuracy of screw placement was confirmed with postoperative X-rays and CT scans. Eighty-two screws were rated as Grade 0, 2 as Grade 1, and no screws as Grade 2 or 3. Hence, safer screw positioning was accomplished with the drill template technique. This study demonstrates a patient-specific template technique that is easy to use, can simplify the surgical act, and generates highly accurate cervical pedicle screw placement. The advantages of this technology over traditional techniques are that it enables planning of the screw trajectory to be completed prior to surgery, and that the screw can be sized to fit the patient's anatomy.

  17. Surgical technique: Simple technique for removing a locking recon plate with damaged screw heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-05-01

    The introduction of locking plates in the treatment of periarticular fractures was a major breakthrough in orthopaedic evolution. Removal of these implants is extremely difficult as a result of cold welding and stripping of screw heads. A 31-year-old man had a schwannoma of the left C5-C6 nerve roots and upper trunk of the brachial plexus. One year before presentation he had undergone excision of the lesion through an approach using a clavicular osteotomy. The osteotomy had been fixed with a titanium locking recon plate. While surgically removing the implant, only one screw could be removed. The remaining five screws could not be turned owing to cold welding; repeated attempts at removing the screws damaged the screw heads. A large bolt cutter was used to cut the plate between the holes, and the resulting rectangular sections with the screws then were unscrewed from the bone. Limited literature is available regarding techniques for locking screw removal. These include using a carbide drill bit or diamond-tipped burr, high-speed disc, or conical extraction screw. Not all centers have specialized instruments such as carbide drill bits to remove screw heads, but a large bolt cutter usually is available when screws cannot be unscrewed owing to cold welding. The technique of cutting is easily reproducible and does not require additional soft tissue stripping.

  18. Decompressive cervical laminectomy and lateral mass screw-rod arthrodesis. Surgical analysis and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidat Mouness H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the outcome and complications of decompressive cervical Laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in 110 cases treated for variable cervical spine pathologies that included; degenerative disease, trauma, neoplasms, metabolic-inflammatory disorders and congenital anomalies. Methods A retrospective review of total 785 lateral mass screws were placed in patients ages 16-68 years (40 females and 70 males. All cases were performed with a polyaxial screw-rod construct and screws were placed by using Anderson-Sekhon trajectory. Most patients had 12-14-mm length and 3.5 mm diameter screws placed for subaxial and 28-30 for C1 lateral mass. Screw location was assessed by post operative plain x-ray and computed tomography can (CT, besides that; the facet joint, nerve root foramen and foramen transversarium violation were also appraised. Results No patients experienced neural or vascular injury as a result of screw position. Only one patient needed screw repositioning. Six patients experienced superficial wound infection. Fifteen patients had pain around the shoulder of C5 distribution that subsided over the time. No patients developed screw pullouts or symptomatic adjacent segment disease within the period of follow up. Conclusion decompressive cervical spine laminectomy and Lateral mass screw stabilization is a technique that can be used for a variety of cervical spine pathologies with safety and efficiency.

  19. Enhancement of Orthodontic Anchor Screw Stability Under Immediate Loading by Ultraviolet Photofunctionalization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Maiko; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Mizuki; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photofunctionalization technology is intended to enhance the osseointegration capability of titanium implants. There are concerns about orthodontic anchor screws loosening under immediate loading protocols in adolescent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of photofunctionalization on the intrabony stability of orthodontic titanium anchor screws and bone-anchor screw contact under immediate loading in growing rats. Custom-made titanium anchor screws (1.4 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in length) with or without photofunctionalization pretreatment were placed on the proximal epiphysis of the tibial bone in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and were loaded immediately after placement. After 2 weeks of loading, the stability of the anchor screws was evaluated using a Periotest device, and the bone-anchor screw contact ratio (BSC) was assessed by a histomorphometric analysis using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. In the unloaded group, Periotest values (PTVs) were ~25 for UV-untreated screws and 13 for UVtreated screws (P anchor screws under immediate loading in growing rats by increasing bone-anchor screw contact.

  20. A novel approach to navigated implantation of S-2 alar iliac screws using inertial measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregory F; Walti, Jonas; Mariani, Luigi; Cattin, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on a novel method of intraoperative navigation with inertial measurement units (IMUs) for implantation of S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screws in sacropelvic fixation of the human spine and its application in cadaveric specimens. Screw trajectories were planned on a multiplanar reconstruction of the preoperative CT scan. The pedicle finder and screwdriver were equipped with IMUs to guide the axial and sagittal tilt angles of the planned trajectory, and navigation software was developed. The entry points were chosen according to anatomical landmarks on the exposed spine. After referencing, the sagittal and axial orientation of the pedicle finder and screwdriver were wirelessly monitored on a computer screen and aligned with the preoperatively planned tilt angles to implant the S2AI screws. The technique was performed without any intraoperative imaging. Screw positions were analyzed on postoperative CT scans. Seventeen of 18 screws showed a good S2AI screw trajectory. Compared with the postoperatively measured tilt angles of the S2AI screws, the IMU readings on the screwdriver were within an axial plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 2 (11%) of the screws and within a sagittal plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 3 (17%) of the screws. IMU-based intraoperative navigation may facilitate accurate placement of S2AI screws.

  1. Cytotoxicity of a new antimicrobial coating for surgical screws: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Yunus; Elmadag, Mehmet; Uzer, Gokcer; Yıldız, Fatih; Bilsel, Kerem; Tuncay, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    The risk of surgery-related infection is a persistent problem in orthopaedics and infections involving implants are particularly difficult to treat. This study explored the responses of bone and soft tissue to antimicrobial-coated screws. We investigated whether such screws, which have never been used to fix bony tissues, would result in a cytotoxic effect. We hypothesised that the coated screws would not be toxic to the bone and that the likelihood of infection would be reduced since bacteria are not able to grow on these screws. Titanium screws were inserted into the left supracondylar femoral regions of 16 rabbits. The screws were either uncoated (control group, n = 8) or coated with a polyvinylpyrrolidone-polyurethane interpolymer with tertiary amine functional groups (experimental group, n = 8). At Week 6, histological samples were obtained and examined. The presence of necrosis, fibrosis and inflammation in the bony tissue and the tissue surrounding the screws was recorded. Live, cellular bone marrow was present in all the rabbits from the experimental group, but was replaced with connective tissue in four rabbits from the control group. Eight rabbits from the control group and two rabbits from the experimental group had necrosis in fatty bone marrow. Inflammation was observed in one rabbit from the experimental group and five rabbits from the control group. Titanium surgical screws coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone-polyurethane interpolymer were associated with less necrosis than standard uncoated screws. The coated screws were also not associated with any cytotoxic side effect.

  2. Biomechanical comparison of sagittal-parallel versus non-parallel pedicle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Mazda; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G; Schmid, Samuel L

    2014-11-01

    While convergent placement of pedicle screws in the axial plane is known to be more advantageous biomechanically, surgeons intuitively aim toward a parallel placement of screws in the sagittal plane. It is however not clear whether parallel placement of screws in the sagittal plane is biomechanically superior to a non-parallel construct. The hypothesis of this study is that sagittal non-parallel pedicle screws do not have an inferior initial pull-out strength compared to parallel placed screws. The established lumbar calf spine model was used for determination of pull-out strength in parallel and non-parallel intersegmental pedicle screw constructs. Each of six lumbar calf spines (L1-L6) was divided into three levels: L1/L2, L3/L4 and L5/L6. Each segment was randomly instrumented with pedicle screws (6/45 mm) with either the standard technique of sagittal parallel or non-parallel screw placement, respectively, under fluoroscopic control. CT was used to verify the intrapedicular positioning of all screws. The maximum pull-out forces and type of failure were registered and compared between the groups. The pull-out forces were 5,394 N (range 4,221 N to 8,342 N) for the sagittal non-parallel screws and 5,263 N (range 3,589 N to 7,554 N) for the sagittal-parallel screws (p = 0.838). Interlevel comparisons also showed no statistically significant differences between the groups with no relevant difference in failure mode. Non-parallel pedicle screws in the sagittal plane have at least equal initial fixation strength compared to parallel pedicle screws in the setting of the here performed cadaveric calf spine experiments.

  3. Weber C ankle fractures: a retrospective audit of screw number, size, complications, and retrieval rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Logan; Willis, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Tibiofibular transfixation of Weber C injuries using a diastasis screw is the current method of fixation. However, controversy remains regarding the screw size and number, number of cortices engaged, and the interval to screw removal. The present study reviewed the current practice in the Wellington Region. A retrospective audit of patients with documented Weber C injuries in the Capital & Coast District Health Board from June 2012 to December 2013 was performed. The clinical medical records and radiographs were reviewed, and the patient demographics, surgeon details, screw number, size, cortices engaged, screw removal period, and documented complications were recorded. A total of 36 operations were documented, of which 27 (75%) cases also required fibula plating. Of the 36 cases, 25 (69.44%) used a single diastasis screw, 33 (91.67%) used 4.5-mm screws, and 18 (50%) engaged 3 cortices. Surgical practice did not vary with the experience level. Of the 36 patients, 29 (80.56%) underwent routine screw removal at a median of 20 (25th to 75th quartile range 16 to 22) weeks. Also, 9 (25%) cases of screw fracture occurred, with a median documented interval to fracture of 18 (25th to 75th quartile range 15 to 20) weeks. The surgical management of Weber C injuries is consistent with current practice. The routine removal of diastasis screws by 20 weeks postoperatively was not different from the documented interval of screw removal when screw fractures had occurred. The timing of screw removal needs to be weighed against the fracture risk, patient symptoms, and the risk of secondary procedure complications. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-T-609: Perturbation Effects of Pedicle Screws On Radiotherapy Dose Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Deroma, R; Borzov, E; Nevelsky, A [Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy in conjunction with surgical implant fixation is a common combined treatment in case of bone metastases. However, metal implants generally used in orthopedic implants perturb radiation dose distributions. Carbon-Fiber Reinforced (CFR) PEEK material has been recently introduced for production of intramedullary screws and plates. Gold powder can be added to the CFR-PEEK material in order to enhance visibility of the screws during intraoperative imaging procedures. In this work, we investigated the perturbation effects of the pedicle screws made of CFR-PEEK, CFR-PEEK with added gold powder (CFR-PEEK-AU) and Titanium (Ti) on radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using the EGSnrc code package for 6MV beams with 10×10 fields at SSD=100cm. By means of MC simulations, dose distributions around titanium, CFR- PEEK and CFR-PEEK-AU screws (manufactured by Carbo-Fix Orthopedics LTD, Israel) placed in a water phantom were calculated. The screw axis was either parallel or perpendicular to the beam axis. Dose perturbation (relative to dose in homogeneous water phantom) was assessed. Results: Maximum overdose due to backscatter was 10% for the Ti screws, 5% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and effectively zero for the CFR-PEEK screws. Maximum underdose due to attenuation was 25% for the Ti screws, 15% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and 5% for the CFR-PEEK screws. Conclusion: Titanium screws introduce the largest distortion on the radiation dose distribution. The gold powder added to the CFR-PEEK material improves visibility at the cost of increased dose perturbation. CFR-PEEK screws caused minimal alteration on the dose distribution. This can decrease possible over and underdose of adjacent tissue and thus favorably influence treatment efficiency. The use of such implants has potential clinical advantage in the treatment of neoplastic bone disease.

  5. Interfragmentary compression across a simulated scaphoid fracture--analysis of 3 screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadel, Gordon P; Ferreira, Louis; Johnson, James A; King, Graham J W

    2004-03-01

    To measure the interfragmentary compression generated across a simulated fracture in cadaveric scaphoids by 3 different headless compression screws. A transverse osteotomy was made through the waist of each scaphoid and a load cell to measure compression was interposed between the fragments, which were then fixed internally retrograde with either an Acutrak Standard (n = 10), Acutrak Mini (n = 12), or Bold (n = 10) screw. The surgeon was blinded to the measured compression, which was recorded during screw insertion and for the following 5 minutes. As a measure of scaphoid bone quality the modulus of elasticity of the trabecular bone of each specimen was then calculated from uniaxial compression tests. The mean interfragmentary compression generated by the Acutrak Standard screw was significantly greater and more consistent than the Bold screw or the Acutrak Mini screw. The compression achieved by the Acutrak Standard screw was also more consistent than that obtained by either the Bold or the Acutrak Mini screws as reflected by the lower standard deviation. The mean modulus of elasticity of the scaphoid trabecular bone was similar for each screw group. The interfragmentary compression generated by the Acutrak Standard screw was significantly greater and more consistent than that generated by either the Bold or Acutrak Mini screws. The compression generated by the Acutrak Standard and Mini screws was significantly better sustained over time than that generated by the Bold screw; however, these differences were small and may not be clinically important. The optimal compression required to promote scaphoid fracture union remains unknown and clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the outcome from using these devices.

  6. Utility of evoked EMG monitoring to improve bone screw placements in the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdefer, Robert N; Heffez, Daniel S; Cohen, Bernard A

    2013-07-01

    EMG threshold testing as a guide to accurate screw placement was examined during posterior cervical spine instrumentation. The accuracy of screw placements was compared with the surgeon blinded and unblinded to EMG thresholds. To determine the utility of EMG threshold testing in improving screw placements in the lateral mass and pedicles of the cervical/upper thoracic spine. EMG threshold testing in the lumbar spine is generally thought to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placements. These results may not generalize to the cervical spine, where smaller pedicles, bicortical pilot holes, and the orientation of lateral mass screws away from midline may result in different alert thresholds. Triggered EMG thresholds were obtained from pilot holes in 244 lateral mass and 113 pedicles from 32 patients. Thresholds were compared with the accuracy of screw placements as determined from postoperative computed tomography scans. The percentage of inaccurate and potentially dangerous (IAPD) screws with the surgeon blinded and unblinded to EMG thresholds was determined. EMG threshold testing was more accurate in predicting IAPD screw trajectories in the pedicles (likelihood ratio 5.1) as compared with the lateral mass (likelihood ratio 2.9). In the pedicles, the number of IAPD screws decreased from 4.5% in the blinded controls to 0% in the unblinded group. In the lateral mass, there were no IAPD screw placements in the blinded control group, whereas 2% of the screws in the unblinded group were IAPD. EMG threshold testing in the cervical spine (C3, T1) is a moderately accurate diagnostic test and more predictive of potentially dangerous screw trajectories in the pedicles (C7, T1) as compared with the lateral mass (C3-C6). EMG threshold testing may decrease potentially dangerous screw placements in the pedicles, but may have less utility in the case of the lateral mass because of less reproducible placement of the stimulating probe.

  7. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  8. Analysis of Eyring-Powell Fluid in Helical Screw Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the flow of an incompressible, isothermal Eyring-Powell fluid in a helical screw rheometer. The complicated geometry of the helical screw rheometer is simplified by “unwrapping or flattening” the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel, assuming the width of the channel is larger as compared to the depth. The developed second order nonlinear differential equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. Analytical expressions are obtained for the velocity profiles, shear stresses, shear at wall, force exerted on fluid, volume flow rates, and average velocity. The effect of non-Newtonian parameters, pressure gradients, and flight angle on the velocity profiles is noticed with the help of graphical representation. The observation confirmed the vital role of involved parameters during the extrusion process.

  9. Analysis of Eyring-Powell fluid in helical screw rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A M; Haroon, T; Zeb, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the flow of an incompressible, isothermal Eyring-Powell fluid in a helical screw rheometer. The complicated geometry of the helical screw rheometer is simplified by "unwrapping or flattening" the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel, assuming the width of the channel is larger as compared to the depth. The developed second order nonlinear differential equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. Analytical expressions are obtained for the velocity profiles, shear stresses, shear at wall, force exerted on fluid, volume flow rates, and average velocity. The effect of non-Newtonian parameters, pressure gradients, and flight angle on the velocity profiles is noticed with the help of graphical representation. The observation confirmed the vital role of involved parameters during the extrusion process.

  10. Iliosacral screw fixation of the unstable pelvic ring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavý, M; Pavelka, T; Khayarin, M; Dzupa, V

    2010-06-01

    To report on the early results and possible complications of iliosacral screw fixation in the management of unstable pelvic ring injuries. One hundred and two unstable pelvic ring injuries were treated using iliosacral screw fixation for posterior pelvic ring disruptions. Closed manipulative reductions of the posterior lesion were attempted for all patients. Open reductions were used in the minority of patients with unsatisfactory closed reductions as assessed fluoroscopically at the time of surgery. Anterior fixations were by means of open reduction in 62 patients and by external fixation in 14 patients, and by screws in 7 patients. Twenty patients had no anterior fixation. Plain anteroposterior, inlet and outlet radiographs of the pelvis were obtained postoperatively at six weeks, three months, six months and one year. A pelvic computed tomography scan was performed postoperatively in those patients where residual displacement or screw misplacement was suspected. Complications were recorded. One patient died 31 days after the trauma due to pneumonia and one died 9 months after the surgery after a fall from a height in a second suicidal attempt. There were two posterior pelvic infections and one anterior pelvic infection. Screw misplacement occurred in seven cases. In six cases a misplaced screw produced transient L5 neuroapraxia. There was no fixation failure requiring revision surgery. There was one case of injury to the superior gluteal artery. Unstable pelvic ring disruptions are severe injuries, associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Pelvic fractures can be treated by variety of methods. Treatment with traction and pelvic slings does not offer accurate reduction and confines the patient to prolong bed rest with all potential complications. Several authors documented lower morbidity and mortality rates and shorter hospital stay in patients treated by early operative stabilization of pelvic injuries. The timing of the surgery is still

  11. Accuracy of spinal navigation for Magerl-screws

    CERN Document Server

    Herz, T

    2001-01-01

    Study design: assessment of the accuracy of frameless stereotactic navigation at the second cervical vertebra. Objectives: to assess the influence of the protocol of preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique on the accuracy of navigation for implanting Magerl-screws. Summary of background data: the use of navigation systems for implanting Magerl-screws could help to decrease the risk of complications and to reduce the required skin incision. Two parameters conceivably affecting the accuracy are the protocol of the preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique. Methods: four cervical spine segments of human cadavers were scanned with two different protocols (3 mm slice thickness/2 mm table increment, 1 mm slice thickness/1 mm table increment). Registration was performed either based on anatomical landmarks or using a specially designed percutaneous registration device. For the accuracy-check, the pointer tip was exactly placed on markers. The distance between the pointer and the marker displaye...

  12. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORGANIC MUD AGITATOR SCREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special performances obtained by means of the optimisation method applied to the axial runners of run-of-river hydraulic turbines and of wind turbines, as well as in the case of the screws for boat propulsion, perfected by the first of the authors [1] - [10], in this work one extend the application of this method at the case of an organic mud agitator screw for fermentation and biogas production. One presents the obtaining of the bio liquid circulation minimal velocity in the two possible cases [3]: extracting the fluid velocity from the peripheral force exerted by the runner, as well as from the mechanical power consumed for its driving. After the obtaining of the optimal relative peripheral angle one determines also the optimal incidence angles of the profile for other blade radii. This method permits in the same time to find the optimal profile, using the multitude of the profile characteristics, experimentally studied.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis of Twin Screw Air Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is proposed in this paper in order to study the performance of oil-less and oil-injected twin screw air compressors. Based on this model, a computer simulation program is developed and the effects of different design parameters including rotor profile, geometric clearance, oil-injected angle, oil temperature, oil flow rate, built-in volume ratio and other operation conditions on the performance of twin screw air compressors are investigated. The simulation program gives us output variables such as specific power, compression ratio, compression efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and discharge temperature. Some of the above results are then compared with experimentally measured data and good agreement is found between the simulation results and the measured data.

  14. Range of motion, sacral screw and rod strain in long posterior spinal constructs: a biomechanical comparison between S2 alar iliac screws with traditional fixation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, Chester E; Field, Antony; Ferrara, Lisa A; Freeman, Andrew L; Phan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    S1 screw failure and L5/S1 non-union are issues with long fusions to S1. Improved construct stiffness and S1 screw offloading can help avoid this. S2AI screws have shown to provide similar stiffness to iliac screws when added to L3-S1 constructs. We sought to examine and compare the biomechanical effects on an L2-S1 pedicle screw construct of adding S2AI screws, AxiaLIF, L5-S1 interbody support via transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and to examine the effect of the addition of cross connectors to each of these constructs. Two S1 screws and one rod with strain gauges (at L5/S1) were used in L2-S1 screw-rod constructs in 7 L1-pelvis specimens (two with low BMD). ROM, S1 screw and rod strain were assessed using a pure-moment flexibility testing protocol. Specimens were tested intact, and then in five instrumentation states consisting of: (I) Pedicle screws (PS) L2-S1; (II) PS + S2AI screws; (III) PS + TLIF L5/S1; (IV) PS + AxiaLIF L5/S1; (V) PS + S2AI + AxiaLIF L5/S1. The five instrumentation conditions were also tested with crosslinks at L2/3 and S1/2. Tests were conducted in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion with no compressive preload. S2A1 produces reduced S1 screw strain for flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion, as well as reduced rod strain in lateral bending and axial torsion in comparison to AxiaLIF and interbody instrumentation, at the expense of increased rod flexion-extension strain. Cross-connectors may have a role in further reduction of S1 screw and rod strain. From a biomechanical standpoint, the use of the S2AI technique is at least equivalent to traditional iliac screws, but offers lower prominence and ease of assembly compared to conventional sacroiliac stabilization.

  15. Odontoid screw fixation for fresh and remote fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Ganesh; Apfelbaum Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Fractures of the odontoid process are common, accounting for 10% to 20% of all cervical spine fractures. Odontoid process fractures are classified into three types depending on the location of the fracture line. Various treatment options are available for each of these fracture types and include application of a cervical orthosis, direct anterior screw fixation, and posterior cervical fusion. If a patient requires surgical treatment of an odontoid process fracture, the timing of...

  16. Performance evaluation of Magnus screw press (Model MS-100) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was used to analyze the results. In its best operating settings, the MS-100 screw press has a throughput capacity of 91.7 kg-products/h at an average feed rate of 101.7 kg-kernels/h, press cake oil content of 13.6% (w/w); percentage actual oil yield of 33.6% (w/w); percentage cake ...

  17. Modelling of the Heating Process in a Thermal Screw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Veje, Christian T.; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten

    2012-11-01

    The procedure of separating efficiently dry-stuff (proteins), fat, and water is an important process in the handling of waste products from industrial and commercial meat manufactures. One of the sub-processes in a separation facility is a thermal screw where the raw material (after proper mincing) is heated in order to melt fat, coagulate protein, and free water. This process is very energy consuming and the efficiency of the product is highly dependent on accurate temperature control of the process. A key quality parameter is the time that the product is maintained at temperatures within a certain threshold. A detailed mathematical model for the heating process in the thermal screw is developed and analysed. The model is formulated as a set of partial differential equations including the latent heat for the melting process of the fat and the boiling of water, respectively. The product is modelled by three components; water, fat and dry-stuff (bones and proteins). The melting of the fat component is captured as a plateau in the product temperature. The model effectively captures the product outlet temperature and the energy consumed. Depending on raw material composition, "soft" or "dry", the model outlines the heat injection and screw speeds necessary to obtain optimal output quality.

  18. A CFD study of Screw Compressor Motor Cooling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, S.

    2017-08-01

    Screw compressors use electric motors to drive the male screw rotor. They are cooled by the suction refrigerant vapor that flows around the motor. The thermal conditions of the motor can dramatically influence the performance and reliability of the compressor. The more optimized this flow path is, the better the motor performance. For that reason it is important to understand the flow characteristics around the motor and the motor temperatures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to provide a detailed analysis of the refrigerant’s flow behavior and motor temperatures to identify the undesirable hot spots in the motor. CFD analysis can be used further to optimize the flow path and determine the reduction of hot spots and cooling effect. This study compares the CFD solutions of a motor cooling model to a motor installed with thermocouples measured in the lab. The compressor considered for this study is an R134a screw compressor. The CFD simulation of the motor consists of a detailed breakdown of the stator and rotor components. Orthotropic thermal conductivity material properties are used to represent the simplified motor geometry. In addition, the analysis includes the motor casings of the compressor to draw heat away from the motor by conduction. The study will look at different operating conditions and motor speeds. Finally, the CFD study will investigate the predicted motor temperature change by varying the vapor mass flow rates and motor speed. Recommendations for CFD modeling of such intricate heat transfer phenomenon have thus been proposed.

  19. Minimally invasive cervical spine foraminotomy and lateral mass screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Mark M; Celestre, Paul C; Wolf, Christopher F; Mroz, Tom E; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2012-03-01

    This technique article describes accomplishing multilevel posterior cervical decompression and lateral mass screw placement through a tubular retraction system. Multilevel foraminotomy and instrumented fusion using lateral mass screw fixation can be achieved through a minimally invasive technique using specialized retractors and intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging. Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been adapted to the cervical spine with good results. These techniques have the theoretical advantages of reducing morbidity, blood loss, perioperative pain, and length of hospital stay associated with conventional open posterior spinal exposure. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system with a deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression and fusion can be accomplished. Minimized access to perform multilevel posterior cervical foraminotomy and fusion can be safely accomplished with tubular retraction systems. Complications associated with these techniques can include inadequate decompression, improper instrumentation placement, or neurologic injury due to poor access and visualization. Multilevel foraminotomy and instrumented fusion using lateral mass screw fixation can be safely achieved using these techniques. Complications associated with these strategies are typically due to inadequate visualization, incomplete decompression, or poor placement of instrumentation. As with all minimally invasive spine techniques, the surgeon must ensure that goals of the surgery, both technical and clinical outcomes, are comparable to those of a conventional open procedure.

  20. Upgrading of the extruder screw design for secondary polymers processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Валентинович Кухар

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some methods of polymeric materials waste recycling have been analyzed in this paper and the prospects of the theory development as well as extrusion technology and co-extruding processes have been shown. The purpose of this work was an analytical research of the backpressure in different sectors of the extruder when the pressed bulk moves through it and improvement of the working conditions of the device to fit the technology of plastics waste processing. The recommendations as to the calculation of the required design parameters of the screw, as the main structural element of the extruder, have been developed as a result of research, which makes it possible to achieve better processing of the pressed bulk under specified temperature and rate conditions due to the levelling of the backpressure and pumping effect in all sections of the device. The proposed upgrading provides productivity levelling in all sections of the extruder, which excludes intermittent work, breaks and thickness unevenness of the manufactured products. Through the analytical consideration of the extrusion process theory in various sectors of the extruder, which are characterized by different temperature conditions and the pumping effect, the equation for calculating of the auger screw inclination angle for each sector of the extruder has been obtained which makes it possible to improve the machine design. The example of the calculation of the screw design parameters for physical and chemical characteristics of low-pressure polyethylene under the conditions of its processing has been furnished

  1. Comparison of energy-efficiency and size of portable oil-free screw and scroll compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Olly; MacDonald Arbon, Ian, Prof.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents test data and evaluates if conical screw compressors can become a preferred alternative to scroll compressors in small oil-free duties from 0.04 to 15kW. The conical screw compressor is a new modification of the conventional screw compressor. A 2kW water-injected conical compressor demonstrated a 34% better energy efficiency than a scroll compressor of similar capacity. At 8 bar(g) load, the conical machine used 13% more energy and produced 42% more flow. Size of the conical screw package is 46% of the scroll package. The miniature conical screw package, at 40W rated power, achieved a pressure of 8 bar(g) in water-injected operation. It can be concluded that the conical screw compressor would be an attractive alternative in micro and small oil-free applications.

  2. Imaging screw dislocations at atomic resolution by aberration-corrected electron optical sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Lozano, J G; Pennycook, T J; Jones, L; Hirsch, P B; Nellist, P D

    2015-06-04

    Screw dislocations play an important role in materials' mechanical, electrical and optical properties. However, imaging the atomic displacements in screw dislocations remains challenging. Although advanced electron microscopy techniques have allowed atomic-scale characterization of edge dislocations from the conventional end-on view, for screw dislocations, the atoms are predominantly displaced parallel to the dislocation line, and therefore the screw displacements are parallel to the electron beam and become invisible when viewed end-on. Here we show that screw displacements can be imaged directly with the dislocation lying in a plane transverse to the electron beam by optical sectioning using annular dark field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Applying this technique to a mixed [a+c] dislocation in GaN allows direct imaging of a screw dissociation with a 1.65-nm dissociation distance, thereby demonstrating a new method for characterizing dislocation core structures.

  3. CT-based bone density assessment for iliosacral screw trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schicho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sacroiliac screw placement is one standard treatment option for stabilization of posterior pelvic ring injuries encountering high intra- and inter-individual variations of bone stock quality as well as a vast variety and prevalence of sacral dysmorphism. An individual, easy-to-use preoperative bone stock quality estimation would be of high value for the surgeon. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 36 standard computed tomography datasets with the uninjured pelvic ring. Using a two-plane cross-referencing technique, we assessed the Hounsfield unit (HU mean values as well as standard deviation and minimum/maximum values within selected region of interests (ROIs at five key areas: os ilium left and right, massa lateralis of os sacrum left and right, and central vertebral body on levels S1 and S2. Results: Results showed no difference in mean HU at any ROI when comparing male and female data. For all ROIs set on S1 and S2, there was an age-related decline of HU with a calculated slope significantly different from zero. There was no statistical difference of slopes when comparing S1- and S2-level with respect to any distinct ROI. Comparison of levels S1 and S2 revealed differences at the vertebral body and at the right os ilium. The right and left massa lateralis of os sacrum had lower bone density than the center of the vertebral body, the right, or left os ilium on S1; right and left massa lateralis density did not differ significantly. On level S2, results were comparable with no difference of massa lateralis density. Conclusion: With our easy-to-use preoperative assessment of bone density of five key areas of sacroiliac screw anchoring we were able to find the lowest bone density in both the left and right massa lateralis on levels S1 and S2 with high inter- and intra-individual variations. Significantly lower bone density was found in the center of the vertebral bodies S2 in comparison to S1, which both are crucial for iliosacral

  4. Comparison between posterior lumbar fusion with pedicle screws and posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screws in adult spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Fernando Luiz Rolemberg; Prandini, Mirto Nelso; Ferreira, Mauro A T

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis submitted to two different surgical approaches, and evaluate the results and outcomes in both groups. In a two-year period, 60 adult patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis, both isthmic and degenerative, were submitted to surgery at the Biocor Institute, Brazil. All patients were operated on by the same surgeon (FLRD) in a single institution, and the results were analyzed prospectively. Group I comprised the first 30 consecutive patients that were submitted to a posterior lumbar spinal fusion with pedicle screws (PLF). Group II comprised the last 30 consecutive patients submitted to a posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure (PLIF) with pedicle screws. All patients underwent foraminotomy for nerve root decompression. Clinical evaluation was carried out using the Prolo Economic and Functional Scale and the Rolland-Morris and the Oswestry questionnaire. Mean age was 52.4 for Group I (PLF), and 47.6 for Group II (PLIF). The mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Both surgical procedures were effective. The PLIF with pedicle screws group presented better clinical outcomes. Group I presented more complications when compared with Group II. Group II presented better results as indicated in the Prolo Economic and Functional Scale.

  5. Growth modulation with a medial malleolar screw for ankle valgus deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Rupprecht, Martin; Spiro, Alexander S.; Breyer, Sandra; Vettorazzi, Eik; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Stücker, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Growth modulation with a medial malleolar screw is used to correct ankle valgus deformity in children with a wide spectrum of underlying etiologies. It is unclear whether the etiology of the deformity affects the angular correction rate with this procedure. Patients and methods 79 children (20 girls) with ankle valgus deformity had growth modulation by a medial malleolar screw (125 ankles). To be included, patients had to have undergone screw removal at the time of skel...

  6. Removal of Hardware After Syndesmotic Screw Fixation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Kempland C; Hofmann, Kurt J; Velasco, Brian T; Kwon, John Y

    2017-06-01

    While trans-syndesmotic fixation with metal screws is considered the gold standard in treating syndesmotic injuries, controversy exists regarding the need and timing of postoperative screw removal. Formal recommendations have not been well established in the literature and clinical practice is highly variable in this regard. The purpose of this systematic review is to critically examine the most recent literature regarding syndesmotic screw removal in order to provide surgeons an evidence-based approach to management of these injuries. The Cochrane Library and PubMed Medline databases were explored using search terms for syndesmosis and screw removal between October 1, 2010 and June 1, 2016. A total of 9 studies (1 randomized controlled trial and 8 retrospective cohort studies) were found that described the outcomes of either retained or removed syndesmotic screws. Overall, there was no difference in functional, clinical or radiographic outcomes in patients who had their syndesmotic screw removed. There was a higher likelihood of recurrent syndesmotic diastasis when screws were removed between 6 and 8 weeks. There was a higher rate of postoperative infections when syndesmotic screws were removed without administering preoperative antibiotics. Removal of syndesmotic screws is advisable mainly in cases of patient complaints related to the other implanted perimalleolar hardware or malreduction of the syndesmosis after at least 8 weeks postoperatively. Broken or loose screws should not be removed routinely unless causing symptoms. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended on removal. Radiographs should be routinely obtained immediately prior to removal and formal discussions should be had with patients prior to surgery to discuss management options if a broken screw is unexpectedly encountered intraoperatively. Radiographs and/or computed tomography imaging should be obtained after syndesmotic screw removal when indicated for known syndesmotic malreduction. Level IV

  7. Primary pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: biomechanical analysis of pedicle fixation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burval, Daniel J; McLain, Robert F; Milks, Ryan; Inceoglu, Serkan

    2007-05-01

    Pedicle screw pullout testing in osteoporotic and control human cadaveric vertebrae, comparing augmented and control vertebrae. To compare the pullout strengths of pedicle screws fixed in osteoporotic vertebrae using polymethyl methacrylate delivered by 2 augmentation techniques, a standard transpedicular approach and kyphoplasty type approach. Pedicle screw instrumentation of the osteoporotic spine carries an increased risk of screw loosening, pullout, and fixation failure. Osteoporosis is often cited as a contraindication for pedicle screw fixation. Augmentation of the vertebral pedicle and body using polymethyl methacrylate may improve fixation strength and construct survival in the osteoporotic vertebrae. While the utility of polymethyl methacrylate has been demonstrated for salvage of screws that have been pulled out, the effect of the cement technique on pullout strength in osteoporotic vertebrae has not been previously studied. Thirteen osteoporotic and 9 healthy human lumbar vertebrae were tested. All specimens were instrumented with pedicle screws using a uniform technique. Osteoporotic pedicles were augmented with polymethyl methacrylate using either a kyphoplasty type technique or a transpedicular augmentation technique. Screws were tested in a paired testing array, randomly assigning the augmentation techniques to opposite sides of each vertebra. Pullout to failure was performed either primarily or after a 5000-cycle tangential fatigue conditioning exposure. After testing, following screw removal, specimens were cut in the axial plane through the center of the vertebral body to inspect the cement distribution. Pedicle screws placed in osteoporotic vertebrae had higher pullout loads when augmented with the kyphoplasty technique compared to transpedicular augmentation (1414 +/- 338 versus 756 +/- 300 N, respectively; P cycling. Pedicle screw augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate improves the initial fixation strength and fatigue strength of

  8. Revisions for screw malposition and clinical outcomes after robot-guided lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Marc L; Staartjes, Victor E

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The accuracy of robot-guided pedicle screw placement has been proven to be high, but little is known about the impact of such guidance on clinical outcomes such as the rate of revision surgeries for screw malposition. In addition, there are very few data about the impact of robot-guided fusion on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Thus, the clinical benefit for the patient is unclear. In this study, the authors analyzed revision rates for screw malposition and changes in PROs following minimally invasive robot-guided pedicle screw fixation. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion (MI-PLIF) or minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion was performed. Patients were followed up clinically at 6 weeks, 12 months, and 24 months after treatment and by mailed questionnaire in March 2016 as a final follow-up. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), screw revisions, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. A literature review was performed, comparing the incidence of intraoperative screw revisions and revision surgery for screw malposition in robot-guided, navigated, and freehand fusion procedures. RESULTS Seventy-two patients fit the study inclusion criteria and had a mean follow up of 32 ± 17 months. No screws had to be revised intraoperatively, and no revision surgery for screw malposition was needed. In the literature review, the authors found a higher rate of intraoperative screw revisions in the navigated pool than in the robot-guided pool (p robot-guided procedures (p robotic guidance to reduce the rate of revision surgery for screw malposition as compared with other techniques of pedicle screw insertion described in peer-reviewed publications. Larger comparative studies are required to assess differences in PROs following a minimally invasive approach in spinal fusion surgeries compared with other

  9. Arthroscopic Bony Bankart Repair Using Double-Threaded Headless Screw: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kokubu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of arthroscopic fixation for bony Bankart lesion using a double-threaded cannulated screw. A 39-year-old man sustained a left shoulder injury from a motorcycle accident. Radiographs showed bony Bankart lesion and CT revealed 40% defect of glenoid articular surface. Arthroscopic fixation was performed using double-threaded cannulated screw after the bony fragment was reduced by suturing the labrum at the edge with a suture anchor. Arthroscopic bony Bankart repair using double-threaded cannulated screw fixation is effective because compression force could be applied between bony fragments and the screw head is not exposed in the glenohumeral joint.

  10. An Unexpected Complication after Headless Compression Screw Fixation of an Osteochondral Fracture of Patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suavi Aydoğmuş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated complications associated with implant depth in headless compression screw treatment of an osteochondral fracture associated with a traumatic patellar dislocation in a 21-year-old woman. Computed tomography and X-rays showed one lateral fracture fragment measuring 25 × 16 mm. Osteosynthesis was performed with two headless compression screws. Five months later, the screws were removed because of patella-femoral implant friction. We recommend that the screw heads be embedded to a depth of at least 3 mm below the cartilage surface. Further clinical studies need to examine the variation in cartilage thickness in the fracture fragment.

  11. In vitro evaluation of flexural strength of different brands of expansion screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kádna Fernanda Mendes de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the flexural strength of the stems of three maxillary expanders screws of Morelli, Forestadent and Dentaurum brands. METHODS: The sample consisted of nine expander screws (totalizing of 36 stems, three from each brand, all stainless steel and 12 mm of expansion capacity. The stems of the expander screws were cut with cutting pliers close to the weld region with screw body, then fixed in a universal testing machine Instron 4411 for tests of bending resistance of three points. The ultimate strength in kgF exerted by the machine to bend the stem of the 5 mm screw was recorded and the flexural strength was calculated using a mathematical formula. During the flexural strength test it was verified the modulus of elasticity of the stems by means of Bluehill 2 software. The flexural strength data were subjected to ANOVA with one criterion and Tukey's test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Forestadent screw brand showed the greatest bending strength, significantly higher than Dentaurum. Morelli showed the lowest resistance. CONCLUSION: The flexural strength of the screws varied according to the brand. Forestadent screw showed the greatest resistance and Morelli the lowest. All the three screws were found adequate for use in procedures for rapid maxillary expansion.

  12. Measurements of Temperature of CNC Machine Tool Ball Screw Utilising IR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapłata J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In numerous papers it is proposed to use IR measurements of feed axis ball screw temperature distribution in order to compensate CNC machine tool thermal errors. The paper aims to validate reliability of the IR measurements in application to the feed axes ball screws. The identification of key factors influencing the accuracy of the IR measurements of ball screw temperature distribution has been conducted. A test-bench utilizing a ball screw assembly with built-in temperature sensors was introduced and the experimental data are presented along with conclusions.

  13. Screw engine used as an expander in ORC for low-potential heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lukáš

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with a screw motor that is used as an expander in an ORC (Organic Rankin Cycle) system, whose organic working substance allows the transformation of low-potential heat (waste heat, solar and geothermal energy) into electrical energy. The article describes the specific properties of an organic substance and a screw motor that must be considered when designing and assembling a complete power unit. Screw machines are not commonly used as expansion devices, so it is necessary to perform an analysis that makes it possible to adapt the screw machine to the expansion process in terms of profiling and design.

  14. Accuracy of C2 pedicle screw placement using the anatomic freehand technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Mathios, Dimitrios; Macki, Mohamed; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Aygun, Nafi; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Wolinksy, Jean-Paul

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prognostic factors of breach rates following the placement of C2 pedicle screws using the anatomic, freehand technique. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent C2 transpedicular instrumentation over six years at a single institution. All intraoperative, image-guided techniques were excluded. Breaches were ascertained from immediate postoperative CT images. All images were analyzed by three independent reviewers. The screw length was correlated with (1) the breach rate and (2) the breach severity. Severity of the breached screws reflects the screw circumference (0-360°) perforating the pedicle wall (Grade 1-Grade 4). Of the 341 C2 pedicle screws inserted in 181 patients, the average screw length was 22.93±3.7mm. The average distance from the foramen transversarium to the screw insertion point was 13.17±2.63mm. The distance from the medial rim of the pedicle to the dura of spinal cord was 3.53±1.57mm. Of the 341 screws, the overall breach rate was 17.3% (n=59). Of the 59 breaches, 89.83% of screws (n=53) breaching the spinal canal was statistically significantly higher than the 10.17% of screws (n=6) breaching the foramen transversarium (pGrade 1, 16 (27.1%) Grade 2, 6 (10.2%) Grade 3, and 10 (16.9%) Grade 4. None of the C2 breaches resulted in neurological sequela. No association was found between breach rate and gender, race or age. While the average screw length was 22.93±3.7mm [12-34mm], screw length did not predict a cortical violation (p=0.4) or severity of the breach (p=0.42) in a multiple regression model. In this cohort study on the anatomic freehand placement of C2 pedicle screws, the breach rate was 17.3%. Lateral breaches were more common than medial breaches. Screw length was not statistically correlated with cortical violation or severity of breach. Therefore, screw length is not a prognostic factor for C2 pedicle screw misplacement. Copyright © 2014

  15. Oblique in situ screw fixation of stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourineni, Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous in situ single screw fixation is the preferred treatment for stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The recommended screw placement is in the center of the epiphysis and perpendicular to the physis. We reviewed the results of in situ fixation with the screw placed oblique to the physis. Thirty-six stable slips were treated with a modified technique. The screw was started as close to the mid lateral cortex of the proximal femur as possible while maintaining the screw anterior to the posterior cortex of the femoral neck and ending at the apex of the epiphysis ignoring the resultant angle to the physis. Thirty-five of these hips were followed till physeal closure. Thirty-five of the 36 hips showed physeal closure at an average of 5 months. There were no screw-related complications or symptoms. The oblique screw path allowed for an extra screw thread to be placed in the epiphysis and also allowed adequate femoral neck osteoplasty. Oblique placement of the screw for in situ fixation in stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis did not cause any deleterious effects and offered several potential advantages. IV - Case series.

  16. Evaluating Atlantoaxial Dislocation Based on Cartesian Coordinates: Proposing a New Definition and Its Impact on Assessment of Congenital Torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardhara, Jayesh; Behari, Sanjay; Sindgikar, Pavaman; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Mehrotra, Anant; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Sahu, Rabi N; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K

    2017-05-03

    Conventional 2-dimensional (2-D) definition of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is inadequate for coexisting 3-D displacements. To prospectively classify AAD and its related abnormalities along 3 Cartesian coordinates and assess their association with torticollis. One hundred and fifty-four patients with congenital AAD were prospectively classified according to their C1-2 displacement along 3 Cartesian coordinates utilizing 3-D multiplanar CT. The impact of this 3-D dislocation on occurrence of clinically manifest torticollis was also evaluated and surgical treatment was planned. Three dimensional CT assessment detected the following types of C1-2 dislocations: I:translational dislocation (along Z coordinate, n = 37 [24%]); II: central dislocation (along Y coordinate, n = 10 [6.5%]); III: translational+central dislocation (along Z+Y coordinates, n = 42 [27.3%]); IV: translational dislocation+ rotational dislocation+coronal tilt (along Z+X coordinates, (n = 6 [3.9%]); V: central dislocation (basilar invagination)+rotational dislocation+coronal tilt (along Y+X coordinates, n = 11 [7.1%]); VI: translational dislocation+ central dislocation+ rotational dislocation+ coronal tilt (along all 3 axes, n = 48 [31%]). Assessing degree of relative C1-2 rotation revealed that 27 (37%) of 85 patients with 5° rotation had associated torticollis. Translational dislocation had negative association (odds ratio [OR] 0.1, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.47-0.32], P = .00), while type VI (OR 5.0, 95% CI [2.2-11.19], P = .00), type V (OR 4.44, 95% CI [0.93-21.26], P = .04), and type IV (OR 1.84, 95% CI [0.32-10.38], P = .48) dislocations had strong positive association with torticollis. Sixty-two (40%) patients improved, 68 (44%) remained unchanged, and 24 (16%) patients worsened postoperatively. Twenty-eight patients required second-stage transoral decompression following posterior distraction-fusion due to neurological nonimprovement. Three-dimensional assessment of AAD including

  17. Factors influencing feasibility of direct posterior reduction in irreducible traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation secondary to isolated odontoid fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Savardekar, Amey; Ghuman, Mandeep; Khandelwal, N K

    2015-01-01

    Direct posterior reduction by intraoperative manipulation of joints for irreducible traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation (IrTAAD) has gained acceptance in the recent past. However, factors determining its feasibility have not been elucidated. Our study aims to examine the clinico-radiological factors predicting feasibility of direct posterior reduction in IrTAAD secondary to isolated odontoid fracture, in an attempt to differentiate the "truly irreducible" from those "deemed irreducible." The onset and progression of neck pain and myelopathy was studied in 6 patients of IrTAAD with fracture odontoid, which failed to reduce despite traction. The dynamic X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans of craniovertebral junction, along with the vertebral artery angiogram were studied to look for the slightest mobility, interface of fractured fragments, malunion, callous, and relationship of the C1-2 facets and vertebral artery. All 6 patients had progressive worsening of neck pain. Three patients had progressive myelopathy. Three patients presented 6 months after trauma. Radiology showed type-II fracture with IrTAAD (anterolisthesis in 5 and retrolisthesis with lateral dislocation in 1) and locked facets in all. X-rays showed doubtful callous formation in 3 patients and CT confirmed non-union. Three patients showed angular movement on dynamic X-rays despite irreducibility and locked facets. Angiogram showed thrombosis of vertebral artery in one patient. Intraoperative reduction could be achieved in all 6 patients with good clinico-radiological outcome. Worsening pain, progression of myelopathy, some movement on dynamic X-rays, a malunion ruled out on CT scan, and the presence of locked facets make direct posterior reduction feasible in patients with IrTAAD. The difficulty increases in remote fractures due to fibrosis around the dislocated joints. The role of the CT angiogram, in defining the relationship of Vertebral artery (VA) to the dislocated facets, and in determining

  18. Analysis of sacro-iliac joint screw fixation: does quality of reduction and screw orientation influence joint stability? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino Willhuber, Gaston; Zderic, Ivan; Gras, Florian; Wahl, Dieter; Sancineto, Carlos; Barla, Jorge; Windolf, Markus; Richards, Robert Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of posterior pelvic ring injuries is frequently associated with pain or/and high mortality rates. Percutaneous sacro-iliac (SI) screw fixation has proved to be one of the methods of choice, providing minimal operative time, blood loss and wound-related morbidity. However, fixation failures due to secondary fracture dislocation or screw backing out have been reported. There is a little knowledge regarding the impact of varying screw orientation and quality of reduction on the fixation strength. The purpose of the present study was biomechanical investigation of joint stability after SI screw fixation and its dependence on quality of reduction and screw orientation. Thirty-two artificial hemi-pelvices were assigned to four study groups and simulated SI dislocations were fixed with two SI screws in oblique or transverse screw orientation and anatomical or non-anatomical reduction in group A (oblique/anatomical), B (transverse/anatomical), C (oblique/non-anatomical) and D (transverse/non-anatomical). Mechanical testing was performed under progressively increasing cyclic axial loading until fixation failure. SI joint movements were captured via optical motion tracking. Fixation performance was statistically evaluated at a level of significance p = 0.05. The highest cycles to failure were observed in group A (14038 ± 1057), followed by B (13909 ± 1217), D (6936 ± 1654) and C (6706 ± 1295). Groups A and B revealed significantly longer endurance than C and D (p ≤ 0.01). Different screw orientations in the presented model do not influence substantially SI joint stability. However, anatomical reduction is not only mandatory to restore a malalignment, but also to increase the SI screw fixation strength and prevent fixation failures.

  19. Facet Joint Violation During Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement: A Comparison of Two Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Oliver; Jazini, Ehsan; Weir, Tristan B; Banagan, Kelley E; Koh, Eugene Y; Greg Anderson, D; Gelb, Daniel E; Ludwig, Steven C

    2017-08-01

    A comparative study of facet joint violation (FJV) using two percutaneous surgical techniques. To compare the rate of iatrogenic FJV and medial pedicle wall breach between two methods of percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Variable iatrogenic damage to the facet joints has been reported to occur with percutaneous pedicle screw techniques, compared with the open approach, which has been associated with adjacent segment disease. Technical variations of percutaneous pedicle screw placement may pose different risks to the facet joint. Attending spine surgeons percutaneously placed pedicle screws in seven human cadaveric spines from T2 to L5. At each level, screws were instrumented on one side using the 9 or 3 o'clock reference point of the pedicle on the posteroanterior view with a lateral-to-medial trajectory (LMT) and on the contralateral side using the center of the pedicle with an owl's eye trajectory (OET). Postoperative screw placement was assessed with computed tomography and then open cadaveric dissection. Outcome measures included FJV and medial pedicle wall breach. Overall, 17 of 105 screws placed with an LMT versus 49 of 105 screws placed with an OET violated or abutted the facet joint (P L1), and lumbar (L2-L5) levels (P = 0.003, 0.035, and 0.018, respectively). Medial pedicle wall breach occurred with 11 LMT screws and seven OET screws (P = 0.077), and no breach was considered critical. A significantly higher FJV rate was observed using the OET versus the LMT in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant differences in medial pedicle wall breach occurred between the techniques. Thus, the LMT of minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation may reduce iatrogenic damage to the facet joints. 3.

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of Perpendicular Versus Oblique In Situ Screw Fixation of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Michael K; Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni F; Silverstein, Jeffrey A; Surma, Tyler; Gourineni, Prasad V

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous in situ single screw fixation is the preferred treatment for stable and unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The recommended screw placement is in the center of the epiphysis and perpendicular to the physis, which necessitates an anterior starting point for most SCFEs. A recent clinical study has shown good clinical results with a laterally based screw for SCFE, which is oblique to the physis. We sought to biomechanically compare these 2 techniques for load to failure and hypothesized that the laterally based oblique screw is equivalent or superior to an anteriorly based perpendicular screw. Twenty-two paired immature porcine femurs were used to compare the techniques. A SCFE model was created in all femurs using a previously published technique by performing a 30-degree posterior closing wedge osteotomy through the proximal physis. In the control group, a screw was placed perpendicular to the slip with an anterior starting point. In the experimental group, the screw was started as close to the mid-lateral cortex of the proximal femur as possible while maintaining the screw anterior to the posterior cortex of the femoral neck and ending at the apex of the epiphysis ignoring the resultant angle to the physis for the experimental group. The specimens were then potted and loaded in a physiologically relevant posteroinferior direction (30 degrees posterior from vertical) to determine load to failure (N) and stiffness (N/mm). No statistical difference was found between the 2 groups in maximum load to failure or stiffness (P>0.05). A laterally based screw oblique to the physis for in situ fixation in mild SCFE is not significantly different than an anteriorly based screw perpendicular to the physis in load to failure and stiffness in our study model. In light of no difference in load to failure of these 2 constructs, surgeons may be more comfortable with the traditional lateral entry point while still aiming for screw placement in the center of

  1. Case of Atlantoaxial Dislocation with Assimilated C1, Absent Posterior C2, Butterfly C3, and Fused Subaxial Cervical Spine: Management Dilemma with Multiple Segmentation and Formation Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Arsikere N.; Salunke, Pravin; Kamble, Rajeev P.

    2017-01-01

    Segmentation defects are often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) though an associated absence of posterior arch of C2 and butterfly C3 is rare. Apart from rarity, the combination of formation and segmentation defects adds to the management dilemma. We report a case of AAD with assimilated atlas, absent C2 posterior arch, C3 butterfly vertebra with floating posterior elements, and fused C4–C6. The child was managed by C1–C2 fusion alone with immediate symptomatic improvement. The presence of formation defects such as adjacent butterfly vertebra and absent posterior elements does not alter the management of AAD. Fusing the C1–C2 joints appears to be a balanced approach. PMID:28553387

  2. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  3. Open reduction and internal fixation: Screw injury - Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF is a standard surgical procedure in jaw trauma and in orthognathic surgery. Insertion of screws is a significant risk for accidental tooth root injury with varying outcomes. Contrary evidences are found in literature due to a variety of study designs. This study was undertaken to address the lacunae and possibly estimate the difference in occurrence of tooth damage during or after ORIF between trauma and planned osteotomies. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of ORIF in either trauma or orthognathic surgery fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected and analyzed. Results: There were 1632 patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria and formed the study group, of which 663 were in orthognathic surgery, of whom 210 had bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. In the trauma group, 358 patients had fractures involving both jaws whereas 272 had maxilla alone and 339 had mandibular fractures alone. On comparing the outcome, of the 9073 screws studied, 93.40% were not involved in any contact with the teeth, 6.3% were in category of potential hits (near apices or the root surfaces, and only 0.28% had evidence of root damage with the screws. It is observed that molar and premolar had a significant difference in terms of the type of surgery (P ≤ 0.05 whereas canine (P = 0.75 and incisor (P = 0.67 showed no statistical difference. Conclusion: ORIF when used as mentioned is a safe way for the management of fractures. The incidence of root injury is not uncommon but can be avoided with careful planning and execution.

  4. New Tools for Computational Geometry and Rejuvenation of Screw Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David

    Conformal Geometric Algebraic (CGA) provides ideal mathematical tools for construction, analysis, and integration of classical Euclidean, Inversive & Projective Geometries, with practical applications to computer science, engineering, and physics. This paper is a comprehensive introduction to a CGA tool kit. Synthetic statements in classical geometry translate directly to coordinate-free algebraic forms. Invariant and covariant methods are coordinated by conformal splits, which are readily related to the literature using methods of matrix algebra, biquaternions, and screw theory. Designs for a complete system of powerful tools for the mechanics of linked rigid bodies are presented.

  5. A Technique for Removal of Forearm Dynamic Compression Plate with Stripped Screws: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Removal of plates is a procedure commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and stripped screws are probably the most common problem encountered during this procedure. Stripped screws are caused by slippage between the screwdriver and the screw. Due to the inherent difficulty in removing such screws, surgeons should be knowledgeable in techniques for their removal and should be equipped with the proper instruments to expedite the procedure. There are few published articles about such techniques. This report describes a technique for removal of plates with stripped screws. The tip of a stripped screw is approached from the far cortex and then reamed with a trephine reamer in the direction of the screw until both cortices are cleared. The plate is then removed with stripped screws attached. All the removals utilizing this technique to date have been successful with no complications, and this method is safe, efficient and technically easy to learn.

  6. Mixing and transport during pharmaceutical twin-screw wet granulation: Experimental analysis via chemical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu

    2014-01-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batch high shear wet gran- ulation (HSWG). The extent of HSWG in a twin screw granulator (TSG) is greatly governed by the resi- dence time of the granulation materials in the TSG and degree of mixing. In order to determi...

  7. Treating Simple Tibia Fractures with Poly-DL-Lactic Acid Screw as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the curative effect of poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) absorbable screw as a locked intramedullary nail for simple tibia fractures. Methods: In this study, 35 patients treated with the PDLLA screw were observed, and another 35 patients treated with a traditional locking intramedullary nail were treated as ...

  8. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy of spine robot system should be improved.

  9. Fabrication of a screw-retained fixed provisional prosthesis supported by dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2004-03-01

    Screw-retained provisional implant-supported prostheses may have advantages over cement-retained prostheses in certain situations. This article describes a technique for fabrication of screw-retained provisional acrylic resin implant-supported prostheses from the modified metal components provided with the implant.

  10. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-07-13

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  11. Possible vascular injury due to screw eccentricity in minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular injury during minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA is uncommon, yet a well-recognized and serious issue. It emerges because of non-visibility of vascular structures proximal to the pelvic bone during reaming, drilling holes, and fixing of screws. Numerous studies have found that screw fixation during cementless THA is beneficial for the initial stability of cup; yet, no anatomical guidelines support angular eccentric screw fixation. Materials and Methods: In this study, we obtained the pelvic arterial-phase computed tomographic data of thirty eight humans and reconstructed the three-dimensional models of osseous and vessel structures. We performed the surgical simulation to fix these structures with cementless cups and screws with angular eccentricities. Results: The effect of screw eccentricities (angular eccentricities of ±17° and ±34° on the vascular injury was determined. Measurement between screw and adjoining vessels was performed and analyzed statistically to ascertain a comparative risk study for blood vessels that are not visible during surgery. Conclusion: Authors similarly discussed the significant absence of appreciation of quadrant systems proposed by Wasielewski et al. on eccentric screws. Adjustment of quadrant systems provided by Wasielewski et al. is required for acetabular implants with eccentric holes for fixation of acetabular screws.

  12. Subtrochanteric fracture after cannulated screw fixation of femoral neck fractures: a report of four cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, Peter; Rubel, Iván F.; Lyden, John P.; Helfet, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Subtrochanteric fractures after screw or pin fixation of femoral neck fractures are a recognized complication. No literature is available on this complication after fixation using the recently popularized cannulated screws. We present our experience in treating four of these complications. The

  13. Complications of pedicle screws in lumbar and lumbosacral fusions in 105 consecutive primary operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutte, PC

    2002-01-01

    Pedicle screw fixation is technically demanding and associated with high complication rates. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the pedicle screw-related complications in 105 consecutive operations. We retrospectively analysed 105 consecutive primary operations. We found

  14. Screw-System-Based Mobility Analysis of a Family of Fully Translational Parallel Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodriguez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mobility of a family of fully translational parallel manipulators based on screw system analysis by identifying the common constraint and redundant constraints, providing a case study of this approach. The paper presents the branch motion-screws for the 3-RP̲C-Y parallel manipulator, the 3-RCC-Y (or 3-RP̲RC-Y parallel manipulator, and a newly proposed 3-RP̲C-T parallel manipulator. Then the paper determines the sets of platform constraint-screws for each of these three manipulators. The constraints exerted on the platforms of the 3-RP̲C architectures and the 3-RCC-Y manipulators are analyzed using the screw system approach and have been identified as couples. A similarity has been identified with the axes of couples: they are perpendicular to the R joint axes, but in the former the axes are coplanar with the base and in the latter the axes are perpendicular to the limb. The remaining couples act about the axis that is normal to the base. The motion-screw system and constraint-screw system analysis leads to the insightful understanding of the mobility of the platform that is then obtained by determining the reciprocal screws to the platform constraint screw sets, resulting in three independent instantaneous translational degrees-of-freedom. To validate the mobility analysis of the three parallel manipulators, the paper includes motion simulations which use a commercially available kinematics software.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... firm foundation, the base of the jack shall be blocked or cribbed. Where there is a possibility of...

  16. Effect of cutting flute design on cortical bone screw insertion torque and pullout strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, S; Scott, C C; Evans, N J; Messing, K L; Carter, D R

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of the number and length of cutting flutes on the insertion torque and pullout strength for self-tapping 4.5-millimeter cortical bone screws. Screws were self-tapped in the diaphysis of human cadaver femurs. Each of the six screw types studied had different designs with varying cutting flute lengths and numbers. Bone mineral density, insertion torque, and pullout strength were measured. The study was conducted at an experimental biomechanics laboratory associated with a university medical center. Insertion torque and pullout strength were normalized by the local bone mineral density. The mean normalized insertion torque of the design with four full-length cutting flutes was less than the design with three full-length flutes and the two designs with one-third length flutes (p flutes was significantly greater than that of all screws with fewer than three flutes (p flute design should ideally include ease of screw insertion, minimal soft tissue irritation, and maximal screw holding power. Screws with more than two flutes were easier to insert and did not cause cortical damage during insertion. The screw with four full-length flutes showed a trend toward being the easiest to insert and having the greatest holding strength.

  17. Technical aspects of the syndesmotic screw and their effect on functional outcome following acute distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Tim; van der Linden, Hans; Lieshout, Esther; Niesten, Dieu-Donné; van der Elst, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Much of the currently available data on the technical aspects of syndesmotic screw placement are based upon biomechanical studies, using cadaveric legs with different testing protocols, and on surgeon preference. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the level of syndesmotic screw insertion on functional outcome. Further, the effects of number of cortices engaged, the diameter of the screw, use of a second syndesmotic screw and the timing of r...

  18. Biomechanical comparison of tibial nail stability in a proximal third fracture: do screw quantity and locked, interlocking screws make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew L; Craig, Matthew R; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the fatigue life of nailed proximal third tibial fractures stabilized with either three or four proximal screws using commercially available nails with both locked (through threaded holes or end caps) and nonlocked proximal interlocking screw configurations. Eight paired and two independent tibiae of known bone mineral density were acquired, divided into three groups, and implanted with three different commercially available nails (n = 6/group). Nails were all 10 mm in diameter and individually sized for length. Individual tibiae from a given pair received different nails. Based on nail design, Nail A received four proximal screws (three that lock into the nail), whereas Nails B and C each received three proximal nonlocking screws. Standard end caps were used with all nails. As a result of its design, in Nail B, the most proximal interlocking screw was "locked" by the nail end cap. All nails used two distal screws. After implantation, an unstable proximal third fracture was created and specimens were tested with combined axial and torsional loads of 40 to 400 N and 0.11 to 1.1 Nm for 500,000 cycles or until failure. The fatigue life of Group A was significantly greater than either Groups B or C (P < 0.001 in both cases) with a mean cycle to failure of 392,977 versus 86,476 and 64,595 cycles for Nails B and C, respectively. Fatigue life of Group A was greater or equivalent to all contralateral tibiae; Group B outlasted all contralateral Group C limbs and the Group C constructs did not outlast any contralateral limbs. Bone mineral density correlated positively and significantly with fatigue life across all three groups (P < 0.001). In this study, proximal segment stability was improved with a greater quantity of screws and with locked interlocking screws.

  19. Traumatic dislocation of the S1 polyaxial pedicle screw head: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Pieter N B; Lau, Bernard P H; Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis

    2017-03-01

    Polyaxial screw head dislocation in the absence of a manufacture defect is extremely rare and represents a biomechanical overload of the screw, leading to early failure. A 58-year-old gentleman underwent instrumented fusion using polyaxial pedicle screws-titanium rod construct with interbody cage for spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L5/S1 level. He attempted to bend forward ten days after the surgery which resulted in a dislocation of the right S1 polyaxial screw head from the screw shank with recurrence of symptoms. He underwent revision surgery uneventfully. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention to the strength of fixation and the amount of release to avoid such a complication.

  20. Screw depth sounding in proximal humerus fractures to avoid iatrogenic intra-articular penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengard, Matthew J; Gardner, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Unstable and displaced proximal humerus fractures remain a treatment challenge. The use of locked plates has improved construct stability, but complication rates remain high. Biomechanical studies have emphasized the importance of anchoring screws in the subchondral bone of the humeral head to improve implant stability. However, the spherical shape of the proximal humerus and the limited tactile sensation of its soft cancellous bone make determining accurate screw length difficult, and reported rates of intraoperative screw penetration are high. Iatrogenic screw penetration, even if recognized and corrected before leaving the operating room, may lead to late failure. We present a simple technique of quickly and safely determining screw length using a blunt-tipped Kirschner wire and instruments found in basic orthopaedic sets.

  1. The applicability of existing renovation methods in technology of screw compressors repairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenko, P. V.

    2017-08-01

    The article deals with the basic methods of machine parts recovery. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods had been widely spoken. The effect of these methods on the surface properties had been analysed. The main reasons of the wear of screw compressor parts are described in short. The authors paid attention to the evaluation of the applicability of existing renovation methods in technology of screw compressors repairing. In choosing the optimal method of renovation the surfaces of screw compressor parts are guided by the criteria of RAMS: reliability, availability, maintainability and safety. Also, it is specially noted about the evaluation of the effect of renovation methods on the screw surface layer by the following criteria: adhesion, ecological safety, cost, wear resistance, hardness, roughness, layer thickness, capacity, hogging, porousness, surface preparation, changes in the structure and physical properties of the base metal and ease of use. The most appropriate method for the renovation of parts of screw compressors had been proposed.

  2. Analysis of Third-Grade Fluid in Helical Screw Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady flow of an incompressible, third-grade fluid in helical screw rheometer (HSR is studied by “unwrapping or flattening” the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel. The geometry is approximated as a shallow infinite channel, by assuming that the width of the channel is large as compared to the depth. The developed second-order nonlinear coupled differential equations are reduced to single differential equation by using a transformation. Using Adomian decomposition method, analytical expressions are calculated for the the velocity profiles and volume flow rates. The results have been discussed with the help of graphs as well. We observed that the velocity profiles are strongly dependant on non-Newtonian parameter (β~, and with the increase in β~, the velocity profiles increase progressively, which conclude that extrusion process increases with the increase in β~. We also observed that the increase in pressure gradients in x- and z-direction increases the net flow inside the helical screw rheometer, which increases the extrusion process. We noticed that the flow increases as the flight angle increase.

  3. BOLTED TIMBER JOINTS WITH SELF-TAPPING SCREWS

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    César Echavarría

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-tapping screws with continuous threads in the joint area as a reinforcement to avoid splitting of timber members is studied. A theoretical model is developed to calculate the stress distribution around a pin-loaded hole in a timber joint, to predict brittle failure modes in bolted connections and to calculate the load in the reinforcing screws. Laboratory experiments on reinforced and non-reinforced timber joints with 15,9-mm bolts have shown good agreement with the model predictions.En este artículo se estudia el uso de tornillos autoperforantes como refuerzo para evitar rupturas frágiles en uniones de madera. Se presenta un modelo teórico para calcular la distribución de esfuerzos alrededor de un perno en una unión de madera, predecir las rupturas frágiles y evaluar el esfuerzo en los tornillos autoperforantes. Los experimentos de laboratorio con uniones de madera, con pernos de 15,9 mm de diámetro, reforzadas y no reforzadas mostraron la efectividad del modelo teórico propuesto.

  4. Assessment of infrazygomatic bone depth for mini-screw insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertel, Sebastian; Hans, Mark G

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the bone depth at the infrazygomatic crest with regard to orthodontic mini-screw insertion. Twenty-nine adult human dry skulls were imaged using CBCT technology, slice data were generated and multiple measurements were undertaken at three sites associated with the infrazygomatic crest and five different measurement levels. The data were analyzed using intraclass correlation and repeated measures ANOVA. The greatest bone depth was available at, on average, 11.48+/-1.92 mm apical from the cemento-enamel junction of the maxillary first molar and decreased rapidly further apically. Maximum bone depth (7.05+/-3.7 mm) was present at the lowest measurement level. However, here, insufficient clearance to the molar roots was present. Both the measurement site and the level at which the measurements were conducted had a significant impact on bone depth. When inserting orthodontic mini-screws (6 mm or longer) into the infrazygomatic crest while staying clear of the molar roots perforation of the maxillary sinus or the nasal cavity can be expected, but bone depth varies considerably between individuals.

  5. [Pullout test in expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty of the cervical spine with OsteoMed M3 plate and screws: the screw orientation matters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kong-he; Jin, An-min; Duan, Yang; Liu, Cheng-long; Min, Shao-xiong; Zhu, Li-xin; Zhao, Wei-dong

    2011-05-01

    To study the impact of screw orientation on the pullout strength of OsteoMed M3 titanium screws in expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty of the cervical spine. Six fresh human cervical spine specimens were randomly numbered and OsteoMed M3 plate and screws were used for an expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty. The screws were inserted in the lateral mass at different extraversion angles (0°, 30° and 45°). The maximum pullout strength was tested on the ElectroForce material testing machine. The maximum pullout strength was 81.60∓7.33 N, 150.05∓15.57 N, and 160.08∓17.77 N in extraversion angle 0°, 30°, and 45° groups, respectively. The maximum pullout strength was significantly less in extraversion angle 0° group than in 30° and 45° groups (P<0.05), but similar in the latter two groups. The pullout strength of the screws inserted at an extraversion angle over 30° provides stronger fixation than an angle of 0° in the unilateral open-door laminoplasty using OsteoMed M3 titanium plate and screws.

  6. A prospective, cohort study comparing translaminar screw fixation with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, D; Bartanusz, V; Jeszenszky, D; Kleinstück, F S; Lattig, F; O'Riordan, D; Mannion, A F

    2009-10-01

    In a prospective observational study we compared the two-year outcome of lumbar fusion by a simple technique using translaminar screws (n = 57) with a more extensive method using transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and pedicular screw fixation (n = 63) in consecutive patients with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Outcome was assessed using the validated multidimensional Core Outcome Measures Index. Blood loss and operating time were significantly lower in the translaminar screw group (p Core Outcome Measures Index score reduction, 3.6 (sd 2.5) (translaminar screws) vs 4.0 (sd 2.8) (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) (p = 0.39); 'good' global outcomes, 78% (translaminar screws) vs 78% (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) (p = 0.99) or satisfaction with treatment, 82% (translaminar screws) vs 86% (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) (p = 0.52). The two fusion techniques differed markedly in their extent and the cost of the implants, but were associated with almost identical patient-orientated outcomes. Extensive three-point stabilisation is not always required to achieve satisfactory patient-orientated results at two years.

  7. Routine versus on demand removal of the syndesmotic screw; a protocol for an international randomised controlled trial (RODEO-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, S. A.; Birnie, M. F. N.; Sanders, F. R. K.; van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; Backes, M.; van Beeck, E.; Bloemers, F. W.; van Dijkman, B.; Flikweert, E.; Haverkamp, D.; Holtslag, H. R.; Hoogendoorn, J. M.; Joosse, P.; Parkkinen, M.; Roukema, G.; Sosef, N.; Twigt, B. A.; van Veen, R. N.; van der Veen, A. H.; Vermeulen, J.; Winkelhagen, J.; van der Zwaard, B. C.; van Dieren, S.; Goslings, J. C.; Schepers, T.

    2018-01-01

    Syndesmotic injuries are common and their incidence is rising. In case of surgical fixation of the syndesmosis a metal syndesmotic screw is used most often. It is however unclear whether this screw needs to be removed routinely after the syndesmosis has healed. Traditionally the screw is removed

  8. An experimental study on initial fixation strength in transpedicular screwing augmented with calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Taiga; Sasao, Yutaka; Miura, Takehiko; Torii, Yoshiaki; Kojima, Atsushi; Aoki, Haruhito; Beppu, Moroe

    2009-09-15

    An experimental study. To clarify the optimal insertion timing of transpedicular screws when the initial fixation strength reaches in maximum as calcium phosphate cement (CPC) hardens, in cases augmented by CPC to the vertebrae. CPC goes easily into the bone trabeculae and excels in the bone compatibility. However, it is still unknown as for differences of fixation effects by CPC hardening time at actual insertion of the pedicle screw. Fifty-seven vertebrae obtained from 11 human cadavers. The CPC and titanium pedicle screws were used. Experimental groups were decided as follows. (1) Control group (without CPC). (2) CPC group (augmented with CPC); the mixed CPC infused into the screw hole, afterwards the pedicle screw inserted at a set time (passage time from the initiation of powder and liquid agent mixing). The CPC group was further divided into 3 subgroups, with respect to insertion time of the pedicle screws: 2, 5, and 10 minute subgroups. Maximum pull-out strength was compared, and cross sectioned specimens of the 5 and 10 minute groups were prepared and observed. CPC group showed a pull-out strength of about 177% that of the control group. For inserting timing of the pedicle screw and pull-out strength, no apparent statistically significant difference was found between each subgroups, although the 10-minute group showed the lowest. Cross sectional observations revealed that the CPC diffused deeper into the bone trabeculae in the 5-minute group than in the 10 minutes. CPC augmentation enabled an average 77% increase of the maximum pull-out strength compared to the control group. The study of screw insertion timing augmented with CPC was indicative of the fact that an increase in the initial fixation of the pedicle screw can be achieved when the screw is inserted before initiation of CPC hardening.

  9. Novel free-hand T1 pedicle screw method: Review of 44 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rivkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary of Background Data: Multilevel posterior cervical instrumented fusions are becoming more prevalent in current practice. Biomechanical characteristics of the cervicothoracic junction may necessitate extending the construct to upper thoracic segments. However, fixation in upper thoracic spine can be technically demanding owing to transitional anatomy while suboptimal placement facilitates vascular and neurologic complications. Thoracic instrumentation methods include free-hand, fluoroscopic guidance, and CT-based image guidance. However, fluoroscopy of upper thoracic spine is challenging secondary to vertebral geometry and patient positioning, while image-guided systems present substantial financial commitment and are not readily available at most centers. Additionally, imaging modalities increase radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon while potentially lengthening surgical time. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of 44 consecutive patients undergoing a cervicothoracic fusion by a single surgeon using the novel free-hand T1 pedicle screw technique between June 2009 and November 2012. A starting point medial and cephalad to classic entry as well as new trajectory were utilized. No imaging modalities were employed during screw insertion. Postoperative CT scans were obtained on day 1. Screw accuracy was independently evaluated according to the Heary classification. Results: In total, 87 pedicle screws placed were at T1. Grade 1 placement occurred in 72 (82.8% screws, Grade 2 in 4 (4.6% screws and Grade 3 in 9 (10.3% screws. All Grade 2 and 3 breaches were <2 mm except one Grade 3 screw breaching 2-4 mm laterally. Only two screws (2.3% were noted to be Grade 4, both breaching medially by less than 2 mm. No new neurological deficits or returns to operating room took place postoperatively. Conclusions: This modification of the traditional starting point and trajectory at T1 is safe and effective. It attenuates additional bone

  10. Characterization of endotoxins on orthopaedic fixation screws, using physicochemical surface analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Rodrigo; Alfa, Michelle; Olson, Nancy; Yahia, L'Hocine; Sacher, Edward

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if surface analysis techniques could be used to detect endotoxin on stainless steel malleolus screws. New malleolus screws were compared to ones that had been coated in purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Artificial Test Soil (ATS) containing lipopolysaccharide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and time-of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were used to assess the fixation screws surface. Organic material was visualized on the LPS and ATS-LPS inoculated screws but not on the new unsoiled screws. This was further supported by the peaks observed at masses between 40 and 100 D in TOF-SIMS spectra of the LPS and ATS-LPS inoculated screws. After deconvolution of N1s high resolution XPS spectra, the LPS inoculated screws showed amide groups whereas the ATS-LPS inoculated screws showed predominantly nitroso groups (C-NO). Our data demonstrate that surface analysis can be used to detect organic residuals present on fixation screws. The XPS data confirmed that LPS reacted predominantly with positively charged surface metallic ions (Fe and Cr), whereas proteins reacted with the surface oxide layer of fixation screws, forming C-NO groups. The application of these surface analysis techniques will be helpful in determining if the reprocessing of such items results in an accumulation of organic material that might lead to aseptic loosening, when implanted. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:240-247, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparação entre a técnica de substituição do ligamento redondo por implante de fascia lata bubalina preservada em glicerina e o uso de pino transarticular na redução e na estabilização da luxação coxofemoral experimentalmente induzida em cães Comparation between the technique of substitution of the round ligamentum by glycerin-preserved bubaline fascia lata implant and the use of transarticular pin in the redution and stabilization of experimentally induzed coxofemoral luxation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Sia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se duas técnicas cirúrgicas de redução e estabilização da articulação coxofemoral experimentalmente luxada em cães. Dois grupos de animais, submetidos às respectivas técnicas após a indução cirúrgica da luxação, foram acompanhados clínica e radiograficamente por um período de 60 dias, findos os quais, realizaram-se avaliações macroscópica e histológica e teste de tensiometria das articulações. Cada grupo foi constituído por oito animais, clinicamente sadios, com pesos entre 5 e 20kg. Os animais submetidos ao implante de fáscia apresentaram, ao exame físico, evolução da deambulação significativamente precoce em relação aos do grupo submetido ao implante de pino de Steinmann, além de menor grau de atrofia muscular. Os testes de tensiometria, as avaliações macroscópicas e radiográficas e os exames histológicos não diferiram entre os grupos, evidenciando também que ambas as técnicas não geraram alterações deletérias à articulação operada. Conclui-se que a técnica de estabilização da articulação coxofemoral com implante de fascia lata foi clinicamente eficaz e vantajosa quando comparada à técnica do pino transarticular.It was compared both surgical techniques of reduction and stabilization of experimentally luxated coxofemoral join in dog. Two groups were submitted to the techniques after surgical induction of the luxation. All animals were clinically and radiografically observed during 60 days. After that, a macroscopic study, an histological exam, and a tensiometry test in the articulations were performed. Each group had eight healthy animals, weighting from 5 to 20kg. The most important advantage was related to the deambulation, which the animals submited to the facia lata implant showed a faster evolution after the surgery at the physical exam, and muscular atrophy in a smaller degree. The tensiometry tests, the radiographic and the histological exams did not present important

  12. The effect of hubbing on the pull-out strength of lateral mass screws in the cervical spine: a biomechanical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ki Hyoung; Yoon, S Tim; Kim, Sang Bum; Hutton, William C

    2015-02-01

    This was a cadaveric biomechanical experiment. To compare the pull-out strength of polyaxial screws that are either hubbed or not hubbed when inserted into the lateral mass. It has been shown in a study on pedicle screws in the thoracic spine that "hubbing" the head of the screw against the dorsal laminar cortex results in significantly lower pull-out strength of the screws. Fifteen segments of the human cervical spine (from C3 to C7) were prepared. Polyaxial screws 3.5 mm in diameter were used. On one side screws 12 mm in length were inserted until the screw head touched the lateral mass; they were then turned 2.5 more times until they were fully hubbed (hubbed screws). On the other side screws 14 mm in length were inserted until the screw head just touched the lateral mass (nonhubbed screws). The 2 mm difference in length was to ensure that the screws were buried to the same length. All screws inserted into the lateral masses underwent tensile pull-out by applying a tensile force down the long axis of the screw. The difference in pull-out strength between the 2 groups was evaluated using a nonparametric paired test (the Wilcoxon signed rank test), which compared side to side on each vertebra. One specimen was excluded because of cement breakage during the biomechanical test. A total of 14 vertebrae were tested. Four vertebrae in the hubbed group showed small fractures or cracks around the screw hole after screw insertion. In a side to side comparison, the hubbed screws had significantly lower pull-out strengths as compared with the nonhubbed screws (P=0.033). Hubbing of lateral mass screws lowers the potential pull-out strength of the screws as compared with the pull-out strength of nonhubbed screws. Thus, hubbing of lateral mass screws, on the basis of the parameters applied in this study, is not recommended.

  13. Sliding hip screw versus cannulated cancellous screws for fixation of femoral neck fracture in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Xiong; Kuang, Ming-Jie; Xing, Fei; Zhao, Yun-Long; Chen, Heng-Ting; Zhang, Lu-Kai; Fan, Zheng-Rui; Han, Chao; Ma, Xin-Long

    2018-02-19

    Femoral neck fracture is considered a difficult fracture to treat and often gives rise to unsatisfactory treatment results. Cannulated cancellous screws (CCS) or a sliding hip screw (SHS) are the mainstream internal fixations used for osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures. There is a need to integrate existing data through a meta-analysis to investigate the safety and effectiveness of CCS and SHS in the treatment of femoral neck fractures. According to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, we screened for the relevant studies by searching Google Scholar, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and PubMed. The PICOS criteria was used to make sure the included studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Pooled data showed that there were no significant differences between the SHS and CCS groups for the Harris Hip Score. Significant differences were found between the SHS and CCS groups in terms of union time, postoperative complications, blood loss, operation time, incision length and length of hospital stay. Although the SHS and CCS groups showed similar functional recovery in treatment of femoral neck fracture in terms of the Harris Hip Score, the SHS group showed fewer postoperative complications and faster union time for patients with femoral neck fractures. Therefore, compared with CCS, the use of SHS may be a more effective treatment of femoral neck fractures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guo

    Full Text Available Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine.Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis. The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group, pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group, the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is 1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable.A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group.The individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation is easy and safe, with a high success rate in the upper cervical spine surgery.

  15. Remoção da cartilagem articular associada ou não a implante homógeno ou enxerto autógeno de osso esponjoso em cães submetidos à artrodese atlantoaxial Joint cartilage removal associated or not to homologous implant or autologous cancellous bone graft in dogs submitted to atlantoaxial arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Festugatto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o grau de fusão articular e formação óssea na articulação atlantoaxial de cães submetidos à artrodese após a remoção da cartilagem articular associada ou não ao implante homógeno ou enxerto autógeno de osso esponjoso. Foram utilizados 12 cães, adultos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos iguais. Grupo I (GI: realizada apenas a remoção da cartilagem articular e imobilização articular com pinos e resina acrílica. Grupo II (GII: feita a remoção da cartilagem articular e imobilização da articulação, seguida da colocação e modelagem do implante ósseo esponjoso homógeno entre as superfícies articulares. Grupo III (GIII: foi realizado o mesmo procedimento do GII, mais o enxerto ósseo esponjoso autógeno no local determinado. Realizaram-se exames radiográficos em todos os animais aos 30, 60 e 90 dias de pós-operatório (PO. Aos 90 dias de PO foi feita a eutanásia para o emprego do teste de palpação manual, avaliação tomográfica e histopatológica. Para análise estatística da associação entre o grau de fusão articular, aplicou-se o Teste Qui-quadrado de independência. Os resultados dos testes foram avaliados pela significância exata e considerados significantes a 5% (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of joint fusion and bone formation in dogs undergoing atlantoaxial arthrodesis after removal of articular cartilage associated or not to implant homogenous or autogenous cancellous bone. Twelve dogs, weighing between 8 and 12kg were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (GI performed only the removal of joint cartilage and joint immobilization with acrylic resin and pins. Group II (GII: after removel of joint cartilage and articular immobilization was performed modeling and placement of homogenous cancellous bone at the given location. The volume of homograft placed in the joint was measured using a precision balance and all animals received the

  16. On Working Capacity Criteria for Screw-Roller Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today roller-screw mechanisms (RSM are the most prospective motion converters from rotary to linear type. RSM manufacturers have suggested their design in the way, similar to the rolling bearings, in static and dynamic load ratings. The latter means that during long operations the main criterion of the RSM working capacity is fatigue spalling. However, this approach does not permit to consider temporal changes of the most critical performance parameters of the RSM (such as the axial play, the efficiency factor, the axial stiffness, the accuracy, the starting torque force for zero lash RSMs, etc. through calculations. The abovementioned method was not perfect, because the choice of the main criterion of RSM working capacity was wrong. The article proves that wear-resistance is the main criterion of RSM working capacity. The proof is the RSM efficiency factor equal to 80-88% on the average. The power loss occurs because of overcoming a sliding friction between multiple (from 300 to 1000 interfacing turns of thread on the screw and the rollers as well as on the rollers and the nut. That is why the RSMs are the screwtype rolling mechanisms with an essential portion of sliding friction. High-accuracy measurements taken using the device called a form-tracer for threaded pieces permitted to determine the essential changes on the profiles of turns of threads on the rollers (a straight-line portion appeared on the radial profile; these changes could emerge only from wear. Besides, the length of this portion increased with the increasing RSM operation time. The JSC “Moskvich” has examined the RSMs, which have been put out of operation after completing their service life as parts of robot welding machines. There were no traces of fatigue spalling found on the threaded surfaces of the RSM parts, while the sizes of the straight-line portions on the turns of the roller threads were much bigger than they were during the measurements after the initial

  17. Spinal pedicle screw planning using deformable atlas registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerres, J.; Uneri, A.; De Silva, T.; Ketcha, M.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Jacobson, M.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Osgood, G.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-04-01

    Spinal screw placement is a challenging task due to small bone corridors and high risk of neurological or vascular complications, benefiting from precision guidance/navigation and quality assurance (QA). Implicit to both guidance and QA is the definition of a surgical plan—i.e. the desired trajectories and device selection for target vertebrae—conventionally requiring time-consuming manual annotations by a skilled surgeon. We propose automation of such planning by deriving the pedicle trajectory and device selection from a patient’s preoperative CT or MRI. An atlas of vertebrae surfaces was created to provide the underlying basis for automatic planning—in this work, comprising 40 exemplary vertebrae at three levels of the spine (T7, T8, and L3). The atlas was enriched with ideal trajectory annotations for 60 pedicles in total. To define trajectories for a given patient, sparse deformation fields from the atlas surfaces to the input (CT or MR image) are applied on the annotated trajectories. Mean value coordinates are used to interpolate dense deformation fields. The pose of a straight trajectory is optimized by image-based registration to an accumulated volume of the deformed annotations. For evaluation, input deformation fields were created using coherent point drift (CPD) to perform a leave-one-out analysis over the atlas surfaces. CPD registration demonstrated surface error of 0.89  ±  0.10 mm (median  ±  interquartile range) for T7/T8 and 1.29  ±  0.15 mm for L3. At the pedicle center, registered trajectories deviated from the expert reference by 0.56  ±  0.63 mm (T7/T8) and 1.12  ±  0.67 mm (L3). The predicted maximum screw diameter differed by 0.45  ±  0.62 mm (T7/T8), and 1.26  ±  1.19 mm (L3). The automated planning method avoided screw collisions in all cases and demonstrated close agreement overall with expert reference plans, offering a potentially valuable tool in support

  18. Effect of Real-Time Feedback on Screw Placement Into Synthetic Cancellous Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Peter A; Geeslin, Andrew G; Prior, David M; Chess, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate whether real-time torque feedback may reduce the occurrence of stripping when inserting nonlocking screws through fracture plates into synthetic cancellous bone. Five attending orthopaedic surgeons and 5 senior level orthopaedic residents inserted 8 screws in each phase. In phase I, screws were inserted without feedback simulating conventional techniques. In phase II, screws were driven with visual torque feedback. In phase III, screws were again inserted with conventional techniques. Comparison of these 3 phases with respect to screw insertion torque, surgeon rank, and perception of stripping was used to establish the effects of feedback. Seventy-three of 239 screws resulted in stripping. During the first phase, no feedback was provided and the overall strip rate was 41.8%; this decreased to 15% with visual feedback (P perception of tactile sensation. This is significantly improved with utilization of real-time visual feedback of a torque versus roll curve. This concept of real-time feedback seems beneficial toward performance in synthetic cancellous bone and may lead to improved fixation in cancellous bone in a surgical setting.

  19. Investigation of a Ball Screw Feed Drive System Based on Dynamic Modeling for Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequency response relationship between the ball screw nut preload, ball screw torsional stiffness variations and table mass effect for a single-axis feed drive system. Identification for the frequency response of an industrial ball screw drive system is very important for the precision motion when the vibration modes of the system are critical for controller design. In this study, there is translation and rotation modes of a ball screw feed drive system when positioning table is actuated by a servo motor. A lumped dynamic model to study the ball nut preload variation and torsional stiffness of the ball screw drive system is derived first. The mathematical modeling and numerical simulation provide the information of peak frequency response as the different levels of ball nut preload, ball screw torsional stiffness and table mass. The trend of increasing preload will indicate the abrupt peak change in frequency response spectrum analysis in some mode shapes. This study provides an approach to investigate the dynamic frequency response of a ball screw drive system, which provides significant information for better control performance when precise motion control is concerned.

  20. Treatment of screw hole defects using bone graft materials: a histologic and biomechanic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, M J; Hutton, W C

    1996-01-01

    We surgically applied compression plates, secured with cortical screws, to the anterolateral surface of each radius in 20 dogs. Five weeks later, the plates and screws were removed. The dogs were then divided into four groups of 5, and each group had the screw holes in the left radii filled with a different form of bone graft material. The screw holes in the right radii received no graft material and served as controls. Five weeks later the dogs were euthanized, and the radii were removed and torqued to failure. All bones failed through a previous screw hole. An analysis of variance comparing all grafted radii to the ungrafted controls revealed no significant difference in torque to failure. This suggests that both grafted and ungrafted screw holes still increase stress at 5 weeks, and any period of protection after plate removal should be longer than 5 weeks. However, histology revealed that the holes filled with graft material had, in every case, more bone in the screw holes than did the holes in the ungrafted controls.

  1. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Egli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column associated with a disruption of the quadrilateral surface can be treated with instrumentation implementing the stabilization of the quadrilateral surface. The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced ability for partial weight bearing. Whereas there are guidelines available for safe screw fixation for the anterior and posterior columns, there might be a concern for intra-articular placement of screws placed through the infrapectineal part of the quadrilateral buttress plate. Within this report we analyzed retrospectively screw placement in 30 plates in postoperative CT scans using algorithms for metal artifact reduction. None of the screws of the buttress plate penetrated the hip joint. We describe the placement, length, and spatial orientation of the screws used for fracture fixation and suggest that the use of intraoperative image intensifiers with a combined inlet-obturator view of 30–45° best projects the screws and the hip joint. Preoperative knowledge of approximate screw placement and information for accurate intraoperative imaging may contribute to safe acetabular fracture fixation and may reduce operating time and limit radiation exposure to the patient and the personnel. This trial is registered with KEK-BE: 266/2014.

  2. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, R J; Keel, M J B; Cullmann, J L; Bastian, J D

    2017-01-01

    Acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column associated with a disruption of the quadrilateral surface can be treated with instrumentation implementing the stabilization of the quadrilateral surface. The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced ability for partial weight bearing. Whereas there are guidelines available for safe screw fixation for the anterior and posterior columns, there might be a concern for intra-articular placement of screws placed through the infrapectineal part of the quadrilateral buttress plate. Within this report we analyzed retrospectively screw placement in 30 plates in postoperative CT scans using algorithms for metal artifact reduction. None of the screws of the buttress plate penetrated the hip joint. We describe the placement, length, and spatial orientation of the screws used for fracture fixation and suggest that the use of intraoperative image intensifiers with a combined inlet-obturator view of 30-45° best projects the screws and the hip joint. Preoperative knowledge of approximate screw placement and information for accurate intraoperative imaging may contribute to safe acetabular fracture fixation and may reduce operating time and limit radiation exposure to the patient and the personnel. This trial is registered with KEK-BE: 266/2014.

  3. How safe is minimally invasive pedicle screw placement for treatment of thoracolumbar spine fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintel, Timo Michael; Dannigkeit, Stefan; Fenwick, Annabel; Jordan, Martin Cornelius; Jansen, Hendrik; Gilbert, Fabian; Meffert, Rainer

    2017-05-01

    Prospective analysis of patients who underwent minimally invasive posterior instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of minimally invasive pedicle screw placement in patients with unstable thoracic and lumbar spine fractures using the conventional fluoroscopy technique. Although wound infection, haematoma, and new neurological deficit due to screw malplacement remain a common source of morbidity, estimates of their rates of occurrence remain relatively limited. 2052 percutaneous pedicle screws in 433 consecutive patients were evaluated. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was based on evaluation of axial 3-mm slice computed tomography scans. Morbidity and mortality data were collected prospectively. A total of 2029 of 2052 screws (99%) had a good or excellent position. 5 screws (0.2%) showed a higher grade violation of the medial pedicle wall. Seven patients (1.8%) needed revision due to screw malposition (3 pat.), surgical site infection, postoperative haematoma, implant failure (2 pat.), and technical difficulties. Minimally invasive transpedicular instrumentation is an accurate, reliable, and safe procedure to treat thoracic and lumbar spine fractures.

  4. Screw osteosynthesis of displaced lateral humeral condyle fractures in children: a mid-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, W P; Shukur, M H; Yeap, J K

    2006-02-01

    Displaced humeral condyle fractures in children are traditionally fixed with smooth Kirschner wire at the expense of a risk of secondary displacement following removal of wire. Screw fixation of such fractures has recently been advocated as it provides stable fixation. We have been using screw osteosynthesis for treatment of displaced lateral humeral condyle fractures in children in our institution since the turn of this century. This study provides a midterm review of treatment of such injuries with special regards to growth disturbances after screw osteosynthesis and to assess rate of union with a view to formulate guidelines for screw removal. We review the outcomes of screw osteosynthesis for displaced lateral condyle fracture of the humerus (19 Milch type-1 and 15 Milch type-II) in 34 children treated in our institution from January 2000 to March 2004. The average age of the patients was 6.1 years. The average follow up was 24.5 months. Screw osteosynthesis led to union (average 6.9 weeks) in all patients with excellent results in 28 patients. Growth disturbances in the form of lateral condyle overgrowth (2 patients), valgus deformity secondary to lateral condyle avascular necrosis (2 patients) and fishtail deformity ((3 patients) were recognized. The implants should not be removed until fracture union is established. Screw osteosynthesis of the lateral humeral condyle fracture prevents secondary fracture redisplacement and lateral condyle overgrowth is probably related to hyperemic response to metaphyseal fixation and early removal of implant before radiological union.

  5. Biomechanical criterion for selecting cancellous bone screws: arthrodesis in the hindfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihsner, Roland; Huber, Wolfgang O; Beer, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to compare primary biomechanical stability of different arthrodesis screws (7.3 mm AO screw with and without washer, 6.5 mm Herbert screw and 6.5 mm Ideal Compression Screw (I.CO.S)). The work necessary to achieve an adequate compressive force with them was compared to the measurement with the AO screw with washer, because this method is for the time being the most commonly used one and is called the golden standard. Compressive force was measured indirectly, via screw tension measurement, with strain gauges method. From the measurements we calculated the work to reach a limit of 60 N and the ratios corresponding to the value of the golden standard: I.CO.S (35.2%), Herbert (89.0%), AO-screw without washer (116%). The I.CO.S showed superior results. Only in the case of extremely poor bone quality, a clear advantage of I.CO.S could be expected in practice.

  6. Factors influencing success of cement versus screw-retained implant restorations: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Manawar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As more and more dental practitioners are focusing on implant-supported fixed restorations, some clinicians favor the use of cement retained restorations while others consider screw retained prosthesis to be the best choice. Discussion: In screw-retained restorations, the fastening screw provides a solid joint between the restoration and the implant abutment, while in cement-retained prostheses the restorative screw is eliminated to enhance esthetics, occlusal stability, and passive fit of the restorations. The factors that influence the type of fixation of the prostheses to the implants like passivity of the framework, ease of fabrication, occlusion, esthetics, accessibility, retention and retrievability are discussed in this article with scientific studies demonstrating superior outcomes of one technique over another. Screwretained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention, retrievability and lack of potentially retained subgingival cement. However, a few disadvantages exist such as precise placement of the implant for optimal and esthetic location of the screw access hole and obtaining passive fit. On the other hand, cement retained restorations eliminate unesthetic screw access holes, have passive fit of castings, reduced complexity of clinical and lab procedures, enhanced esthetics, reduced cost factors and non disrupted morphology of the occlusal table. Conclusion: This article compares the advantages, potential disadvantages and limitations of screw and cement retained restorations and their specific implications in the most common clinical situation.

  7. Dynamic modelling and PID loop control of an oil-injected screw compressor package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, G. W.; Milligan, W. J.; McKenna, P.

    2017-08-01

    A significant amount of time is spent tuning the PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) control loops of a screw compressor package due to the unique characteristics of the system. Common mistakes incurred during the tuning of a PID control loop include improper PID algorithm selection and unsuitable tuning parameters of the system resulting in erratic and inefficient operation. This paper details the design and development of software that aims to dynamically model the operation of a single stage oil injected screw compressor package deployed in upstream oil and gas applications. The developed software will be used to assess and accurately tune PID control loops present on the screw compressor package employed in controlling the oil pressures, temperatures and gas pressures, in a bid to improve control of the operation of the screw compressor package. Other applications of the modelling software will include its use as an evaluation tool that can estimate compressor package performance during start up, shutdown and emergency shutdown processes. The paper first details the study into the fundamental operational characteristics of each of the components present on the API 619 screw compressor package and then discusses the creation of a dynamic screw compressor model within the MATLAB/Simulink software suite. The paper concludes by verifying and assessing the accuracy of the created compressor model using data collected from physical screw compressor packages.

  8. Comparison of rates of union and hardware removal between large and small cannulated screws for calcaneal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayres, Stephanie C; Gu, Yang; Kiernan, Samuel; DeSandis, Bridget Ann; Elliott, Andrew J; O'Malley, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    The calcaneal osteotomy is a common procedure to correct hindfoot malalignment. Reported union rates are high, utilizing fixation methods including staples, plates, and most commonly cannulated screws. We began our practice using 6.5 mm and 7.3 mm cannulated screws, but complaints of postoperative posterior heel pain led to hardware removal in many patients. A switch to smaller 4.5 mm cannulated screws resulted in fewer symptoms, thus we hypothesized that using a smaller screw would decrease screw removal while maintaining an equally high union rate. The records of patients who underwent a calcaneal osteotomy by 2 surgeons between January 1996 and April 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The rates of hardware removal and union were compared between osteotomies held with two 7.3 mm, 6.5 mm, and 4.5 mm cannulated screws. There were 272 feet that met the inclusion criteria. The hardware removal rate for 130 osteotomies held with two 7.3 mm screws was 29.2% and the removal rate for 115 osteotomies held with 4.5 mm screws was 13.0%, which was significantly different (P hardware removal. There was no loss of position from the smaller screws and we feel that the 4.5mm cannulated screw provides sufficient compression and achieves a high rate of union equal to that of the larger screws. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. High speed tracking control of ball screw drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yi; Huang, Ruei-Yu; Lee, An-Chen

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new method to achieve the requirement of high speed and high precision for ball screw drive. First, a PI controller is adopted to increase the equivalent structural damping in the velocity loop. Next, the design of the position controller is implemented by a two-stage method. The Doubly Coprime Factorization Disturbance Observer (DCFDOB) is developed to suppress disturbance and resist modelling error in the inner loop, while the outer loop is then designed based on method to extend the system bandwidth over first resonant frequency so that high speed and high accuracy can be achieved. Finally, a feedforward controller is implemented to improve tracking performance. The experiment results showed that the proposed method has smaller tracking error and better performance for suppressing disturbance when compared to the conventional cascaded P-PI control.

  10. CFD simulation of a screw compressor with oil injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Jiang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a full 3D transient CFD model of a twin screw compressor with oil injection will be described in detail. The Volume Of Fraction (VOF) approach was used for two phase flow of gas and liquid. The numeric method and simulation conditions will be explained. Simulation results will be presented with discussion. The cooling and sealing effects of oil injection will be evaluated by comparing the simulation results for the cases with and without oil. The imbalance of mass and energy of the compression system in simulation results will be rigorously checked to prove the methodologies used in the simulation are fully conservative and consistent. The efficiency, speed, and robustness of the proposed approach will also be demonstrated through the test case.

  11. Bioresorbable Plates and Screws for Clinical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioresorbable implants are being widely used for fracture fixation in orthopaedic surgery and the market is expanding rapidly worldwide. Bioresorbable materials slowly dissolve in the human body, such that a second operation to remove the synthetic material is not needed. Bioresorbable implants have expanded the armamentarium of the surgeon, especially in the field of sports medicine. Interference screws, plates, pins, suture anchors, meniscal repair implants, and simple fracture fixation implants are the most commonly used resorbable implants for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, shoulder surgery, meniscal repair, and fracture care. However, many clinicians continue to rely on metal fixation, mainly due to the high mechanical strength and to the complications reported with some of the available resorbable implant materials. The goal of the present paper is to present an overview on the available resorbable materials and their applications with a particular focus on new developments and trends in the field.

  12. Rotating Optical Tubes: An Archimedes' Screw for Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Rsheed, Anwar Al; Aldossary, Omar M; Lembessis, Vassilis E

    2016-01-01

    The classical dynamics of a cold atom trapped inside a vertical rotating helical optical tube (HOT) is investigated by taking also into account the gravitational field. The resulting equations of motion are solved numerically. The rotation induces a vertical motion for an atom initially at rest. The motion is a result of the action of two inertial forces, namely the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force. Both inertial forces force the atom to rotate in a direction opposite to that of the angular velocity of the HOT. The frequency and the turning points of the atom's global oscillation can be controlled by the value and the direction of the angular velocity of the HOT. However, at large values of the angular velocity of the HOT the atom can escape from the global oscillation and be transported along the axis of the HOT. In this case, the rotating HOT operates as an Optical Archimedes' Screw (OAS) for atoms.

  13. Superior segment facet joint violation and cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey B; Dai, Joseph M; Orchowski, Joseph R

    2011-03-01

    Minimally invasive approaches to the lumbar spine allow for pedicle screw placement through a muscle-splitting paraspinal approach. These techniques are highly dependent on fluoroscopy and do not allow for direct visualization of anatomic landmarks. The effect of this on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of violation of the superior segment facet joint and rates of cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. To evaluate the rate of cortical violation and involvement of the superior segment facet after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. Retrospective chart review. Patients who underwent minimally invasive pedicle screw placement by a single surgeon between January 2004 and July 2009. Violation of the superior segment facet joint or cortical violation identified on computed tomography (CT). This study consisted of a consecutive series of adult patients undergoing minimally invasive pedicle screw placement by a single surgeon for degenerative lumbar spinal conditions. Routine postoperative CT was obtained and evaluated for involvement of the superior segment facet joint and for cortical violation. Sixty-one consecutive patients (282 pedicle screws) met the study criteria and were included in the study, including 42 single-level fusions and 19 two-level fusions. Seven cortical breaches were identified for a rate of 2.48%. Seven patients had involvement of the superior-level facet for an incidence of 11.48%. One patient required revision for a malpositioned pedicle screw. This study revealed a low rate of superior segment facet violation and cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. This rate of superior-level facet involvement is significantly lower than previously reported after open procedures. The rate of cortical violation is similar to previous reports in the literature with a low revision rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Extra-articular and transcutaneous migration of the poly-l/D-lactide interference screw after popliteal tendon reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Partezani Helito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knee ligament reconstructions are commonly performed orthopedic procedures. Graft fixation is generally performed with metallic or absorbable interference screws. In a recent study, only ten reports of screw migration were retrieved; of these, only one was not related to the anterior cruciate ligament, and the majority was related to the use of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA screws. Only one case retrieved in the literature reported screw migration in reconstructions of the posterolateral corner, and that was to the intra-articular region. In the present article, the authors report a case of extra-articular and transcutaneous migration of a poly-l/D-lactide (PDLLA interference screw following popliteal tendon reconstruction. Besides being the first case of popliteal tendon migration with extra-articular screw migration, no reports of PDLLA scre