WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlantic ocean

  1. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  2. Predicting multiyear North Atlantic Ocean variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wouters, B.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Corti, S.; Palmer, T.; Lloyd Smith, D.; Dunstone, N.; Kroger, J.; Pohlmann, H.; Storch, von J.S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the skill of retrospective multiyear forecasts of North Atlantic ocean characteristics obtained with ocean-atmosphere-sea ice models that are initialized with estimates from the observed ocean state. We show that these multimodel forecasts can skilfully predict surface and subsurface ocean

  3. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland...

  4. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  5. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  6. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  7. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  8. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  9. NAO and extreme ocean states in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Emily; Gallagher, Sarah; Clancy, Colm; Dias, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Large scale atmospheric oscillations are known to have an influence on waves in the North Atlantic. In quantifying how the wave and wind climate of this region may change towards the end of the century due to climate change, it is useful to investigate the influence of large scale oscillations using indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO: fluctuations in the difference between the Icelandic low pressure system and the Azore high pressure system). In this study a statistical analysis of the station-based NAO index was carried out using an ensemble of EC-Earth global climate simulations, where EC-Earth is a European-developed atmosphere ocean sea-ice coupled climate model. The NAO index was compared to observations and to projected changes in the index by the end of the century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. In addition, an ensemble of EC-Earth driven WAVEWATCH III wave model projections over the North Atlantic was analysed to determine the correlations between the NAO and significant wave height (Hs) and the NAO and extreme ocean states. For the most part, no statistically significant differences were found between the distributions of observed and modelled station-based NAO or in projected distributions of the NAO. Means and extremes of Hs are projected to decrease on average by the end of this century. The 95th percentile of Hs is strongly positively correlated to the NAO. Projections of Hs extremes are location dependent and in fact, under the influence of positive NAO the 20-year return levels of Hs were found to be amplified in some regions. However, it is important to note that the projected decreases in the 95th percentile of Hs off the west coast of Ireland are not statistically significant in one of the RCP4.5 and one of the RCP8.5 simulations (me41, me83) which indicates that there is still uncertainty in the projections of higher percentiles.

  10. Sound Speed Structure of the Western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    for the western South Atlantic between 9°S and 36°S latitude and for the entire western South Atlantic by Buscaglia (1971). All these sources...both the Brazil Plain and Argentine Plain. Similar perturbations are also evident along winter cross-section A. As noted by Buscaglia (1971), the top...Duedall and Coote (1972) and throughout the western South Atlantic Ocean by Buscaglia (1971). In the presence of this intermixing, the MIW sound speed

  11. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  12. The distribution of dissolved iron in the West Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J A; van Aken, Hendrik M; Schoemann, Véronique; de Jong, Jeroen T M; de Baar, Hein J W

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical trace elements in the international GEOTRACES program. Despite the recognized importance of Fe, our present knowledge of its supply and biogeochemical cycle has been limited by mostly fragmentary datasets. Here, we present highly accurate dissolved Fe (DFe) values measured at an unprecedented high intensity (1407 samples) along the longest full ocean depth transect (17,500 kilometers) covering the entire western Atlantic Ocean. DFe measurements along this transect unveiled details about the supply and cycling of Fe. External sources of Fe identified included off-shelf and river supply, hydrothermal vents and aeolian dust. Nevertheless, vertical processes such as the recycling of Fe resulting from the remineralization of sinking organic matter and the removal of Fe by scavenging still dominated the distribution of DFe. In the northern West Atlantic Ocean, Fe recycling and lateral transport from the eastern tropical North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) dominated the DFe-distribution. Finally, our measurements showed that the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the major driver of the so-called ocean conveyor belt, contains excess DFe relative to phosphate after full biological utilization and is therefore an important source of Fe for biological production in the global ocean.

  13. Liver lipids of Indian and Atlantic Ocean spinner Carcharhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shark liver oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the n3 moieties. Data on the liver fatty acids of sharks from African waters, however, are limited. Liver samples from sharks from the western Indian Ocean off the east coast of South Africa and those from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico were examined.

  14. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhua, T. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Steinfeldt, R. [University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Brown, P. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Perez, F.F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Kortzinger, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Velo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Schuster, U. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Van Heuven, S. [University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Stendardo, I. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Hoppema, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Olsen, Are [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Pierrot, D. [Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami; Schirnick, C. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  15. Chloromethane and dichloromethane in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, Seshagiri Rao; Schlünzen, K. Heinke; Grawe, David; Seifert, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Chloromethane and dichloromethane were measured in the air of marine environment and in seawater during a cruise from the Port of Spain to Rio de Janeiro in the tropical Atlantic Ocean in April and May of 2009. Variation of chloromethane and dichloromethane concentrations was analysed as a function of latitude. There is no correlation observed between chloromethane and dichloromethane concentrations in the seawater suggest that they may not have a common oceanic source. In addition, a relation of concentrations, fluxes and sea surface temperature were studied to determine a dependency of concentrations and fluxes on sea surface temperature. Sea surface temperature does not show any significant effect on dichloromethane concentrations in surface seawater. Chloromethane and dichloromethane are supersaturated in the seawater during the cruise. This implies that the tropical Atlantic Ocean emits chloromethane and dichloromethane into the atmosphere. The tropical Atlantic Ocean mean fluxes of chloromethane and dichloromethane during the cruise were 150 nmol m-2 d-1 and 81 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The backward trajectory analysis revealed that the tropical Atlantic Ocean and African coast were primary and secondary source regions for chloromethane and dichloromethane respectively, during the Meteor cruise.

  16. 75 FR 34643 - Atlantic Ocean Off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Atlantic Ocean Off John F. Kennedy Space Center... the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The KSC is the...: Sec. 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area. (a) The area. The...

  17. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  18. Dynamics of upwelling annual cycle in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chiao; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wu, Chau-Ron; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    The annual upwelling is an important component of the equatorial Atlantic annual cycle. A simple theory is proposed using the framework of Zebiak-Cane (ZC) ocean model for insights into the dynamics of the upwelling annual cycle. It is demonstrated that in the Atlantic equatorial region this upwelling is dominated by Ekman processing in the west, whereas in the east it is primarily owing to shoaling and deepening of the thermocline resulting from equatorial mass meridional recharge/discharge and zonal redistribution processes associated with wind-driven equatorial ocean waves. This wind-driven wave upwelling plays an important role in the development of the annual cycle in the sea surface temperature of the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Atlantic.

  19. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  20. Speciation of Fe in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, C-E; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M. B.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K. R.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean iron (Fe) speciation was investigated in three size fractions the dissolvable from unfiltered samples the dissolved fraction (0 2 mu m) fraction were unsaturated with Fe with respect to the dissolved fraction thus these waters had a scavenging potential Crown

  1. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  2. Investigation of the influence of Atlantic ocean on rainfall variability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SVD analysis on the anomalous JJAS rainfall and anomalous Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Atlantic Ocean reveals two dominant coupled modes. The first couple mode that dominates the covariability between the anomalous rainfall and the SST reveals positive covariability between anomalous rainfall in ...

  3. Planktonic coelenterates collected in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1973-01-01

    This short faunistic note contains a report on the species of Scyphozoa, Hydromedusae, Siphonophora and Ctenophora that were collected by OWS “Cirrus” and “Cumulus”, R.V. “Tridens” and HMS “Snellius” in the North Atlantic Ocean between 22° N and 66° N. In all, 61 species have been captured. New

  4. CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wanninkhof

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures so as to improve the quality and consistency of the data as much as possible. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been tentatively corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "Atlantic" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2 data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the Atlantic. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional oceanic carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.

  5. Process studies of the carbonate system in coastal and ocean environments of the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in anthropogenic, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been largely mitigated by ocean uptake since the start of the Industrial Revolution, with the Atlantic Ocean providing the largest store of anthropogenic carbon. The thesis of Lesley Salt examines how the uptake of CO2 varies in

  6. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NCEI Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  7. The Role of Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal in Supporting Ocean Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Lathrop

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO was established in 2009 to enhance the vitality of the region's ocean ecosystem and economy. One of MARCO's first action items was the development of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal to serve as an on-line platform to engage stakeholders across the region with the objective of improving their understanding of how ocean resources and places are being used, managed, and conserved. A key component is the Marine Planner, an interactive map-based visualization and decision support tool. These types of on-line tools are becoming increasingly popular means of putting essential data and state-of-the-art visualization technology into the hands of the agencies, industry, community leaders, and stakeholders engaged in ocean planning. However, to be effective, the underlying geospatial data has to be seen as objective, comprehensive, up-to-date and regionally consistent. To meet this challenge, the portal utilizes a distributed network of web map services from credible and authoritative sources. Website analytics and feedback received during the review and comment period of the 2016 release of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Action Plan confirm that the Data Portal is viewed as integral to this ocean planning process by the MidAtlantic Regional Planning Body and key stakeholders. While not all stakeholders may agree with specific planning decisions, there is broad based agreement on the need for better data and making access to that data widely available.

  8. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. England

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean exchange of

  9. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  10. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean. The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example

  11. Carbon and nutrient fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This study presents underway pCO2 data of a whole seasonal cycle in the North Atlantic between 40°N and 55°N. The data are compared to a historical dataset and the CO2 fluxes between atmosphere and ocean are calculated. The driving forces of the seawater pCO2 (temperature, biology, gas exchange, advection and convection) are quantified and nutrient concentration in the mixed layer of the North Atlantic are estimated. Furthermore a combined dataset of surface measurements of CO2 and N2O are...

  12. Response of North Atlantic Ocean Chlorophyll a to the Change of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuanling; Shu, Qi; Zhao, Chang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Zhaohua; Qiao, Fangli

    2017-04-01

    Changes in marine phytoplankton are a vital component in global carbon cycling. Despite this far-reaching importance, the variable trend in phytoplankton and its response to climate variability remain unclear. This work presents the spatiotemporal evolution of the chlorophyll a trend in the North Atlantic Ocean by using merged ocean color products for the period 1997-2016. We find a dipole pattern between the subpolar gyre and the Gulf Stream path,and chlorophyll a trend signal propagatedalong the opposite direction of the North Atlantic Current. Such a dipole pattern and opposite propagation of chlorophyll a signal are consistent with the recent distinctive signature of the slowdown of the Atlantic MeridionalOverturning Circulation (AMOC). It is suggested that the spatiotemporal evolution of chlorophyll a during the two most recent decades is a part of the multidecadal variation and regulated byAMOC, which could be used as an indicator of AMOC variations.

  13. Modeling Mesoscale Eddies in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi

    1999-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.

  14. On multiple equilibria of the global ocean circulation and the preference for North Atlantic sinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the ocean circulation there is the peculiar feature that heat transport is northwards throughout the entire Atlantic ocean. This means that the Atlantic heat transport in the southern hemisphere is towards the equator. Also, the heat transport in the Atlantic is much larger that in the Pacific.

  15. Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, A N; Sigman, D M; Gibson, K A; François, R; Martínez-García, A; Jaccard, S L; Röhl, U; Peterson, L C; Tiedemann, R; Haug, G H

    2013-03-28

    Growing evidence suggests that the low atmospheric CO2 concentration of the ice ages resulted from enhanced storage of CO2 in the ocean interior, largely as a result of changes in the Southern Ocean. Early in the most recent deglaciation, a reduction in North Atlantic overturning circulation seems to have driven CO2 release from the Southern Ocean, but the mechanism connecting the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean remains unclear. Biogenic opal export in the low-latitude ocean relies on silicate from the underlying thermocline, the concentration of which is affected by the circulation of the ocean interior. Here we report a record of biogenic opal export from a coastal upwelling system off the coast of northwest Africa that shows pronounced opal maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years. These opal peaks are consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water (GNAIW). The loss of GNAIW allowed mixing with underlying silicate-rich deep water to increase the silicate supply to the surface ocean. An increase in westerly-wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean in response to the North Atlantic change has been proposed to drive the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 (refs 3, 4). However, such a circulation change would have accelerated the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and sub-Antarctic mode water, which today have as little silicate as North Atlantic Deep Water and would have thus maintained low silicate concentrations in the Atlantic thermocline. The deglacial opal maxima reported here suggest an alternative mechanism for the deglacial CO2 release. Just as the reduction in GNAIW led to upward silicate transport, it should also have allowed the downward mixing of warm, low-density surface water to reach into the deep ocean. The resulting decrease in the density of the deep Atlantic relative to the Southern Ocean surface promoted Antarctic overturning

  16. Ocean station data collected using bottle casts from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From Northwest Atlantic and Southwest Atlantic Ocean from 1980-10-30 to 1982-08-21 (NODC Accession 9000164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean station data were collected using seechi disk, meteorological sensors, and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Southwest Atlantic...

  17. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-04 in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-02-19 to 2010-03-12 (NODC Accession 0104286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104286 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-04 in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  18. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  19. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Boylan; Detlev Helmig; Samuel Oltmans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurem...

  20. Propagation of Atlantic Ocean swells in the north Indian Ocean: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Samiksha, S.V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Rashmi, R.

    An analysis of altimeter significant wave height data of May 2007 revealed the occurrence of an extreme weather event off southern tip of South Africa in the Atlantic Ocean, and generation of a series of very high swells at 40 degrees S...

  1. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  2. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  3. Fennerosquilla heptacantha (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucatelli, Débora

    2015-10-07

    Fennerosquilla is a monotypic genus that belongs to the family Squillidae, which has the highest generic diversity within Stomatopoda. This genus has been recorded in the north Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, between 105 and 458 m depth. The present specimen was collected during the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", in 2011, from the continental slope region of Brazil. In this expedition Fennerosquilla heptacantha was found at 178-193 m depth, and represents the first record of the species in the south Atlantic Ocean (Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil), expanding the southern limit distribution. The specimen is the largest recorded, measuring 149 mm total length. The pigmentation zone on median region of telson and all diagnostic characters are still preserved and agree with the original description. Fennerosquilla heptacantha has a disjunct deep water distribution (more than 100 m) in the tropical western Atlantic, mostly along the continental slope.

  4. Temperature profile and sound velocity data collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 19 March 1973 to 03 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7600779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and sound velocity data were collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic Ocean...

  5. FEMA RiskMAP Atlantic, Ocean, and Monmouth, NJ Area of Interest (AOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lidar data was acquired over a 1613 square mile area of interest over Atlantic, Ocean, and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey. The lidar data had a nominal point spacing...

  6. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  7. Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Nightingale, Philip D.; Beale, Rachael; Liss, Peter S.; Blomquist, Byron; Fairall, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface ocean, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air–sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north–south transect of the Atlantic. The flux of methanol was consistently from the atmosphere to the ocean. Constrained by the aerodynamic limit and measured rate of air–sea sensible heat exchange, methanol transfer resembles a one-way depositional process, which suggests dissolved methanol concentrations near the water surface that are lower than what were measured at ∼5 m depth, for reasons currently unknown. We estimate the global oceanic uptake of methanol and examine the lifetimes of this compound in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean with respect to gas exchange. We also constrain the molecular diffusional resistance above the ocean surface—an important term for improving air–sea gas exchange models. PMID:24277830

  8. Isostasy of fracture zones in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M. G.; Kostoglodov, V. V.

    1981-10-01

    The cross-spectral method of studying the isostasy was applied to profiles of gravity and topography which run across fracture zones in the Atlantic Ocean between 40°N and 40°S; 30 sections in total were used, each section 400 km long. In wavelengths 25 to 80 km the coherence of the free-air gravity anomaly and topography attains 0.8, while the phase is close to zero, which indicates that the disturbances in gravity are controlled by the topography and its isostatic compensation. The experimental isostatic response function (admittance) deduced in this study is compared with previous results which relied on different spatial distribution of data. A single mechanism of isostasy can explain well the gravity anomalies across fracture zones and across the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. A basic feature of this mechanism is the elastic lithosphere 6 to 9 km in thickness. We show that the topography and gravity anomalies over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge creast are essentially three-dimensional. Nevertheless, the admittance is reliably computed from a set of profiles by using the method of D. McKenzie and C. Bowin. This possibility is provided by the favorable pattern of the topography spectrum in the area under consideration.

  9. 75 FR 8570 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center... the coast of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The KSC is the main launch facility for...). 2. Add Sec. 334.525 to read as follows: Sec. 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center...

  10. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John F... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The..., contiguous to the area offshore of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The area is bounded by a...

  11. Cretaceous paleogeography, paleoclimatology, and amniote biogeography of the low and mid-latitude South Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Louis L.; Mateus, Octávio; Polcyn, Michael J.; Schulp, Anne S.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Goswami, Argyha; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Robbins, John A.; Vineyard, Diana P.; Neto, André Buto

    2009-01-01

    The Cretaceous tropical Atlantic Ocean was the setting for an initial tectonically controlled late Aptian shallow water (≤ 300 m) connection between the northern and southern portions of the Atlantic, followed by a deep-water connection by the Turonian. Ocean currents changed with deepening of the

  12. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic...

  13. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Indiantown Road and Donald Ross Road, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World... will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed...

  14. Manganese in the west Atlantic Ocean in the context of the first global ocean circulation model of manganese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Marco; Middag, Rob; Dutay, Jean-Claude; de Baar, Hein; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Gehlen, Marion; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element. Moreover, its oxidised form is involved in removing itself and several other trace elements from ocean waters. Here we report the longest thus far (17 500 km length) full-depth ocean section of dissolved Mn in the west Atlantic Ocean,

  15. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  16. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Gerard D.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Smeed, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall1, European summer precipitation2, Atlantic hurricanes3 and variations in global temp...

  17. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  18. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  19. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat...-speed boat races. The event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach...

  20. Ocean-Atmosphere coupling and CO2 exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R.; Pezzi, L. P.; Carmargo, R.; Acevedo, O. C.

    2013-05-01

    The establishment of the INTERCONF Program (Air-Sea Interactions at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone) in 2004 and subsequent developing of projects such as the SIMTECO (Integrated System for Monitoring the Weather, the Climate and the Ocean in the South of Brazil) and ACEx (Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment) from 2010 in Brazil brought to light the importance of understanding the impact of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean's mesoscale variability on the modulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the synoptic scale. Recent results of all these projects showed that the ABL modulation, as well as the ocean-atmosphere turbulent (heat, momentum and CO2) fluxes are dependent on the behavior of the ocean's surface thermal gradients, especially those found in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone and at the southern coast off Brazil during the winter. As expected, when atmospheric large scale systems are not present over the study area, stronger heat fluxes are found over regions of higher sea surface temperature (SST) including over warm core eddies shed towards the subantarctic (cold) environment. In the coastal region off southern Brazil, the wintertime propagation of the Brazilian Costal Current (La Plata Plume) acts rising the chlorophyll concentration over the continental shelf as well as diminishing considerably the SST - hence producing prominent across-shore SST gradients towards the offshore region dominated by the Brazil Current waters. Owing to that, heat fluxes are directed towards the ocean in coastal waters that are also responsible for the carbon sinking off Brazil in wintertime. All this description is dependent on the synoptic atmospheric cycle and strongly perturbed when transient systems (cold fronts, subtropical cyclones) are present in the area. However, remote sensing data used here suggest that the average condition of the atmosphere directly responding to the ocean's mesoscale variability appears to imprint a signal that extends from the

  1. The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program: The North Atlantic Study, 1981; The Tropical Atlantic Study, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Smethie, William M.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific papers here collected result from the Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program. The two parts of this major geochemical and physical oceanographie expedition took place in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1981 and in the Tropical Atlantic in 1983 on the research vessel Knorr of the Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution. The expeditions, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy (North Atlantic only), were designed to observe the passage of man-made geochemical tracers into the interior of the ocean. The foundations for such an experiment were laid in the 1972-1978 GEOSECS program. Here, for the first time, a systematic survey revealed the penetration into the thermocline and deep ocean of the products of man's military/industrial activities, principally tritium and carbon-14 resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which terminated with the nuclear test ban treaty in 1962.

  2. Variations in freshwater pathways from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeliang; Hamilton, James; Su, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and adjacent oceans is critical to building our knowledge of how the Arctic is reacting to a warming climate, and how potential changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater export may impact the AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation). Here, freshwater pathways from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic are investigated using a 1 degree global model. An EOF analysis of modeled sea surface height (SSH) demonstrates that while the second mode accounts for only 15% of the variability, the associated geostrophic currents are strongly correlated with freshwater exports through CAA (Canadian Arctic Archipelago; r = 0.75), Nares Strait (r = 0.77) and Fram Strait (r = -0.60). Separation of sea level into contributing parts allows us to show that the EOF1 is primarily a barotropic mode reflecting variability in bottom pressure equivalent sea level, while the EOF2 mode reflects changes in steric height in the Arctic Basin. This second mode is linked to momentum wind driven surface current, and dominates the Arctic Ocean freshwater exports. Both the Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole atmospheric indices are shown to be linked to Arctic Ocean freshwater exports, with the forcing associated with the Arctic Dipole reflecting the out-of-phase relationship between transports through the CAA and those through Fram Strait. Finally, observed freshwater transport variation through the CAA is found to be strongly correlated with tide gauge data from the Beaufort Sea coast (r = 0.81), and with the EOF2 mode of GRACE bottom pressure data (r = 0.85) on inter-annual timescales.

  3. GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest Atlantic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern Atlantic to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of ocean circulation, molecular biology and modern acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.

  4. Ocean station data collected using bottle casts from the ALMIRANTE SALDANHA in the South Atlantic Ocean from 19 February 1984 to 26 March 1984 (NODC Accession 9000034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean station data were collected using seechi disk, meteorological sensors, and bottle casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from 19 February 1984 to 26 March 1984. The...

  5. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  6. Ocean station data collected using bottle from the PROFESSOR W. BESNARD in the South Atlantic Ocean from 17 January 1969 to 16 December 1987 (NODC Accession 9000030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean station data were collected using bottle in the South Atlantic Ocean. Data were submitted by the LCDR Persio Soares Souto of Directoria de Hidrografia e...

  7. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations...... of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters...... 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer....

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-19 (NODC Accession 0117503)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117503 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  9. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  10. Acoustic habitat of an oceanic archipelago in the Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Lis; Barbosa, Mariana; Secchi, Eduardo; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Underwater soundscapes can be highly variable, and in natural conditions are often dominated by biological signals and physical features of the environment. Few studies, however, focused on oceanic islands soundscapes. Islands in the middle of ocean basins can provide a good example of how untouched marine soundscapes are. Autonomous acoustic recordings were carried out in two different seasons in Trindade-Martin Vaz Archipelago, Southwestern Atlantic, providing nearly continuous data for both periods. Sound levels varied daily and between seasons. During summer, higher frequencies were noisier than lower frequencies, with snapping shrimp being the dominating sound source. During winter, lower frequencies were noisier than higher frequencies due to humpback whale constant singing. Biological signal detection had a marked temporal pattern, playing an important role in the soundscape. Over 1000 humpback whale sounds were detected hourly during winter. Fish vocalizations were detected mostly during night time during both summer and winter. The results show an acoustic habitat dominated by biological sound sources and highlight the importance of the island to humpback whales in winter.

  11. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  12. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-03-01

    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed.

  13. Phytoplankton chemotaxonomy in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during late summer 2009

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, M-J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A chemotaxonomic investigation of surface phytoplankton was undertaken on a research cruise to the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during late austral summer 2009. Based on pigment signatures, several distinct regions emerged that were...

  14. Sediment from Northwest Atlantic Ocean acquired in 1978 (ROWE78 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Presented in this dataset are data determined from sediments collected by different means during a variety of cruises to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. These data...

  15. Occurrence of finfish communities in trawl hauls of Atlantic Ocean in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of finfish communities in trawl hauls of Atlantic Ocean in Badagry coast, Nigeria. EF Myade, MO Oyebanji, EO Oluwajoba, AB Williams, BC Mbawuike, N Ajuonu, GW Olakunle, OO Adegbile, AY Gadzekpo, MU Umunnakwe, MA Abass ...

  16. Ship Sensor Observations for North Atlantic Stepping Stones 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "North Atlantic Stepping Stones 2005" expedition sponsored by the...

  17. Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program : a new international ocean observing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozier, M.S.; Bacon, S.; Bower, A.S.; Cunningham, S.A.; de Jong, M.F.; de Steur, L.; de Young, B.; Fischer, J.; Gary, S.F.; Greenan, B.J.W.; Heimbach, P.; Holliday, N.P.; Houpert, L.; Inall, M.E.; Johns, W.E.; Johnson, H.L.; Karstensen, J.; Li, F.; Lin, X.; Mackay, N.; Marshall, D.P.; Mercier, H.; Myers, P.G.; Pickart, R.S.; Pillar, H.R.; Straneo, F.; Thierry, V.; Weller, R.A.; Williams, R.G.; Wilson, C.; Yang, J.; Zhao, J.; Zika, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    A new ocean observing system has been launched in the North Atlantic in order to understand the linkage between the meridional overturning circulation and deep water formation.For decades oceanographers have understood the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to be primarily driven by

  18. The morphostructure of the atlantic ocean floor its development in the meso-cenozoic

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V M

    1984-01-01

    The study of the topography and structure of the ocean floor is one of the most important stages in ascertaining the geological structure and history of development of the Earth's oceanic crust. This, in its turn, provides a means for purposeful, scientifically-substantiated prospecting, exploration and development of the mineral resources of the ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has been geologically and geophysically studied to a great extent and many years of investigating its floor have revealed the laws governing the structure of the major forms of its submarine relief (e. g. , the continental shelf, the continental slope, the transition zones, the ocean bed, and the Mid-Oceanic Ridge). The basic features of the Earth's oceanic crust structure, anomalous geophysical fields, and the thickness and structure of its sedimentary cover have also been studied. Based on the investigations of the Atlantic Ocean floor and its surrounding continents, the presently prevalent concept of new global tectonics has appeared. A g...

  19. Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2003-07-31

    During the two most recent deglaciations, the Southern Hemisphere warmed before Greenland. At the same time, the northern Atlantic Ocean was exposed to meltwater discharge, which is generally assumed to reduce the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. Yet during deglaciation, the Atlantic thermohaline circulation became more vigorous, in the transition from a weak glacial to a strong interglacial mode. Here we use a three-dimensional ocean circulation model to investigate the impact of Southern Ocean warming and the associated sea-ice retreat on the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. We find that a gradual warming in the Southern Ocean during deglaciation induces an abrupt resumption of the interglacial mode of the thermohaline circulation, triggered by increased mass transport into the Atlantic Ocean via the warm (Indian Ocean) and cold (Pacific Ocean) water route. This effect prevails over the influence of meltwater discharge, which would oppose a strengthening of the thermohaline circulation. A Southern Ocean trigger for the transition into an interglacial mode of circulation provides a consistent picture of Southern and Northern hemispheric climate change at times of deglaciation, in agreement with the available proxy records.

  20. Synechococcus in the Atlantic gateway to the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lund Paulsen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperatures, with pronounced effects at high latitudes, have raised questions about potential changes in species composition, as well as possible increased importance of small-celled phytoplankton in marine systems. In this study, we mapped out one of the smallest and globally most widespread primary producers, the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus, within the Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean. In contrast to the general understanding that Synechococcus is almost absent in polar oceans due to low temperatures, we encountered high abundances (up to 21,000 cells mL-1 at 79 °N, and documented their presence as far north as 82.5 °N. Covering an annual cycle in 2014, we found that during autumn and winter, Synechococcus was often more abundant than picoeukaryotes, which usually dominate the picophytoplankton communities in the Arctic. Synechococcus community composition shifted from a quite high genetic diversity during the spring bloom to a clear dominance of two specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs in autumn and winter. We observed abundances higher than 1,000 cells mL-1 in water colder than 2 °C at seven distinct stations and size-fractionation experiments demonstrated a net growth of Synechococcus at 2 °C in the absence of nano-sized grazers at certain periods of the year. Phylogenetic analysis of petB sequences demonstrated that these high latitude Synechococcus group within the previously described cold-adapted clades I and IV, but also contributed to unveil novel genetic diversity, especially within clade I.

  1. Surface ocean carbon dioxide during the Atlantic Meridional Transect (1995-2013); evidence of ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitidis, Vassilis; Brown, Ian; Hardman-Mountford, Nicholas; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Here we present more than 21,000 observations of carbon dioxide fugacity in air and seawater (fCO2) along the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme for the period 1995-2013. Our dataset consists of 11 southbound and 2 northbound cruises in boreal autumn and spring respectively. Our paper is primarily focused on change in the surface-ocean carbonate system during southbound cruises. We used observed fCO2 and total alkalinity (TA), derived from salinity and temperature, to estimate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH (total scale). Using this approach, estimated pH was consistent with spectrophotometric measurements carried out on 3 of our cruises. The AMT cruises transect a range of biogeographic provinces where surface Chlorophyll-α spans two orders of magnitude (mesotrophic high latitudes to oligotrophic subtropical gyres). We found that surface Chlorophyll-α was negatively correlated with fCO2, but that the deep chlorophyll maximum was not a controlling variable for fCO2. Our data show clear evidence of ocean acidification across 100° of latitude in the Atlantic Ocean. Over the period 1995-2013 we estimated annual rates of change in: (a) sea surface temperature of 0.01 ± 0.05 °C, (b) seawater fCO2 of 1.44 ± 0.84 μatm, (c) DIC of 0.87 ± 1.02 μmol per kg and (d) pH of -0.0013 ± 0.0009 units. Monte Carlo simulations propagating the respective analytical uncertainties showed that the latter were < 5% of the observed trends. Seawater fCO2 increased at the same rate as atmospheric CO2.

  2. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gerard D; Haigh, Ivan D; Hirschi, Joël J-M; Grist, Jeremy P; Smeed, David A

    2015-05-28

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, Atlantic hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that ocean circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling ocean heat content. However, there are no direct observations of ocean circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between ocean circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate ocean circulation on decadal timescales. We show that ocean circulation responds to the first mode of Atlantic atmospheric forcing, the North Atlantic Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North Atlantic heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The Atlantic overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States.

  3. Effects of extratropical solar penetration on North Atlantic Ocean circulation and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi; Wu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Effects of extratropical solar penetration on the North Atlantic Ocean circulation and climate are investigated using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. In this model, solar penetration generates basinwide cooling and warming in summer and winter, respectively. Associated with SST changes, annual mean surface wind stress is intensified in both the subtropical and subpolar North Atlantic, which leads to acceleration of both subtropical and subpolar gyres. Owing to warming in the subtropics and significant saltiness in the subpolar region, potential density decreases (increases) in the subtropical (subpolar) North Atlantic. The north-south meridional density gradient is thereby enlarged, accelerating the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). In addition, solar penetration reduces stratification in the upper ocean and favors stronger vertical convection, which also contributes to acceleration of the AMOC.

  4. Downscaled Climate Model for the North Central Atlantic Ocean 2000-2100

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The regional MOM5 domain contain the Atlantic Ocean between 100°W and 20°E bounded north and south by 65°N and 20°S, respectively. The regional MOM5 will have a...

  5. Dominance of unicellular cyanobacteria in the diazotrophic community in the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agawin, N.S.R.; Benavides, M.; Busquets, A.; Ferriol, P.; Stal, L.J.; Aristegui, J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The horizontal and vertical distribution of representatives of diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacteria was investigated in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (28.87 to 42.00°N; 9.01 to 20.02°W). Samples from stations encompassing different water conditions (from oceanic oligotrophic

  6. Physical and profile data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX14RR in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 2008-02-04 to 2008-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0155862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155862 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX14RR in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  7. It is the time for oceanic seabirds: Tracking year-round distribution of gadfly petrels across the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raul; Carlile, Nicholas; Madeiros, Jeremy; Ramirez, Ivan; Paiva, Vitor H.; Dinis, Herculano A.; Zino, Francis; Biscoito, Manuel; Leal, Gustavo R.; Bugoni, Leandro; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Ryan, Peter G.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    AimAnthropogenic activities alter and constrain the structure of marine ecosystems with implications for wide-ranging marine vertebrates. In spite of the environmental importance of vast oceanic ecosystems, most conservation efforts mainly focus on neritic areas. To identify relevant oceanic areas for conservation, we assessed the year-round spatial distribution and spatio-temporal overlap of eight truly oceanic seabird species of gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.) inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean.LocationAtlantic Ocean.MethodsUsing tracking data (mostly from geolocators), we examined year-round distributions, the timing of life-cycle events, and marine habitat overlap of eight gadfly petrel species that breed in the Atlantic Ocean.ResultsWe compiled 125 year-round tracks. Movement strategies ranged from non-migratory to long-distance migrant species and from species sharing a common non-breeding area to species dispersing among multiple non-breeding sites. Gadfly petrels occurred throughout the Atlantic Ocean but tended to concentrate in subtropical regions. During the boreal summer, up to three species overlapped spatio-temporally over a large area around the Azores archipelago. During the austral summer, up to four species coincided in a core area in subtropical waters around Cape Verde, and three species shared habitat over two distinct areas off Brazil. The petrels used many national Exclusive Economic Zones, although they also exploited offshore international waters.Main conclusionsTracking movements of highly mobile vertebrates such as gadfly petrels can provide a powerful tool to evaluate and assess the potential need for and location of protected oceanic areas. As more multispecies, year-round data sets are collected from wide-ranging vertebrates, researchers and managers will have greater insight into the location of biodiversity hotspots. These can subsequently inform and guide marine spatial planning efforts that account for both conservation and

  8. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX21RR in the North Atlantic Ocean, Rio de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2008-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0155900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155900 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX21RR in the North Atlantic Ocean, Rio de la Plata and...

  10. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  11. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard C; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S; Best, Peter B; Findlay, Ken P; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L; Kotze, Deon P G H; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-10-08

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region.

  12. Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S.; Best, Peter B.; Findlay, Ken P.; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J.; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Kotze, Deon P. G. H.; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

  13. Trans-oceanic genomic divergence of Atlantic cod ecotypes is associated with large inversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, P R; Star, B; Pampoulie, C; Bradbury, I R; Bentzen, P; Hutchings, J A; Jentoft, S; Jakobsen, K S

    2017-12-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions can play a crucial role in maintaining polymorphism underlying complex traits and contribute to the process of speciation. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), inversions of several megabases have been identified that dominate genomic differentiation between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes in the Northeast Atlantic. Here, we show that the same genomic regions display elevated divergence and contribute to ecotype divergence in the Northwest Atlantic as well. The occurrence of these inversions on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean reveals a common evolutionary origin, predating the >100 000-year-old trans-Atlantic separation of Atlantic cod. The long-term persistence of these inversions indicates that they are maintained by selection, possibly facilitated by coevolution of genes underlying complex traits. Our data suggest that migratory behaviour is derived from more stationary, ancestral ecotypes. Overall, we identify several large genomic regions-each containing hundreds of genes-likely involved in the maintenance of genomic divergence in Atlantic cod on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Extant Rhabdosphaeraceae (coccolithophorids, class Prymnesiophyceae) from the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijne, A.

    1992-01-01

    Rhabdosphaerids were consistently present as a minor constituent of the 1985 summer coccolithophorid flora in surface waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic. Sixteen taxa are identified, belonging to seven genera, including the two new combinations Cyrtosphaera

  15. Profile and bottle data collected on the RV Melville (cruise Vancouver 06) from the Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Transport Experiment (ASTTEX) in the Atlantic Ocean from 20030102 to 20030115 (NODC Accession 0074001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Introduction: The Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Experiment (ASTTEX) examined the fluxes of heat, salt and mass entering the South Atlantic ocean via the...

  16. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, pressure, and current data collected in the Sub Tropical North Atlantic Ocean, SPURS-1 (NCEI Accession 0125198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SPURS field campaign consisted of a variety of observing assets. SPURS-1 (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study - North Atlantic Field Campaign)...

  17. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the North Atlantic Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the North Atlantic Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 26 August 1980- 01 March 1981 (NODC Accession 8100540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from August 26, 1980 to March 1, 1980. Data were submitted by Science...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 15 March 1981- 01 October 1981 (NODC Accession 8100718)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from March 15, 1981 to October 1, 1981. Data were submitted by Science...

  20. Oceanic hindcast simulations at high resolution suggest that the Atlantic MOC is bistable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, J.; TréGuier, A.-M.; Barnier, B.; Lecointre, A.; Le Sommer, J.; Molines, J.-M.; Penduff, T.; Bourdallé-Badie, R.; Drillet, Y.; Garric, G.; Benshila, R.; Madec, G.; Biastoch, A.; Böning, C. W.; Scheinert, M.; Coward, A. C.; Hirschi, J. J.-M.

    2013-06-01

    All climate models predict a freshening of the North Atlantic at high latitude that may induce an abrupt change of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (hereafter AMOC) if it resides in the bistable regime, where both a strong and a weak state coexist. The latter remains uncertain as there is no consensus among observations and ocean reanalyses, where the AMOC is bistable, versus most climate models that reproduce a mono-stable strong AMOC. A series of four hindcast simulations of the global ocean at 1/12° resolution, which is presently unique, are used to diagnose freshwater transport by the AMOC in the South Atlantic, an indicator of AMOC bistability. In all simulations, the AMOC resides in the bistable regime: it exports freshwater southward in the South Atlantic, implying a positive salt advection feedback that would act to amplify a decreasing trend in subarctic deep water formation as projected in climate scenarios.

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1981-03-28 to 1981-04-23 (NODC Accession 0116646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116646 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-23 to 2008-03-15 (NODC Accession 0117496)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117496 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-11-28 to 2000-12-27 (NODC Accession 0115599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115599 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1988-07-23 to 1988-09-01 (NODC Accession 0117675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117675 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-06-04 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0108061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108061 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-10-04 to 1990-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116643 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1999-07-12 to 1999-09-22 (NODC Accession 0113601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113601 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-01-02 to 1993-02-10 (NODC Accession 0115753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115753 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-01-02 to...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1996-04-15 to 1996-05-16 (NODC Accession 0113539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113539 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  10. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2001-03-05 to 2001-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108096 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-02-19 to 1994-03-25 (NODC Accession 0115594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115594 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-06 to 2006-07-09 (NODC Accession 0108078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108078 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-01-23 to 1989-04-12 (NODC Accession 0115014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115014 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-04 to 1994-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115157 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  15. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Strait of Gibraltar from 2013-03-20 to 2013-05-22 (NODC Accession 0114434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114434 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to 2009-11-23 (NODC Accession 0109918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109918 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to 2010-05-16 (NODC Accession 0109927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109927 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to...

  18. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-03-04 to 2002-04-09 (NODC Accession 0108097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108097 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  19. Arctic-Atlantic Climate Predictability provided by Poleward Ocean Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årthun, Marius; Eldevik, Tor; Viste, Ellen; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Johnson, Helen L.; Keenlyside, Noel S.

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly understood that the potential for skillful climate prediction resides in the ocean. The poleward propagation of anomalous heat from the subpolar North Atlantic toward the Arctic Ocean has, in particular, been suggested as a primary source for predictability. It nevertheless remains unresolved how and to what extent variable ocean heat is imprinted on the atmosphere to realize its predictive potential over land. Here we assess from observations whether northwestern European and Arctic climate relates predictably to anomalous ocean heat in the Gulf Stream's northern extension. We show that variations in ocean temperature in the high latitude North Atlantic and Nordic Seas are reflected in the climate of northwestern Europe as well as in the Arctic sea ice extent. Statistical regression models show that climate variability thus can be skillfully predicted up to a decade in advance based on the state of the ocean. Our proposed prognostic framework provides an observationally based benchmark for dynamical prediction and highlights the North Atlantic-Nordic Seas as a key provider of a predictable Arctic-Atlantic climate.

  20. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Atlantic Ocean from ALBATROS and other platforms from 21 July 1965 to 17 February 1988 (NODC Accession 0000409)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Atlantic Ocean from ALBATROS, ARGUS, ATLANT, and other platforms from 21 July 1965 to 17 February...

  1. 33 CFR 334.590 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. 334.590 Section 334.590 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the Atlantic Ocean immediately offshore from...

  2. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix. The Second Annual Space... will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high...

  3. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark; Beaugrand, G.

    2009-01-01

    and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain – phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes...... water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong...

  4. The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Schoemann, Veronique; de Jong, Jeroen T.M.; Baar, de Hein J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical

  5. A role of the Atlantic Ocean in predicting summer surface air temperature over North East Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Robson, Jon; Dong, Buwen; Dunstone, Nick

    2017-10-01

    We assess the ability of the DePreSys3 prediction system to predict the summer (JJAS) surface-air temperature over North East Asia. DePreSys3 is based on a high resolution ocean-atmosphere coupled climate prediction system ( 60 km in the atmosphere and 25 km in the ocean), which is full-field initialized from 1960 to 2014 (26 start-dates). We find skill in predicting surface-air temperature, relative to a long-term trend, for 1 and 2-5 year lead-times over North East Asia, the North Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Europe. DePreSys3 also reproduces the interdecadal evolution of surface-air temperature over the North Atlantic subpolar gyre and North East Asia for both lead times, along with the strong warming that occurred in the mid-1990s over both areas. Composite analysis reveals that the skill at capturing interdecadal changes in North East Asia is associated with the propagation of an atmospheric Rossby wave, which follows the subtropical jet and modulates surface-air temperature from Europe to Eastern Asia. We hypothesise that this `circumglobal teleconnection' pattern is excited over the Atlantic Ocean and is related to Atlantic multi-decadal variability and the associated changes in precipitation over the Sahel and the subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This mechanism is robust for the 2-5 year lead-time. For the 1 year lead-time the Pacific Ocean also plays an important role in leading to skill in predicting SAT over Northeast Asia. Increased temperatures and precipitation over the western Pacific Ocean was found to be associated with a Pacific-Japan like-pattern, which can affect East Asia's climate.

  6. Multiple timescales of stochastically forced North Atlantic Ocean variability: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecking, Jennifer V.; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the subpolar gyre (SPG) are important elements in mechanisms for multidecadal variability in models in the North Atlantic Ocean. In this study, a 2000-year long global ocean model integration forced with the atmospheric patterns associated with a white noise North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is shown to have three distinct timescales of North Atlantic Ocean variability. First, an interannual timescale with variability shorter than 15 years, that can be related to Ekman dynamics. Second, a multidecadal timescale, on the 15- to 65-year range, that is mainly concentrated in the SPG region and is controlled by constructive interference between density anomalies around the gyre and the changing NAO forcing. Finally, the centennial timescales, with variability longer than 65 years, that can be attributed to the ocean being in a series of quasi-equilibrium states. The relationship between the ocean's response and the NAO index differs for each timescale; the 15-year and shorter timescales are directly related to the NAO of the same year, 15- to 65-year timescales are dependent on the NAO index in the last 25-30 years in a sinusoidal sense while the 65-year and longer timescales relate to a sum of the last 50-80 years of the NAO index.

  7. Transition from the Cretaceous ocean to Cenozoic circulation in the western South Atlantic - A twofold reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Weber, Tobias; Grützner, Jens; Thomas, Maik

    2017-10-01

    The Cretaceous oceanic circulation has been quite different from the modern with a different distribution of the continents on the globe. This has resulted in a much lower temperature gradient between poles and equator. We have studied seismic reflection data and used numerical simulations of atmosphere and ocean dynamics to identify important steps in modifications of the oceanic circulation in the South Atlantic from the Cretaceous to the Cenozoic and the major factors controlling them. Starting in the Albian we could not identify any traces of an overturning circulation for the South Atlantic although a weak proto-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was simulated. No change in circulation was observed for the Paleocene/early Eocene South Atlantic, which indicated that this period has witnessed a circulation similar to the Albian and Cenomanian/Turonian circulation. The most drastic modifications were observed for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary and the Oligocene/early Miocene with the onset of an ACC and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and hence southern sourced deep and bottom water masses in the western South Atlantic. A modern AMOC, which intensified in strength after closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), and a strong ACC have resulted in current controlled sedimentary features and wide spread hiatusses in the South Atlantic since the middle Miocene. The opening of Drake Passage in early Oligocene times and the closure of the CAS at 6 Ma, i.e., tectonic processes, have been identified as the key triggers for the observed most severe changes in oceanic circulation in the South Atlantic.

  8. Atlantic Induced Pan-tropical Climate Variability in the Upper-ocean and Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xie, S. P.; Gille, S. T.; Yoo, C.

    2016-02-01

    During the last three decades, tropical sea surface temperature (SST) exhibited dipole-like trends, with warming over the tropical Atlantic and Indo-Western Pacific but cooling over the Eastern Pacific. The Eastern Pacific cooling has recently been identified as a driver of the global warming hiatus. Previous studies revealed atmospheric bridges between the tropical Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean, which could potentially contribute to this zonally asymmetric SST pattern. However, the mechanisms and the interactions between these teleconnections remain unclear. To investigate these questions, we performed a `pacemaker' simulation by restoring the tropical Atlantic SST changes in a state-of-the-art climate model - the CESM1. Results show that the Atlantic plays a key role in initiating the tropical-wide teleconnections, and the Atlantic-induced anomalies contribute 55%-75% of the total tropical SST and circulation changes during the satellite era. A hierarchy of oceanic and atmospheric models are then used to investigate the physical mechanisms of these teleconnections: the Atlantic warming enhances atmospheric deep convection, drives easterly wind anomalies over the Indo-Western Pacific through the Kelvin wave, and westerly anomalies over the eastern Pacific as Rossby waves, in line with Gill's solution (Fig1a). These wind changes induce an Indo-Western Pacific warming via the wind-evaporation-SST effect, and this warming intensifies the La Niña-type response in the upper Pacific Ocean by enhancing the easterly trade winds and through the Bjerknes ocean-dynamical processes (Fig1b). The teleconnection finally develops into a tropical-wide SST dipole pattern with an enhanced trade wind and Walker circulation, similar as the observed changes during the satellite era. This mechanism reveals that the tropical ocean basins are more tightly connected than previously thought, and the Atlantic plays a key role in the tropical climate pattern formation and further the

  9. Detection of Natural Oil Seeps in the Atlantic Ocean Using MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Jones, Jason B.; Mitchell, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Natural oil seepage is the release of crude oil into the ocean from fissures in the seabed. Oil seepage is a major contributor to the total amount of oil entering the world s oceans. According to a 2003 study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 47 percent of oil entering the world s oceans is from natural seeps, and 53 percent is from human sources (extraction, transportation, and consumption). Oil seeps cause smooth oil slicks to form on the water s surface. Oil seeps can indicate the location of stores of fossil fuel beneath the ocean floor. Knowledge of the effect of oil seepage on marine life and marine ecosystems remains limited. In the past, remote sensing has been used to detect oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and off of the coast of southern California. This project utilized sun glint MODIS imagery to locate oil slicks off of the Atlantic coast, an area that had not previously been surveyed for natural oil seeps using remote sensing. Since 1982, the Atlantic Ocean has been closed to any oil and gas drilling. Recently, however, the U.S. Minerals Management Services (MMS) has proposed a lease for oil and gas drilling off the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina. Determining the location of seepage sites in the Atlantic Ocean will help MMS locate potential deposits of oil and natural gas, thereby reducing the risk of leasing areas for petroleum extraction that do not contain these natural resources.

  10. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  11. Fluxes and distribution of dissolved iron in the eastern (sub-) tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Steigenberger, S.; Powell, C.F.; van Haren, H.; Patey, M.D.; Baker, A.R.; Achterberg, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Aeolian dust transport from the Saharan/Sahel desert regions is considered the dominant external input of iron (Fe) to the surface waters of the eastern (sub-) tropical North Atlantic Ocean. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the sources of dissolved Fe (DFe) and quantified DFe fluxes to the

  12. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... near Port Everglades, Fla. (a) The area. Beginning at a point located at latitude 26°05′30″ N...

  13. 33 CFR 165.T01-0542 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater... Guard District § 165.T01-0542 Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. (a...-meter radius of each of the two STL buoys of the Neptune Deepwater Port, marked on the surface of the...

  14. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean... turret loading (STL) buoys and accompanying systems that are part of GDF Suez Energy's Neptune Deepwater... of a final regulatory action, which will be proposed in a separate rulemaking docket titled: Neptune...

  15. An observational study of the western boundary currents in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsoni, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have investigated different aspects of the WBCs in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans, based on observational data sampled both in situ and from satellites. In October 2010 an array of five moorings were deployed off eastern Madagascar, nominally at 23S, as part of the

  16. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckel, B.; Baumann, K.-H.; Henrich, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the coccolith compositions of 213 surface sediment samples from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean were analysed with respect to the environmental parameters of the overlying surface waters. From this data set, the abundance patterns of the main species and their ecological affi...

  17. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean-potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size

  18. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean - Potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size

  19. Sediment distribution in the oceans : the Atlantic between 10° and 19°N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collette, B.J.; Ewing, J.I.; Lagaay, R.A.; Truchan, M.

    Between 10° and 19°N the North Atlantic Ocean has been covered by four east-west crossings and one north-south section at 60°W, using a continuous seismic reflection recorder (air gun). The northernmost section extends to the Canary Islands. The region comprises a great variety of phenomena:

  20. Transport of Antarctic bottom water through the Kane Gap, tropical NE Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozov, E.G.; Tarakanov, R.Y.; van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using

  1. What is natural? : The scale of cryptogenesis in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haydar, Deniz

    Aim Cryptogenic species may include those taxa that were historically introduced and are now falsely viewed as native. Investigated here is the scale of cryptogenesis in the North Atlantic Ocean by examining disjunct distributions, defined as temperate species occurring only on both sides of the

  2. Exposing XBT bias in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hutchinson, KA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrographic data from three research cruises, occupying the GoodHope line in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, are used to identify and quantify Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) temperature biases. A set of 148 collocated XBT and CTD...

  3. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo Cárdenas, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the lionfish (Pterois sp.) invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean has been socially constructed by natural scientists, the media, and stakeholders associated with various marine protected areas in the Caribbean. By examining the use of data and metaphors by these actors,

  4. Rosacea flaccida n. sp., a new species of siphonophore (Calycophorae Prayinae) from the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, D.C.; Pugh, P.R.; Carré, C.

    1978-01-01

    Rosacea flaccida, a new prayine siphonophore, is described from specimens collected by SCUBA divers in the upper 30m of the subtropical and temperate North Atlantic Ocean. The new species has stoutly cylindrical, flaccid nectophores and delicate flattened bracts. The nectophores are morphologically

  5. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the HUNT from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 25 April to 23 June 1973 (NODC Accession 7700552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using SDT/CDT casts from HUNT in the Atlantic Ocean from April 25, 1973 to June 23, 1973. Data were submitted by...

  6. The nonlinear North Atlantic-Arctic ocean response to CO2 forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2017-04-01

    Most climate models project an increase in oceanic energy transport towards high northern latitudes in future climate projections, but the physical mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To obtain a more fundamental understanding of the processes that cause the ocean heat transport to increase, we carried out a set of sensitivity experiments using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Within these experiments, atmospheric CO2 levels are instantaneously set to one-fourth to four times current values. These model integrations, each with a length of 550 years, result in five considerably different quasi-equilibrium climate states. Our simulations show that poleward ocean heat transport in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic at 70°N increases from 0.03 PW in the coldest climate state to 0.2 PW in the warmest climate state. This increase is caused primarily by changes in sea ice cover, in horizontal ocean currents owing to anomalous winds in response to sea ice changes, and in ocean advection of thermal anomalies. Surprisingly, at subpolar latitudes, the subpolar gyre is found to weaken toward both the warmer and colder climates, relative to the current climate. This nonlinear response is caused by a complex interplay between seasonal sea ice melt, the near-surface wind response to sea ice changes, and changes in the density-driven circulation. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and its associated heat transport even oppose the total ocean heat transport towards the Arctic in the warmest climate. Going from warm to cold climates, or from high to low CO2 concentrations, the strength of the AMOC initially increases, but then declines towards the coldest climate, implying a nonlinear AMOC-response to CO2-induced climate change. Evidently, the North Atlantic-Arctic ocean heat transport depends on an interplay between various (remote) coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice mechanisms that respond in a nonlinear way to climate change.

  7. Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio N Stampar

    Full Text Available The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed.

  8. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  9. Water-mass transformation in the Atlantic Ocean in a Lagrangian frame work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Sara; Döös, Kristofer; Nycander, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The world ocean is constantly moving, mostly due to density differences and atmospheric winds. This circulation is commonly refereed to as the Conveyor Belt circulation. In the Southern parts of the Atlantic, around the tip of South Africa, warm and saline water is entering. The water travels northward towards the equator where it increases in salinity. After passing the equator and reaching the North Atlantic, the water becomes cold and fresh, due to heat release to the atmosphere. Previous studies has introduced and computed the thermohaline stream function to connect water-mass transformations to the Conveyor Belt circulation in a temperature and salinity space. It has been suggested that the northward flowing water mass in the Atlantic Ocean can be shown in the stream function as water that converts from warm and saline to cold and fresh, and that the conversion is due to air-sea interactions. In the present study, Lagrangian trajectories are used to quantify the northward flowing water masses in the Atlantic Oceans contribution to the Conveyor Belt circulation in TS-space by introducing the Lagrangian thermohaline stream function. The stream function shows the Atlantic water-mass transformation, where warm and saline water is converted to cold and fresh, as the water flows from 17°S to 58°N. This conversion is found to be both isopycnal and diapycnal. To connect the water-mass transformation to a geographical position in the Atlantic Ocean, the Lagrangian divergence of heat and salt flux is introduced. Conversions of temperature and salinity shown by the Lagrangian thermohaline stream function are found to occur in the same region of the domain, however, with a different spread. The conversion of temperature is found to take place in the Gulf Stream, the upper flank of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, and in the North Atlantic Drift, whereas the conversion of salinity occurs over a narrower band in the same regions. To be able to study the processes

  10. An overview of the South Atlantic Ocean climate variability and air-sea interaction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, L. P.; Parise, C. K.; Souza, R.; Gherardi, D. F.; Camargo, R.; Soares, H. C.; Silveira, I.

    2013-05-01

    The Ocean Modeling Group at the National Institute of Space Research (INPE) in Brazil has been developing several studies to understand the role of the Atlantic ocean on the South America climate. Studies include simulating the dynamics of the Tropical South-Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean. This is part of an ongoing international cooperation, in which Brazil participates with in situ observations, numerical modeling and statistical analyses. We have focused on the understanding of the impacts of extreme weather events over the Tropical South Atlantic Ocean and their prediction on different time-scales. One such study is aimed at analyzing the climate signal generated by imposing an extreme condition on the Antarctic sea ice and considering different complexities of the sea ice model. The influence of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region on the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is also investigated through in situ data analysis of different cruises and numerical experiments with a regional numerical model. There is also an ongoing investigation that revealed basin-scale interannual climate variation with impacts on the Brazilian Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which are strongly correlated with climate indices such as ENSO, AAO and PDO.

  11. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael Møller; Maas, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North...... America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently...... to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical–biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels....

  12. Ionospheric equatorial anomaly formation over Pacific and Atlantic oceans measured by NASA TOPEX satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewell, V.R.; Vladimer, J.A.; Lee, M.C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Dept.; Doherty, P.H.; Decker, D.T. [Boston Coll., Newton, MA (United States). Inst. for Science Research; Anderson, D.N.; Klobuchar, J.A. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States). Ionospheric Effects Branch

    1996-12-31

    Previous ionospheric observations have measured Total Electron Content (TEC) values at fixed land based locations. These observations suggest the existence of longitudinal variations in TEC values. Complementing ground data, the current NASA TOPEX mission is providing TEC data collected over oceans as a function of latitude, longitude and time starting from September 1992. With this broad data base, the authors show a more complete picture of the longitudinal dependence between the Atlantic and Pacific ocean regions and relate this dependence to plasma drifts. Periods during June and December solstice, and March and September equinox in the years 1992, through 1995, are picked to study the low-latitude regions spanning the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. TEC isodensity contours are presented by latitude versus longitude at common local time. They correlate these contours with results from the Phillips Laboratory ionospheric model.

  13. Widespread and synchronous change in deep-ocean circulation in the North and South Atlantic during the Late Cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, S. A.; Vance, D.

    2012-01-01

    Modern thermohaline circulation plays a role in latitudinal heat transport and in deep-ocean ventilation, yet ocean circulation may have functioned differently during past periods of extreme warmth, such as the Cretaceous. The Late Cretaceous (100–65 Ma) was an important period in the evolution of the North Atlantic Ocean, characterized by opening ocean gateways, long-term climatic cooling and the cessation of intermittent periods of anoxia (oceanic anoxic events, OAEs). However, how these ph...

  14. Nature Run for the North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Region: System Evaluation and Regional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, V.; Androulidakis, I.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Kang, H.; Mehari, M. F.; Atlas, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype ocean Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) system, first developed and data validated in the Gulf of Mexico, has been applied on the extended North Atlantic Ocean hurricane region. The main objectives of this study are: a) to contribute toward a fully relocatable ocean OSSE system by expanding the Gulf of Mexico OSSE to the North Atlantic Ocean; b) demonstrate and quantify improvements in hurricane forecasting when the ocean component of coupled hurricane models is advanced through targeted observations and assimilation. The system is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and has been applied on a 1/250 Mercator mesh for the free-running Nature Run (NR) and on a 1/120 Mercator mesh for the data assimilative forecast model (FM). A "fraternal twin" system is employed, using two different realizations for NR and FM, each configured to produce substantially different physics and truncation errors. The NR has been evaluated using a variety of available observations, such as from AVISO, GDEM climatology and GHRSST observations, plus specific regional products (upper ocean profiles from air-borne instruments, surface velocity maps derived from the historical drifter data set and tropical cyclone heat potential maps derived from altimetry observations). The utility of the OSSE system to advance the knowledge of regional air-sea interaction processes related to hurricane activity is demonstrated in the Amazon region (salinity induced surface barrier layer) and the Gulf Stream region (hurricane impact on the Gulf Stream extension).

  15. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2.

  16. Consistency of cruise data of the CARINA database in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hoppema

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Initially a North Atlantic project, the CARINA carbon synthesis was extended to include the Southern Ocean. Carbon and relevant hydrographic and geochemical ancillary data from cruises all across the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean were released to the public and merged into a new database as part of the CARINA synthesis effort. Of a total of 188 cruises, 37 cruises are part of the Southern Ocean, including 11 from the Atlantic sector. The variables from all Southern Ocean cruises, including dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2, total alkalinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate, were examined for cruise-to-cruise consistency in one collective effort. Seawater pH and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs are also part of the database, but the pH quality control (QC is described in another Earth System Science Data publication, while the complexity of the Southern Ocean physics and biogeochemistry prevented a proper QC analysis of the CFCs. The area-specific procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data (i.e. secondary QC, are briefly described here for the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Data from an existing, quality controlled database (GLODAP were used as a reference for our computations – however, the reference data were included into the analysis without applying the recommended GLODAP adjustments so the corrections could be independently verified. The outcome of this effort is an internally consistent, high-quality carbon data set for all cruises, including the reference cruises. The suggested corrections by the inversion analysis were allowed to vary within a fixed envelope, thus accounting for natural variability. The percentage of cruises adjusted ranged from 31% (for nitrate to 54% (for phosphate depending on the variable.

  17. Manganese in the west Atlantic Ocean in the context of the first global ocean circulation model of manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulten, Marco; Middag, Rob; Dutay, Jean-Claude; de Baar, Hein; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Gehlen, Marion; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element. Moreover, its oxidised form is involved in removing itself and several other trace elements from ocean waters. Here we report the longest thus far (17 500 km length) full-depth ocean section of dissolved Mn in the west Atlantic Ocean, comprising 1320 data values of high accuracy. This is the GA02 transect that is part of the GEOTRACES programme, which aims to understand trace element distributions. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with new, state-of-the-art, modelling to give a first assessment of the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the ocean. To this end, we simulate the distribution of dissolved Mn using a global-scale circulation model. This first model includes simple parameterisations to account for the sources, processes and sinks of Mn in the ocean. Oxidation and (photo)reduction, aggregation and settling, as well as biological uptake and remineralisation by plankton are included in the model. Our model provides, together with the observations, the following insights: - The high surface concentrations of manganese are caused by the combination of photoreduction and sources contributing to the upper ocean. The most important sources are sediments, dust, and, more locally, rivers. - Observations and model simulations suggest that surface Mn in the Atlantic Ocean moves downwards into the southward-flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), but because of strong removal rates there is no elevated concentration of Mn visible any more in the NADW south of 40° N. - The model predicts lower dissolved Mn in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean than the observed concentrations. The intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in subsurface waters is deemed to be a major source of dissolved Mn also mixing upwards into surface waters, but the OMZ is not well represented by the model. Improved high-resolution simulation of the OMZ may solve this problem. - There is a mainly

  18. Variability of Atlantic Ocean heat transport and its effects on the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Sutton

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the Atlantic meridional Ocean Heat Transport (OHT has been diagnosed from a simulation of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model, and the mechanisms responsible for this variability have been elucidated. It has been demonstrated that the interannual variability in Atlantic OHT is dominated by windstress-driven Ekman fluctuations. In contrast, the decadal and multidecadal variability is associated with the fluctuations of the Thermohaline Circulation (THC, driven by the fluctuations in deep convection over the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN Sea. The fluctuations of OHT induce Ocean Heat Content (OHC, and Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. The SST anomalies, in turn, have an impact on the atmosphere. The lead-lag relationships between the fluctuations of THC-related OHT and those of OHC and SST raise the possibility that a knowledge of OHT fluctuations could be used to predict variations in Atlantic Sea surface temperatures, and perhaps aspects of climate, several years in advance. A comparison of results from a second, independent, coupled model simulation is also presented, and similar conclusions reached.

  19. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats are anticipated to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2010-08-06 (NODC Accession 0114477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114477 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from KNORR and MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1987-11-23 to 1989-04-19 (NCEI Accession 0157692)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157692 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR and MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  2. High Connectivity of the Crocodile Shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: Highlights for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742

  3. Response of the North Atlantic storm track to climate change shaped by ocean-atmosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollings, T.; Gregory, J. M.; Pinto, J. G.; Reyers, M.; Brayshaw, D. J.

    2012-05-01

    A poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks in response to anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcing has been diagnosed in climate model simulations. Explanations of this effect have focused on atmospheric dynamics. However, in contrast to storm tracks in other regions, the North Atlantic storm track responds by strengthening and extending farther east, in particular on its southern flank. These adjustments are associated with an intensification and extension of the eddy-driven jet towards western Europe and are expected to have considerable societal impacts related to a rise in storminess in Europe. Here, we apply a regression analysis to an ensemble of coupled climate model simulations to show that the coupling between ocean and atmosphere shapes the distinct storm-track response to greenhouse-gas forcing in the North Atlantic region. In the ensemble of simulations we analyse, at least half of the differences between the storm-track responses of different models are associated with uncertainties in ocean circulation changes. We compare the fully coupled simulations with both the associated slab model simulations and an ocean-forced experiment with one climate model to establish causality. We conclude that uncertainties in the response of the North Atlantic storm track to anthropogenic emissions could be reduced through tighter constraints on the future ocean circulation.

  4. Deglacial Tropical Atlantic subsurface warming links ocean circulation variability to the West African Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthew W; Chang, Ping; Parker, Andrew O; Ji, Link; He, Feng

    2017-11-13

    Multiple lines of evidence show that cold stadials in the North Atlantic were accompanied by both reductions in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and collapses of the West African Monsoon (WAM). Although records of terrestrial change identify abrupt WAM variability across the deglaciation, few studies show how ocean temperatures evolved across the deglaciation. To identify the mechanism linking AMOC to the WAM, we generated a new record of subsurface temperature variability over the last 21 kyr based on Mg/Ca ratios in a sub-thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera in an Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EEA) sediment core from the Niger Delta. Our subsurface temperature record shows abrupt subsurface warming during both the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich Event 1. We also conducted a new transient coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation across the YD that better resolves the western boundary current dynamics and find a strong negative correlation between AMOC strength and EEA subsurface temperatures caused by changes in ocean circulation and rainfall responses that are consistent with the observed WAM change. Our combined proxy and modeling results provide the first evidence that an oceanic teleconnection between AMOC strength and subsurface temperature in the EEA impacted the intensity of the WAM on millennial time scales.

  5. High connectivity of the crocodile shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: highlights for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes da Silva Ferrette

    Full Text Available Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai.

  6. Present-day transatlantic Saharan dust deposition across the equatorial North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Laura; Brummer, Geert-Jan; van der Does, Michelle; Guerreiro, Catarina; Hennekam, Rick; van Hateren, Johannes; Jong, Dirk; Munday, Chris; Schouten, Stefan; Jan-Berend, Stuut

    2017-04-01

    Massive amounts of Saharan dust are blown from the African coast across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas each year. This dust has direct and indirect effects on global climate including reflection and absorption of solar radiation as well as transport and deposition of nutrients and metals fertilizing both ocean and land. To determine the temporal and spatial variability of Saharan dust transport and deposition and their marine environmental effects across the equatorial North Atlantic Ocean, we have set up a monitoring experiment using deep-ocean sediment traps as well as on land-based dust collectors. The sediment traps were deployed at five sampling sites on a transect between northwest Africa and the Caribbean along 12⁰ N, in a down-wind extension of the land-based dust collectors placed at 19⁰ N on the Mauritanian coast in Iwik. We establish the temporal distribution of the particle fluxes deposited in the Atlantic and compare chemical compositions with the land-based dust collectors propagating to the down-wind sediment trap sites. First-year results show that the total mass fluxes in the ocean are highest at the sampling sites in the East and West, closest to the African continent and the Caribbean, respectively. Element ratios reveal that the lithogenic particles deposited nearest to Africa are most similar in composition to the Saharan dust collected in Iwik. Down-wind Al and Fe contents suggest a downwind change in the mineralogical composition of Saharan dust and indicate an increasing contribution of clay minerals towards the west. In the westernmost Atlantic, gradients suggest admixture of re-suspended clay-sized sediment advected towards the deep sediment trap. Seasonality is most prominent near both continents but generally weak, with mass fluxes dominated by calcium carbonate and clear seasonal maxima of biogenic silica towards the west. See also: www.nioz.nl/dust

  7. Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Stramma, Lothar; Visbeck, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Within the eastern tropical oceans of the Atlantic and Pacific basin vast oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) exist in the depth range between 100 and 900 m. Minimum oxygen values are reached at 300-500 m depth which in the eastern Pacific become suboxic (dissolved oxygen content estimate of aOUR. Averaging oxygen ages for main thermocline isopycnals of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean exhibit an exponential increase with density without an obvious signature of the OMZs. Oxygen supply originates from a surface outcrop area and can also be approximated by the turn-over time, the ratio of ocean volume to ventilating flux. The turn-over time corresponds well to the average oxygen ages for the well ventilated waters. However, in the density ranges of the suboxic OMZs the turn-over time substantially increases. This indicates that reduced ventilation in the outcrop is directly related to the existence of suboxic OMZs, but they are not obviously related to enhanced consumption indicated by the oxygen ages. The turn-over time suggests that the lower thermocline of the North Atlantic would be suboxic but at present this is compensated by the import of water from the well ventilated South Atlantic. The turn-over time approach itself is independent of details of ocean transport pathways. Instead the geographical location of the OMZ is to first order determined by: (i) the patterns of upwelling, either through Ekman or equatorial divergence, (ii) the regions of general sluggish horizontal transport at the eastern boundaries, and (iii) to a lesser extent to regions with high productivity as indicated through ocean colour data.

  8. Coccolithophore ecology in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean: New perspectives from the Atlantic meridional transect (AMT) programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Holligan, Patrick M.; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Adey, Tim R.

    2017-11-01

    Coccolithophore species composition was determined in 199 samples collected from the upper 300 m of the Atlantic Ocean, spanning temperate, tropical and subtropical waters in both hemispheres during four Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) cruises over the period 2003-2005. Of the 171 taxa observed, 140 consistently represented 10% surface irradiance); the lower euphotic zone (LEZ, 10-1% surface irradiance); and the sub-euphotic zone (SEZ, strategy for species abundant (Umbellosphaera spp., holococcolithophores) in the UEZ where inorganic nutrient concentrations are depleted and limiting to growth, although other nutritional strategies, such as the use of organic nutrients, are also possible. Statistical differences were also found in the species composition between the different cruises, with high levels of similarity for similar timed cruises (May or September-October). Few individual taxa showed significant variability in abundance over the time-span of sampling, except species such as E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii at higher latitudes. In subtropical and equatorial waters, high levels of species richness and low levels of species dominance remained throughout the sampling period indicating that seasonal fluctuations reflected differences in the whole coccolithophore community rather than in just one or a few species. Multivariate analyses of the taxa classified as rare also indicated some level of temporal, as well as vertical, zonation. Such insights into coccolithophore ecology and community composition provide important new perspectives that require innovative research to fully understand their impact on ocean biogeochemistry.

  9. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected from various platforms in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans from 1961-1964 (NODC Accession 0001903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ARGUS in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from...

  10. Temperature profiles collected by XBT in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans from 3/20/1996 to 4/27/2000 (NODC Accession 0000176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the GODAFOSS and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 20...

  11. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From North Atlantic Ocean and Others from 19630101 to 19841231 (NODC Accession 8900254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the University of Wisconsin's Indian/Atlantic/Pacific Climate Atlas data. This data set includes maps of: temperature; salinity; mixed-layer...

  12. Specific identification of Western Atlantic Ocean scombrids using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paine, Melissa A; McDowell, Jan R; Graves, John E

    2007-01-01

    .... The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region was evaluated as a molecular marker for the specific identification of the 17 members of the family Scombridae common to the western Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Revisiting the Meteor 1925-1927 hydrographic dataset reveals centennial full-depth changes in the Atlantic Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viktor Gouretski; Johann H Jungclaus; Helmuth Haak

    2013-01-01

    The hydrographic data set of the German Atlantic Expedition (GAE) 1925-1927 is compared with the contemporary profiling float and ship-based hydrography to reveal full-depth changes in the Atlantic Ocean between 19°N and 64...

  14. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion-derived aerosols in the marine boundary layer have been poorly studied, especially in remote environments such as the open Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic has the potential to contain a high concentration of aerosols, such as black carbon, due to the African emis...

  15. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1202 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-23 to 2012-02-08 (NCEI Accession 0130703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130703 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1202 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  16. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean by various countries from 20 Jul 1870 to 17 Jul 1995 (NODC Accession 0085914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean by various countries from 1870 to 1995,...

  17. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0903 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2009-05-13 (NODC Accession 0089624)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089624 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0903 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  18. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-06 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-04 to 2010-04-23 (NODC Accession 0104288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104288 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-06 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  19. Decadal change of the south Atlantic ocean Angola-Benguela frontal zone since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Sun, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution simulations with a regional atmospheric model coupled to an intermediate-level mixed layer ocean model along with multiple atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses are analyzed to understand how and why the Angola-Benguela frontal Zone (ABFZ) has changed since 1980. A southward shift of 0.05°-0.55° latitude decade-1 in the annual mean ABFZ position accompanied by an intensification of + 0.05 to + 0.13 K/100-km decade-1 has occurred as ocean mixed layer temperatures have warmed (cooled) equatorward (poleward) of the front over the 1980-2014 period. These changes are captured in a 35-year model integration. The oceanic warming north of the ABFZ is associated with a weakening of vertical entrainment, reduced cooling associated with vertical diffusion, and a deepening of the mixed layer along the Angola coast. These changes coincide with a steady weakening of the onshore atmospheric flow as the zonal pressure gradient between the eastern equatorial Atlantic and the Congo Basin weakens. Oceanic cooling poleward of the ABFZ is primarily due to enhanced advection of cooler water from the south and east, increased cooling by vertical diffusion, and shoaling of the mixed layer depth. In the atmosphere, these changes are related to an intensification and poleward shift of the South Atlantic sub-tropical anticyclone as surface winds, hence the westward mixed layer ocean currents, intensify in the Benguela upwelling region along the Namibian coast. With a few caveats, these findings demonstrate that air/sea interactions play a prominent role in influencing the observed decadal variability of the ABFZ over the southeastern Atlantic since 1980.

  20. Triassic - Jurassic kinematic relationships between the Gulf of Mexico, Central Atlantic Ocean, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D. E.; Burke, K.; Hall, S. A.; Casey, J. F.

    2008-05-01

    Closing ocean basins along geomagnetic isochrons can be an objective method for analyzing reconstructed continental margins because, in general, tectonic extension at passive margins stops once new oceanic lithosphere is created. Holding Africa fixed, we close the South Atlantic Ocean to Chron M4 (126.6 Ma) and the Central Atlantic Ocean to Chron M40 (165.1 Ma). In this configuration, and with the Gulf of Mexico closed by clockwise rotation of the Yucatan continental block (~42 degrees), the positions of North America and South America indicate that the Gulf of Mexico opened at least 20 My after the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean (ca. 180 Ma) and the earlier breakup of Pangea (ca. 200 Ma). The Gondwanan terranes of eastern Mexico, Yucatan, Florida, and the United States south of the Ouachita-Marathon Suture, remained attached to Laurasia after the breakup of the supercontinent. The Gulf of Mexico then formed in Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous times (ca. 160 Ma to 140 Ma) by counterclockwise rotation of the Yucatan block. Two prominent basement structures, defined by seismic refraction and gravity data, are interpreted to be hotspot tracks created by a single mantle plume during this rotation. A third prominent basement structure is interpreted to be a marginal ridge that developed along the ocean-continental transform boundary between the Yucatan block and eastern Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico formed after initial rifting and extension of continental crust and widespread salt deposition (ca. 160 Ma to 150 Ma), followed by the mantle plume eruption and sea-floor spreading (ca. 150 Ma to 140 Ma).

  1. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.100 Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard...

  2. The fiddler crabs (Crustacea: Brachyura: Ocypodidae: genus Uca of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Arruda Bezerra

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the 11 species of fiddler crabs [Uca (Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803, U. (U. tangeri (Eydoux, 1835, U. (Minuca burgersi Holthuis, 1967, U. (M. mordax (Smith, 1870, U. (M. rapax (Smith, 1870, U. (M. thayeri Rathbun, 1900, U. (M. victoriana von Hagen, 1987, U. (M. vocator (Herbst, 1804, U. (Leptuca cumulanta Crane, 1943, U. (L. leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 and U. (L. uruguayensis Nobili, 1901] of the South Atlantic Ocean is reviewed. Keys for identification, updating the keys for the Atlantic Ocean are proposed, including the species recently described. Comments reporting morphological variations among types and additional material and among populations of different localities are included. The Atlantic species are divided into three subgenera: Uca s. str., Minuca and Leptuca. The eastern Atlantic species U. (U.tangeri is included in subgenus Uca s. str. due to the presence of a proximal spine opposing the spoon-tipped setae of the second maxilliped, which is considered an apomorphic character of the subgenus Uca s. str.

  3. Characterization of "dead-zone" eddies in the tropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Schütte, Florian; Karstensen, Johannes; Krahmann, Gerd; Hauss, Helena; Fiedler, Björn; Brandt, Peter; Visbeck, Martin; Körtzinger, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Localized open-ocean low-oxygen “dead zones” in the eastern tropical North Atlantic are recently discovered ocean features that can develop in dynamically isolated water masses within cyclonic eddies (CE) and anticyclonic mode-water eddies (ACME). Analysis of a comprehensive oxygen dataset obtained from gliders, moorings, research vessels and Argo floats reveals that “dead-zone” eddies are found in surprisingly high numbers and in a large area from about 4 to 22° N, from the...

  4. Non-Rayleigh control of upper-ocean Cd isotope fractionation in the western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ruifang C.; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Abouchami, Wafa; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; De Jong, Jeroen; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-08-01

    We present seawater Cd isotopic compositions in five depth profiles and a continuous surface water transect, from 50°S to the Equator, in the western South Atlantic, sampled during GEOTRACES cruise 74JC057 (GA02 section, Leg 3), and investigate the mechanisms governing Cd isotope cycling in the upper and deep ocean. The depth profiles generally display high ε 112 / 110Cd at the surface and decrease with increasing depth toward values typical of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). However, at stations north of the Subantarctic Front, the decrease in ε 112 / 110Cd is interrupted by a shift to values intermediate between those of surface and bottom waters, which occurs at depths occupied by North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). This pattern is associated with variations in Cd concentration from low surface values to a maximum at mid-depths and is attributed to preferential utilization of light Cd by phytoplankton in the surface ocean. Our new results show that in this region Cd-deficient waters do not display the extreme, highly fractionated ε 112 / 110Cd reported in some earlier studies from other oceanic regions. Instead, in the surface and subsurface southwest (SW) Atlantic, when [Cd] drops below 0.1 nmol kg-1, ε 112 / 110Cd are relatively homogeneous and cluster around a value of +3.7, in agreement with the mean value of 3.8 ± 3.3 (2SD, n = 164) obtained from a statistical evaluation of the global ocean Cd isotope dataset. We suggest that Cd-deficient surface waters may acquire their Cd isotope signature via sorption of Cd onto organic ligands, colloids or bacterial/picoplankton extracellular functional groups. Alternatively, we show that an open system, steady-state model is in good accord with the observed Cd isotope systematics in the upper ocean north of the Southern Ocean. The distribution of ε 112 / 110Cd in intermediate and deep waters is consistent with the water mass distribution, with the north-south variations reflecting changes in the mixing proportion

  5. Physical properties of the formation of water exchange between Atlantic and Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonkin, S. N.; Bagno, A. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Filyushkin, B. N.; Zalesny, V. B.

    2017-03-01

    Physical regularities of water exchange between the North Atlantic (NA) and Arctic Ocean (AO) in 1958-2009 are analyzed on the basis of numerical experiments with an eddy-permitting model of ocean circulation. Variations in the heat and salt fluxes in the Greenland Sea near the Fram Strait caused by atmospheric forcing generate baroclinic modes of ocean currents in the 0-300 m layer, which stabilize the response of the ocean to atmospheric forcing. This facilitates the conservation of water exchange between the NA and AO at a specific climatic level. A quick response of dense water outflow into the deep layers of the NA through the Denmark Strait to the variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was revealed on the monthly scale. A response on a time scale of 39 months was also revealed. The quick response on the NAO index variation was interrupted in 1969-1978, which was related to the Great Salinity Anomaly. It was shown that transverse oscillations of the Norwegian Atlantic Current significantly influence the formation of intermediate dense waters in the Greenland and Norwegian seas (GNS). The dense water outflow by bottom current (BC) to the deep layers of the NA through the Faroe Channels with a time lag of 1 year correlates with the transversal oscillations of the Norwegian Current front. The mass transport of the BC outflow from the Faroe Channels to the NA can serve as an integral indicator of the formation and sink of new portions of dense waters formed as a result of mixing of warm saline Atlantic waters and cold freshened Arctic waters in the GNS.

  6. Surface Drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean | Wedepohl | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean is described using historical shipdrift data. The Benguela Current has a width of 200 km in the south and 750 km in the north. The mean speeds of the current vary from <11 cm.s-1 to a maximum of 23 cm.s-1. The highest current speeds occur during summer in the southern ...

  7. Contrasting biogeochemical cycles of cobalt in the surface western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulaquais, G.; Boye, M.; Middag, R.; Owens, S.; Puigcorbe, V.; Buesseler, K.; Masqué, P.; De Baar, H.J.W.; Carton, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved cobalt (DCo; <0.2 µm; 14 to 93 pM) and the apparent particulate cobalt (PCo; >0.2 µm; <1 to 15 pM) were determined in the upper water column (<1000 m) of the western Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-A02 section (64°N to 50°S). The lowest DCo concentrations, typical of a nutrient-type

  8. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Eira C. Carballo-Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the lionfish (Pterois sp.) invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean has been socially constructed by natural scientists, the media, and stakeholders associated with various marine protected areas in the Caribbean. By examining the use of data and metaphors by these actors, I identify where invasion discourses converge and diverge. Although consensus exists regarding the non-nativeness, introduction vector, and successful establishment of lionfish throughout the regio...

  9. Role of Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction in the Midlatitude North Atlantic on Interannual Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Uma Suren

    The primary mode of observed interannual variability in the North Atlantic is characterized by a north-south oriented dipole pattern in anomalies of surface air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST). The atmospheric circulation associated with the dipole mode of variability is consistent with the notion of the atmosphere forcing the ocean. The impact of air-sea interaction on the dipole-like mode of variability is examined using a mixed layer model (MLM) of the upper ocean in the North Atlantic between 20-60 ^circN coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM1). The climatology of the MLM ocean temperature is adjusted to be consistent with the SSTs that form the lower boundary conditions for CCM1 by including heat flux corrections in the net forcing of the ocean. Heat and salt flux corrections are calculated in a series of uncoupled simulations where the MLM is forced with CCM1 surface fluxes. The natural variability in a 31-year integration of the MLM in the North Atlantic coupled to CCM1 is compared to a CCM1 control simulation of similar length with SSTs specified to have the same climatological annual cycle as in the coupled integration. The mean December to February (DJF) climatology is essentially unchanged with the inclusion of midlatitude air-sea interaction. However, air-sea interaction leads to significant increases in the persistence of air temperature anomalies on interannual as well as monthly time scales. In the model subpolar North Atlantic, air and ocean temperature anomalies are significantly autocorrelated (0.4 to 0.6) from one winter to the following winter. These autocorrelations are consistent with the 'Re-emergence' mechanism (Namias and Born, 1970). Deep ocean temperature anomalies, present at the end of one winter, remained sequestered below the shallow summer mixed layer. As the mixed layer deepens during the following fall, ocean temperature anomalies from the previous winter are reincorporated into the surface layer. February

  10. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A zoogeographic study of the Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Atlantic Ocean was carried out. Data on Opisthobranch occurrence were collated from literature records and databases. An estimated 1066 species were considered for this study, which belonged to the orders Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Sacoglossa, Notaspidea and Nudibranchia. Biogeographical patterns were analysed using cluster analysis (TWINSPAN and ordination MDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling program. The richness of opisthobranchs increases from polar to tropical regions along Atlantic shores. The cluster analysis showed that there is a latitudinal and longitudinal separation of the biogeographical areas. The amphiatlantic species can be separated into four groups according to their distribution: G1.1.- the geographic range of species is limited to cold water on both sides of the Atlantic; G1.2.- species with geographic ranges limited to the western Arctic and Boreal regions, with a wide distribution in the eastern Atlantic, from the eastern Arctic or the eastern Boreal region to the Lusitanian and Mediterranean provinces; G2.1.- species with geographic ranges limited to the Caribbean and Mauritanian-Senegalese areas; G2.2.- species with a wide geographical distribution along both Atlantic shores.

  11. Intestinal helminth fauna of the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (Elasmobranchii: Lamnidae) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penadés-Suay, Jaime; Tomás, Jesús; Merchán, Manuel; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2017-02-08

    Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf. lactuca. In addition, L3 larvae of Anisakis sp. type I were detected. Infracommunities were species poor and had low total helminth abundance. The result of Schluter's variance ratio test was compatible with the hypothesis of independent colonization of helminth taxa. These results conform to previous studies on oceanic predators that have hypothesized that these hosts should have depauperate and unpredictable helminth infracommunities because oceanic conditions hamper parasite transmission. However, mean species richness and mean total abundance of cestodes of shortfin mako and other oceanic sharks did not significantly differ from those of elasmobranchs from other habitats. This suggests that the large body size and prey consumption rates of oceanic sharks offset the negative 'dilution' effect of oceanic habitat on transmission rates. Additionally, or alternatively, parasites of oceanic sharks may have expanded the use of intermediate hosts through the trophic web to spread out the risk of failure to complete their life cycles.

  12. Temperature profile and water depth collected from W.V. PRATT using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 09 January 1987 to 30 January 1987 (NODC Accession 8700076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the W.V. PRATT in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA in the Atlantic Ocean. Data...

  13. Atlantic and Pacific Ocean synergistic forcing of the Mesomerican monsoon over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Bernal, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new replicated, high resolution (~2 yrs) and precisely-dated (± 4 yr) wet season hydroclimate reconstruction for the Mesoamerican sector of the North American Monsoon over the past 2250 years. Our new reconstruction is based on two aragonite stalagmites from southwestern Mexico which replicate oxygen isotope variations over the 950-1950 CE interval, and are calibrated to instrumental rainfall variations in the Basin of Mexico. Such data complement existing dendroclimatic reconstructions of early wet season and winter drought severity. Comparisons to indices of ocean-atmosphere circulation show a combined forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monsoon strengthening coincided with synergistic forcing of a La Niña-like mode and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and vice versa for droughts. Although drought is commonly invoked as an stressor leading to societal change, the role of intensified monsoon onto cultural development is rarely explored. We observe that prominent transitions from drought to pluvial conditions are associated with population increases in three of the major highland Mexico civilizations of Teotihuacan, Tula Grande, and the Aztecs. These data suggest a role for ocean-atmosphere dynamics arising from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans on Mesoamerican monsoon strength.

  14. Microplastic pollution in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean: validated and opportunistic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L; Burke, Ann; O'Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2014-11-15

    Levels of marine debris, including microplastics, are largely un-documented in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Broad scale monitoring efforts are required to understand the distribution, abundance and ecological implications of microplastic pollution. A method of continuous sampling was developed to be conducted in conjunction with a wide range of vessel operations to maximise vessel time. Transects covering a total of 12,700 km were sampled through continuous monitoring of open ocean sub-surface water resulting in 470 samples. Items classified as potential plastics were identified in 94% of samples. A total of 2315 particles were identified, 89% were less than 5mm in length classifying them as microplastics. Average plastic abundance in the Northeast Atlantic was calculated as 2.46 particles m(-3). This is the first report to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of microplastic pollution in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and to present a potential method for standardised monitoring of microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System to enhance the societal, scientific and economic benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Karstensen, Johannes; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic Ocean observing by establishing an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the EU Horizon 2020 project AtlantOS with its 62 partners from 18 countries (European and international) and several members will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit by supporting the full cycle of the integrated ocean observation value chain from requirements via data gathering and observation, product generation, information, prediction, dissemination and stakeholder dialogue towards information and product provision. The benefits will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality

  16. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crustal structure of the Agulhas Ridge (South Atlantic Ocean): Formation above a hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokat, Wilfried; Hagen, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    The southern South Atlantic Ocean contains several features believed to document the traces of hotspot volcanism during the early formation of the ocean basin, namely the Agulhas Ridge and the Cape Rise seamounts located in the southeast Atlantic between 36°S and 50°S. The Agulhas Ridge parallels the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone, one of the major transform zones of the world. The morphology of the ridge changes dramatically from two parallel segments in the southwest, to the broad plateau-like Agulhas Ridge in the northeast. Because the crustal fabric of the ridge is unknown relating its evolution to hotspots in the southeast Atlantic is an open question. During the RV Polarstern cruise ANT-XXIII-5 seismic reflection and refraction data were collected along a 370 km long profile with 8 Ocean Bottom Stations to investigate its crustal fabric. The profile extends in NNE direction from the Agulhas Basin, 60 km south of the Agulhas Ridge, and continues into the Cape Basin crossing the southernmost of the Cape Rise seamounts. In the Cape Basin we found a crustal thickness of 5.5-7.5 km, and a velocity distribution typical for oceanic crust. The Cape Rise seamounts, however, show a higher velocity in comparison to the surrounding oceanic crust and the Agulhas Ridge. Underplated material is evident below the southernmost of the Cape Rise seamounts. It also has a 5-8% higher density compared to the Agulhas Plateau. The seismic velocities of the Agulhas Ridge are lower, the crustal thickness is approximately 14 km, and age dating of dredge samples from its top provides clear evidence of rejuvenated volcanism at around 26 Ma. Seismic data indicate that although the Cape Rise seamounts formed above a mantle thermal anomaly it had a limited areal extent, whereas the hotspot material that formed the Agulhas Ridge likely erupted along a fracture zone.

  18. Diversity and distribution of hyperiid amphipods along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K.; Tump, Marloes; Vonk, Ronald; Goetze, Erica; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.

    2017-11-01

    As commensals and parasitoids of gelatinous plankton, hyperiid amphipods play unique and important ecological roles in pelagic food webs. Because the diversity and biogeography of this group in oceanic waters is poorly known, we examined diversity and distribution patterns of hyperiids along a basin-scale meridional transect in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise 22). Hyperiids were collected from epipelagic and upper mesopelagic depths at 27 stations between 39°N and 45°S. A total of 70 species in 36 genera and 17 families were identified, the majority of which belonged to the epipelagic Physocephalata infraorder. We observed maximum species and genus richness in the equatorial upwelling region (up to 35 species, 27 genera per station; 7°N-8°S), which appeared largely driven by increased diversity in the superfamily Platysceloidea, as well as a significant and positive relationship between species richness and sea surface temperature. Cluster analyses of hyperiid species assemblages along the transect broadly supported a division into gyral, equatorial, transitional, and subantarctic assemblages, congruent with Longhurst's biogeochemical provinces. Steepest transitions in hyperiid species composition occurred at the southern subtropical convergence zone (34-38°S). The majority of zooplankton groups show maximal diversity in subtropical waters, and our observations of equatorial maxima in species and genus richness for hyperiids suggest that the mechanisms controlling diversity in this group are distinct from other zooplanktonic taxa. These patterns may be driven by the distribution and diversity of gelatinous hosts for hyperiids, which remain poorly characterized at ocean basin scales. The data reported here provide new distributional records for epipelagic and upper mesopelagic hyperiids across six major oceanic provinces in the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Paleogeographic Maps of the Central and North Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzo, S.; Sibuet, J.; Srivastava, S.

    2011-12-01

    The kinematics of the Central and North Atlantic between North America (NA), Africa (AF), Meseta (MES), Iberia (IB), Flemish Cap (FC) and the Galicia Bank (GB) has been established from Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous: AF/NA and MES/NA parameters of rotations are from Labails et al. (2010); we have established new IB/NA, FC/NA and GB/NA parameters of rotations for the same period of time (Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous). Seven palaeogeographic maps, with structural elements and magnetic lineations are presented: 1) Late Triassic - Pre-rift configuration (Norian/Rhaetian limit, about 203 Ma), 2) Early Jurassic - end of rifting (after CAMP and salt deposition) (ECMA, Sinemurian/Pliensbachian limit, 190 Ma); Paleogeography of Early Jurassic (Sinemurian-Toarcian), 3) Middle Jurassic (BSMA, Middle Bajocian, 170 Ma); Paleogeography of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian-Bathonian), 4) Late Jurassic (M22, Tithonian, 150 Ma); Paleogeography of Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Portlandian), 5) Early Cretaceous (M11, Valanginian, 136 Ma); Paleogeography of Early Cretaceous (Berriasian-Barremian), 6) Middle Cretaceous (M0, Late Barremian/Early Aptian, 125 Ma); Paleogeography of Middle Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian), 7) Late Cretaceous (C34, Santonian, 83.5 Ma); Paleogeography of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Danian). In addition, we will present the maps of salt distributions at the Sinemurian/Pliensbachian limit (190 Ma) (after salt deposition) and in middle Bajocian (170 Ma). Paleo-oceanographic informations are mainly from Gradstein et al. (1990), while the salt structure and distribution is a compilation of numerous studies.

  20. Harmonising and semantically linking key variables from in-situ observing networks of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System, AtlantOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Louise; Buck, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements at regional, national and international scales. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project aims to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that strengthens the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and contributes to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. One goal is to ensure that data from different and diverse in-situ observing networks are readily accessible and useable to a wider community, including the international ocean science community and other stakeholders in this field. To help achieve this goal, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) produced a parameter matrix to harmonise data exchange, data flow and data integration for the key variables acquired by multiple in-situ AtlantOS observing networks such as ARGO, Seafloor Mapping and OceanSITES. Our solution used semantic linking of controlled vocabularies and metadata for parameters that were "mappable" to existing EU and international standard vocabularies. An AtlantOS Essential Variables list of terms (aggregated level) based on Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECV), GOOS Essential Ocean Variables (EOV) and other key network variables was defined and published on the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (version 2.0) as collection A05 (http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/A05/current/). This new vocabulary was semantically linked to standardised metadata for observed properties and units that had been validated by the AtlantOS community: SeaDataNet parameters (P01), Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names (P07) and SeaDataNet units (P06). Observed properties were mapped to biological entities from the internationally assured AphiaID from the WOrld Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), http

  1. Large-scale diversity patterns of cephalopods in the Atlantic open ocean and deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Dierssen, Heidi M; Gonzalez, Liliana; Seibel, Brad A

    2008-12-01

    Although the oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface and the open ocean is by far the largest ecosystem on the planet, our knowledge regarding diversity patterns of pelagic fauna is very scarce. Here, we examine large-scale latitudinal and depth-related patterns of pelagic cephalopod richness in the Atlantic Ocean in relation to ambient thermal and productive energy availability. Diversity, across 17 biogeochemical regions in the open ocean, does not decline monotonically with latitude, but is positively correlated to the availability of oceanic resources. Mean net primary productivity (NPP), determined from ocean color satellite imagery, explains 37% of the variance in species richness. Outside the poles, the range in NPP explains over 40% of the variability. This suggests that cephalopods are well adapted to the spatial patchiness and seasonality of open-ocean resources. Pelagic richness is also correlated to sea surface temperature, with maximum richness occurring around 15 degrees C and decreasing with both colder and warmer temperatures. Both pelagic and benthos-associated diversities decline sharply from sublittoral and epipelagic regions to the slope and bathypelagic habitats and then steadily to abyssal depths. Thus, higher energy availability at shallow depths seems to promote diversification rates. This strong depth-related trend in diversity also emphasizes the greater influence of the sharp vertical thermal gradient than the smoother and more seasonal horizontal (latitudinal) one on marine diversity.

  2. Parallel adaptive evolution of Atlantic cod on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Ian R; Hubert, Sophie; Higgins, Brent; Borza, Tudor; Bowman, Sharen; Paterson, Ian G; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Morris, Corey J; Gregory, Robert S; Hardie, David C; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Taggart, Chris T; Bentzen, Paul

    2010-12-22

    Despite the enormous economic and ecological importance of marine organisms, the spatial scales of adaptation and biocomplexity remain largely unknown. Yet, the preservation of local stocks that possess adaptive diversity is critical to the long-term maintenance of productive stable fisheries and ecosystems. Here, we document genomic evidence of range-wide adaptive differentiation in a broadcast spawning marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), using a genome survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Of 1641 gene-associated polymorphisms examined, 70 (4.2%) tested positive for signatures of selection using a Bayesian approach. We identify a subset of these loci (n=40) for which allele frequencies show parallel temperature-associated clines (pAtlantic. Temperature associations were robust to the statistical removal of geographic distance or latitude effects, and contrasted 'neutral' loci, which displayed no temperature association. Allele frequencies at temperature-associated loci were significantly correlated, spanned three linkage groups and several were successfully annotated supporting the involvement of multiple independent genes. Our results are consistent with the evolution and/or selective sweep of multiple genes in response to ocean temperature, and support the possibility of a new conservation paradigm for non-model marine organisms based on genomic approaches to resolving functional and adaptive diversity.

  3. Causes of Upper-Ocean Temperature Anomalies in the Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, A.; Foltz, G. R.; Perez, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Hurricane activity and regional rainfall are strongly impacted by upper ocean conditions in the tropical North Atlantic, defined as the region between the equator and 20°N. A previous study analyzed a strong cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly that developed in this region during early 2009 and was recorded by the Pilot Research Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) moored buoy at 4°N, 23°W (Foltz et al. 2012). The same mooring shows a similar cold anomaly in the spring of 2015 as well as a strong warm anomaly in 2010, offering the opportunity for a more comprehensive analysis of the causes of these events. In this study we examine the main causes of the observed temperature anomalies between 1998 and 2015. Basin-scale conditions during these events are analyzed using satellite SST, wind, and rain data, as well as temperature and salinity profiles from the NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System. A more detailed analysis is conducted using ten years of direct measurements from the PIRATA mooring at 4°N, 23°W. Results show that the cooling and warming anomalies were caused primarily by wind-driven changes in surface evaporative cooling, mixed layer depth, and upper-ocean vertical velocity. Anomalies in surface solar radiation acted to damp the wind-driven SST anomalies in the latitude bands of the ITCZ (3°-8°N). Basin-scale analyses also suggest a strong connection between the observed SST anomalies and the Atlantic Meridional Mode, a well-known pattern of SST and surface wind anomalies spanning the tropical Atlantic.

  4. Coherency of late Holocene European speleothem δ18O records linked to North Atlantic Ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; McDermott, Frank; Mudelsee, Manfred; Werner, Martin; Frank, Norbert; Mangini, Augusto

    2017-07-01

    Speleothem δ18O records provide valuable information about past continental environmental and climatic conditions, although their interpretation is often not straightforward. Here we evaluate a compilation of late Holocene speleothem δ18O records using a Monte Carlo based Principal Component Analysis (MC-PCA) method that accounts for uncertainties in individual speleothem age models and for the variable temporal resolution of each δ18O record. The MC-PCA approach permits not only the identification of temporally coherent changes in speleothem δ18O; it also facilitates their graphical depiction and evaluation of their spatial coherency. The MC-PCA method was applied to 11 Holocene speleothem δ18O records that span most of the European continent (apart from the circum-Mediterranean region). We observe a common (shared) mode of speleothem δ18O variability that suggests millennial-scale coherency and cyclicity during the last 4.5 ka. These changes are likely caused by variability in atmospheric circulation akin to that associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, reflecting meridionally shifted westerlies. We argue that these common large-scale variations in European speleothem δ18O records are in phase with changes in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation indicated by the vigour of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), the strength of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and an ocean stacked North Atlantic ice rafted debris (IRD) index. Based on a recent modelling study, we conclude that these changes in the North Atlantic circulation history may be caused by wind stress on the ocean surface driven by shifted westerlies. However, the mechanisms that ultimately force the westerlies remain unclear.

  5. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  6. Climate impacts of recent multidecadal changes in Atlantic Ocean Sea surface temperature: a multimodel comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, Daniel L.R.; Sutton, Rowan T. [University of Reading, Walker Institute, Department of Meteorology, P.O. Box 243, Reading (United Kingdom); Cassou, Christophe [CERFACS, Toulouse Cedex (France); Keenlyside, Noel [IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Okumura, Yuko [CAS, CGD-NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); Zhou, Tianjun [Chinese Acadamey of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2010-06-15

    During the twentieth century sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean exhibited prominent multidecadal variations. The source of such variations has yet to be rigorously established - but the question of their impact on climate can be investigated. Here we report on a set of multimodel experiments to examine the impact of patterns of warming in the North Atlantic, and cooling in the South Atlantic, derived from observations, that is characteristic of the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The experiments were carried out with six atmospheric General Circulation Models (including two versions of one model), and a major goal was to assess the extent to which key climate impacts are consistent between the different models. The major climate impacts are found over North and South America, with the strongest impacts over land found over the United States and northern parts of South America. These responses appear to be driven by a combination of an off-equatorial Gill response to diabatic heating over the Caribbean due to increased rainfall within the region and a Northward shift in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) due to the anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient. The majority of the models show warmer US land temperatures and reduced Mean Sea Level Pressure during summer (JJA) in response to a warmer North Atlantic and a cooler South Atlantic, in line with observations. However the majority of models show no significant impact on US rainfall during summer. Over northern South America, all models show reduced rainfall in southern hemisphere winter (JJA), whilst in Summer (DJF) there is a generally an increase in rainfall. However, there is a large spread amongst the models in the magnitude of the rainfall anomalies over land. Away from the Americas, there are no consistent significant modelled responses. In particular there are no significant changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the North Atlantic and Europe

  7. A euxinic southern North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koster, J.

    1998-01-01

    During mid-Cretaceous times large amounts of organic carbon (Corg) became sequestered in black shales', possibly due to oceanic anoxic events' characterized by the development of an extended oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Here, we provide the first direct evidence for an open ocean OMZ in the

  8. Heterogeneity of the North Atlantic oceanic lithosphere based on integrated analysis of GOCE satellite gravity and geological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    -to-density conversion curves based on published laboratory measurements for the crystalline basement (Ludwig, Nafe, Drake, 1970; Christensen and Mooney, 1995) and for oceanic sediments and oceanic crust based on laboratory measurements for serpentinites and gabbros from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Kelemen et al., 2004...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1996-03-17 to 1996-05-20 (NODC Accession 0116640)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116640 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1993-02-06 to 1993-03-18 (NCEI Accession 0143944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143944 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-12-26 to 2009-01-30 (NODC Accession 0110254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110254 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-14 to 2006-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108159 includes Surface underway data collected from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  15. The environmental impact of Lagrangian transport routes in the north east atlantic ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Sala

    2014-06-01

    After 10-year climatic simulation, four depth ranges showed different Lagrangian transport pathways, 0–10 m, 20–200 m, 300–500m, and 600–2000 m, being these routes consistent with the known ocean circulation patterns. These routes were partially confirmed by results from previous oceanic water mass distribution, biological studies on marine organisms and observations of the rafting of crude oil spilled during the Prestige oil tanker accident (in Galicia, north of Spain. This preliminary yet provocative study should help guide future observational campaigns, as well as the interpretation of open-ocean transport patterns and the distribution of marine organisms and chemical tracers in the northeast Atlantic region.

  16. Impacts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Castruccio, Frederic; Yeager, Stephen; Delworth, Thomas; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is associated with marked modulations of climate anomalies over many areas of the globe. This includes droughts in Africa and North America, decline in sea ice, changes of tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic, and changes in the atmospheric large-scale circulation. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period ( 60-80yr) makes it difficult to show that the AMV is a direct driver of these variations. To isolate the AMV climate response, we use a suite of global coupled models from GFDL and NCAR, in which the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other ocean basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts, we use large ensemble simulations (between 30 and 100 members depending on the model) that are integrated for 10 years. All models show that during boreal summer the AMV alters the Walker Circulation and generates precipitation anomalies over the whole tropical belt. During boreal winter, the AMV warming is associated with large anomalies over the Pacific, with a response that projects onto a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In this presentation, we focus on a hierarchy of experiments in which the ocean-atmosphere coupling is globally or regionally precluded to extract the physical mechanisms leading to the Pacific response. We show that the PDO response comes from a lagged adjustment of the tropical Pacific Ocean to the AMV forcing in summer, and it is reinforced by ocean-atmosphere coupling over the extratropical Pacific. It is then show that the PDO response contribute to precipitation and temperature anomalies over North America. Therefore, our study highlights the importance of using a global coupled framework to investigate the climate impacts of the AMV.

  17. A 450 000 kyr Surface Hydrography History From the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1089)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, G.; Abelmann, A.; Gersonde, R.

    2002-12-01

    We established a palaeo sea surface temperature (SST) record, by using a radiolarian-based transfer function, for the northern subantarctic Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1089, 400 56' S; 90 54 E), in order to reconstruct its surface hydrography and interocean heat exchange history during the last five climate cycles (ca. 450 ka). The produced record has a centennial scale time resolution, which makes it unique (in length and resolution) for the subantarctic zone. At this location, close to the subtropical front, ocean/atmosphere interactions, interoceanic exchange processes, and mesoscale eddy mixing play an important role in shaping the characteristics of sea water eventually advected to the North Atlantic. The centennial resolution allows to recognize millennial scale climatic events, similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (originally described from Greenland ice cores), both during Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 3 and 6. Similar to observations from Termination I (Antarctic Cold Reversal), rapid cooling rebounds were encountered at Terminations II to V, and are not therefore limited either to the circum-Atlantic area or to last Termination. A comparison of SST and ice volume proxies suggests a lead of a few kyrs between SST and the minimum extent of global ice volume, indicating that temperatures rose substantially at subantarctic latitudes before any considerable northern hemisphere continental ice volume change was recorded. The climatic history of ODP Site 1089 displays good correlation to other records (e.g. Vostok) with the exception of MIS 10, where a warm SST anomaly was recognized. This anomaly is also present in oceanic records along the thermohaline circulation belt path, but absent in both Polar Zone and Vostok climatic records. The implications of our record for interhemispheric climate connecting mechanisms and the role played by the Southern Ocean in steering global climatic change will be discussed.

  18. Spectral Characteristics of the Beam Attenuation Coefficient in the Atlantic Ocean Tropical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Man’kovsky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of the ε(λ beam attenuation coefficient (BAC spectral distribution in the surface waters of the North Atlantic tropical region (NATR are represented. The data were obtained in the 27th cruise of R/V Akademik Vernadsky (January–April, 1984. According to the data of the beam attenuation coefficient spectra measurements in the surface waters of the tropical Atlantic northern part, the characteristics of the spectra (440–675 nm range were obtained. Also, the change of the spectra shape the in the NATR waters with the attenuation coefficient increase was considered. Spectral distributions of the attenuation coefficient in the waters of the principal large-scale NATR currents and in the coastal African waters are presented. A comparison of the mean spectra in oligotrophic waters of the tropical Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean was carried out. It showed the same pattern of the spectral distribution of the attenuation coefficient in these regions. For an array of empirical functions ε(λ in the NATR waters, the expansion into orthogonal eigenvectors was carried out. The possibility to reconstruct the spectra using the first orthogonal vector, i.e. by measuring the attenuation coefficient at one wavelength, is shown. The optimal wavelength values, which should be used to reconstruct the spectra, are indicated. The relation of the chlorophyll concentration in the surface ocean waters of the NATR with the beam attenuation coefficients in three sections of the spectrum with wavelengths of 440, 500 and 551 nm was established. In the NATR coastal waters the relation Cchl = f[ε(λ] should be considered separately, since it differs significantly from the one in ocean waters. The chlorophyll and attenuation coefficient relations in NATR ocean waters established in this work should be characterized as regional.

  19. Implication of eolian delivery and accumulation of highly reactive iron to the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. K.; Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Iron, although abundant in the Earth's crust, is present at low concentrations in sea water and is a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton. Eolian dust (loess) is a major source of this micronutrient, and its deposition has important implications for the global CO2 budget. In this study, we explore distributions of potentially bioreactive Fe, the soluble fraction required by phytoplankton for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation, in deep-sea sediments in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. We used a state-of-the-art Fe speciation technique to characterize Fe inputs from different source regions, specifically North Africa and Patagonia to address the patterns and implications across glacial-interglacial time scales. In many open-ocean regions the input of new iron to the surface waters is dominated by the atmospheric deposition of soluble iron in eolian dusts. Multiple records have shown dust accumulation is correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles - glacial periods are substantially dustier. Furthermore, the delivery of eolian dust to the North and South Atlantic Oceans are from two very different source regions and soil types. We analyzed IODP cores from these two regions and our preliminary data shows similar pattern of iron distribution from both the North and South Atlantic Oceans. To date we have found no simple global pattern of bioavailable iron distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. We have analyzed a range of size distributions to isolate the dust-dominated fraction and the data shows no size effects in bioavailable form of iron distribution. We will explore the role of deep-water dust dissolution and sedimentary redox implications and its role on the bioreactive Fe record in marine cores.

  20. Biogeography of top predators - seabirds and cetaceans - along four latitudinal transects in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Simon; Nachtsheim, Dominik A.; Boos, Karin; Joiris, Claude R.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution, abundance, and species assemblage of top predators - seabirds and cetaceans - can be correlated to water masses as defined by hydrological parameters. In comparison to other oceans, information about the structuring effects of water masses on top predators in the Atlantic Ocean is limited. The present study aims 1) to provide baseline distributional data of top predators for future comparisons, for instance in the course of climate change, and 2) to test how water masses and seasons affect distributional patterns of seabirds and cetaceans in the temperate and tropical Atlantic. During four trans-equatorial expeditions of the RV Polarstern between 2011 and 2014, at-sea observation data of seabirds, cetaceans and other megafauna were collected. Counts of top predators were generally low in the surveyed regions. Statistical analyses for the eight most abundant seabird species and the pooled number of cetaceans revealed water masses and seasons to account for differences in counts and thus also distribution. In most cases, borders between water masses were not very distinct due to gradual changes in surface water properties. Thus, top predator counts were correlated to water masses but, in contrast to polar waters, not strongly linked to borders between water masses. Additional factors, e.g. distance to locally productive areas (upwelling), competition effects, and seabird associations to prey-accumulating subsurface predators may be similarly important in shaping distributional patterns of top predators in the tropical and temperate Atlantic, but could not be specifically tested for here.

  1. Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Ludwig, P.; Ordóñez, P.; Yuen, D.; Trigo, I. F.

    2013-09-01

    In winter of 2009-2010 south-western Europe was hit by several destructive windstorms. The most important was Xynthia (26-28 February 2010), which caused 64 reported casualties and was classified as the 2nd most expensive natural hazard event for 2010 in terms of economic losses. In this work we assess the synoptic evolution, dynamical characteristics and the main impacts of storm Xynthia, whose genesis, development and path were very uncommon. Wind speed gusts observed at more than 500 stations across Europe are evaluated as well as the wind gust field obtained with a regional climate model simulation for the entire North Atlantic and European area. Storm Xynthia was first identified on 25 February around 30° N, 50° W over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Its genesis occurred on a region characterized by warm and moist air under the influence of a strong upper level wave embedded in the westerlies. Xynthia followed an unusual SW-NE path towards Iberia, France and central Europe. The role of moist air masses on the explosive development of Xynthia is analysed by considering the evaporative sources. A lagrangian model is used to identify the moisture sources, sinks and moisture transport associated with the cyclone during its development phase. The main supply of moisture is located over an elongated region of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean with anomalously high SST, confirming that the explosive development of storm Xynthia had a significant contribution from the subtropics.

  2. Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the Southeastern North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Ludwig, P.; Ordóñez, P.; Yuen, D.; Trigo, I. F.

    2013-03-01

    In winter of 2009-2010 Southwestern Europe was hit by several destructive windstorms. The most important was Xynthia (26-28 February 2010), which caused 64 reported casualties and was classified as the 2nd most expensive natural hazard event for 2010 in terms of economic losses. In this work we assess the synoptic evolution, dynamical characteristics and the main impacts of storm Xynthia, whose genesis, development and path were very uncommon. Wind speed gusts observed at more than 500 stations across Europe are evaluated as well as the wind gust field obtained with a regional climate model simulation for the entire North Atlantic and European area. Storm Xynthia was first identified on 25 February around 30° N, 50° W over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Its genesis occurred on a region characterized by warm and moist air under the influence of a strong upper level wave embedded in the westerlies. Xynthia followed an unusual SW-NE path towards Iberia, France and central Europe. The role of moist air masses on the explosive development of Xynthia is analysed by considering the evaporative sources. A lagrangian model is used to identify the moisture sources, sinks, and moisture transport associated with the cyclone during its development phase. The main supply of moisture is located over an elongated region of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean with anomalously high SST, confirming that the explosive development of storm Xynthia had a significant contribution from the subtropics.

  3. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Newton

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  4. Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. R. Liberato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter of 2009–2010 south-western Europe was hit by several destructive windstorms. The most important was Xynthia (26–28 February 2010, which caused 64 reported casualties and was classified as the 2nd most expensive natural hazard event for 2010 in terms of economic losses. In this work we assess the synoptic evolution, dynamical characteristics and the main impacts of storm Xynthia, whose genesis, development and path were very uncommon. Wind speed gusts observed at more than 500 stations across Europe are evaluated as well as the wind gust field obtained with a regional climate model simulation for the entire North Atlantic and European area. Storm Xynthia was first identified on 25 February around 30° N, 50° W over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Its genesis occurred on a region characterized by warm and moist air under the influence of a strong upper level wave embedded in the westerlies. Xynthia followed an unusual SW–NE path towards Iberia, France and central Europe. The role of moist air masses on the explosive development of Xynthia is analysed by considering the evaporative sources. A lagrangian model is used to identify the moisture sources, sinks and moisture transport associated with the cyclone during its development phase. The main supply of moisture is located over an elongated region of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean with anomalously high SST, confirming that the explosive development of storm Xynthia had a significant contribution from the subtropics.

  5. Satellite-derived Ocean Thermal Structure for the North Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, I. F.; Price, J.; Jayne, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new model (method) called SNAP (Satellite-derived North Atlantic Profiles) that seeks to provide a high resolution, near real-time ocean thermal field to aid TC forecasting. The heart of the method is a regression of sea surface height anomaly upon the depth of ocean isotherms. Using about 139000 profiles from Argo floats and historical in situ observations, a spatially-dependent regression model is developed for the North Atlantic Ocean during the hurricane season, June to November. A new step introduced in this work is that the daily mixed layer depth (MLD) is derived from the output of a one-dimensional Price-Weller-Pinkel ocean mixed layer model with time-dependent wind and radiation forcing. The surface layer temperature and thickness of a SNAP temperature profile is a satellite-observed sea surface temperature and this model-computed MLD. The accuracy of SNAP is assessed by comparison to 10761 independent Argo profiles from the hurricane seasons of 2011 and 2012. The root-mean-squared differences (RMSDs) of the SNAP-estimated isotherm depths are found to be 10-20 m for upper thermocline isotherms (29°C to 20°C), 35-55 m for middle isotherms (18°C to 11°C), and 60-90 m for lower isotherms (6°C to 4°C). The primary error sources for SNAP-derived isotherm depths include SSHA uncertainty, high frequency fluctuations of isotherm depths, salinity effects and the barotropic component of SSHA. These account for roughly 29%, 25%, 19% and 10% of the overall estimated isotherm depth errors, respectively. The RMSDs of TC-related ocean parameters, upper ocean heat content and averaged temperature of the upper 100 m, are 10 kJ cm-2 and 0.82°C, respectively.

  6. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sakov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003–2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates – a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  7. The air-sea exchange of mercury in the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert P.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Bowman, Katlin L.; Swarr, Gretchen J.; Shelley, Rachel U.

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea exchange is an important component of the global mercury (Hg) cycle as it mediates the rate of increase in ocean Hg, and therefore the rate of change in levels of methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg in seafood and the driver of human health concerns. Gas evasion of elemental Hg (Hg0) from the ocean is an important sink for ocean Hg with previous studies suggesting that evasion is not uniform across ocean basins. To understand further the factors controlling Hg0 evasion, and its relationship to atmospheric Hg deposition, we made measurements of dissolved Hg0 (DHg0) in surface waters, along with measurements of Hg in precipitation and on aerosols, and Hg0 in marine air, during two GEOTRACES cruises; GP16 in the equatorial South Pacific and GA03 in the North Atlantic. We contrast the concentrations and estimated evasion fluxes of Hg0 during these cruises, and the factors influencing this exchange. Concentrations of DHg0 and fluxes were lower during the GP16 cruise than during the GA03 cruise, and likely reflect the lower atmospheric deposition in the South Pacific. An examination of Hg/Al ratios for aerosols from the cruises suggests that they were anthropogenically-enriched relative to crustal material, although to a lesser degree for the South Pacific than the aerosols over the North Atlantic. Both regions appear to be net sources of Hg0 to the atmosphere (evasion>deposition) and the reasons for this are discussed. Overall, the studies reported here provide further clarification on the factors controlling evasion of Hg0 from the ocean surface, and the role of anthropogenic inputs in influencing ocean Hg concentrations.

  8. Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Endemic Mussismilia Corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Carla; Peluso, Lívia; Marques, Jessica A; Cunha, Haydée

    2014-01-01

    In the Southwest Atlantic, coral reefs are unique due to their growth form, low species richness, and a high level of endemic coral species, which include the most important reef builders. Although these reefs are the only true biogenic reefs in the South Atlantic Ocean, population genetic studies are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a suite of microsatellite loci to help gain insights into the population diversity and connectivity of the endemic scleractinian coral with the largest distributional range along the Southwest Atlantic coast, Mussismilia hispida Fourteen microsatellite loci were characterized, and their degree of polymorphism was analyzed in 33 individuals. The number of alleles varied between 4 and 17 per loci, and H o varied between 0.156 and 0.928, with 2 loci showing significant heterozygote deficiency. Cross-amplification tests on the other 2 species of the genus (Mussismilia braziliensis and Mussismilia harttii) demonstrated that these markers are suitable for studies of population diversity and structure of all 3 species of Mussismilia Because they are the most important reef builders in the Southwest Atlantic, the developed microsatellite loci may be important tools for connectivity and conservation studies of these endemic corals. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Surface temperatures of the Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean: Implications for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Chandler, Mark A.; Robinson, Marci M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval in the Earth's history to have experienced warming of the magnitude predicted for the second half of the twenty-first century and is, therefore, a possible analogue for future climate conditions. With continents basically in their current positions and atmospheric CO2 similar to early twenty-first century values, the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth remains elusive. Understanding the behaviour of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Mid-Pliocene is integral to evaluating future climate scenarios owing to its role in deep water formation and its sensitivity to climate change. Under the framework of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) sea surface reconstruction, we synthesize Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic studies by PRISM members and others, describing each region of the North Atlantic in terms of palaeoceanography. We then relate Mid-Pliocene sea surface conditions to expectations of future warming. The results of the data and climate model comparisons suggest that the North Atlantic is more sensitive to climate change than is suggested by climate model simulations, raising the concern that estimates of future climate change are conservative.

  10. Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xichen; Holland, David M; Gerber, Edwin P; Yoo, Changhyun

    2014-01-23

    In recent decades, Antarctica has experienced pronounced climate changes. The Antarctic Peninsula exhibited the strongest warming of any region on the planet, causing rapid changes in land ice. Additionally, in contrast to the sea-ice decline over the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has not declined, but has instead undergone a perplexing redistribution. Antarctic climate is influenced by, among other factors, changes in radiative forcing and remote Pacific climate variability, but none explains the observed Antarctic Peninsula warming or the sea-ice redistribution in austral winter. However, in the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (a leading mode of sea surface temperature variability) has been overlooked in this context. Here we show that sea surface warming related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation reduces the surface pressure in the Amundsen Sea and contributes to the observed dipole-like sea-ice redistribution between the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen-Weddell seas and to the Antarctic Peninsula warming. Support for these findings comes from analysis of observational and reanalysis data, and independently from both comprehensive and idealized atmospheric model simulations. We suggest that the north and tropical Atlantic is important for projections of future climate change in Antarctica, and has the potential to affect the global thermohaline circulation and sea-level change.

  11. Invasive species in the Northeastern and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia T de; Fileman, Timothy W; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-03-15

    The spread of non-native species has been a subject of increasing concern since the 1980s when human-mediated transportation, mainly related to ships' ballast water, was recognized as a major vector for species transportation and spread, although records of non-native species go back as far as 16th Century. Ever increasing world trade and the resulting rise in shipping have highlighted the issue, demanding a response from the international community to the threat of non-native marine species. In the present study, we searched for available literature and databases on shipping and invasive species in the North-eastern (NE) and South-western (SW) Atlantic Ocean and assess the risk represented by the shipping trade between these two regions. There are reports of 44 species associated with high impacts for the NE Atlantic and 15 for the SW Atlantic, although this may be an underestimate. Vectors most cited are ballast water and biofouling for both regions while aquaculture has also been a very significant pathway of introduction and spread of invasive species in the NE Atlantic. Although the two regions have significant shipping traffic, no exchange of invasive species could be directly associated to the shipping between the two regions. However, it seems prudent to bring the exchange of ballast water between the two regions under control as soon as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider SG610 deployed by Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-08-11 to 2015-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0145656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider data gathered as part of the Sustained Ocean Observations for Improving Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Hurricane Seasonal Forecast project funded...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider SG610 deployed by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-08-04 to 2016-11-01 (NCEI Accession 0157656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider data gathered as part of the Sustained Ocean Observations for Improving Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Hurricane Seasonal Forecast project funded...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider SG609 deployed by Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-19 to 2014-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0131705)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider data gathered as part of the Sustained Ocean Observations for Improving Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Hurricane Seasonal Forecast project funded...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider SG547 deployed by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-08-04 to 2016-11-02 (NCEI Accession 0157712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider data gathered as part of the Sustained Ocean Observations for Improving Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Hurricane Seasonal Forecast project funded...

  16. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from DISCOVERY and CHARLES DARWIN in the NE Atlantic, North Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian Sea from 1988-05-21 to 1990-07-20 (NODC Accession 9600083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of Global Ocean Data Archeaology and Rescue (GODAR)...

  17. TOWARDS A REVIEW OF THE DECAPOD CRUSTACEA FROM THE REMOTE OCEANIC ARCHIPELAGO OF TRINDADE AND MARTIN VAZ, SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN: NEW RECORDS AND NOTES ON ECOLOGY AND ZOOGEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS TAVARES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The remoteness of the Trindade and Martin Vaz young volcanic archipelago (TMV raises questions about the source of its marine benthic fauna and levels of endemism. Addressing these questions requires a comprehensive knowledge of the taxonomic composition of the marine fauna of the islands. A five-year survey in the shallow marine waters (up to 30 m and a literature review on the data published for TMV have been conducted to document the biodiversity of the benthic fauna. Here we report on ten new records of decapod crustaceans from TMV: Gnathophyllum americanum and Thor amboinensis are circumtropical in distribution, whereas Stenopus hispidus, Gnathophylloides mineri and Parribacus antarcticus are disjunct circumtropical species as their distribution in the Atlantic Ocean is limited eastwardly to TMV or Ascension Island (S. hispidus, therefore, do not extending into the eastern Atlantic. Gnathophyllum circellum and Thor manningi are western Atlantic species, with G. circellum previously known only from the Caribbean Sea. Pontonia manningi, Tuleariocaris neglecta and Enoplometopus antillensis are amphi-Atlantic in distribution. Two of the above species are recorded from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time: Gnathophyllum circellum and Tuleariocaris neglecta. These new records corroborate that the marine benthic invertebrate fauna of the TMV archipelago is actually a mosaic of amphi-Atlantic, eastern Atlantic, central Atlantic (insular, endemic and circumtropical species, with a strong western Atlantic component.

  18. Tiger sharks can connect equatorial habitats and fisheries across the Atlantic Ocean basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Increasing our knowledge about the spatial ecology of apex predators and their interactions with diverse habitats and fisheries is necessary for understanding the trophic mechanisms that underlie several aspects of marine ecosystem dynamics and for guiding informed management policies. A preliminary assessment of tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier population structure off the oceanic insular system of Fernando de Noronha (FEN and the large-scale movements performed by this species in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean was conducted using longline and handline fishing gear and satellite telemetry. A total of 25 sharks measuring 175-372 cm in total length (TL were sampled. Most sharks were likely immature females ranging between 200 and 260 cm TL, with few individuals < 200 cm TL being caught. This contrasts greatly with the tiger shark size-distribution previously reported for coastal waters off the Brazilian mainland, where most individuals measured < 200 cm TL. Also, the movements of 8 individuals measuring 202-310 cm TL were assessed with satellite transmitters for a combined total of 757 days (mean = 94.6 days∙shark-1; SD = 65.6. These sharks exhibited a considerable variability in their horizontal movements, with three sharks showing a mostly resident behavior around FEN during the extent of the respective tracks, two sharks traveling west to the South American continent, and two sharks moving mostly along the middle of the oceanic basin, one of which ending up in the northern hemisphere. Moreover, one shark traveled east to the African continent, where it was eventually caught by fishers from Ivory Coast in less than 474 days at liberty. The present results suggest that young tiger sharks measuring < 200 cm TL make little use of insular oceanic habitats from the western South Atlantic Ocean, which agrees with a previously-hypothesized ontogenetic habitat shift from coastal to oceanic habitats experienced by juveniles of this species in this region

  19. Distribution and cycling of lead in the high and low latitudinal Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C.; Menzel Barraqueta, J. L.; Rapp, I.; Pampin Baro, J.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic trace metal; even small quantities are lethal to most unicellular and multicellular organisms. Major sources of lead to the environment are the burning of coal, industrial mining, and the use of leaded gasoline (which has not been entirely phased out of use around the globe). These and other anthropogenic sources of Pb continue to pollute the environment and affect primary production and the development of heterotrophic organisms in the sea. Pb concentrations in oceanic waters are ten to a hundred times higher in surface waters than in deep waters (0.05 - 0.1 nmol L-1 compared to 1 - 5 pmol L-1), this deposition-like profile clearly reflecting the significant anthropogenic input of Pb to the ocean. In order to explore the cycling and fate of this anthropogenic Pb, we collected seawater from the polar North Atlantic (JC274 in 2013, GEOVIDE in 2014), the sub-tropical Atlantic (D361 in 2011 & M107 in 2014), the South Atlantic (JC068 in 2012), and the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (JC271 in 2013). These samples were analyzed for their dissolved and soluble and total dissolvable Pb concentrations by off-line pre-concentration using a SeaFAST device (Elemental Science Inc.) and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS, Thermo ElementXR). Results indicate that dissolved Pb exists mainly as colloidal species, which, as the precursors of larger particles are subsequently critical for the removal of lead from the water column. For example, the removal of colloidal Pb through particle scavenging was observed in the high productivity waters of the Mauritanian upwelling region and at the outlet of the La Plata River on the South American shelf. In terms of Pb pollution, highest Pb concentrations (up to 60 pmol L-1) were observed in the Agulhas current. But even remote locations, such as the northern Arctic Ocean and near South Georgia in the Southern Ocean, activities of man had an impact; the Pb concentrations of 30

  20. Changes in Equatorial Atlantic Ocean Thermohaline Circulation Across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehudai, M.; Kim, J.; Seguí, M. J.; Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L. D.; Haynes, L.; Hoenisch, B.; Farmer, J. R.; Ford, H. L.; Raymo, M. E.; Bickert, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) marked a change in the duration of glacial-interglacial cycles from 41 to 100kyr between 1.3-0.7 Ma. A recent study (Pena and Goldstein, Science, 2014) from the Southern Atlantic Ocean found evidence for major disruptions in the global thermohaline circulation (THC) between MIS 25-21 ( 950-850ka), which may have triggered intensified glacial periods and the onset of the 100 kyr cycles. We report new Nd isotope data on Fe-Mn oxide encrusted foraminifera and fish debris from ODP Site 926 (3.719N, 42.908W, 3598m) between 1.2-0.4 Ma, in order to evaluate changes in the THC in the equatorial Atlantic, through comparison with North and South Atlantic sites. The ODP 926 ɛNd values fall in-between those in the North Atlantic (DSDP 607) and South Atlantic (ODP 1088 and 1090) throughout the studied interval, consistent with mixing between northern and southern end-members, and supporting the interpretation that the data represent the THC signal at this site. Pre-MPT data show smaller glacial-interglacial differences compared to the greater post-MPT glacial-interglacial variability. As Pena and Goldstein (2014) observed in the South Atlantic, during MIS 23 at 900 ka, ɛNd values do not shift significantly toward North Atlantic more negative values, consistent with a weak THC through this critical weak interglacial. Comparing ODP 926 and DSDP 607 data, ɛNd values converge during most interglacial peaks (excepting MIS 23) and diverge otherwise. This observation indicates that northern-sourced water masses dominate the site during peak interglacials, and confirms that the THC has been strongest during peak interglacials throughout the studied interval. Otherwise, diverging ɛNd values indicate a stronger southern-source signal and weaker northern-source signal at the ODP 926 site. This confirms that there was an active but variable THC system before, during, and after the MPT, with stronger deep water export from the North Atlantic during

  1. What Would Happen to Superstorm Sandy Under the Influence of a Substantially Warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  2. Micro-phytoplankton photosynthesis, primary production and potential export production in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lange, Priscila K.; Misra, Ankita; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Cain, Terry

    2017-11-01

    Micro-phytoplankton is the >20 μm component of the phytoplankton community and plays a major role in the global ocean carbon pump, through the sequestering of anthropogenic CO2 and export of organic carbon to the deep ocean. To evaluate the global impact of the marine carbon cycle, quantification of micro-phytoplankton primary production is paramount. In this paper we use both in situ data and a satellite model to estimate the contribution of micro-phytoplankton to total primary production (PP) in the Atlantic Ocean. From 1995 to 2013, 940 measurements of primary production were made at 258 sites on 23 Atlantic Meridional Transect Cruises from the United Kingdom to the South African or Patagonian Shelf. Micro-phytoplankton primary production was highest in the South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC ∼ 409 ± 720 mg C m-2 d-1), where it contributed between 38 % of the total PP, and was lowest in the North Atlantic Gyre province (NATL ∼ 37 ± 27 mg C m-2 d-1), where it represented 18 % of the total PP. Size-fractionated photosynthesis-irradiance (PE) parameters measured on AMT22 and 23 showed that micro-phytoplankton had the highest maximum photosynthetic rate (PmB) (∼5 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1) followed by nano- (∼4 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1) and pico- (∼2 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1). The highest PmB was recorded in the NATL and lowest in the North Atlantic Drift Region (NADR) and South Atlantic Gyre (SATL). The PE parameters were used to parameterise a remote sensing model of size-fractionated PP, which explained 84 % of the micro-phytoplankton in situ PP variability with a regression slope close to 1. The model was applied to the SeaWiFS time series from 1998-2010, which illustrated that micro-phytoplankton PP remained constant in the NADR, NATL, Canary Current Coastal upwelling (CNRY), Eastern Tropical Atlantic (ETRA), Western Tropical Atlantic (WTRA) and SATL, but showed a gradual increase in the Benguela Upwelling zone (BENG) and South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC

  3. The Atlantic Ocean: An Impassable Barrier for the Common Octopus, Octopus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Viscasillas, J.; Schizas, N. V.; Jassoud, A.

    2016-02-01

    Octopus vulgaris (Lamarck 1798) inhabits the Mediterranean, the temperate and tropical coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and is also present in the south Indian Ocean and Japan. We questioned the reported widespread distribution and especially the amphi-Atlantic distribution of O. vulgaris by comparing patterns of genetic variation in the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI), the 17th intron of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit (Na/K-ATPase 17th intron), and 16S genes from several populations throughout the presumed distribution. Bayesian genealogies based on COI sequences resulted in three monophyletic lineages: a Caribbean, a Eurafrican and a Japanese one. The Eurafrican lineage is more closely related to the Japanese than to the Caribbean lineage. Within the Caribbean, the most common mitochondrial haplotype is shared by all sampled locations except for Curaçao. The most common COI haplotype in the Eurafrican group is shared by all populations. The Caribbean octopus exhibits a divergence of 11.5% compared to the Eurafrican and Japanese octopus, whereas the latter groups are 3.1% divergent. The Na/K-ATPase 17th intron data from Caribbean and Mediterranean/Atlantic Spain octopods is concordant with the mitochondrial data set, separating these two populations. The 16s data is still being analysed, but preliminary analysis supports the dual population hypothesis. The reciprocal monophyly observed with both COI and Na/K-ATPase 17th intron between the Caribbean and European O. vulgaris suggests the historical cessation of gene flow between the two sides of the Atlantic and highlights the presence of a highly differentiated Caribbean lineage.

  4. Variability in mid-depth ventilation of the western Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, I.; Cruz, A. P. S.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C. M.; Mackensen, A.; Lippold, J.; Antz, B.; Zabel, M.; Zhang, Y.; Barbosa, C. F.; Tisserand, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Negative stable carbon isotopic excursions have been observed throughout most of the mid-depth ( 1000-3000 m) Atlantic Ocean during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). Although there is an agreement that these mid-depth excursions were in some way associated with a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), there is still no consensus on the precise mechanism(s). Here we present benthic stable carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ13C and δ18O) records from five cores from the western equatorial Atlantic (WEA). Together with published benthic isotopic records from nearby cores, we produced a WEA depth transect ( 800-2500 m). We compare HS1 and YD data from this transect with data from previously published North and South Atlantic cores and demonstrate that the largest negative δ13C excursions occurred in the WEA during these times. Moreover, our benthic δ18O records require the presence of two water masses flowing from the Southern Ocean, bisected by a Northern Component Water (NCW). Given that δ18O is a conservative water mass tracer, we suggest that δ13C was decoupled from water mass composition and does not correspond to simple alternations between northern and southern sourced waters. Instead, δ13C behaved non-conservatively during HS1 and the YD. Consistently with our new 231Pa/230Th record from the WEA transect, that allowed the reconstruction of AMOC strength, we hypothesize that the negative δ13C excursions reflect an increase in the residence time of NCW in response to a weakened AMOC, allowing for a marked accumulation of 13C-depleted respired carbon at the mid-depth WEA.

  5. Phytoplankton biovolume is independent from the slope of the size spectrum in the oligotrophic atlantic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno-Ostos, Enrique

    2015-08-06

    Modelling the size-abundance spectrum of phytoplankton has proven to be a very useful tool for the analysis of physical-biological coupling and the vertical flux of carbon in oceanic ecosystems at different scales. A frequent observation relates high phytoplankton biovolume in productive regions with flatter spectrum slope and the opposite in oligotrophic ecosystems. Rather than this, the relationship between high biovolume phytoplankton assemblages and flatter size-abundance spectra does not correspond with measurements of the phytoplankton community in the Atlantic Ocean open waters. As part of the Malaspina Circunnavegation Expedition, sixty seven sampling stations within the Atlantic Ocean covering six oceanographic provinces, at different seasons, produced a complete set of phytoplankton size-spectra whose slope and biovolume did not show any obvious interrelation. In these oligotrophic sites, small (procaryotes) and medium-size (nanoplankton) cells are responsible for the most part of biovolume, and their response to environmental conditions does not apply to changes in the size-abundance spectrum slope as expected in richer, large-cell dominated ecosystems.

  6. Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Officer, Rick; Lyashevska, Olga; Thompson, Richard C; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-02-15

    Microplastics in the world's oceans are a global concern due to the potential threat they pose to marine organisms. This study investigated microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in the Atlantic Ocean on a transect from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Town, South Africa. Microplastics were sampled from sub-surface waters using the underway system of the RV Polarstern. Potential microplastics were isolated from samples and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify polymer types. Of the particles analysed, 63% were rayon and 37% were synthetic polymers. The majority of microplastics were identified as polyesters (49%) and blends of polyamide or acrylic/polyester (43%). Overall, fibres (94%) were predominant. Average microplastic abundance in the Atlantic Ocean was 1.15±1.45particlesm(-3). Of the 76 samples, 14 were from the Benguela upwelling and there was no statistically significant difference in microplastic abundance between upwelled and non-upwelled sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The not-so-silent world: Measuring Arctic, Equatorial, and Antarctic soundscapes in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Samara M.; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Matsumoto, Haru; Dziak, Robert P.; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has been shown, under certain conditions, to influence the behavior and health of marine mammals. Noise from human activities may interfere with the low-frequency acoustic communication of many Mysticete species, including blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus). This study analyzed three soundscapes in the Atlantic Ocean, from the Arctic to the Antarctic, to document ambient sound. For 16 months beginning in August 2009, acoustic data (15-100 Hz) were collected in the Fram Strait (79°N, 5.5°E), near Ascension Island (8°S, 14.4°W) and in the Bransfield Strait (62°S, 55.5°W). Results indicate (1) the highest overall sound levels were measured in the equatorial Atlantic, in association with high levels of seismic oil and gas exploration, (2) compared to the tropics, ambient sound levels in polar regions are more seasonally variable, and (3) individual elements beget the seasonal and annual variability of ambient sound levels in high latitudes. Understanding how the variability of natural and man-made contributors to sound may elicit differences in ocean soundscapes is essential to developing strategies to manage and conserve marine ecosystems and animals.

  8. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raul A.; Piola, Alberto R.; Fenco, Harold; Matano, Ricardo P.; Combes, Vincent; Chao, Yi; James, Corinne; Palma, Elbio D.; Saraceno, Martin; Strub, P. Ted

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-derived sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Aquarius and SMOS are used to study the shelf-open ocean exchanges in the western South Atlantic near 35°S. Away from the tropics, these exchanges cause the largest SSS variability throughout the South Atlantic. The data reveal a well-defined seasonal pattern of SSS during the analyzed period and of the location of the export of low-salinity shelf waters. In spring and summer, low-salinity waters over the shelf expand offshore and are transferred to the open ocean primarily southeast of the river mouth (from 36°S to 37°30'S). In contrast, in fall and winter, low-salinity waters extend along a coastal plume and the export path to the open ocean distributes along the offshore edge of the plume. The strong seasonal SSS pattern is modulated by the seasonality of the along-shelf component of the wind stress over the shelf. However, the combined analysis of SSS, satellite-derived sea surface elevation and surface velocity data suggest that the precise location of the export of shelf waters depends on offshore circulation patterns, such as the location of the Brazil Malvinas Confluence and mesoscale eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current. The satellite data indicate that in summer, mixtures of low-salinity shelf waters are swiftly driven toward the ocean interior along the axis of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. In winter, episodic wind reversals force the low-salinity coastal plume offshore where they mix with tropical waters within the Brazil Current and create a warmer variety of low-salinity waters in the open ocean.

  9. Changes in micronutrient supply to the surface Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) across the glacial termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Allen, Claire S.

    2011-09-01

    Major deepwater masses upwell and reach the surface in the Southern Ocean, forming an important conduit supplying nutrients and micronutrients to the surface and playing a key role in the regulation of global climate through ocean-atmosphere gas exchange. Here, we reconstruct changes in micronutrient distribution in this region in response to past changes in upwelling, oceanic mixing, and sea-ice seasonality. We present two downcore (Zn/Si)opal records from the Scotia Sea and Drake Passage region, which we interpret in the context of micronutrient distribution in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean over the last glacial termination. Previous work shows that micronutrient availability in the surface waters in the South Atlantic appear to be controlled dominantly by upwelling and mixing of micronutrient rich deepwaters, which are additionally fuelled by the terrestrial sediment sources of the Scotia Arc and South Georgia. This is supported by our reconstructions, which show micronutrient availability to the west of the Scotia Arc and South Georgia are consistently lower than to the east over the last glacial termination due to downstream transport and mixing into surface waters of continentally derived material in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Micronutrient availability in this region was at a minimum from 20 to 25 ky BP, coinciding with maximum sea-ice coverage, and increased due to an expansion of the seasonal sea-ice zone and increased mixing of subsurface waters. Our findings are consistent with largely diminished upwelling of micronutrients during the maximum glacial extent, and reduced mixing due to the presence of persistent sea-ice. During the deglacial there was an increase in micronutrient availability, as well as other nutrients and inorganic carbon, within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a result of an increase in deep oceanic upwelling, mixing and strengthened zonal transport.

  10. Asthenosphere and lithosphere structure controls on early onset oceanic crust production in the southern South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taposeea, Chandra A.; Armitage, John J.; Collier, Jenny S.

    2017-10-01

    The southern South Atlantic has often been considered a classic example of continental break-up in the presence of a starting mantle plume. Evidence for a mantle plume includes the Paranà-Etendeka continental flood basalts, which are associated with the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, and the wide-spread presence of seaward dipping reflectors and high-velocity lower-crustal bodies along the conjugate margins. Observations from seaward dipping reflector distributions suggested that lithospheric segmentation played a major role in the pattern of volcanism during break-up in this region, and consequent numerical modelling was used to test this. We tested this hypothesis ourselves by measuring the thickness of the earliest oceanic crust generated. This was done through the use of 37 measurements of initial oceanic crustal thickness from wide-angle and multichannel seismic profiles collected along the conjugate margins. These measurements show that at 450 km south of the Paranà-Etendeka flood basalts the oceanic crust is thicker than the global average at 11.7 km. Farther south the oceanic crust thins, reaching 6.1 km at a distance of 2300 km along-strike. Overall, the along-strike trend of oceanic crustal thickness is linear with a regression coefficient of 0.7 and little indication of segmentation. From numerical models representing extension of the lithosphere, we find that observed melt volumes are matched with the presence of a hot layer. If we assume this region of hot mantle has a thickness of 100 km, its excess temperature relative to the asthenosphere has to decrease from 200 to 50 °C, north to south. This decrease in temperature, also seen in published thermobarometry results, suggests that temperature was the primary control of volcanism during the opening of the southern South Atlantic.

  11. Deep water formation in the North Atlantic Ocean in high resolution global coupled models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent; Fuentes Franco, Ramon; Karami, Pasha

    2017-04-01

    An ensemble of historical and future climate simulations with the global coupled model EC-Earth has been investigated. The results show that the Labrador Sea convection is an important driver of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) at decadal times scale. Deep convective activity in the Labrador Sea declines throughout the 20th century, with an accompanied decrease of the AMOC, and vanishes in the 21st century. The primary cause for the extinction of deep convection is a decrease of sensible heat loss to the atmosphere in winter, resulting from increasingly warm atmospheric conditions. In the EU-project PRIMAVERA, sets of high and standard resolution simulations with five global coupled climate models have been analyzed to study the impact of high resolution on the deep oceanic convection and the robustness of the signal across models. Compared to observations from ARGO-floats, most of the models overestimate the deep water formation in the Labrador Sea. High-resolution increases the deep convection in the Labrador Sea but decreases convection in the GIN-Sea. The convection in the Labrador Sea is largely governed by the ocean heat release to the atmosphere in the convection area. Northwesterly atmospheric flows, which are often connected to a positive state of the North Atlantic Oscillation, increase the ocean heat release and thus the density of the ocean surface. The high-resolution models show stronger surface heat fluxes than the standard resolution models in the convection areas, which agrees with the stronger convection in the Labrador Sea. Also in the GIN-Seas, high resolution leads to an increased ocean heat release to the atmosphere. However, here, the relation between surface heat fluxes and convection is strongly model dependent. Ongoing work investigates the impact of high resolution on the freshwater transports into the convection regions and on the linkage between deep water convection and the AMOC.

  12. Reconstructing Deep Ocean Circulation in the North Atlantic from Bermuda Rise, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The large-scale subsurface circulation of the ocean is an important component of the Earth's climate system, and contributes to the global and regional transport of heat and mass. Assessing how this system has changed in the past is thus a priority for understanding natural climate variability. A long-coring campaign on Bermuda Rise has provided additional abundant high-quality sediments from this site of rapid accumulation in the deep western basin, situated beneath the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. These sediments allow the high-resolution reconstruction of deepwater chemistry and export from this key location throughout the last 150,000 years, covering the entire last glacial cycle in a continuous section of 35 meters in core KNR191-CDH19. The suite of proxy indicators analyzed includes uranium-series disequilibria, neodymium isotopes, and benthic stable isotopes. Combined with multiple previous studies of nearby cores on Bermuda Rise, the published and new proxy data from CDH19 confirm the variability of the deep circulation in the Atlantic Ocean in association with past climate changes. The multiple indicators, along with complementary data from other locations, display coherent evidence for contrasts between deep circulation during glacial and interglacial intervals, with persistent strong, deep ventilation only within the peak interglacial of marine isotope stage 5e (MIS 5e) and the Holocene. In contrast, repeated, dramatic variability in deep ocean circulation accompanied the millennial climate changes of the last glaciation and deglaciation. The largest magnitude circulation shifts occurred at the transitions into stadials associated with the Hudson strait iceberg discharges and between them and the ensuing northern interstadial warmings, significantly exceeding that of the overall glacial-interglacial difference, highlighting the potential oceanographic and climatic importance of short-term perturbations to the deep ocean circulation.

  13. New insights into cycling of 231Pa and 230Th in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempfer, Johannes; Stocker, Thomas F.; Joos, Fortunat; Lippold, Jörg; Jaccard, Samuel L.

    2017-06-01

    We use the Bern3D model of intermediate complexity to examine the marine cycle of isotopes 231Pa and 230Th and the relationship between the particle-bound ratio Pap /Thp and changes in the formation of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Model parameters describing reversible scavenging of isotopes by organic particles, opal, calcite and resuspended sediments were systematically varied and alternative sink parametrisations explored. It proves difficult to simultaneously achieve a good agreement with observations of dissolved and particle-associated concentrations of 231Pa and 230Th (Pad, Thd, Pap, Thp) as well as the particle-bound ratio Pap /Thp within the classical concept of reversible scavenging alone. Agreement between simulated and observed Pad, Thd and estimates of mean ocean residence times is improved by taking into account simplified representations of additional sinks at the sea floor (bottom scavenging) and at continental boundaries (boundary scavenging). We also find improved agreement between model and data by increasing lateral advection, in particular for Pad. These results point to the importance of sink processes that act in addition to reversible scavenging to shape the steady state distribution of 231Pa and, to a lesser degree, of 230Th. In transient experiments in which the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is periodically turned on and off, we find a strong statistical relationship between variations in AMOC strength and Pap /Thp at great depths in the Northwest Atlantic region. These conclusions are robust across the range of sink parametrisations, that are consistent with estimates in the mean ocean residence time of 231Pa and 230Th. Our results indicate that the relationship between Pap /Thp and AMOC-strength may not be fundamentally affected by uncertainties in sink processes, at least on the large spatial and temporal scale considered here, and support the idea that changes in Pap /Thp in sediments of

  14. On the relationship between Atlantic Niño variability and ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Ding, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The Atlantic Niño is the dominant mode of interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. Current coupled global climate models struggle to reproduce its variability. This is thought to be partly related to an equatorial SST bias that inhibits summer cold tongue growth. Here, we address the question whether the equatorial SST bias affects the ability of a coupled global climate model to produce realistic dynamical SST variability. We assess this by decomposing SST variability into dynamical and stochastic components. To compare our model results with observations, we employ empirical linear models of dynamical SST that, based on the Bjerknes feedback, use the two predictors sea surface height and zonal surface wind. We find that observed dynamical SST variance shows a pronounced seasonal cycle. It peaks during the active phase of the Atlantic Niño and is then roughly 4-7 times larger than stochastic SST variance. This indicates that the Atlantic Niño is a dynamical phenomenon that is related to the Bjerknes feedback. In the coupled model, the SST bias suppresses the summer peak in dynamical SST variance. Bias reduction, however, improves the representation of the seasonal cold tongue and enhances dynamical SST variability by supplying a background state that allows key feedbacks of the tropical ocean-atmosphere system to operate in the model. Due to the small zonal extent of the equatorial Atlantic, the observed Bjerknes feedback acts quasi-instantaneously during the dynamically active periods of boreal summer and early boreal winter. Then, all elements of the observed Bjerknes feedback operate simultaneously. The model cannot reproduce this, although it hints at a better performance when using bias reduction.

  15. The impacts of oceanic deep temperature perturbations in the North Atlantic on decadal climate variability and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germe, Agathe; Sévellec, Florian; Mignot, Juliette; Fedorov, Alexey; Nguyen, Sébastien; Swingedouw, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Decadal climate predictability in the North Atlantic is largely related to ocean low frequency variability, whose sensitivity to initial conditions is not very well understood. Recently, three-dimensional oceanic temperature anomalies optimally perturbing the North Atlantic Mean Temperature (NAMT) have been computed via an optimization procedure using a linear adjoint to a realistic ocean general circulation model. The spatial pattern of the identified perturbations, localized in the North Atlantic, has the largest magnitude between 1000 and 4000 m depth. In the present study, the impacts of these perturbations on NAMT, on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), and on climate in general are investigated in a global coupled model that uses the same ocean model as was used to compute the three-dimensional optimal perturbations. In the coupled model, these perturbations induce AMOC and NAMT anomalies peaking after 5 and 10 years, respectively, generally consistent with the ocean-only linear predictions. To further understand their impact, their magnitude was varied in a broad range. For initial perturbations with a magnitude comparable to the internal variability of the coupled model, the model response exhibits a strong signature in sea surface temperature and precipitation over North America and the Sahel region. The existence and impacts of these ocean perturbations have important implications for decadal prediction: they can be seen either as a source of predictability or uncertainty, depending on whether the current observing system can detect them or not. In fact, comparing the magnitude of the imposed perturbations with the uncertainty of available ocean observations such as Argo data or ocean state estimates suggests that only the largest perturbations used in this study could be detectable. This highlights the importance for decadal climate prediction of accurate ocean density initialisation in the North Atlantic at intermediate and greater

  16. A glacial warm water anomaly in the subantarctic Atlantic Ocean, near the Agulhas Retroflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Giuseppe; Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer

    2004-06-01

    ODP Site 1089 is optimally located in order to monitor the occurrence of maxima in Agulhas heat and salt spillage from the Indian to the Atlantic Ocean. Radiolarian-based paleotemperature transfer functions allowed to reconstruct the climatic history for the last 450 kyr at this location. A warm sea surface temperature anomaly during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 10 was recognized and traced to other oceanic records along the surface branch of the global thermohaline (THC) circulation system, and is particularly marked at locations where a strong interaction between oceanic and atmospheric overturning cells and fronts occurs. This anomaly is absent in the Vostok ice core deuterium, and in oceanic records from the Antarctic Zone. However, it is present in the deuterium excess record from the Vostok ice core, interpreted as reflecting the temperature at the moisture source site for the snow precipitated at Vostok Station. As atmospheric models predict a subtropical Indian source for such moisture, this provides the necessary teleconnection between East Antarctica and ODP Site 1089, as the subtropical Indian is also the source area of the Agulhas Current, the main climate agent at our study location. The presence of the MIS 10 anomaly in the δ13C foraminiferal records from the same core supports its connection to oceanic mechanisms, linking stronger Agulhas spillover intensity to increased productivity in the study area. We suggest, in analogy to modern oceanographic observations, this to be a consequence of a shallow nutricline, induced by eddy mixing and baroclinic tide generation, which are in turn connected to the flow geometry, and intensity, of the Agulhas Current as it flows past the Agulhas Bank. We interpret the intensified inflow of Agulhas Current to the South Atlantic as responding to the switch between lower and higher amplitude in the insolation forcing in the Agulhas Current source area. This would result in higher SSTs in the Cape Basin during the

  17. Genetic structure of capelin (Mallotus villosus in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available Capelin (Mallotus villosus is a commercially exploited, key forage-fish species found in the boreal waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. We examined the population structure of capelin throughout their range in the Canadian northwest Atlantic Ocean using genetic-based methods. Capelin collected at ten beach and five demersal spawning locations over the period 2002 through 2008 (N = 3,433 fish were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Temporally distinct samples were identified at three beach spawning locations: Chance Cove, Little Lawn and Straitsview, Newfoundland. Four capelin stocks are assumed for fisheries management in the northwest Atlantic Ocean based on meristics, morphometrics, tag returns, and seasonal distribution patterns. Our results suggested groupings that were somewhat different than the assumed structure, and indicate at least seven genetically defined populations arising from two ancestral populations. The spatial mosaic of capelin from each of the two basal cluster groups explains much of the observed geographic variability amongst neighbouring samples. The genetic-defined populations were resolved at Jost's Dest ≥ 0.01 and were composed of fish collected 1 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 2 along the south and east coasts of Newfoundland, 3 along coastal northern Newfoundland and southern Labrador, 4 along coastal northern Labrador, 5 near the Saguenay River, and at two nearshore demersal spawning sites, 6 one at Grebes Nest off Bellevue Beach on the east coast of Newfoundland, and 7 one off the coast of Labrador at Domino Run. Moreover, the offshore demersal spawners on the Scotian Shelf and Southeast Shoal appeared to be related to the inshore demersal spawners at Grebes Nest and in Domino Run and to beach spawners from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  18. Zooplankton species identities and other data collected from zooplankton net casts in the NE Atlantic Ocean from DISCOVERY; 12 November 1969 to 01 July 1988 (NODC Accession 9500097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected by DISCOVERY using zooplankton net casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 12...

  19. Zooplankton data collected using net casts from the ALMIRANTE SALDANHA in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean from 05 November 1958 to 15 January 1959 (NODC Accession 0000942)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using net casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA. Data were collected from 05 November 1958 to 15 January...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-11-01 to 2014-11-30 (NODC Accession 0123098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-07-01 to 2016-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0156232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-09-01 to 2008-09-30 (NODC Accession 0051512)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-08-01 to 2014-08-31 (NODC Accession 0121623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from ISLAS ORCADAS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1978-04-07 to 1978-05-21 (NCEI Accession 8100428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record contains bottle cast data, collected by ISLAS ORCADAS ship (cruise 16) in the North Atlantic Ocean. This data is in CTD-78 format (binary) and included...

  5. Temperature, salinity, biological and nutrient profiles collected by CTD in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1/28/1905 - 4/12/1994 (NODC Accession 0000125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using CTD from the HELGA and other platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 28...

  6. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from ISLAS ORCADAS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1976-11-03 to 1976-12-18 (NCEI Accession 8100429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains bottle cast data, collected by ISLAS ORCADAS SHIP (cruise 11) between November 3, 1976 to December 18, 1976, in the North Atlantic Ocean. This...

  7. Temperature, pressure, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 29 April 1975 to 26 January 1976 (NODC Accession 7700668)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the Massachusetts Institute of...

  8. Chemical, physical, and other data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 11 February 1932 to 29 October 1933 (NODC Accession 0000245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, and other data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from February 11, 1932 to October 29, 1933. Data were submitted by...

  9. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 08 February 1973 to 05 March 1973 (NODC Accession 0000288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from February 8, 1973 to March 5, 1973. These...

  10. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 05 February 1973 to 19 August 1980 (NODC Accession 0000289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from February 5, 1973 to August 19, 1980. These...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-01-01 to 2008-01-31 (NODC Accession 0046513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-07-01 to 2011-07-31 (NODC Accession 0074617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-05-01 to 2012-05-31 (NODC Accession 0090246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-06-01 to 2007-06-30 (NODC Accession 0041372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Temperature profiles from bathythermograph casts from PACBARONESS and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations from 28 February 1985 to 31 March 1985 (NODC Accession 8500240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data was collected from PACBARONESS and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data was collected from 28 February 1985 to 31...

  16. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the SACKVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean from 15 January 1963 to 18 January 1963 (NODC Accession 7600961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the SACKVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the St. Andrews Biological Station from 15 January...

  17. Temperature and pressure data from moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from 27 January 1986 - 15 April 1987 (NODC Accession 9500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and pressure data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from January 27, 1986 to April 15, 1987. Data were...

  18. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1973 to 10 March 1976 (NODC Accession 0000287)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1973 to March 10, 1976. Data...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-10-01 to 2013-10-31 (NODC Accession 0114225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-12-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115495)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-06-01 to 2014-06-30 (NODC Accession 0119875)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-09-01 to 2009-09-30 (NODC Accession 0060235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-07-01 to 2007-07-31 (NODC Accession 0041385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-06-01 to 2016-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0155306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-01-01 to 2014-01-31 (NODC Accession 0116220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-11-01 to 2012-11-30 (NODC Accession 0100023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-12-01 to 2006-12-31 (NODC Accession 0038690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-08-01 to 2012-08-31 (NODC Accession 0094832)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-02-01 to 2009-02-28 (NODC Accession 0053280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-02-01 to 2013-02-28 (NODC Accession 0104156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-11-01 to 2007-11-30 (NODC Accession 0045169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-10-01 to 2007-10-31 (NODC Accession 0044360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-03-01 to 2012-03-31 (NODC Accession 0087573)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-05-01 to 2008-05-31 (NODC Accession 0050607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-09-01 to 2013-09-30 (NODC Accession 0113643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-04-01 to 2011-04-30 (NODC Accession 0073425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-08-01 to 2009-08-31 (NODC Accession 0059378)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-03-01 to 2007-03-31 (NODC Accession 0039052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-10-01 to 2012-10-31 (NODC Accession 0099199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-02-01 to 2012-02-29 (NODC Accession 0086247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-05-01 to 2007-05-31 (NODC Accession 0041112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-09-01 to 2015-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0133934)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Algal Species and other data collected from photographs in Southeast Atlantic Ocean from 11 June 1991 to 22 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9300196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Algal species and other data were collected using photographs from swimmers/divers in Southeast Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 11 June 1991 to 22 March...

  4. Temperature data from buoy casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from 01 August 1928 to 04 September 1932 (NODC Accession 0000242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using buoy casts from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from August 1, 1928 to September 4, 1932 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  5. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AKHILL and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean from 02 August 1984 to 11 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in the Atlantic Ocean from the AKHILL, ARTEMIDA, AYAKS, and other platforms from 02 August 1984 to 11...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-01-01 to 2013-01-31 (NODC Accession 0101882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from 18 June 1992 - 29 October 1993 (NODC Accession 9700223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from June 18, 1992 to October 29, 1993. Data were submitted by Oregon...

  8. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the South Atlantic Ocean from 05 January 1991 to 19 February 1993 (NODC Accession 9500069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 05 January 1991 to 19 February 1993. Data were collected by the...

  9. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and primary production collected by bottle and CTD in the North Atlantic Ocean from 8/25/1903 - 11/14/1997 (NODC Accession 0000101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, algal species, and other data were collected using water bottle or CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from WEST-HINDER and other platforms....

  10. Oceanographic profile temperature, oxygen, nitrate+nitrite and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the North Atlantic ocean from 1988 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0000990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile data collected as part of the Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) from Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS; formerly BBSR)

  11. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ATLANTIS II From North Atlantic Ocean from 1979-10-17 to 1979-11-02 (NODC Accession 8600043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Helium and Tritium data from the North Atlantic ocean was submitted by Dr. William Jenkins from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). The data were collected...

  12. Zooplankton and other data collected in Northwest Atlantic Ocean from CTD, bottle casts, and other instruments from 10 September 1963 to 24 August 1964 (NODC Accession 7101509)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected using CTD, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 10 September 1963...

  13. Oxygen, salinity, and other data from bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 25 February 1973 to 04 May 1981 (NODC Accession 0000344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from February 25, 1973 to May 4, 1981. Data were...

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, and oxygen measurements collected from BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1988 to 1993 (NODC Accession 0002230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 26 September 1988 to 18...

  15. Temperature profile and oxygen data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 31 October 1977 to 16 October 1989 (NODC Accession 0000357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from October 31, 1977 to October 16, 1989. Data were submitted by...

  16. Chemical, physical, and other data from bottle casts from multiple ships in the North Atlantic Ocean from 26 July 1931 to 18 August 1953 (NODC Accession 0000233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, and other data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the ATKA, ALBATROSS III, ANTON DOHRN, and ATLANTIS 1931-9/63...

  17. Temperature profile and current meter data from mooring and CTD in the Atlantic Ocean from 11 March 1989 to 18 June 1989 (NODC Accession 0000215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and current meter data were collected using mooring and CTD casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey in the Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected...

  18. Zooplankton species identities and other data collected by ATLANTIS II from net casts in NW Atlantic Ocean from 23 November 1988 to 04 December 1988 (NODC Accession 9500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected using net casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from ATLANTIS II. Data were collected from 23 November...

  19. Meteorological and physical data from XSV casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from the Ship of Opportunity, 03 March 1999 to 29 June 1999 (NODC Accession 0000797)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and physical data were collected using XSV casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 03 March 1999 to 29 June 1999. Data were submitted by the US...

  20. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  1. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the GALLATIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from on 16 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the GALLITIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) on 16 March...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-03-01 to 2014-03-31 (NODC Accession 0117684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Temperature profiles from bathythermograph casts from VOLNA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations from 31 March 1985 to 27 April 1985 (NODC Accession 8500291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data was collected from VOLNA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data was collected from 1 March 1985 to 27 April 1985....

  4. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 01 December 1974 to 04 November 1984 (NODC Accession 0000284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from December 1, 1974 to November 4, 1984. Data were...

  5. Temperature profiles from bathythermograph casts from VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations from 16 November 1985 to 02 February 1986 (NCEI Accession 8600063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data was collected from VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data was collected from 16 November 1985 to 02...

  6. Temperature profiles from bathythermograph casts from VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations from 26 January 1985 to 31 March 1985 (NODC Accession 8500241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data was collected from VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data was collected from 26 January 1985 to 31 March...

  7. Chemical and physical data from bottle casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean from 07 June 1961 to 05 December 1989 (NODC Accession 0000305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, temperature, chemical, and physical data were collected using bottle casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean from June 7, 1961 to December 5, 1989. Data...

  8. Temperature profile data collected from BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 09 November 1982 to 15 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8600192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 09 November 1982 to 15...

  9. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 05 March 1987 to 31 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data were...

  10. Temperature data from thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida by from 01 January 2000 to 31 December 2003 (NODC Accession 0002518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using SBE 39 thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003 as part of...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-04-01 to 2015-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0127550)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORMS and Other Platforms From North Atlantic Ocean from 19690701 to 19730930 (NODC Accession 8100447)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The entry contains Wave direction and other data collected from fixed platforms and other platforms from North Atlantic Ocean between July 1, 1969 and September 30,...

  13. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1969 to 31 August 1995 (NODC Accession 0000426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CHARLES DARWIN and other vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1969 to 31 August 199. CTD data include...

  14. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, and other data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 21 October 1948 to 15 October 1951 (NODC Accession 0000218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, and other data were collected using bottle casts from the CARYN and ALBATROSS III in the North Atlantic Ocean from October...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-04-01 to 2009-04-30 (NODC Accession 0055660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-04-01 to 2014-04-30 (NODC Accession 0118274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-08-01 to 2008-08-31 (NODC Accession 0051460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-12-01 to 2007-12-31 (NODC Accession 0046092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-02-01 to 2014-02-28 (NODC Accession 0116779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-31 (NODC Accession 0067579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-06-01 to 2013-06-30 (NODC Accession 0109999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-05-01 to 2013-05-31 (NODC Accession 0108058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-12-01 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0140223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-10-01 to 2006-10-31 (NODC Accession 0038590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-07-01 to 2012-07-31 (NODC Accession 0093398)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-03-01 to 2015-03-31 (NODC Accession 0127243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-02-01 to 2015-02-28 (NODC Accession 0126591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-12-01 to 2014-12-31 (NODC Accession 0125060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-05-01 to 2011-05-31 (NODC Accession 0073607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-02-01 to 2008-02-29 (NODC Accession 0048724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-12-01 to 2011-12-31 (NODC Accession 0083186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-02-01 to 2011-02-28 (NODC Accession 0072610)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-09-01 to 2006-09-30 (NODC Accession 0038417)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-08-01 to 2013-08-31 (NODC Accession 0112743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-03-01 to 2009-03-31 (NODC Accession 0054211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-11-01 to 2006-11-30 (NODC Accession 0038686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-11-01 to 2015-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0138739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-03-01 to 2010-03-31 (NODC Accession 0064868)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-10-01 to 2014-10-31 (NODC Accession 0123097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-10-01 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0069617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-30 (NODC Accession 0066881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-01-01 to 2015-01-31 (NODC Accession 0125594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-11-01 to 2008-11-30 (NODC Accession 0051620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-05-31 to 2017-03-21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-02-01 to 2010-02-28 (NODC Accession 0063918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-03-01 to 2013-03-31 (NODC Accession 0104397)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-01-01 to 2011-01-31 (NODC Accession 0071851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-10-01 to 2011-10-31 (NODC Accession 0079058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-04-01 to 2013-04-30 (NODC Accession 0105690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-12-01 to 2010-12-31 (NODC Accession 0071063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-12-01 to 2008-12-31 (NODC Accession 0051875)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-02-01 to 2016-02-29 (NCEI Accession 0145087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-04-01 to 2012-04-30 (NODC Accession 0089163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-08-01 to 2015-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0131500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-01-01 to 2009-01-31 (NODC Accession 0052486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-03-01 to 2011-03-31 (NODC Accession 0073284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-07-01 to 2009-07-31 (NODC Accession 0058273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-08-01 to 2006-08-31 (NODC Accession 0038184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-05-01 to 2009-05-31 (NODC Accession 0057379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-09-01 to 2014-09-30 (NODC Accession 0122505)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-03-01 to 2016-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0146057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-01-01 to 2016-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0141436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-05-01 to 2014-05-31 (NODC Accession 0119183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-11-01 to 2009-11-30 (NODC Accession 0062139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-09-01 to 2011-09-30 (NODC Accession 0077911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-05-01 to 2016-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0152515)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-07-01 to 2008-07-31 (NODC Accession 0050977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-07-01 to 2015-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0130523)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-07-01 to 2014-07-31 (NODC Accession 0120760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-06-01 to 2011-06-30 (NODC Accession 0074002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-08-01 to 2010-08-31 (NODC Accession 0068299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-09-01 to 2010-09-30 (NODC Accession 0068990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-05-01 to 2015-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0129412)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  16. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%), olive ridley (27.1%) and loggerhead turtles (8.7%). Most olive ridley (81.7%) and loggerhead (82.1%) turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0%) and entangled (31.8%). Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E), but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W). The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  17. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles from the western South Atlantic Ocean include high frequency signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; Amorim, Thiago O S; Sucunza, Federico; de Castro, Franciele R; Maia, Ygor Geyer; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Bortolotto, Guilherme A; Dalla Rosa, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic parameters of killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles were described for the western South Atlantic Ocean and highlight the occurrence of high frequency whistles. Killer whale signals were recorded on December of 2012, when a pod of four individuals was observed harassing a group of sperm whales. The high frequency whistles were highly stereotyped and were modulated mostly at ultrasonic frequencies. Compared to other contour types, the high frequency whistles are characterized by higher bandwidths, shorter durations, fewer harmonics, and higher sweep rates. The results add to the knowledge of vocal behavior of this species.

  18. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%, olive ridley (27.1% and loggerhead turtles (8.7%. Most olive ridley (81.7% and loggerhead (82.1% turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0% and entangled (31.8%. Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E, but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W. The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark J.; Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (>1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean.

  20. Atlantic water transformation and transport to the Arctic Ocean in the Fram Strait and Barents Sea Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Skagseth, Øystein; Walczowski, Waldemar; Lien, Vidar; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2017-04-01

    The heat content in the Arctic Ocean is to a large extent determined by oceanic advection from the south. During the last two decades the extraordinary warm Atlantic water (AW) inflow has been reported to progress through the Nordic Seas towards the Arctic Ocean. The ultimate fate of warm anomalies of Atlantic origin depends strongly on splitting of the AW flow into the Fram Strait (FSB) and Barents Sea Branch (BSB). Subsequent transformation of AW along these two branches and their relative strength govern the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean. Atlantic water, which leaves through Fram Strait with temperature of 3-3.5°C, brings between 26 and 50 TW of heat into the Arctic Ocean. Atlantic water inflow to the Barents Sea is warmer (6-6.5°C) and carries oceanic heat of a similar order, but most of it is lost to the atmosphere and sea ice melt before strongly modified AW enters the Arctic Ocean through the Barents Sea northern exit. In recent decades a significant warming and high variability of AW volume transport was observed in the both branches of Atlantic inflow. AW flow in the Barents Sea Branch is controlled by the strength of atmospheric low over the northern Barents Sea, acting through a wind-induced Ekman divergence, which intensifies eastward barotropic current. Transport in the Fram Strait Branch is mainly forced by the large-scale low-pressure system over the eastern Norwegian-Greenland Seas, which strengthens the coherent shelf break current along the eastern rim of the Nordic Seas. However, long-term moored observations in the Barents Sea Opening and the northern Fram Strait reveal that Atlantic water transport in both branches vary with the opposite phase on the inter-annual time scale. This suggests that in the periods of weaker Atlantic water flow in the shelf break current, the increased transport in the Barents Sea Branch can also further weaken the Fram Strait Branch. The anomalously warm AW inflow in the Fram Strait Branch has a

  1. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-02-19 to 2011-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0130849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130849 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit -40 W) as part of the Ocean Dumping project, 1990-05-24 to 1991-06-17 (NODC Accession 9300112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit -40 W) from May 24, 1990 to June 17, 1991. Data were...

  3. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 June 1987 to 19 June 1987 (NODC Accession 8700270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  4. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 May 1986 to 30 May 1986 (NODC Accession 8600203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  5. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 October 1985 to 25 October 1985 (NODC Accession 8500306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS on the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  6. Magnetization modeling in the north and equatorial Atlantic Ocean using MAGSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayling, K. L.; Harrison, C. G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Magsat 2 x 2-deg scalar anomalous-magnetic-field data (Langel et al., 1982) for the northern and equatorial Atlantic are inverted and combined with physiographic data and laboratory results on the magnetization of oceanic rocks and the oceanic crust to construct models explaining the shorter-wavelength component of the anomalies. An annihilator is applied to the inversion results to eliminate reverse-magnetized sources and facilitate comparisons of areas inverted separately, and a latitude effect on source spacing is tentatively attributed to greater noise contamination at lower latitudes. It is found that remanent magnetization combined with considerable crustal thickening can best explain the high intensity levels observed, although viscous magnetization or contamination of the data by noncrustal sources must also be considered.

  7. Secular Changes in the Solar Semidiurnal Tide of the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of twentieth century tide gauge records reveals that the solar semidiurnal tide S, has been decreasing in amplitude along the eastern coast of North America and at the mid-ocean site Bermuda. In relative terms the observed rates are unusually large, of order 10% per century. Periods of greatest change, however, are inconsistent among the stations, and roughly half the stations show increasing amplitude since the late 1990s. Excepting the Gulf of Maine, lunar tides are either static or slightly increasing in amplitude; a few stations show decreases. Large changes in solar, but not lunar, tides suggest causes related to variable radiational forcing, but the hypothesis is at present unproven. Citation: Ray, R. D. (2009), Secular changes in the solar semidiurnal tide of the western North Atlantic Ocean

  8. Investigation of the MBL Cloud Macro- and Micro-physical Properties over Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.

    2013-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud is an important cloud type in global climate system, and its macro- and micro- physical properties relate with not only the radiation budgets but also affect the sea surface temperature. Two DOE ARM Mobile Facilities (AMF1 and AMF2) were recently deployed at both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. One was at the Graciosa Island, Azores in context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign and the AMF1 collected the most continuous, valuable and comprehensive data of MBL clouds from Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2010. The other filed campaign is the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) IOP, which will provide a great opportunity for us to do the analysis of MBL over Pacific Ocean. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) has been deployed on the Horizon Line cargo ship Spirit traversing the route between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI for one full year (Oct. 2012 to Sept. 2013) with two additional 2-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, such as including additional instruments and more soundings (3-hr). The AMF2 has very similar data sets as the AMF1 over Azores but will not focus on one single point. The AMF2 observations, as well as retrievals for MBL clouds during MAGIC will allow us to compare the MBL cloud properties between North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In this study, we will compare the MBL clouds macro- and micro- physical properties over two Oceans. These macro- and micro- physical properties of MBL clouds are derived from AMF1 and AMF2 measurements. In details, the cloud heights are derived from radar/lidar pairs; the cloud temperatures are from linearly interpreted soundings; liquid water path (LWP) is retrieved from microwave radiometer; cloud condensation nuclei are derived from AOS measurements under super-saturation ratio at 0.2. The MBL cloud microphysical properties at daytime ( cloud effective radius, optical thickness, and number concentration

  9. Characterization and impact of "dead-zone" eddies in the tropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Florian; Karstensen, Johannes; Krahmann, Gerd; Hauss, Helena; Fiedler, Björn; Brandt, Peter; Visbeck, Martin; Körtzinger, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Localized open-ocean low-oxygen dead-zones in the tropical Northeast Atlantic are recently discovered ocean features that can develop in dynamically isolated water masses within cyclonic eddies (CE) and anticyclonic modewater eddies (ACME). Analysis of a comprehensive oxygen dataset obtained from gliders, moorings, research vessels and Argo floats shows that eddies with low oxygen concentrations at 50-150 m depths can be found in surprisingly high numbers and in a large area (from about 5°N to 20°N, from the shelf at the eastern boundary to 30°W). Minimum oxygen concentrations of about 9 μmol/kg in CEs and close to anoxic concentrations (dead-zone" eddies (10 CEs; 17 ACMEs). The low oxygen concentration right beneath the mixed layer has been attributed to the combination of high productivity in the surface waters of the eddies and the isolation of the eddies' cores. Indeed eddies of both types feature a cold sea surface temperature anomaly and enhanced chlorophyll concentrations in their center. The oxygen minimum is located in the eddy core beneath the mixed layer at around 80 m depth. The mean oxygen anomaly between 50 to 150 m depth for CEs (ACMEs) is -49 (-81) μmol/kg. Eddies south of 12°N carry weak hydrographic anomalies in their cores and seem to be generated in the open ocean away from the boundary. North of 12°N, eddies of both types carry anomalously low salinity water of South Atlantic Central Water origin from the eastern boundary upwelling region into the open ocean. This points to an eddy generation near the eastern boundary. A conservative estimate yields that around 5 dead-zone eddies (4 CEs; 1 ACME) per year entering the area north of 12°N between the Cap Verde Islands and 19°W. The associated contribution to the oxygen budget of the shallow oxygen minimum zone in that area is about -10.3 (-3.0) μmol/kg/yr for CEs (ACMEs). The consumption within these eddies represents an essential part of the total consumption in the open tropical

  10. Tiger sharks can connect equatorial habitats and fisheries across the Atlantic Ocean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Garla, Ricardo; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2017-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge about the spatial ecology of apex predators and their interactions with diverse habitats and fisheries is necessary for understanding the trophic mechanisms that underlie several aspects of marine ecosystem dynamics and for guiding informed management policies. A preliminary assessment of tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) population structure off the oceanic insular system of Fernando de Noronha (FEN) and the large-scale movements performed by this species in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean was conducted using longline and handline fishing gear and satellite telemetry. A total of 25 sharks measuring 175-372 cm in total length (TL) were sampled. Most sharks were likely immature females ranging between 200 and 260 cm TL, with few individuals shark size-distribution previously reported for coastal waters off the Brazilian mainland, where most individuals measured shark-1; SD = 65.6). These sharks exhibited a considerable variability in their horizontal movements, with three sharks showing a mostly resident behavior around FEN during the extent of the respective tracks, two sharks traveling west to the South American continent, and two sharks moving mostly along the middle of the oceanic basin, one of which ending up in the northern hemisphere. Moreover, one shark traveled east to the African continent, where it was eventually caught by fishers from Ivory Coast in less than 474 days at liberty. The present results suggest that young tiger sharks measuring sharks are able to connect marine trophic webs from the neritic provinces of the eastern and western margins of the Atlantic Ocean across the equatorial basin and that they may experience mortality induced by remote fisheries. All this information is extremely relevant for understanding the energetic balance of marine ecosystems as much as the exposure of this species to fishing pressure in this yet poorly-known region.

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-10-04 to 2000-12-01 (NODC Accession 0113246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113246 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean...

  12. The modern and glacial overturning circulation in the Atlantic ocean in PMIP coupled model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Weber

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC to LGM forcings and boundary conditions in nine PMIP coupled model simulations, including both GCMs and Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity. Model results differ widely. The AMOC slows down considerably (by 20–40% during the LGM as compared to the modern climate in four models, there is a slight reduction in one model and four models show a substantial increase in AMOC strength (by 10–40%. It is found that a major controlling factor for the AMOC response is the density contrast between Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at their source regions. Changes in the density contrast are determined by the opposing effects of changes in temperature and salinity, with more saline AABW as compared to NADW consistently found in all models and less cooling of AABW in all models but one. In only two models is the AMOC response during the LGM directly related to the response in net evaporation over the Atlantic basin. Most models show large changes in the ocean freshwater transports into the basin, but this does not seem to affect the AMOC response. Finally, there is some dependence on the accuracy of the control state.

  13. Response of the North Atlantic surface and intermediate ocean structure to climate warming of MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiano, Evgenia S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Schouten, Stefan; Fahl, Kirsten; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Bauch, Henning A.

    2017-04-01

    Investigating past interglacial climates not only help to understand how the climate system operates in general, it also forms a vital basis for climate predictions. We reconstructed vertical stratification changes in temperature and salinity in the North Atlantic for a period some 400 ka ago (MIS11), an interglacial time analogue of a future climate. As inferred from a unique set of biogeochemical, geochemical, and faunal data, the internal upper ocean stratification across MIS 11 shows distinct depth-dependent dynamical changes related to vertical as well as lateral shifts in the upper Atlantic meridional circulation system. Importantly, transient cold events are recognized near the end of the long phase of postglacial warming at surface, subsurface, mid, and deeper water layers. These data demonstrate that MIS 11 coolings over the North Atlantic were initially triggered by freshwater input at the surface and expansion of cold polar waters into the Subpolar Gyre. The cooling signal was then transmitted downwards into mid-water depths. Since the cold events occurred after the main deglacial phase we suggest that their cause might be related to continuous melting of the Greenland ice sheet, a mechanism that might also be relevant for the present and upcoming climate.

  14. Northern North Atlantic Sea Surface Height and Ocean Heat Content Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter; Worthen, Denise L.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of nearly 20 years of altimetric sea surface height (SSH) is investigated to understand its association with decadal to multidecadal variability of the North Atlantic heat content. Altimetric SSH is dominated by an increase of about 14 cm in the Labrador and Irminger seas from 1993 to 2011, while the opposite has occurred over the Gulf Stream region over the same time period. During the altimeter period the observed 0-700 m ocean heat content (OHC) in the subpolar gyre mirrors the increased SSH by its dominantly positive trend. Over a longer period, 1955-2011, fluctuations in the subpolar OHC reflect Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) and can be attributed to advection driven by the wind stress ''gyre mode'' bringing more subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. The extended subpolar warming evident in SSH and OHC during the altimeter period represents transition of the AMV from cold to warm phase. In addition to the dominant trend, the first empirical orthogonal function SSH time series shows an abrupt change 2009-2010 reaching a new minimum in 2010. The change coincides with the change in the meridional overturning circulation at 26.5N as observed by the RAPID (Rapid Climate Change) project, and with extreme behavior of the wind stress gyre mode and of atmospheric blocking. While the general relationship between northern warming and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) volume transport remains undetermined, the meridional heat and salt transport carried by AMOC's arteries are rich with decade-to-century timescale variability.

  15. Evidence for the linked biogeochemical cycling of zinc, cobalt, and phosphorus in the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakuba, R. Wisniewski; Moffett, J. W.; Dyhrman, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    Many trace metals such as iron, copper, and manganese have lower concentrations in the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean than in North Atlantic surface waters. However, cobalt and zinc concentrations in North Atlantic surface waters are often as low as those reported in the North Pacific. We studied the relationship between the distribution of cobalt, zinc, and phosphorus in surface waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean. Both metals show strong depletion in the southern Sargasso Sea, a region characterized by exceedingly low dissolved inorganic phosphorus (generally zinc) that cleaves phosphate monoesters and is a diagnostic indicator of phosphorus stress in phytoplankton. In contrast to the North Pacific Ocean, cobalt and zinc appear to be drawn down to their lowest values only when inorganic phosphorus is below 10 nmol L-1 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Lower levels of phosphorus in the Atlantic may contribute to these differences, possibly through an increased biological demand for zinc and cobalt associated with dissolved organic phosphorus acquisition. This hypothesis is consistent with results of a culture study where alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi upon zinc and cobalt limitation.

  16. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates in open ocean waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Horii, Yuichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K.; Sinclair, E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, CA (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research; Gamo, Toshitaka [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Institute

    2004-09-15

    Environmentally stable perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have appeared as a new class of global pollutants within the last four years. These compounds in general, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in particular, can elicit toxic effects in wildlife and humans. PFCs have unique physicochemical properties due to the highly persistent C-F bond of the non-polar moiety and exhibit a wide variety of volatility/ water solubility depending on the nature of the substituted polar moiety. Environmental kinetics of PFCs is very complex because of the unique characteristics and their wide applications in various products. It is clear that PFCs pollution is a global problem involving several international organizations such as OECD. We have reported the initial survey of open ocean pollution by PFCs in 2003. Our studies have shown that part per quadrillion (ppq) level analysis of PFCs is necessary to obtain reliable information of open ocean pollution. We have developed reliable analytical and sampling method for ultra-trace level analysis of PFCs that is applicable to global survey of open ocean pollution. Analysis of PFCs in open ocean waters is challenging because of the need for ppq level analysis and no earlier studies have reported such a sensitive method. There were two approaches to enable trace level analysis of PFCs, namely, to decrease the blank and to solve co-elution problem. We have tested low blank solid phase extraction method and improvements in the analytical procedures and instrumentation, the blank/background levels of target perfluorinated acids were reduced significantly. Field blanks containing 800 mL of HPLC-grade water taken in a polypropylene bottle were transported to sampling locations. Two hundred microliter of sodium thiosulfate solution has been added to the field blanks. Although the concentrations of target fluorochemicals in field blanks were similar to those in procedural blanks in most cases, any sample sets that were found to have notable

  17. Gene flow between Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins in three lineages of deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae: Pliocardiinae) and subsequent limited gene flow within the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBella, Abigail Leavitt; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Jollivet, Didier; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2017-03-01

    Pliocardiin (vesicomyid) clams rely on microbial symbionts for nutrition and are obligate inhabitants of deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. Unlike many other invertebrate hosts of chemosynthetic microbes, pliocardiin clams are found in every ocean in a variety of reducing habitats, including hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, organic falls and deep-sea fans. The global distribution of pliocardiin clams suggests historical gene flow between ocean basins. We focus on 3 pliocardiin genera-'Pliocardia' I, Calyptogena and Abyssogena-each of which has a pair of sister clades in the Atlantic and Pacific. Our work tests the hypothesis that historical gene flow between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans within these genera was interrupted by the closure of the Panamanian seaway and tests whether isolation between the ocean basins is the result of vicariance or past colonization. These questions are investigated in the context of fossil evidence, biogeography and phylogenetics. This study revealed a set of substitution rates consistent with other invertebrate studies (μ=0.8%/My/lineage), and a set consistent with much lower rates often attributed to deep-sea organisms (μ=0.3%/My/lineage). Among the Pacific/Atlantic sister pairs, 'Pliocardia' I COI divergence per lineage is intermediate (2.5%), Calyptogena is the highest (6.1%) and Abyssogena the lowest (0.8%). The substitution rates suggest that 'Pliocardia' I and Calyptogena have histories of at least 2.8 My in the Atlantic, with Calyptogena likely older. The slower rate, however, is inconsistent with both the maximum age of the family and several well studied fossils: leaving the faster rate preferred. With the faster rate, the Abyssogena southwardae clade diverged from its Pacific sister clade around 1 Mya, which likely post-dates the closure of the Isthmus of Panama and the opening of the Bering Strait. In light of this recent divergence, we test the previously proposed hypothesis that there is a high level of ongoing gene

  18. Temperature profile data from XBTs collected aboard multiple platforms in the Atlantic Ocean as part of the High Resolution XBT Network from November 08, 2008 to August 16, 2011 (NODC Accession 0077809)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected from XBT casts in the Stellwagen National Marine Sanctuary, Strait of Gibraltar, and the North Atlantic and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  19. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1987 to 07 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  20. First record of a digenean from invasive lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans, (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S A; Barse, A M; Curran, S S; Morris, J A

    2011-10-01

    Adults of Lecithochirium floridense (Digenea: Hemiuridae) parasitized the stomach in each of 22 necropsied lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) (prevalence  =  100%, mean intensity  =  11), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean off Beaufort, North Carolina (34°14.83'N, 76°35.25'W). This is the first report of a digenean from the invasive lionfish and that of L. floridense from a species of Pterois. The leech specimen previously identified as Myzobdella lugubris from P. volitans in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean is re-identified as Trachelobdella lubrica based on a study of the original voucher specimen.

  1. Probing seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath the Central Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisconti, Angelo; Thomas, Christine; Wookey, James

    2017-04-01

    The D" region, the lowermost part of the Earth's mantle, exhibits complex structures which have been related to slabs graveyard and birth place of uprising plumes all through the mantle. These structures are likely due to flow in the mantle and investigating the anisotropy can help to determine flow and mineralogy of the D". Azimuthal anisotropy, rather than simple vertical transverse isotropy, have been recently detected using either shear wave splitting or polarities from reflected waves from the D" discontinuity. In this work, we use both methods in order to better constrain anisotropy and deformation in the lowermost mantle beneath the Atlantic Ocean. We find a reflector in the lowermost mantle that shows a complex pattern in reflected wave polarities that in some cases travel out-of-plane. Applying ScS-S differential splitting method, we also detect a tilted fast polarization. Back projecting waves to their original bounce points, modelling out of plane waves, finding cross paths and modelling of anisotropy, will help us to better understand structure and flow of the lowermost mantle beneath the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Taxonomy of quaternary deep-sea ostracods from the Western North Atlantic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Okahashi, H.; Cronin, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (32??47.041??? N, 76??17.179??? W; 1798m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. ?? The Palaeontological Association, 2009.

  3. Subduction in an Eddy-Resolving State Estimate of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    Are eddies an important contributor to subduction in the eastern subtropical gyre? Here, an adjoint model is used to combine a regional, eddy-resolving numerical model with observations to produce a state estimate of the ocean circulation. The estimate is a synthesis of a variety of in- situ observations from the Subduction Experiment, TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, and the MTI General Circulation Model. The adjoint method is successful because the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is only weakly nonlinear. The state estimate provides a physically-interpretable, eddy-resolving information source to diagnose subduction. Estimates of eddy subduction for the eastern subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic are larger than previously calculated from parameterizations in coarse-resolution models. Furthermore, eddy subduction rates have typical magnitudes of 15% of the total subduction rate. Eddies contribute as much as 1 Sverdrup to water-mass transformation, and hence subduction, in the North Equatorial Current and the Azores Current. The findings of this thesis imply that the inability to resolve or accurately parameterize eddy subduction in climate models would lead to an accumulation of error in the structure of the main thermocline, even in the relatively-quiescent eastern subtropical gyre.

  4. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Core Mantle Boundary Imaging underneath the North Atlantic ocean using teleseismic noise correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retailleau, L.; Stehly, L.; Boué, P.; Durand, S.; Li, L.; Campillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic signals continuously recorded by large deployments of sensors at the surface of the Earth leads to an unprecedented amount of data that can be used to get a more detailed image of the Earth structure.It has been shown recently that the correlations of seismic noise converge toward the Green's function even at teleseismic distances. P phases reflected at the Core Mantle Boundary are particularly well reconstructed in the mid-period range (3-10 seconds) between distant arrays.In this study we go further by analyzing the phases that travel under the North Atlantic ocean between the US and Europe. We exploit the large set of data deployed in these regions, choosing year 2014 since the Transportable Array (USArray) was located in the Eastern part of the US. The final dataset contains roughly 900 stations distributed on both sides of the ocean.After the extraction of P and PcP phases from cross-correlation signals, we perform a time-delay analysis of these phases and give a first passive image of the core-mantle boundary under the Atlantic. This is a good complement to the analysis performed with earthquake data, since they poorly illuminate the targeted area.We discuss both the advantages and the drawbacks of correlation based imaging using correlation-based signals.

  6. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae in the central Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L8=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year-1, and t0=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality were 0.54 year-1 and 0.39 year-1, respectively. The exploitation ratio (E was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 79-88. Epub 2009 June 30.

  7. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  8. Impact of realistic future ice sheet discharge on the Atlantic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berk, Jelle

    2015-04-01

    Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands A high-end scenario of polar ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet is presented with separate projections for different mass-loss sites up to the year 2100. The resultant freshwater forcing is applied to a global climate model and the effects on sea-level rise are discussed. The simulations show strong sea level rise on the Antarctic continental shelves. To separate the effects of atmospheric warming and melt water we then ran four simulations. One without either forcing, one with both and two with one of each separately. Melt water leads to a slight additional depression of the Atlantic overturning circulation, but a strong decrease remains absent. The bulk of the strength reduction is due to higher atmospheric temperatures which inhibits deep water formation in the North Atlantic. The melt water freshens the upper layers of the ocean, but does not strongly impact buoyancy. The balance between North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water must then remain relatively unaffected. Only applying the melt water forcing to the Northern Hemisphere does not lead to a stronger effect. We conclude that the meltwater scenario only impacts the overturning circulation superficially because the deeper ocean is not affected. Transport through Bering Strait and across the zonal section at the latitude of Cape Agulhas is increased by increased atmospheric temperatures and adds some inertia to these transports. Reversing the atmospheric forcing bears this out when the transport then further increases. The freshwater, however, mitigates this inertia somewhat.

  9. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Vieira, Ricardo P; Cardoso, Alexander M; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2011-03-09

    Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine

  10. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  11. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2014-04-23

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reproductive aspects of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae, in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Regina dos Santos Tambourgi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to study the reproductive biology of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 234 specimens were collected as bycatch during pelagic longline fisheries targeting tunas and swordfish, between December 2003 and December 2010. The fishing area was located between latitudes 10N and 35S and longitudes 3E and 40W. Of the 234 individuals sampled, 118 were females (with sizes ranging from 81 to 227 cm TL, total length and 116 males (ranging from 80 to 242 cm TL. The reproductive stages of the females were classed as immature, mature, preovulatory and pregnant, while males were divided into immature, maturing and mature. The size at maturity for females was estimated at 170.0 cm TL, while that for males was between 170.0 and 190.0 cm TL. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 1 to 10 follicles and uterine fecundity from 1 to 10 embryos. The reproductive cycle of this species is most likely biennial, with parturition occurring once every two years.

  13. Ocean warming since 1982 has expanded the niche of toxic algal blooms in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; Doherty, Owen M; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Griffith, Andrew W; Kang, Yoonja; Litaker, R Wayne

    2017-05-09

    Global ocean temperatures are rising, yet the impacts of such changes on harmful algal blooms (HABs) are not fully understood. Here we used high-resolution sea-surface temperature records (1982 to 2016) and temperature-dependent growth rates of two algae that produce potent biotoxins, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata, to evaluate recent changes in these HABs. For both species, potential mean annual growth rates and duration of bloom seasons significantly increased within many coastal Atlantic regions between 40°N and 60°N, where incidents of these HABs have emerged and expanded in recent decades. Widespread trends were less evident across the North Pacific, although regions were identified across the Salish Sea and along the Alaskan coastline where blooms have recently emerged, and there have been significant increases in the potential growth rates and duration of these HAB events. We conclude that increasing ocean temperature is an important factor facilitating the intensification of these, and likely other, HABs and thus contributes to an expanding human health threat.

  14. Saharan Dust as a Causal Factor of Significant Cloud Cover Along the Saharan Air Layer in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinet, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    The tropical Atlantic is frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions. Based on MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data during the ten-year study period, we found that these dust intrusions contribute to significant cloud cover along the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Below the temperature inversion at the SAL's base, the presence of large amounts of settling dust particles, together with marine aerosols, produces meteorological conditions suitable for the formation of shallow stratocumulus clouds. The significant cloud fraction along the SAL together with clouds over the Atlantic Inter-tropical Convergence Zone contributes to the 20% hemispheric CF asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. This leads to the imbalance in strong solar radiation, which reaches the sea surface between the tropical North and South Atlantic, and, consequently, affects climate formation in the tropical Atlantic. Therefore, despite the fact that, over the global ocean, there is no noticeable hemispheric asymmetry in cloud fraction, over the significant area such as the tropical Atlantic the hemispheric asymmetry in CF takes place. Saharan dust is also the major contributor to hemispheric aerosol asymmetry over the tropical Atlantic. The NASA GEOS-5 model with aerosol data assimilation was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol species (desert dust, sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, and sea-salt). The obtained ten-year (2002 - 2012) MERRA-driven aerosol reanalysis dataset (aka MERRAero) showed that, over the tropical Atlantic, dust and carbonaceous aerosols were distributed asymmetrically relative to the equator, while other aerosol species were distributed more symmetrically.

  15. Enhanced productivity rather than enhanced preservation led to increased organic carbon burial in the euxinic southern proto North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Pancost, R.D.; Nijenhuis, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Three Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T, ∼93.5 Ma) black shale sections along a northeast-southwest transect in the southern part of the proto-North Atlantic Ocean were correlated by stable carbon isotope stratigraphy using the characteristic excursion in δ¹³C values of both bulk organic matter (OM) and

  16. Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, E.C. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Free and sulfur-bound biomarkers in sediments deposited in the northern proto North Atlantic (Newfoundland Basin, ODP Site 1276) during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) were studied. The δ 13C records of phytane and lycopane confirmed the stratigraphic position of the positive

  17. Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bentum, E.C.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Free and sulfur-bound biomarkers in sediments deposited in the northern proto North Atlantic (Newfoundland Basin, ODP Site 1276) during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) were studied. The delta C-13 records of phytane and lycopane confirmed the stratigraphic position of the

  18. Recent interdecadal shift in the relationship between Northeast China's winter precipitation and the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Han; Shengping, He; Xin, Hao; Huijun, Wang

    2017-04-01

    This study documents an interdecadal change in the interannual relationship between Northeast China's winter precipitation (NECWP) and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans in the 1990s. It is revealed that the NECWP shows a significant simultaneous correlation with the SST anomalies in the North Atlantic (SST_Atlantic)/tropical Indian Ocean (SST_Indian) during 1996-2013/1961-1990. Generally, the NECWP anomaly is concurrent with apparent Eurasian wave pattern during 1961-1990 whereas anomalous Okhotsk high and East Asia trough during 1996-2013. It is found that, before the 1990s, the warming SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean could stimulate the Eurasian wave pattern via inducing significant anomalous upper-level convergence over the northern Europe, which tends to favor a positive NECWP anomaly. During 1996-2013, the SST_Indian-NECWP connection is disrupted. Instead, the North Atlantic tri-polar SST anomaly pattern exerts a dominant impact on the NECWP through triggering a stationary Rossby wave that originates from the North Atlantic and propagates eastward to Northeast Asia and further modulates the Okhotsk high and East Asia trough. Further analyses indicate that the weakened connection between the tropical SST_Indian anomalies and the northern Ferrell circulation likely contributes to the weakening of the NECWP-SST_Indian relationship after the 1990s. However, the eastward shift and the enlarged anomalous magnitudes of the North Atlantic Oscillation might favor the strengthening of the NECWP-SST_Atlantic relationship after the mid-1990s. It is therefore suggested that the strengthened variability of the SST_Atlantic anomalies after the 1990s might partially contribute to the intensification of the interannual variability of the NECWP.

  19. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  20. Microbial community diversity of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveals geographic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the eubacterial communities in three different water layers: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. In order to describe the dynamics of the eubacterial assemblages in relation to depth, associated environmental properties, and Longhurstian ecological provinces community DNA was extracted from 16 samples, from which the V6 region of 16s rDNA was PCR-amplified with eubacteria-specific primers, and the PCR amplicons were pyrosequenced. A total of 352 029 sequences were generated; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Comparisons of the phylogenetic affiliation of those 2871 OTUs show more than 54% of them were assigned to the Proteobacteria, with the Alphaproteobacteria representing 4% of the total Proteobacteria OTUs, and the Gammaproteobacteria representing 22%. Within the Alphaproteobacteria-affiliated OTUs, 44% of the OTUs were associated with the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The phylum Cyanobacteria represent 10% of the reads, with the majority of those reads among the GpIIa family including Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Among the Gammaproteobacteria, a single OTU affiliated to Alteromonas comprises ~3% of the abundance. The phyla Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represent approximately 7%, 0.8%, 2%, and 0.05% of the read abundance, respectively. Community ecology statistical analyses and a novel implementation of Bayesian inference suggests that eastern Atlantic Ocean eubacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers

  1. Glacial to Holocene detrital flux and sediment provenance variations in the South Atlantic Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, T. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Robinson, L. F.; McManus, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Reconstructing input fluxes of detrital silicate material to the ocean through time provides insight into past atmospheric and ocean circulation pathways as well as the interaction between terrestrial and marine biogeochemical systems. The pathway of detrital input to the ocean can occur by a variety of mechanisms including riverine, aeolian, and ice rafting. Its provenance and flux may vary temporally. Constraining these inputs to the Southern Ocean is particularly important because productivity is limited by the lack of essential micronutrients such as Fe that are supplied by detritus. In this study we have combined 230Th-normalised detrital and mass fluxes with Pb, Nd and Sr isotope data measured on the silicate detrital phase as a tracer of sediment provenance to the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean. The data presented compares the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, from a transect of core sites that span the Subtropical Front in the north to the Southern Antarctic Polar Front. The latitudinal transect for the Holocene shows clearly defined sediment provinces that grade from predominately cratonic-derived-sediment at the northern sites, to a greater proportion of sediment with a mantle-derived chemical signature in the south. The northern signal is identified as silicate detritus sourced from southern Africa and a sediment component that may be derived from the North Atlantic. The sediment at the southern sites is derived primarily from the Scotia arc. The detrital flux decreases with distance away from the African continent towards Antarctica. Thus the Holocene pattern of sediment flux and provenance matches the known sediment source pathways and oceanic circulation in this region. The glacial flux and provenance is significantly different to the modern. There is no systematic pattern in the glacial detrital flux, unlike during the Holocene. In the northern sites, the detrital flux is similar to the Holocene at the shallower site (2000 mbsl), but

  2. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2015-12-17 to 2016-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-11-24 to 2003-01-23 (NODC Accession 0108068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108068 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1992-11-01 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0115024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115024 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-02-19 to 2011-04-23 (NODC Accession 0109933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109933 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  6. Latitudinal distributions of particulate carbon export across the North Western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigcorbé, Viena; Roca-Martí, Montserrat; Masqué, Pere; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel; Bracher, Astrid; Moreau, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    234Th-derived carbon export fluxes were measured in the Atlantic Ocean under the GEOTRACES framework to evaluate basin-scale export variability. Here, we present the results from the northern half of the GA02 transect, spanning from the equator to 64°N. As a result of limited site-specific C/234Th ratio measurements, we further combined our data with previous work to develop a basin wide C/234Th ratio depth curve. While the magnitude of organic carbon fluxes varied depending on the C/234Th ratio used, latitudinal trends were similar, with sizeable and variable organic carbon export fluxes occurring at high latitudes and low to negligible fluxes occurring in oligotrophic waters. Our results agree with previous studies, except at the boundaries between domains, where fluxes were relatively enhanced. Three different models were used to obtain satellite-derived net primary production (NPP). In general, NPP estimates had similar trends along the transect, but there were significant differences in the absolute magnitude depending on the model used. Nevertheless, organic carbon export efficiencies were generally models from Dunne et al. (2005) (D05), Laws et al. (2011) (L11) and Henson et al. (2011) (H11) were also compared to our 234Th-derived carbon exports fluxes. D05 and L11 provided estimates closest to values obtained with the 234Th approach (within a 3-fold difference), but with no clear trends. The H11 model, on the other hand, consistently provided lower export estimates. The large increase in export data in the Atlantic Ocean derived from the GEOTRACES Program, combined with satellite observations and modeling efforts continue to improve the estimates of carbon export in this ocean basin and therefore reduce uncertainty in the global carbon budget. However, our results also suggest that tuning export models and including biological parameters at a regional scale is necessary for improving satellite-modeling efforts and providing export estimates that are more

  7. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  8. Diversity and distribution of single-stranded DNA phages in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kimberly P; Parsons, Rachel; Symonds, Erin M; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of marine phages is highly biased toward double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages; however, recent metagenomic surveys have also identified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages in the oceans. Here, we describe two complete ssDNA phage genomes that were reconstructed from a viral metagenome from 80 m depth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea and examine their spatial and temporal distributions. Both genomes (SARssφ1 and SARssφ2) exhibited similarity to known phages of the Microviridae family in terms of size, GC content, genome organization and protein sequence. PCR amplification of the replication initiation protein (Rep) gene revealed narrow and distinct depth distributions for the newly described ssDNA phages within the upper 200 m of the water column at the BATS site. Comparison of Rep gene sequences obtained from the BATS site over time revealed changes in the diversity of ssDNA phages over monthly time scales, although some nearly identical sequences were recovered from samples collected 4 years apart. Examination of ssDNA phage diversity along transects through the North Atlantic Ocean revealed a positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance between sampling sites. Together, the data suggest fundamental differences between the distribution of these ssDNA phages and the distribution of known marine dsDNA phages, possibly because of differences in host range, host distribution, virion stability, or viral evolution mechanisms and rates. Future work needs to elucidate the host ranges for oceanic ssDNA phages and determine their ecological roles in the marine ecosystem.

  9. Hydroclimatology of Extreme Precipitation and Floods Originating from the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jennifer

    This study explores seasonal patterns and structures of moisture transport pathways from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico that lead to extreme large-scale precipitation and floods over land. Storm tracks, such as the tropical cyclone tracks in the Northern Atlantic Ocean, are an example of moisture transport pathways. In the first part, North Atlantic cyclone tracks are clustered by the moments to identify common traits in genesis locations, track shapes, intensities, life spans, landfalls, seasonal patterns, and trends. The clustering results of part one show the dynamical behavior differences of tropical cyclones born in different parts of the basin. Drawing on these conclusions, in the second part, statistical track segment model is developed for simulation of tracks to improve reliability of tropical cyclone risk probabilities. Moisture transport pathways from the North Atlantic Ocean are also explored though the specific regional flood dynamics of the U.S. Midwest and the United Kingdom in part three of the dissertation. Part I. Classifying North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Tracks by Mass Moments. A new method for classifying tropical cyclones or similar features is introduced. The cyclone track is considered as an open spatial curve, with the wind speed or power information along the curve considered as a mass attribute. The first and second moments of the resulting object are computed and then used to classify the historical tracks using standard clustering algorithms. Mass moments allow the whole track shape, length and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin are clustered with K-means by mass moments producing an optimum of six clusters with differing genesis locations, track shapes, intensities, life spans, landfalls, seasonality, and trends. Even variables that are not directly clustered show distinct separation between clusters. A trend analysis confirms recent conclusions

  10. Metal contents of phytoplankton and labile particulate material in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Rauschenberg, Sara; Morton, Peter L.; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton contribute significantly to global C cycling and serve as the base of ocean food webs. Phytoplankton require trace metals for growth and also mediate the vertical distributions of many metals in the ocean. We collected bulk particulate material and individual phytoplankton cells from the upper water column (leached to extract biogenic and potentially-bioavailable elements, and the remaining refractory material was digested in strong acids. The cruise track spanned several ocean biomes and geochemical regions. Particulate concentrations of metals associated primarily with lithogenic phases (Fe, Al, Ti) were elevated in surface waters nearest North America, Africa and Europe, and elements associated primarily with biogenic material (P, Cd, Zn, Ni) were also found at higher concentrations near the coasts. However metal/P ratios of labile particulate material were also elevated in the middle of the transect for Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, and V. P-normalized cellular metal quotas measured with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) were generally comparable to ratios in bulk labile particles but did not show mid-basin increases. Manganese and Fe ratios and cell quotas were higher in the western part of the section, nearest North America, and both elements were more enriched in bulk particles, relative to P, than in cells, suggesting the presence of labile oxyhydroxide particulate phases. Cellular Fe quotas thus did not increase in step with aeolian dust inputs, which are highest near Africa; these data suggest that the dust inputs have low bioavailability. Copper and Ni cell quotas were notably higher nearest the continental margins. Overall mean cellular metal quotas were similar to those measured in the Pacific and Southern Oceans except for Fe, which was approximately 3-fold higher in North Atlantic cells. Cellular Fe quotas are in-line with those measured in laboratory cultures at comparable Fe concentrations. Particulate Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co are primarily

  11. Recent evolution of129I levels in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo-Vilches, Carlos; López-Gutiérrez, José María; Periáñez, Raúl; Marcinko, Charlotte; Le Moigne, Frédéric; McGinnity, Paul; Peruchena, Juan Ignacio; Villa-Alfageme, María

    2018-04-15

    Most of the anthropogenic radionuclide 129 I released to the marine environment from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (NFRP) at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France) is transported to the Arctic Ocean via the North Atlantic Current and the Norwegian Coastal Current. 129 I concentrations in seawater provides a powerful and well-established radiotracer technique to provide information about the mechanisms which govern water mass transport in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean and is gaining importance when coupled with other tracers (e.g. CFC, 236 U). In this work, 129 I concentrations in surface and depth profiles from the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic (NA) Ocean collected from four different cruises between 2011 and 2012 are presented. This work allowed us to i) update information on 129 I concentrations in these areas, required for the accurate use of 129 I as a tracer of water masses; and ii) investigate the formation of deep water currents in the eastern part of the Nordic Seas, by the analysis of 129 I concentrations and temperature-salinity (T-S) diagrams from locations within the Greenland Sea Gyre. In the Nordic Seas, 129 I concentrations in seawater are of the order of 10 9 at·kg -1 , one or two orders of magnitude higher than those measured at the NA Ocean, not so importantly affected by the releases from the NFRP. 129 I concentrations of the order of 10 8 atoms·kg -1 at the Ellet Line and the PAP suggest a direct contribution from the NFRP in the NA Ocean. An increase in the concentrations in the Nordic Seas between 2002 and 2012 has been detected, which agrees with the temporal evolution of the 129 I liquid discharges from the NFRPs in years prior to this. Finally, 129 I profile concentrations, 129 I inventories and T-S diagrams suggest that deep water formation occurred in the easternmost area of the Nordic Seas during 2012. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resolving the phasing and forcing dynamics between North Atlantic climate and deep ocean circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvali, Nil; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Kleiven, Helga (Kikki) F.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Mjell, Tor L.

    2017-04-01

    Multidecadal changes in North Atlantic climate (e.g., AMO/AMV) have been attributed to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and suggested as a driver of overturning changes. While simulations find an in-phase relationship when AMOC modulates basin-wide climate, AMOC lags when basin scale climate is forced externally (e.g., volcanoes and solar). Unfortunately the observational records are too short to assess these multi-decadal scale dynamics. The surface climate reconstructions, based on annually resolved archives, have excellent time control raising the possibility for precise determination of phasing with other well dated records. Yet, all currently available reconstructions of deep ocean circulation have radiometric based age models; with inherent errors (±30-50 years minimum) preventing the determination of the absolute phasing between deep ocean circulation changes and AMO/AMV. In order to reduce these uncertainties we use stratigraphical appearance, abundance and geochemical composition of tephra grains from a high sedimentation rate site off the Gardar Drift, south of Iceland (GS06-144-09MC-D; 60˚ 19'N, 23˚ 58'W, 2081 m water depth). Identifying tephra layers (and their association) in the core and fingerprinting with known volcanic eruptions on Iceland provides absolute age markers. Combining these age markers with 210Pb and 14C AMS dates within the same core, we have built a new chronology for the core GS06-144-09MC-D. Changes in surface ocean hydrography and climate are further portrayed using planktonic foraminiferal δ18O, assemblage counts, modern analog technique derived sea surface temperatures and Mg/Ca paleothermometry. Records of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) vigor (Sortable Silt mean grain size; Mjell et al., 2016) and benthic carbon isotopes from the same core allow us to determine the absolute phasing between changes in basin-wide climate, deep ocean circulation, and deep water carbon chemistry spanning

  13. Comparison of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation between 1960 and 2007 in six ocean reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karspeck, A. R.; Stammer, D.; Köhl, A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Balmaseda, M.; Smith, D. M.; Fujii, Y.; Zhang, S.; Giese, B.; Tsujino, H.; Rosati, A.

    2017-08-01

    The mean and variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), as represented in six ocean reanalysis products, are analyzed over the period 1960-2007. Particular focus is on multi-decadal trends and interannual variability at 26.5°N and 45°N. For four of the six reanalysis products, corresponding reference simulations obtained from the same models and forcing datasets but without the imposition of subsurface data constraints are included for comparison. An emphasis is placed on identifying general characteristics of the reanalysis representation of AMOC relative to their reference simulations without subsurface data constraints. The AMOC as simulated in these two sets are presented in the context of results from the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II) effort, wherein a common interannually varying atmospheric forcing data set was used to force a large and diverse set of global ocean-ice models. Relative to the reference simulations and CORE-II forced model simulations it is shown that (1) the reanalysis products tend to have greater AMOC mean strength and enhanced variance and (2) the reanalysis products are less consistent in their year-to-year AMOC changes. We also find that relative to the reference simulations (but not the CORE-II forced model simulations) the reanalysis products tend to have enhanced multi-decadal trends (from 1975-1995 to 1995-2007) in the mid to high latitudes of the northern hemisphere.

  14. Potential cobalt limitation of vitamin B12 synthesis in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeca, C.; Beck, A. J.; Leblanc, K.; Taylor, G. T.; Hutchins, D. A.; SañUdo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2008-06-01

    While recent studies have confirmed the ecological importance of vitamin B12, it is unclear whether the production of this vitamin could be limited by dissolved Co, a trace metal required for B12 biosynthesis, but found at only subnanomolar concentrations in the open ocean. Herein, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of dissolved B12 (range: 0.13-5 pmol L-1) in the North Atlantic Ocean follows the abundance of total dissolved Co (range: 15-81 pmol L-1). Similar patterns were observed for bacterial productivity (range: 20-103 pmol 3H leucine L-1 hr-1) and algal biomass (range: 0.4-3.9 μg L-1). In contrast, vitamin B1 concentrations (range: 0.7-30 pM) were decoupled from both Co and B12 concentrations. Cobalt amendment experiments carried out in low-dissolved Co waters (˜20 pmol L-1) enhanced B12 production two-fold over unamended controls. This study provides evidence that B12 synthesis could be limited by the availability of Co in some regions of the world ocean.

  15. Dominance of Epsilonproteobacteria associated with a whale fall at a 4204 m depth - South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalett, Angélica; Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro da; Toyofuku, Takashi; Mendes, Rodrigo; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Pedrini, Jéssica; Freitas, Robert Cardoso de; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nagano, Yuriko; Pellizari, Vivian Helena; Perez, José Angel Alvarez; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2017-12-01

    The deep ocean is the largest marine environment on Earth and is home to a large reservoir of biodiversity. Within the deep ocean, large organic falls attract a suite of metazoans and microorganisms, which form an important community that, in part, relies on reduced chemical compounds. Here, we describe a deep-sea (4204 m) microbial community associated with sediments collected underneath a whale fall skeleton in the South Atlantic Ocean. Metagenomic analysis of 1 Gb of Illumina HiSeq. 2000 reads, including taxonomic and functional genes, was performed by using the MG-RAST pipeline, SEED, COG and the KEGG database. The results showed that Proteobacteria (79%) was the main phylum represented. The most dominant bacterial class in this phylum was Epsilonproteobacteria (69%), and Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1 (97%) was the dominant species. Different species of Epsilonproteobacteria have been described in marine and terrestrial environments as important organisms for nutrient cycling. Functional analysis revealed key genes for nitrogen and sulfur cycles, including protein sequences for Sox system (sulfur oxidation) enzymes. These enzymes were mainly those of the Epsilonproteobacteria, indicating their importance for nitrogen and sulfur cycles and the balance of nutrients in this environment.

  16. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region.

  17. Geographic distribution of archaeal ammonia oxidizing ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eSintes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo, exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization.

  18. Responses of marine phytoplankton in iron enrichment experiments in the northern North Sea and northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Klaas R.; Gledhill, Martha; Nolting, Rob F.; Veldhuis, Marcel J.W.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Berg, Constant M.G. van den

    1998-01-01

    Short-term iron enrichment experiments were carried out with samples collected in areas with different phytoplankton activity in the northern North Sea and northeast Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 1993. The research area was dominated by high numbers of pico-phytoplankton, up to 70,000 ml−1.

  19. 76 FR 47441 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks... vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during a Labor Day weekend fireworks display on... from Apache Pier, which is located on the Atlantic Ocean. The fireworks display is scheduled to...

  20. Aerosol time-series measurements over the tropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean: Dust sources, elemental composition and mineralogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patey, M.D.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Pearce, R.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic receives the largest dust loading of any of the world's oceans due to its proximity to North African deserts and prevailing wind patterns. The supply of biologically important trace elements and nutrients via aerosols has an important influence on biogeochemical processes and

  1. Observation of consistent trends in the organic complexation of dissolved iron in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuróczy, C.E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic complexation of dissolved iron (dFe) was investigated in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in order to understand the distribution of Fe over the whole water column. The total concentration of dissolved organic ligands ([Lt]) measured by voltammetry ranged between 0.54 and 1.84 nEq

  2. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.65...

  3. Algal pigment patterns in different watermasses of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during fall 1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, Anita; Treguer, Paul J; Kraaij, Gijs W; Morvan, Jean

    1990-01-01

    During the autumn of 1987 a survey was carried out in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in order to study phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrological features. The positions of the boundary zones, determined by means of hydrological and chemical properties (especially

  4. Fast reconnaissance of carbonate dissolution based on the size distribution of calcareous ooze on Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic Ocean.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Prins, M.A.; Jansen, J.H.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present a new index of carbonate fragmentation based on the size distribution of bulk sediments in core MD962094 from Walvis Ridge (SE Atlantic Ocean). The carbonate fragmentation index is constructed by taking a ratio of the two coarsest fractions in the grain size distributions of the bulk

  5. Changes in Mediterranean circulation and water characteristics due to restriction of the Atlantic connection : A high-resolution ocean model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topper, R. P M; Meijer, P. Th

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution parallel ocean model is set up to examine how the sill depth of the Atlantic connection affects circulation and water characteristics in the Mediterranean Basin. An analysis of the model performance, comparing model results with observations of the present-day Mediterranean,

  6. The sea-level budget along the Northwest Atlantic coast : GIA, mass changes, and large-scale ocean dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederikse, T.; Simon, K.M.; Katsman, C.A.; Riva, R.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-level rise and decadal variability along the northwestern coast of the North Atlantic Ocean are studied in a self-consistent framework that takes into account the effects of solid-earth deformation and geoid changes due to large-scale mass redistribution processes. Observations of sea and

  7. Explanations for Temperature Increases in the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean are Proposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Primarily, consider some background hypotheses in the first paragraph: Three Types of mechanisms for Stellar Origin, Formation and Evolution are hypothesized. The first type (A) is well known; whereas, the other two (B&C) are new and proposed herein. The type A process, the presently universally accepted process, consists of the three phases of gravitation, followed by accretion, followed by fragmentation. In a Type B process, a star originates as an expanded, modified, category 3 Black Hole (BH) [1], with none or little help from gravitation/accretion, that begins to radiate, and continues to grow into a star. In a Type C process, a star would originate from a combination of the mechanisms described above for Type B and A. This mechanism, Type C, is perhaps the most common type. This type starts as an expanded, modified, category 3 BH inside of a gas and dust cloud. This then serves as the nucleus that starts the subsequent gravitation/accretion process; however, it greatly accelerates the accretion/formation process as in a standard Type A process. This mechanism could then explain how some super-cluster complexes, which have been estimated would take 40 to 60 billion years to form, can occur in a universe of a much younger age, i.e. 13.7 billion years. Also, consider that the ratio of the 'surface area to volume' is greater in a relatively smaller sphere; which would cause that smaller body of limited energy to cool off'/down, faster; however to continue to grow. A suggested sequence to explain why the Northern (South Greenland) and Southern Regions of the Atlantic Ocean are getting warmer is proposed: As the earth grows, two things occur, among others [1]. It is hypothesized the earth is expanding, circumferentially, about 3 cm per year at the equator (1 cm in the Atlantic, and 2 cm in the Pacific), rather than just 1 cm at the center of the Atlantic, as is commonly accepted. The earth may be expanding at an even greater rate, longitudinally (north and south

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1991-07-11 to 1991-09-02 (NODC Accession 0115225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115225 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-05-25 to 2003-06-13 (NODC Accession 0116705)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116705 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-11-09 to 1995-12-01 (NODC Accession 0112941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112941 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-18 to 2013-10-02 (NODC Accession 0117699)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117699 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-11-01 to 2006-11-30 (NODC Accession 0108089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108089 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-04 to 2005-09-26 (NODC Accession 0108087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108087 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-01-13 to 1995-04-02 (NODC Accession 0115764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115764 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LE NOROIT in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-09-09 to 1995-10-11 (NODC Accession 0115686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115686 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LE NOROIT in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-09-03 to 2007-09-24 (NODC Accession 0108091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108091 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-03-08 to 2010-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-08-03 to 2013-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0157363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-02-13 to 1993-03-19 (NODC Accession 0115158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115158 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Micro-porous membrane equilibrator and other instruments from unknown platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1997-06-19 to 1997-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0157739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157739 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1982-12-01 to 1983-02-18 (NODC Accession 0116706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116706 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1987-11-24 to 1989-04-12 (NODC Accession 0117501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117501 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-06-07 to 2002-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115586 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-06-06 to 2007-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108090 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  5. New Gastropod Vectors and Tetrodotoxin Potential Expansion in Temperate Waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species—Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns.

  6. Annotated list of demersal fishes occurring at Sedlo Seamount, Azores north-east central Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, G M; Rosa, A; Melo, O; Porteiro, F

    2012-08-01

    Several fish surveys were carried out in recent years at Sedlo Seamount, Azores, north-eastern central Atlantic Ocean. An objective of the surveys was to determine the species composition of the demersal fish species living in the area. Four types of sampling gears (bottom trawl and three types of longline) were used at Sedlo Seamount resulting in very different species composition by gear and a very complete coverage of the fish fauna of the area. A list of fishes caught with these sampling methods is presented, along with other specific auxiliary information. Altogether 78 species from 43 families were listed for Sedlo Seamount, and as far as is known, 15 species were recorded for the first time for Azorean waters. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Conflict Resolution for Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace with Wind Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic in the North Atlantic oceanic airspace (NAT) experiences very strong winds caused by jet streams. Flying wind-optimal trajectories increases individual flight efficiency, which is advantageous when operating in the NAT. However, as the NAT is highly congested during peak hours, a large number of potential conflicts between flights are detected for the sets of wind-optimal trajectories. Conflict resolution performed at the strategic level of flight planning can significantly reduce the airspace congestion. However, being completed far in advance, strategic planning can only use predicted environmental conditions that may significantly differ from the real conditions experienced further by aircraft. The forecast uncertainties result in uncertainties in conflict prediction, and thus, conflict resolution becomes less efficient. This work considers wind uncertainties in order to improve the robustness of conflict resolution in the NAT. First, the influence of wind uncertainties on conflict prediction is investigated. Then, conflict resolution methods accounting for wind uncertainties are proposed.

  8. Influence of Sea Ice on the Thermohaline Circulation in the Arctic-North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritzen, Cecilie; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    1997-01-01

    A fully prognostic coupled ocean-ice model is used to study the sensitivity of the overturning cell of the Arctic-North-Atlantic system to sea ice forcing. The strength of the thermohaline cell will be shown to depend on the amount of sea ice transported from the Arctic to the Greenland Sea and further to the subpolar gyre. The model produces a 2-3 Sv increase of the meridional circulation cell at 25N (at the simulation year 15) corresponding to a decrease of 800 cu km in the sea ice export from the Arctic. Previous modeling studies suggest that interannual and decadal variability in sea ice export of this magnitude is realistic, implying that sea ice induced variability in the overturning cell can reach 5-6 Sv from peak to peak.

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the calcification of otoliths of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneja, R. H.; Frommel, A. Y.; Geffen, A. J.; Folkvord, A.; Piatkowski, U.; Chang, M. Y.; Clemmesen, C.

    2012-04-01

    The aragonitic calcium carbonate composition of the otoliths of teleost fishes could bring the organism in direct risk to ocean acidification. The potential effects of increase in atmospheric CO2 on the calcification of the otoliths were investigated by rearing Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.) in three pCO2 concentrations, control-370, medium-1800, and high-4200 ppm from March to May 2010. Hypercalcification of otoliths were observed from 7 to 46-dph cod larvae cultured at elevated pCO2 concentrations. The sagittae and lapilli were largest at the high pCO2 treatment followed by medium and control with the biggest difference (83.8%) in mean otolith (sagitta) surface area at 32-dph between the high and control groups. The shift in the growth rates of the sagittae and lapilli also occurred much earlier in the high treatment with the growth of the sagitta surpassing that of the lapillus already at 32-dph. On the other hand, Atlantic cod larvae showed no trends in fluctuating asymmetry of the otoliths vis-a-vis the increase in otolith growth from elevated pCO2.

  10. Drift diving by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available Many pinniped species perform a specific dive type, referred to as a 'drift dive', where they drift passively through the water column. This dive type has been suggested to function as a resting/sleeping or food processing dive, and can be used as an indication of feeding success by calculating the daily change in vertical drift rates over time, which reflects the relative fluctuations in buoyancy of the animal as the proportion of lipids in the body change. Northwest Atlantic hooded seals perform drift dives at regular intervals throughout their annual migration across the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. We found that the daily change in drift rate varied with geographic location and the time of year and that this differed between sexes. Positive changes in buoyancy (reflecting increased lipid stores were evident throughout their migration range and although overlapping somewhat, they were not statistically associated with high use areas as indicated by First Passage Time (FPT. Differences in the seasonal fluctuations of buoyancy between males and females suggest that they experience a difference in patterns of energy gain and loss during winter and spring, associated with breeding. The fluctuations in buoyancy around the moulting period were similar between sexes.

  11. Diversity and abundance of pteropods and heteropods along a latitudinal gradient across the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K.; Goetze, Erica; Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Le Double, Serena L.; Huisman, Jef; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.

    2017-11-01

    Shelled pteropods and heteropods are two independent groups of holoplanktonic gastropods that are potentially good indicators of the effects of ocean acidification. Although insight into their ecology and biogeography is important for predicting species-specific sensitivities to ocean change, the species abundances and biogeographical distributions of pteropods and heteropods are still poorly known. Here, we examined abundance and distribution patterns of pteropods (euthecosomes, pseudothecosomes, gymnosomes) and heteropods at 31 stations along a transect from 46°N to 46°S across the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise AMT24). We collected a total of 7312 pteropod specimens belonging to at least 31 species. Pteropod abundances were low north of 40°N with individuals per 1000 m3, varied between 100 and 2000 ind./1000 m3 between 30°N and 40°S, and reached >4000 ind./1000 m3 just south of 40°S. This accounted for an estimated biomass of 3.2 mg m-3 south of 40°S and an average of 0.49 mg m-3 along the entire transect. Species richness of pteropods was highest in the stratified (sub)tropical waters between 30°N and 30°S, with a maximum of 15 species per station. The biogeographical distribution of pteropod assemblages inferred by cluster analysis was largely congruent with the distribution of Longhurst's biogeochemical provinces. Some pteropod species distributions were limited to particular oceanographic provinces, for example, subtropical gyres (e.g. Styliola subula) or warm equatorial waters (e.g. Creseis virgula). Other species showed much broader distributions between ∼35°N and ∼35°S (e.g. Limacina bulimoides and Heliconoides inflatus). We collected 1812 heteropod specimens belonging to 18 species. Highest heteropod abundances and species richness were found between 30°N and 20°S, with up to ∼700 ind./1000 m3 and a maximum of 14 species per station. Heteropods were not restricted to tropical and subtropical

  12. Leatherback turtle movements, dive behavior, and habitat characteristics in ecoregions of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L Dodge

    Full Text Available Leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, are highly migratory predators that feed exclusively on gelatinous zooplankton, thus playing a unique role in coastal and pelagic food webs. From 2007 to 2010, we used satellite telemetry to monitor the movements and dive behavior of nine adult and eleven subadult leatherbacks captured on the Northeast USA shelf and tracked throughout the Northwest Atlantic. Leatherback movements and environmental associations varied by oceanographic region, with slow, sinuous, area-restricted search behavior and shorter, shallower dives occurring in cool (median sea surface temperature: 18.4°C, productive (median chlorophyll a: 0.80 mg m(-3, shallow (median bathymetry: 57 m shelf habitat with strong sea surface temperature gradients (median SST gradient: 0.23°C km(-1 at temperate latitudes. Leatherbacks were highly aggregated in temperate shelf and slope waters during summer, early fall, and late spring and more widely dispersed in subtropical and tropical oceanic and neritic habitat during late fall, winter and early spring. We investigated the relationship of ecoregion, satellite-derived surface chlorophyll, satellite-derived sea surface temperature, SST gradient, chlorophyll gradient and bathymetry with leatherback search behavior using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The most well supported model showed that differences in leatherback search behavior were best explained by ecoregion and regional differences in bathymetry and SST. Within the Northwest Atlantic Shelves region, leatherbacks increased path sinuosity (i.e., looping movements with increasing SST, but this relationship reversed within the Gulf Stream region. Leatherbacks increased path sinuosity with decreasing water depth in temperate and tropical shelf habitats. This relationship is consistent with increasing epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass with decreasing water depth, and bathymetry may be a key feature in identifying

  13. Sensitivity of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to the dynamical framework in an ocean general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Yu, Yongqiang; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Pengfei

    2017-06-01

    The horizontal coordinate systems commonly used in most global ocean models are the spherical latitude-longitude grid and displaced poles, such as a tripolar grid. The effect of the horizontal coordinate system on Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is evaluated by using an OGCM (ocean general circulation model). Two experiments are conducted with the model—one using a latitude-longitude grid (referred to as Lat_1) and the other using a tripolar grid (referred to as Tri). The results show that Tri simulates a stronger North Atlantic deep water (NADW) than Lat_1, as more saline water masses enter the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN) seas in Tri. The stronger NADW can be attributed to two factors. One is the removal of the zonal filter in Tri, which leads to an increasing of the zonal gradient of temperature and salinity, thus strengthening the north geostrophic flow. In turn, it decreases the positive subsurface temperature and salinity biases in the subtropical regions. The other may be associated with topography at the North Pole, because realistic topography is applied in the tripolar grid while the latitude-longitude grid employs an artificial island around the North Pole. In order to evaluate the effect of the filter on AMOC, three enhanced filter experiments are carried out. Compared to Lat_1, an enhanced filter can also augment NADW formation, since more saline water is suppressed in the GIN seas, but accumulated in the Labrador Sea, especially in experiment Lat_2_S, which is the experiment with an enhanced filter on salinity.

  14. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  15. Mapping the Energy Cascade in the North Atlantic Ocean: The Coarse-Graining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluie, Hussein; Hecht, Matthew; Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2018-02-01

    A coarse-graining framework is implemented to analyze nonlinear processes, measure energy transfer rates and map out the energy pathways from simulated global ocean data. Traditional tools to measure the energy cascade from turbulence theory, such as spectral flux or spectral transfer rely on the assumption of statistical homogeneity, or at least a large separation between the scales of motion and the scales of statistical inhomogeneity. The coarse-graining framework allows for probing the fully nonlinear dynamics simultaneously in scale and in space, and is not restricted by those assumptions. This paper describes how the framework can be applied to ocean flows. Energy transfer between scales is not unique due to a gauge freedom. Here, it is argued that a Galilean invariant subfilter scale (SFS) flux is a suitable quantity to properly measure energy scale-transfer in the Ocean. It is shown that the SFS definition can yield answers that are qualitatively different from traditional measures that conflate spatial transport with the scale-transfer of energy. The paper presents geographic maps of the energy scale-transfer that are both local in space and allow quasi-spectral, or scale-by-scale, dynamics to be diagnosed. Utilizing a strongly eddying simulation of flow in the North Atlantic Ocean, it is found that an upscale energy transfer does not hold everywhere. Indeed certain regions, near the Gulf Stream and in the Equatorial Counter Current have a marked downscale transfer. Nevertheless, on average an upscale transfer is a reasonable mean description of the extra-tropical energy scale-transfer over regions of O(10^3) kilometers in size.

  16. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjun; Shi, Jiuxin; Zhao, Xiaolong

    2017-07-01

    Basin-scale freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is reported to have occurred in the South Atlantic Ocean during the period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) data. This phenomenon was also revealed by two repeated transects along a section at 30° S, performed during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated for by a salinity increase of thermocline water, indicating a hydrological cycle intensification. This was supported by the precipitation-minus-evaporation change in the Southern Hemisphere from 2000 to 2014. Freshwater input from atmosphere to ocean surface increased in the subpolar high-precipitation region and vice versa in the subtropical high-evaporation region. Against the background of hydrological cycle changes, a decrease in the transport of Agulhas Leakage (AL), which was revealed by the simulated velocity field, was proposed to be a contributor to the associated freshening of AAIW. Further calculation showed that such a decrease could account for approximately 53 % of the observed freshening (mean salinity reduction of about 0.012 over the AAIW layer). The estimated variability of AL was inferred from a weakening of wind stress over the South Indian Ocean since the beginning of the 2000s, which would facilitate freshwater input from the source region. The mechanical analysis of wind data here was qualitative, but it is contended that this study would be helpful to validate and test predictably coupled sea-air model simulations.

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...