WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlantic ocean

  1. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  2. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.; A. Körtzinger

    2009-01-01

    In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean) project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC) procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the c...

  3. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  4. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  5. CARINA alkalinity data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic.

    These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these, 75 cruises report alkalinity values.

    Here we present details of the secondary QC on alkalinity for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the alkalinity values for 16 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL alkalinity data to be 3.3 μmol kg−1. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  6. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  7. Nitrous oxide in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a comprehensive picture of the distribution of nitrous oxide (N2O in the North Atlantic Ocean, measurements of dissolved nitrous oxide were made during three cruises in the tropical, subtropical and cold-temperate North Atlantic Ocean in October/November 2002, March/April 2004, and May 2002, respectively. To account for the history of atmospheric N2O, we suggest a new depth-dependent calculation of excess N2O (ΔN2O. N2O depth profiles showed supersaturation throughout the water column with a distinct increasing trend from the cold-temperate to the tropical region. Lowest nitrous oxide concentrations, near equilibrium and with an average of 11.0±1.7 nmol L−1, were found in the cold-temperate North Atlantic where the profiles showed no clear maxima. Highest values up to 37.3 nmol L−1 occurred in the tropical North Atlantic with clear maxima at approximately 400 m. A positive correlation of nitrous oxide with nitrate, as well as excess nitrous oxide with the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU, was only observed in the subtropical and tropical regions. Therefore, we conclude that the formation of nitrous oxide via nitrification occurs in the tropical region rather than in the cold-temperate region of the North Atlantic Ocean

  8. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  9. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  10. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  11. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  12. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  13. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  14. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  15. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhua, T. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Steinfeldt, R. [University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Brown, P. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Perez, F.F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Kortzinger, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Velo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Schuster, U. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Van Heuven, S. [University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Stendardo, I. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Hoppema, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Olsen, Are [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Pierrot, D. [Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami; Schirnick, C. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  16. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2016-07-01

    A weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation has emerged from noise after years of painstaking measurements. Three independent lines of evidence suggest that an anthropogenic influence on this overturning is not yet detectable.

  17. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report details of the secondary QC for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  18. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  19. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  20. CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wanninkhof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "Atlantic" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2 data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the Atlantic. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional oceanic carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.

  1. CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wanninkhof

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures so as to improve the quality and consistency of the data as much as possible. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been tentatively corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "Atlantic" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2 data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the Atlantic. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional oceanic carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.

  2. Process studies of the carbonate system in coastal and ocean environments of the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in anthropogenic, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been largely mitigated by ocean uptake since the start of the Industrial Revolution, with the Atlantic Ocean providing the largest store of anthropogenic carbon. The thesis of Lesley Salt examines how the uptake of CO2 varies in dif

  3. AMO-like variations of holocene sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, S; Hu, Q; Oglesby, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental records of the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) show a significant 60–80 year cycle, referred to as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). During AMO warm (cold) phases, SST over the entire North Atlantic Ocean is dominated by basin-wide positive (negative) anomalies. We analyzed SST variations in the North Atlantic Ocean for the last 10 ka. The long-term and centennial variations of Holocene SST in the North Atlantic demonstrate a basin-wide mode that clearly ...

  4. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  5. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean. The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example

  6. Seafloor Asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S.Gao; K.H.Liu

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of seafloor asymmetry at about 360000 pairs of conjugate points along 1250 profiles across the mid-Atlantic Ridge(MAR)provide new constraints on models for the upwelling of the buoyant asthenosphere. The sign and amplitude of the asymmetry vary systematically and are functions of the distance between the spreading center and the location of the inferred location of maximum regional buoyancy(LMRB)in the asthenosphere. The LMRB is a smooth line derived from the observed asymmetry and is more centered at the regional topographic high than the spreading center. These observations are best explained by active upwelling of the underlying buoyant asthenosphere rather than by pressure-release melting.

  7. 77 FR 72762 - Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2013 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog fisheries for 2013 will remain status quo. Regulations governing these... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9177; fax (978) 281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 648.72(c) of the regulations implementing the fishery management plan...

  8. Organic pollutants and ocean fronts across the Atlantic Ocean: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Belkin, Igor M.

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of ocean fronts on pollutants dynamics, particularly organic pollutants. Since fronts are associated with convergent currents and productive fishing grounds, any possible convergence of pollutants at fronts would raise concerns. The focus here is on relatively persistent organic pollutants, POPs, as non-persistent organic pollutants are rarely found in the open ocean. Results from recent cruises in the Atlantic Ocean are examined for POP distributions across ocean fronts in (i) the Canary Current; (ii) the Gulf Stream; and (iii) the Amazon and Rio de la Plata Plumes. Few studies achieved a spatial resolution of 10-20 km, while most had 100-300 km between adjacent stations. The majority of the well-resolved studies measured perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which seem particularly well suited for frontal resolution. In the NE Atlantic, concentrations of PFCs sharply decreased between SW Europe and NW Africa upon crossing the Canary Current Front at 24-27°N. In the Western Atlantic, the PFC concentrations sharply increased upon entering the Amazon River Plume and Rio de la Plata Plume. In the NW Atlantic, concentrations of several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very high in Rhode Island Sound, decreasing to below detection limit in the open ocean. The more persistent and already phased-out polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) displayed elevated concentrations in the Gulf Stream and Rhode Island Sound, thereby highlighting the importance of ocean fronts, along-front currents, and cross-frontal transport for the dispersal of PCBs.

  9. Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, A N; Sigman, D M; Gibson, K A; François, R; Martínez-García, A; Jaccard, S L; Röhl, U; Peterson, L C; Tiedemann, R; Haug, G H

    2013-03-28

    Growing evidence suggests that the low atmospheric CO2 concentration of the ice ages resulted from enhanced storage of CO2 in the ocean interior, largely as a result of changes in the Southern Ocean. Early in the most recent deglaciation, a reduction in North Atlantic overturning circulation seems to have driven CO2 release from the Southern Ocean, but the mechanism connecting the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean remains unclear. Biogenic opal export in the low-latitude ocean relies on silicate from the underlying thermocline, the concentration of which is affected by the circulation of the ocean interior. Here we report a record of biogenic opal export from a coastal upwelling system off the coast of northwest Africa that shows pronounced opal maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years. These opal peaks are consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water (GNAIW). The loss of GNAIW allowed mixing with underlying silicate-rich deep water to increase the silicate supply to the surface ocean. An increase in westerly-wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean in response to the North Atlantic change has been proposed to drive the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 (refs 3, 4). However, such a circulation change would have accelerated the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and sub-Antarctic mode water, which today have as little silicate as North Atlantic Deep Water and would have thus maintained low silicate concentrations in the Atlantic thermocline. The deglacial opal maxima reported here suggest an alternative mechanism for the deglacial CO2 release. Just as the reduction in GNAIW led to upward silicate transport, it should also have allowed the downward mixing of warm, low-density surface water to reach into the deep ocean. The resulting decrease in the density of the deep Atlantic relative to the Southern Ocean surface promoted Antarctic overturning

  10. On multiple equilibria of the global ocean circulation and the preference for North Atlantic sinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the ocean circulation there is the peculiar feature that heat transport is northwards throughout the entire Atlantic ocean. This means that the Atlantic heat transport in the southern hemisphere is towards the equator. Also, the heat transport in the Atlantic is much larger that in the Pacific. T

  11. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-04 in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-02-19 to 2010-03-12 (NODC Accession 0104286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104286 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-04 in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  12. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  13. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Boylan; Detlev Helmig; Samuel Oltmans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurem...

  14. Eddy length scales in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Eddy length scales are calculated from satellite altimeter products and in an eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic Ocean. Four different measures for eddy length scales are derived from kinetic energy densities in wave number space and spatial decorrelation scales. Observational estimates and model simulation agree well in all these measures near the surface. As found in previous studies, all length scales are, in general, decreasing with latitude. They are isotropic and proportional to...

  15. Organic matter in eolian dusts over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental and mineralogical composition and the microfossil and detritus content of particulate fallout from the lower troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean have been extensively documented in earlier work, and it was possible to ascribe terrigenous source areas to such fallout. A brief review of the organic geochemistry of eolian dusts is also presented here. The lipids of eolian dusts sampled from the air mass over the eastern Atlantic from about 35 deg N to 30 deg S were analyzed here. These lipids consisted mainly of normal alkanes, carboxylic acids and alcohols. The n-alkanes were found to range from n-C23 to n-C35 with high CPI values and maximizing at n-C27 in the North Atlantic, at n-C29 in the equatorial Atlantic and at n-C31 in the South Atlantic. The n-fatty acids had mostly bimodal distributions, ranging from n-C12 to n-C30 (high CPI), with maxima at n-C16 and in the northern samples at n-C24 and in the southern samples at n-C26. The n-alcohols ranged from n-C12 to n-C32, with high CPI values and maxima mainly at n-C28. The compositions of these lipids indicated that their terrigenous sources were comprised mainly of higher plant vegetation and desiccated lacustrine mud flats on the African continent.

  16. Tropical Pacific/Atlantic Ocean interactions at multi‐decadal time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Mojib

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) observations suggests a pan‐oceanic interaction between the tropical Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean at multi‐decadal time scales, such that periods of anomalously high SSTs in the tropical Pacific are followed by a basin‐wide SST dipole in the Atlantic Ocean with a time delay of a few decades. The SST anomaly structure in the Atlantic Ocean is reminscent of variations in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The two ocean basins are linked thro...

  17. Distribution patterns of oceanic micronekton at seamounts and hydrographic fronts of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Rabea

    2004-01-01

    In the past the oceanic environment has often been compared with terrestrial deserts and until today relatively little is known about the ecology of the high seas. Within the present study pelagic oceanic communities of cephalopods and fish in the subtropical North Atlantic were investigated, and it was analysed at different spatial scales how these communities varied in response to physical gradients and hydrographic processes. First, the influence of the subtropical convergence zone in the ...

  18. Monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Yaco, C.; Caverhill, C.; Maass, H.; Porter, C.; White, GN, III

    2016-04-01

    The Remote Sensing Unit (RSU) at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) has been monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour products for decades. Optical sensors used include CZCS, POLDER, SeaWiFS, MODIS/Aqua and MERIS. The monitoring area is defined by the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) but certain products extend into Arctic waters, and all-Canadian waters which include the Pacific coast. RSU provides Level 3 images for various products in several formats and a range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Basic statistics for pre-defined areas of interest are compiled for each product. Climatologies and anomaly maps are also routinely produced, and custom products are delivered by request. RSU is involved in the generation of Level 4 products, such as characterizing the phenology of spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, computing primary production, using ocean colour to aid in EBSA (Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area) definition and developing habitat suitability maps. Upcoming operational products include maps of diatom distribution, biogeochemical province boundaries, and products from sensors such as VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), OLCI (Ocean Land Colour Instrument), and PACE (Pre-Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) hyperspectral microsatellite mission.

  19. Propagation of Atlantic Ocean swells in the north Indian Ocean: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Samiksha, S.V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Rashmi, R.

    An analysis of altimeter significant wave height data of May 2007 revealed the occurrence of an extreme weather event off southern tip of South Africa in the Atlantic Ocean, and generation of a series of very high swells at 40 degrees S...

  20. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  1. Analysing migrations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the north‐east Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, S.; Righton, D.; Neat, F.;

    2013-01-01

    descriptions, separation of reproductively isolated populations, timing and areas of spawning, tidal transport and use of protected areas. The examples are based on archival tag data from the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea and Faroese and Icelandic Waters. Besides presenting the state......-of-the-art geolocations for cod Gadus morhua in the north-east Atlantic Ocean, the major aim of this review is to raise awareness of gaps in knowledge and to identify ideas for new research...

  2. Can oceanic paleothermometers reconstruct the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heslop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental records of North Atlantic sea surface temperature reveal a large-scale low frequency mode of variability that has become known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Proxy and modelling studies have demonstrated the important consequences of the AMO on other components of the climate system both within and outside the Atlantic region. Over longer time scales the past behavior of the AMO is predominantly constrained by terrestrial proxies and only a limited number of records are available from the marine realm itself. Here we use an Earth System-Climate Model of intermediate complexity to simulate AMO-type behavior in the Atlantic with a specific focus placed on the ability of ocean paleothermometers to capture the associated surface and subsurface temperature variability. Given their lower prediction errors and annual resolution, coral-based proxies of sea surface temperature appear to be capable of reconstructing the temperature variations associated with the past AMO with an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. Contrastingly, the relatively high prediction error and low temporal resolution of sediment-based proxies, such as the composition of foraminiferal calcite, limits their ability to produce interpretable records of past temperature anomalies corresponding to AMO activity.

  3. Can oceanic paleothermometers reconstruct the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heslop

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental records of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature reveal a large-scale low frequency mode of variability that has become known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Proxy and modelling studies have demonstrated the important consequences of the AMO on other components of the climate system both within and outside the Atlantic region. Over longer time scales, the past behavior of the AMO is predominantly constrained by terrestrial proxies and only a limited number of records are available from the marine realm itself. Here we use an Earth System-Climate Model of intermediate complexity to simulate AMO-type behavior in the Atlantic with a specific focus placed on the ability of ocean paleothermometers to capture the associated surface and subsurface temperature variability. Given their lower prediction errors and annual resolution, coral-based proxies of sea surface temperature appear to be capable of reconstructing the temperature variations associated with the past AMO with an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. In contrast, the relatively high prediction error and low temporal resolution of sediment-based proxies, such as the composition of foraminiferal calcite, limits their ability to produce interpretable records of past temperature anomalies corresponding to AMO activity. Whilst the presented results will inevitably be model-dependent to some degree, the statistical framework is model-independent and can be applied to a wide variety of scenarios.

  4. Deep ocean early warning signals of an Atlantic MOC collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Qing Yi; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is a crucial part of the climate system because of its associated northward heat transport. The present-day MOC is sensitive to freshwater anomalies and may collapse to a state with a strongly reduced northward heat transport. A future collapse of the Atlantic MOC has been identified as one of the most dangerous tipping points in the climate system. It is therefore crucial to develop early warning indicators for such a potential collapse based on relatively short time series. So far, attempts to use indicators based on critical slowdown have been marginally successful. Based on complex climate network reconstruction, we here present a promising new indicator for the MOC collapse that efficiently monitors spatial changes in deep ocean circulation. Through our analysis of the performance of this indicator we formulate optimal locations of measurement of the MOC to provide early warning signals of a collapse. Our results imply that an increase in spatial reso...

  5. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Boylan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL. Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurements at Cape Verde, Republic of Cape Verde, approached 40 ppbv in springtime and were influenced by outflow from Northern Africa. At Ragged Point, Barbados, ozone levels were ∼ 21 ppbv; back trajectories showed the source region to be the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Ozone measurements from Ushuaia, Argentina, indicated influence from the nearby city; however, the comparison of the daily maxima ozone mole fractions measured at Ushuaia and aboard the Gas-Ex cruise revealed that these were representative of background ozone in higher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Diurnal ozone cycles in the shipborne data, frequently reaching 6–7 ppbv, were larger than most previous reports from coastal or island monitoring locations and simulations based on HOx photochemistry alone. However, these data show better agreement with recent ozone modeling that included ozone-halogen chemistry. The transport time between station and ship was estimated from HYSPLIT back trajectories, and the change of ozone mole fractions during transport in the MBL was estimated. Three comparisons showed declining ozone levels; in the subtropical and tropical North Atlantic Ocean the loss of ozone was < 1.5 ppbv day−1. Back trajectories at Ushuaia were too inconsistent to allow for this determination. Comparisons between ship and station measurements showed that ozone behavior and large-scale (∼ 1000 km multi-day transport features were well retained during transport in the MBL.

  6. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2  nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  7. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  8. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-10-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  9. Lagrangian drifter dispersion in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Stefano; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of Monitoring by Ocean Drifters (MONDO) Project, a set of Lagrangian drifters were released in proximity of the Brazil Current, the western branch of the Subtropical Gyre in the South Atlantic Ocean. The experimental strategy of deploying part of the buoys in clusters offers the opportunity to examine relative dispersion on a wide range of scales. Adopting a dynamical systems approach, we focus our attention on scale-dependent indicators, like the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) and the finite-scale (mean square) relative velocity (FSRV) between two drifters as function of their separation, and compare them with classic time-dependent statistical quantities like the mean square relative displacement between two drifters and the effective diffusivity as functions of the time lag from the release. We find that, dependently on the given observable, the quasigeostrophic turbulence scenario is overall compatible with our data analysis, with discrepancies from the expected behavior of 2D turb...

  10. Pathways of Atlantic Waters into the Arctic Ocean: Eddy-permitting ocean and sea ice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Claudia; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Danilov, Sergey; Jung, Thomas; Kanzow, Torsten; Schauer, Ursula; Timmermann, Ralph; Wang, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Fram Strait is the only deep gateway connecting the central Arctic with the North Atlantic. Boundary currents on each side are responsible for the exchange of water masses between the Arctic and North Atlantic. The East Greenland Current (EGC) carries fresh and cold Arctic waters and sea ice southward, whereas the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) carries warm Atlantic Waters (AW) into the Arctic Ocean. The complex topography in Fram Strait leads to a branching of the northward flowing WSC, with one branch recirculating between 78°N and 81°N which then joins the EGC. To date, the dynamics as well as the precise location of this recirculation are unclear. The goal of this research project is to quantify the amount and variability of AW which recirculates immediately in Fram Strait, and to investigate the role of atmospheric forcing and oceanic meso-scale eddies for the recirculation. We use simulations carried out with a global configuration of the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) at eddy-permitting scales. The advantage of this model is the finite element discretization of the governing equations, which allows us to locally refine the mesh in areas of interest and keep it coarse in other parts of the global oceans without the need for traditional nesting. Here we will show the first results of the model validation. The model has ~9 km resolution in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait and 1 deg south of 50°N. We assess the model capabilities in simulating the ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait by comparing with the available observational data, e.g. with data from the Fram Strait oceanographic mooring array. The ocean volume and heat transport from the Atlantic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and at the Fram Strait are analyzed. Our results show that the model can capture some of the observed key ocean properties in our region of interest, while some tuning is required to further improve the model. In the next phase of this project we will focus

  11. The Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long period of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South Atlantic magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that period. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial Atlantic). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South Atlantic could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse period.

  12. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.T01-0542 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. 165.T01-0542 Section 165.T01-0542 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T01-0542 Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones: All navigable waters of the United States within a...

  14. Saline Indian Ocean waters invaded the South Atlantic thermocline during glacial termination II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Scussolini, G.; Brummer, G.-J.A.; Peeters, F.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Salty and warm Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage, south of Africa. Model simulations and proxy evidence of Agulhas leakage strengthening during glacial terminations led to the hypothesis that it was an important modulator of the Atlantic Ocean circulation. Yet, the

  15. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  16. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  17. The Indian Ocean Dipole's influence on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Alan Joseph

    Improving early tropical cyclone forecasts would assist reinsurance decision makers as they seek information that can minimize risks. Early lead forecasts are based on model variables before December 1 (Year 0) that predict Atlantic tropical cyclone activity (Year +1). The autumn Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) has an 8 to 14 month antecedent correlation with the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO is traditionally the best non-lead and overall predictor of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Analyses were performed over a 30-year period from 1984/85-2013/14, with some time variation depending on the test. Correlation, spatial, and wavelet analyses were utilized to find associations between the IOD, west and east components of the IOD, and four other variables related to the following season's ENSO state and tropical cyclone activity. The prior western pole of the October IOD (WIOD) was demonstrated to have statistically significant r-squared values (i.e. 99% confidence interval) to upcoming tropical storm activity (i.e. explained 25% of the variance), named storm counts (28%), and ENSO (21%). The WIOD has no connection with U.S. hurricane landfalls. Wavelet analysis between October IOD variables and following August-October ENSO data was observed to have the best time-frequency relationship. Dynamic reasoning for these relationships reside within the idealized biennial IOD-ENSO cycle, Walker circulation process, and the impact of ENSO on the state of the Atlantic Basin. The WIOD's integration into early-lead forecast models could be an advantage for those in the reinsurance industry and other decision makers impacted by Atlantic tropical cyclonesn.

  18. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  19. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Gerard D.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Smeed, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall1, European summer precipitation2, Atlantic hurricanes3 and variations in global temp...

  20. Role of the Southern Ocean in setting the Atlantic stratification and meridional overturning circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenkovich, Igor; Radko, Timour

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the importance of the Southern Ocean (SO) stratification in determining the upper cell of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and stratification. Main results are based on a suite of idealized numerical simulations of the Atlantic with the prescribed density structure at the Atlantic southern boundary, intended to explore the importance of various factors. The results demonstrate that the density distribution at the SO-Atlantic boundary is the...

  1. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16,...

  2. Heterogeneous oxygenation states in the Atlantic and Tethys oceans during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stéphane; Vance, Derek; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Archer, Corey; Robinson, Stuart A.

    2014-10-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (ca. 93.5 Ma) is marked by an episode of profound environmental change, including a major perturbation of the carbon cycle and an Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2). Here, we present molybdenum (Mo) isotope variations within the OAE-2 interval for four sections from the western Tethys (Furlo and La Contessa) and the North-Atlantic (ODP site 1276 and DSDP site 367). The main target of this study is to investigate the extent of reducing conditions (truly global in extent or restricted to poorly-ventilated restricted deep basins), with particular reference to the relationship between the change in the oxygenation state of the ocean and the link to global perturbations of the carbon cycle recorded in carbon isotopes. All four sections show fluctuations in the redox sensitive trace metal (RSTE) distribution, suggesting rapid variations in local redox conditions, ranging from anoxic to euxinic. The RSTE enrichment factors (EFs) also suggest different depositional conditions and paleoceanographic processes in the western Tethys versus the North Atlantic. Whereas the North Atlantic sites show evidence of weak watermass restriction associated with the action of a particulate shuttle within the water column, the EFs of the Tethyan sections are characteristic of unrestricted marine systems. Mo isotopes show surprisingly negative values through the Tethyan sections. At the onset of OAE-2, an increasing trend in δMo98 is observed, with values ranging from -0.6 to 0.6‰. During the second half of OAE-2, the δMo98 curve shows a progressive shift towards more negative values. In the North Atlantic, δMo98 signatures from ODP site 1276 show a similar behaviour as observed in the western Tethys. At DSDP site 367, Mo isotopes are generally heavier during OAE-2, fluctuating around an average value of 1.1‰. This is consistent with fully euxinic conditions and the black shales deposited may have recorded the seawater signature during OAE-2. The Mo isotope

  3. Ocean-Atmosphere coupling and CO2 exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R.; Pezzi, L. P.; Carmargo, R.; Acevedo, O. C.

    2013-05-01

    The establishment of the INTERCONF Program (Air-Sea Interactions at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone) in 2004 and subsequent developing of projects such as the SIMTECO (Integrated System for Monitoring the Weather, the Climate and the Ocean in the South of Brazil) and ACEx (Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment) from 2010 in Brazil brought to light the importance of understanding the impact of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean's mesoscale variability on the modulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the synoptic scale. Recent results of all these projects showed that the ABL modulation, as well as the ocean-atmosphere turbulent (heat, momentum and CO2) fluxes are dependent on the behavior of the ocean's surface thermal gradients, especially those found in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone and at the southern coast off Brazil during the winter. As expected, when atmospheric large scale systems are not present over the study area, stronger heat fluxes are found over regions of higher sea surface temperature (SST) including over warm core eddies shed towards the subantarctic (cold) environment. In the coastal region off southern Brazil, the wintertime propagation of the Brazilian Costal Current (La Plata Plume) acts rising the chlorophyll concentration over the continental shelf as well as diminishing considerably the SST - hence producing prominent across-shore SST gradients towards the offshore region dominated by the Brazil Current waters. Owing to that, heat fluxes are directed towards the ocean in coastal waters that are also responsible for the carbon sinking off Brazil in wintertime. All this description is dependent on the synoptic atmospheric cycle and strongly perturbed when transient systems (cold fronts, subtropical cyclones) are present in the area. However, remote sensing data used here suggest that the average condition of the atmosphere directly responding to the ocean's mesoscale variability appears to imprint a signal that extends from the

  4. Mass, nutrient and oxygen budgets for the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The northeast Atlantic is a key horizontal and vertical crossroads region for the meridional overturning circulation, but basic nutrient and oxygen fluxes are still poorly constrained by observations in the region. A surface to bottom northeast Atlantic Ocean budget for mass, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and oxygen is determined using an optimization method based on three surveys of the OVIDE transect (from Greenland to Portugal completed with the World Ocean Atlas 2009. Budgets are derived for two communicating boxes representing the northeastern European basin (NEEB and the Irminger Sea.

    For the NEEB (Irminger box, it is found that 30% of the mass import (export across the OVIDE section reach (originate from the Nordic Seas, while 70% are redistributed between both boxes through the Reykjanes Ridge (9.3 ± 0.7 × 109 kg s−1.

    Net biological source/sink terms of nitrate point to both the Irminger and NEEB boxes as net organic matter production sites (consuming nitrate at a rate of –7.8 ± 6.5 kmol s−1 and –8.4 ± 6.6 kmol s−1, respectively. Using a standard Redfield ratio of C : N = 106 : 16, nitrate consumption rates indicate that about 40 TgC yr−1 of carbon is fixed by organic matter production between the OVIDE transect and the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Nutrient fluxes also induce a net biological production of oxygen of 73 ± 60 kmol s−1 and 79 ± 62 kmol s−1 in the Irminger and NEEB boxes, which points to the region as being autotrophic.

    The abiotic air–sea oxygen flux leads to an oceanic oxygen uptake in the two regions (264 ± 66 kmol s−1 in the north and 443 ± 70 kmol s−1 in the south. The abiotic flux is partitioned into a mixing and a thermal component. It is found that the Irminger Sea oceanic oxygen uptake is driven by an air–sea heat flux cooling increasing the ocean surface

  5. Lanternfish (Myctophidae from eastern Brazil, southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana da Costa Braga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine species from 11 genera of Myctophidae were taken in daytime midwater and bottom trawl hauls off eastern Brazil (11º-22ºS. Trawls were performed aboard the French R/V Thalassa to depths from 19 to 2271 m, including samples from shelf, slope and in the vicinity of oceanic banks and seamounts. Diaphus garmani was the most abundant species, accounting for 84% of all identified individuals and with four other species (D. dumerilii, D. brachycephalus, D. perspicillatus and Myctophum obtusirostre accounted for >95% of all myctophids caught. Regarding longitudinal distribution patterns, 16 species are broadly tropical, seven tropical, three subtropical, two temperate and one amphi-Atlantic. For the most abundant and frequent species, highest abundances were associated mainly with cold waters, either South Atlantic Central Water or Antarctic Intermediate Water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based on species presence-absence in the samples and oceanographic conditions was used to identify spatial distribution of myctophid assemblages. Three assemblages were identified in the studied area: north of Abrolhos Bank, south of Abrolhos Bank, and seamounts.

  6. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  7. Excitation of Annual Polar Motion by the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The global oceans play important roles in exciting the annual polar motion besides the atmosphere. However, it is still unclear about how large the regional oceans contribute to the annual polar motion. We investigate systemically the contributions of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans to the excitation of the annual polar motion, based on the output data of ocean current velocity field and ocean bottom pressure field from "Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO)" ocean circulation model over the period 1993-2005. The result shows that due to its particular location and shape, the Atlantic Ocean makes a less significant contribution to the x-component of the annual polar motion excitation than the Pacific and Indian Oceans, while all these three oceans contribute to the y-component of the annual polar motion excitation to some extent.

  8. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  9. Temperature profile and sound velocity data collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 19 March 1973 to 03 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7600779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and sound velocity data were collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic...

  10. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  11. Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju

    2016-06-01

    Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, periodicity, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and Atlantic Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by Atlantic variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on Atlantic variability.

  12. Acoustic habitat of an oceanic archipelago in the Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Lis; Barbosa, Mariana; Secchi, Eduardo; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Underwater soundscapes can be highly variable, and in natural conditions are often dominated by biological signals and physical features of the environment. Few studies, however, focused on oceanic islands soundscapes. Islands in the middle of ocean basins can provide a good example of how untouched marine soundscapes are. Autonomous acoustic recordings were carried out in two different seasons in Trindade-Martin Vaz Archipelago, Southwestern Atlantic, providing nearly continuous data for both periods. Sound levels varied daily and between seasons. During summer, higher frequencies were noisier than lower frequencies, with snapping shrimp being the dominating sound source. During winter, lower frequencies were noisier than higher frequencies due to humpback whale constant singing. Biological signal detection had a marked temporal pattern, playing an important role in the soundscape. Over 1000 humpback whale sounds were detected hourly during winter. Fish vocalizations were detected mostly during night time during both summer and winter. The results show an acoustic habitat dominated by biological sound sources and highlight the importance of the island to humpback whales in winter.

  13. Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment (acex): Implementation of Eddy Covariance Implementation of Eddy Covariance CO2 Flux Measurements on the SW Atlantic Ocean and Results from the Second Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C.; Pezzi, L. P.; Miller, S. D.; Martins, L. G.; Araujo, R. G.; Acevedo, O. C.; Moller, O.; Souza, R.; Tavano, V. M.; Farias, P.; Casagrande, F.

    2013-05-01

    The project observational and numerical study of heat, momentum and CO2 fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface in the South Atlantic Ocean - Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment (ACEx) combines observational and modeling approaches to characterize heat, momentum and CO2 fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface in the South Atlantic Ocean. This project is part of an innovative initiative aimed at providing a better understanding of the chemical, physical and dynamic processes of ocean-atmosphere interaction in micro and meso-scales at the South Atlantic Ocean, as well as fluxes across this interface. The ACEx project has performed three cruises so far, collecting measurements with CTDs and XBTs, launching radiosondes, and deploying a micro-meteorological tower to make in situ measurements of heat, momentum and CO2 fluxes. Our successful deployment of this tower represents the first use of a CO2 flux measurement system using eddy covariance technique in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. In this work, we present results from the second ACEx cruise, in which the crew onboard the Hydro-oceanographic Vessel Cruzeiro do Sul took measurements at 31 stations between Paranaguá (PR) and Chuí (RS). In addition to physical data, this cruise collected phytoplankton and nutrient data, allowing carbonic gas fluxes to be analyzed and compared with both physical and biological forcings. The highest chlorophyll concentrations were found in water derived from the La Plata River, which showed low salinity waters close to the surface. The influence of these waters was observed mainly at the southernmost stations of the cruise, coincident with increases on the CO2 fluxes that had remained slightly negative until then. This suggests that the biological forcings might have a significant impact on the gas fluxes in this area, through both respiration and the consumption of organic matter. We are currently working to apply circulation and biogeochemical models to evaluate the importance of

  14. Recent Changes in Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Motion Associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.

    1999-01-01

    Examination of a new ice motion dataset of the Arctic Ocean over a recent eighteen year period (1978-1996) reveals patterns of variability that can be linked directly to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  15. Sediment from Northwest Atlantic Ocean acquired in 1978 (ROWE78 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Presented in this dataset are data determined from sediments collected by different means during a variety of cruises to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. These data...

  16. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean. PMID:27174500

  17. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean.

  18. The morphostructure of the atlantic ocean floor its development in the meso-cenozoic

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V M

    1984-01-01

    The study of the topography and structure of the ocean floor is one of the most important stages in ascertaining the geological structure and history of development of the Earth's oceanic crust. This, in its turn, provides a means for purposeful, scientifically-substantiated prospecting, exploration and development of the mineral resources of the ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has been geologically and geophysically studied to a great extent and many years of investigating its floor have revealed the laws governing the structure of the major forms of its submarine relief (e. g. , the continental shelf, the continental slope, the transition zones, the ocean bed, and the Mid-Oceanic Ridge). The basic features of the Earth's oceanic crust structure, anomalous geophysical fields, and the thickness and structure of its sedimentary cover have also been studied. Based on the investigations of the Atlantic Ocean floor and its surrounding continents, the presently prevalent concept of new global tectonics has appeared. A g...

  19. Microbial community diversity and physical-chemical features of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Junior, Nelson; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Dutilh, Bas; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Rezende, Carlos; Iida, Tetsuya; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Pereira, Renato C; Valle, Rogério; Sawabe, Tomoo; Thompson, Cristiane; Thompson, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Microbial oceanography studies have demonstrated the central role of microbes in functioning and nutrient cycling of the global ocean. Most of these former studies including at Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) focused on surface seawater and benthic organisms (e.g., coral reefs and sponges). This i

  20. Evidence of remote forcing in the Equatorial Atlantic ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Servain, J.; Picaut, Joël; Merle, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of sea-surface temperature (STT) and surface winds in selected areas of the Tropical Atlantic indicates that the nonseasonal variability of SST in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea) is highly correlated with the nonseasonal variability of the zonal wind stress in the Western Equatorial Atlantic. A negative (positive) anomaly of the zonal wind stress near the North Brazilian coast is followed by a positive (negative) SST anomaly in the Gulf of Guinea about one month l...

  1. Did the North Atlantic Ocean sequester more CO2 during the last glacial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Thornalley, D. J.; Jin, Z.; Rohling, E. J.; Menviel, L.; McCave, I. N. N.

    2015-12-01

    To explain the ~90 ppm lower atmospheric CO2 content during the Last Glacial Maximum, much effort has been focused on the mechanisms that helped to limit the outgassing of CO2 from the deep ocean to the atmosphere via the Southern Ocean. Field measurements and modeling studies suggest that the North Atlantic Ocean has been an important sink of CO2 during preindustrial and modern times. However, the role of the North Atlantic in sequestering atmospheric CO2 in the past largely remains unconstrained. Here, we use a suite of geochemical proxies to reconstruct nutrient and carbonate ion concentrations of both surface and deep waters in the North Atlantic during the last ~25 kyr. When normalized to the same nutrient levels, we find that the gradient in carbonate ion content between surface and mid-depth waters increased during the last glacial. Although a combination of factors including changes in Redfield ratio and rain ratio and increased CO2 absorption at the air-sea boundary might have caused the observed change, the greater gradient most likely suggests an enhanced sequestration of CO2 in the North Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum. Therefore, we infer that, in addition to changes in the Southern Ocean, processes in the North Atlantic Ocean enhanced the uptake of CO2 and synergistically contributed to the low atmospheric CO2 during ice ages.

  2. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, ...

  3. Intraplate seismicity and seismic risk in the Atlantic Ocean based on teleseismically observed earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is concerned with the seismic risk within the intraplate regions of the Atlantic Ocean and forms part of a programme to assess the suitability of the ocean floor for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Earthquakes with magnitude up to (Ms) 7.2 have been observed with epicentres within the intraplate region. Observations of oceanic intraplate earthquakes worldwide suggest an upper limit of (Ms) 7.3 on the magnitude of these events. Apart from an active zone to the E and NE of the Caribbean, seismicity appears uniformly distributed but with the observed level of activity in the North Atlantic twice that in the south. (author)

  4. Hidden biosphere in an oxygen-deficient Atlantic open ocean eddy: future implications of ocean deoxygenation on primary production in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, Carolin; Fischer, Martin; Neulinger, Sven; Fiedler, Björn; Philippi, Miriam; Schütte, Florian; Singh, Arvind; Hauss, Helena; Karstensen, Johannes; Körtzinger, Arne; Schmitz, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    The eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) is characterized by a highly productive coastal upwelling system and a moderate oxygen minimum zone with lowest open ocean oxygen (O2) concentrations of approximately 40 μmol kg-1. The recent discovery of re-occurring mesoscale eddies with close to anoxic O2 concentrations (promoted transcription of the key gene for denitrification, nirS. This process is usually absent from the open ETNA waters. In light of future projected ocean deoxygenation, our results show that even distinct events of anoxia have the potential to alter microbial community structure with critical impacts on primary productivity and biogeochemical processes of oceanic water bodies.

  5. Physical and profile data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX14RR in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 2008-02-04 to 2008-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0155862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155862 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX14RR in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  6. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively. Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region.

  7. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  8. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX21RR in the North Atlantic Ocean, Rio de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2008-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0155900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155900 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX21RR in the North Atlantic Ocean, Rio de la Plata...

  9. Profile and bottle data collected on the RV Melville (cruise Vancouver 06) from the Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Transport Experiment (ASTTEX) in the Atlantic Ocean from 20030102 to 20030115 (NODC Accession 0074001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Introduction: The Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Experiment (ASTTEX) examined the fluxes of heat, salt and mass entering the South Atlantic ocean via the...

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ATLANTIS II From North Atlantic Ocean from 19791017 to 19791102 (NODC Accession 8600043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Helium and Tritium data from the North Atlantic ocean was submitted by Dr. William Jenkins from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). The data were collected...

  11. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the North Atlantic Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the North Atlantic Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-01-23 to 1989-04-12 (NODC Accession 0115014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115014 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1999-07-12 to 1999-09-22 (NODC Accession 0113601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113601 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to 2010-05-16 (NODC Accession 0109927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109927 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to...

  15. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1988-07-23 to 1988-09-01 (NODC Accession 0117675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117675 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-11-28 to 2000-12-27 (NODC Accession 0115599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115599 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1996-04-15 to 1996-05-16 (NODC Accession 0113539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113539 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-06-04 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0108061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108061 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to 2009-11-23 (NODC Accession 0109918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109918 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to...

  20. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Strait of Gibraltar from 2013-03-20 to 2013-05-22 (NODC Accession 0114434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114434 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  1. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-03-04 to 2002-04-09 (NODC Accession 0108097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108097 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  2. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2001-03-05 to 2001-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108096 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-04 to 1994-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115157 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-23 to 2008-03-15 (NODC Accession 0117496)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117496 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-19 (NODC Accession 0117503)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117503 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-01-02 to 1993-02-10 (NODC Accession 0115753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115753 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-01-02 to...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-10-13 to 2002-11-16 (NODC Accession 0113890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113890 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-10-04 to 1990-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116643 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1981-03-28 to 1981-04-23 (NODC Accession 0116646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116646 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-06 to 2006-07-09 (NODC Accession 0108078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108078 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  11. Global Climate network evolves with North Atlantic Oscillation phases: Coupling to Southern Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Guez, Oded; Berezin, Yehiel; Wang, Yang; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    We construct a network from climate records of atmospheric temperature at surface level, at different geographical sites in the globe, using reanalysis data from years 1948-2010. We find that the network correlates with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), both locally in the north Atlantic, and through coupling to the southern Pacific Ocean. The existence of tele-connection links between those areas and their stability over time allows us to suggest a possible physical explanation for this phenomenon.

  12. CARINA-Oxygen: a new high-quality oxygen database for the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.; A. Körtzinger

    2009-01-01

    In the CARINA project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC) procedures. In this paper, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the database and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure optimal consistency between different cruises in order to permit studies of long-term change. The secondary QC is based on ...

  13. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Ricardo P Vieira; Alexander M Cardoso; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rodolpho M Albano; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Meth...

  14. Impact of North Atlantic Current changes on the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Kauker, Frank; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Karcher, Michael; Köberle, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of North Atlantic Current (NAC) volume, heat, and salt transport variability onto the NordicSeas and the Arctic Ocean is investigated using numerical hindcast and sensitivity experiments. Theocean-sea ice model reproduces observed propagation pathways and speeds of SST anomalies.Part of the signal reaching the entrance to the Nordic Seas between Iceland and Scotland originatesin the lower latitude North Atlantic. Response experiments with different prescribed conditionsat 50N show ...

  15. The effect of current and wave on whitecap coverage via relative speed: the Atlantic Ocean case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ting; DENG Zeng'an; GUAN Changlong

    2009-01-01

    Whitecapping plays an important role in many air-sea exchange and upper ocean processes. Traditionally, whitecap coverage is parameterized as a function of wind speed only. At present, the relative speed of ocean current to wind is considered to be important in the air-sea exchange parameterization which is the function of wind speed only. In this paper, the effects of ocean surface velocity (current velocity and wave induced velocity) and the wave parameters on whitecap coverage through relative speeds are investigated, by applying a 2-parameter whitecap coverage model to the Atlantic Ocean. It is found that the impacts of both current and wave on whitecap coverage are considerable in the most part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is interesting that the effect of wave is more significant than that of current.

  16. A high-resolution ocean and sea-ice modelling system for the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, F.; Higginson, S.; Bourdallé-Badie, R.; Lu, Y; Roy, F.; G. C. Smith; Lemieux, J.-F.; G. Garric; Davidson, F.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the CONCEPTS (Canadian Operational Network of Coupled Environmental PredicTion Systems) initiative, a high-resolution (1/12°) ice–ocean regional model is developed covering the North Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. The long-term objective is to provide Canada with short-term ice–ocean predictions and hazard warnings in ice-infested regions. To evaluate the modelling component (as opposed to the analysis – or data-assimilation – component, which is not covered in t...

  17. Arctic contribution to upper-ocean variability in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E.; Chapman, William L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential climatic leverage of salinity and temperature anomalies in the high-latitude North Atlantic is large. Substantial variations of sea ice have accompanied North Atlantic salinity and temperature anomalies. Atmospheric pressure data are used here to show that the local forcing of high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean fluctuations is augmented by antecedent atmospheric circulation anomalies over the central Arctic. These circulation anomalies are consistent with enhanced wind-forcing of thicker older ice into the Transpolar Drift Stream and an enhanced export of sea ice (fresh water) from the Arctic into the Greenland Sea prior to major episodes of ice severity in the Greenland and Iceland seas.

  18. AMO-like variations of holocene sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental records of the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST show a significant 60–80 year cycle, referred to as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. During AMO warm (cold phases, SST over the entire North Atlantic Ocean is dominated by basin-wide positive (negative anomalies. We analyzed SST variations in the North Atlantic Ocean for the last 10 ka. The long-term and centennial variations of Holocene SST in the North Atlantic demonstrate a basin-wide mode that clearly resembles the AMO signal recorded during the recent instrumental period. The long-term changes of Holocene SST were controlled by the solar insolation related to the orbital variations, and the centennial variations were closely coupled with the intensity of the thermohaline circulation. The spatial extent in the Atlantic realm of temperature anomalies around two specific time intervals, 8.2 ka and during the medieval warm period, also resemble the observed temperature anomalies associated with the AMO. These results demonstrate that the modern AMO, and centennial and longer time scale SST variations during the Holocene share a similar spatial extent in the North Atlantic, and presumably as well physical processes associated with their existence and their far-field teleconnection effects.

  19. The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Schoemann, Veronique; de Jong, Jeroen T. M.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical tra

  20. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark; Beaugrand, G.;

    2009-01-01

    and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain – phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes...... water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong...

  1. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Third Annual Space Coast Super...

  2. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  3. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Atlantic Ocean from ALBATROS and other platforms from 21 July 1965 to 17 February 1988 (NODC Accession 0000409)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Atlantic Ocean from ALBATROS, ARGUS, ATLANT, and other platforms from 21 July 1965 to 17...

  4. Dynamics of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and Southern Ocean in an ocean model of intermediate complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Julian P.; Furue, Ryo; Schloesser, Fabian; Burkhardt, Theodore W.; Nonaka, Masami

    2016-04-01

    A steady-state, variable-density, 2-layer, ocean model (VLOM) is used to investigate basic dynamics of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and Southern Ocean. The domain consists of idealized (rectangular) representations of the Atlantic, Southern, and Pacific Oceans. The model equations represent the depth-averaged, layer-1 response (except for one solution in which they represent the depth-integrated flow over both layers). To allow for overturning, water can cross the bottom of layer 1 at the velocity we =wd +wm +wn , the three parts representing: interior diffusion wd that increases the layer-1 thickness h throughout the basin, mixed-layer entrainment wm that ensures h is never less than a minimum value hm , and diapycnal (cooling) processes external to the basin wn that adjust h to hn . For most solutions, horizontal mixing has the form of Rayleigh damping with coefficient ν , which we interpret to result from baroclinic instability through the closure, V∗ = - (ν /f2) ∇P , where ∇P = ∇(1/2 g‧h2) is the depth-integrated pressure gradient, g‧ is the reduced-gravity coefficient, and ν is a mixing coefficient; with this interpretation, the layer-1 flow corresponds to the sum of the Eulerian-mean and eddy-mean (V∗) transport/widths, that is, the "residual" circulation. Finally, layer-1 temperature cools polewards in response to a surface heat flux Q, and the cooling can be strong enough in the Southern Ocean for g‧ = 0 south of a latitude y0 , in which case layer 1 vanishes and the model reduces to a single layer 2. Solutions are obtained both numerically and analytically. The analytic approach splits fields into interior and boundary-layer parts, from which a coupled set of integral constraints can be derived. The set allows properties of the circulation (upwelling-driven transport out of the Southern Ocean M , downwelling transport in the North Atlantic, transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) and stratification (Atlantic

  5. Riverine transfer of heavy metals from Patagonia to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiero, Diego M.; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pedro J. Depetris; Lelyter, L.; Kempe, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence and geochemical behaviour of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn and Co are studied in riverine detrital materials transported by Patagonian rivers. Their riverine inputs have been estimated and the nature of these inputs to the Atlantic Ocean is discussed. Most of the metals are transported to the ocean via the suspended load; there is evidence that Fe oxides and organic matter are important phases controlling their distribution in the detrital non-residual fraction. Most heavy metal c...

  6. A new starting point for the South and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel; Unternehr, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The opening of the Equatorial and South Atlantic Oceans is still a matter of debate, particularly as concerns the locations of the intraplate deformation. We propose here a critical review of the kinematic models published since Bullard et al., 1965, based on a series of constraints: new interpretation of the magnetic anomalies, seafloor isochrons, flow lines, fracture zones, continental and oceanic homologous structures and radiometric dating of igneous rocks. All of these models present num...

  7. Large-scale impact of Saharan dust on the North Atlantic Ocean circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, N; Martínez Avellaneda, N.; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for a dynamical impact of Saharan mineral dust on the North Atlantic Ocean large-scale circulation is investigated. To this end, an ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric fluxes is perturbed by an idealized, seasonally varying, net shortwave flux anomaly, as it results from remote sensing observations of aerosol optical thickness representing Saharan dust load in the atmosphere. The dust dynamical impact on the circulation is assessed through a comparison between ...

  8. The influence of the ocean and the stratosphere on climate persistence in the North Atlantic region

    OpenAIRE

    Breiteig, Tarjei

    2009-01-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is generally regarded to largely be a product of processes internal to the troposphere. This thesis investigates various aspects of how the NAO and related climatical fields are influenced by two of the tropospheric boundary components; the stratosphere above and the ocean below. The thesis consists of five manuscripts, three considering the role of the stratosphere, and two considering the role of the ocean. Data provided by the NCEP/NCA...

  9. Modeling the water masses of the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, A; Schäfer-Neth, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We produced gridded monthly sea-surface boundary conditions for the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on the sea-surface temperature reconstruction of the GLAMAP project. We used an ocean general circulation model (OGCM), subject to these sea-surface boundary conditions and a corresponding wind stress field from an atmospheric general circulation model, to study the differences in the distribution of the main water masses between the LGM and the present. Our global OGCM i...

  10. The Kane fracture zone in the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, G.M.; Rabinowitz, P.D.; Velterop, J.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Kane fracture zone has been traced as a distinct topographic trough from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 24°N to the 80-m.y. B.P. isochron (magnetic anomaly 34) on either side of the ridge axis for a total of approximately 2800 km. Major changes in trend of the fracture zone occur at approximately 7

  11. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.;

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  12. Impacts of Indian and Atlantic oceans on ENSO in a comprehensive modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien; Prodhomme, Chloé; Roxy, Mathew Koll; Sooraj, K. P.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of the Indian and Atlantic oceans variability on El Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is investigated through sensitivity experiments with the SINTEX-F2 coupled model. For each experiment, we suppressed the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in either the Indian or Atlantic oceans by applying a strong nudging of the SST toward a SST climatology computed either from a control experiment or observations. In the sensitivity experiments where the nudging is done toward a control SST climatology, the Pacific mean state and seasonal cycle are not changed. Conversely, nudging toward an observed SST climatology in the Indian or Atlantic domain significantly improves the mean state and seasonal cycle, not only in the nudged domain, but also in the whole tropics. These experiments also demonstrate that decoupling the Indian or Atlantic variability modifies the phase-locking of ENSO to the annual cycle, influences significantly the timing and processes of ENSO onset and termination stages, and, finally, shifts to lower frequencies the main ENSO periodicities. Overall, these results suggest that both the Indian and Atlantic SSTs have a significant damping effect on ENSO variability and promote a shorter ENSO cycle. The reduction of ENSO amplitude is particularly significant when the Indian Ocean is decoupled, but the shift of ENSO to lower frequencies is more pronounced in the Atlantic decoupled experiments. These changes of ENSO statistical properties are related to stronger Bjerknes and thermocline feedbacks in the nudged experiments. During the mature phase of El Niño events, warm SST anomalies are found over the Indian and Atlantic oceans in observations or the control run. Consistent with previous studies, the nudged experiments demonstrate that these warm SSTs induce easterly surface wind anomalies over the far western equatorial Pacific, which fasten the transition from El Niño to La Niña and promote a shorter ENSO cycle in the control

  13. Rosacea flaccida n. sp., a new species of siphonophore (Calycophorae Prayinae) from the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, D.C.; Pugh, P.R.; Carré, C.

    1978-01-01

    Rosacea flaccida, a new prayine siphonophore, is described from specimens collected by SCUBA divers in the upper 30m of the subtropical and temperate North Atlantic Ocean. The new species has stoutly cylindrical, flaccid nectophores and delicate flattened bracts. The nectophores are morphologically

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Culturable Marine Chroococcalean Cyanobacterium from the South Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Rigonato, Janaina; Alvarenga, Danillo O.; Branco, Luis H. Z.; Varani, Alessandro M.; Brandini, Frederico P.; Fiore, Marli F.

    2015-01-01

    The novel chroococcalean cyanobacterium strain CENA595 was isolated from the deep chlorophyll maximum layer of the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 60 contigs containing a total of 5,265,703 bp and 3,276 putative protein-coding genes.

  15. Draft genome sequence of a novel culturable marine chroococcalean cyanobacterium from the South atlantic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonato, Janaina; Alvarenga, Danillo O; Branco, Luis H Z; Varani, Alessandro M; Brandini, Frederico P; Fiore, Marli F

    2015-01-01

    The novel chroococcalean cyanobacterium strain CENA595 was isolated from the deep chlorophyll maximum layer of the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 60 contigs containing a total of 5,265,703 bp and 3,276 putative protein-coding genes. PMID:25908150

  16. Physical and remineralization processes govern the cobalt distribution in the deep western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulaquais, G.; Boye, M.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Carton, X.

    2014-01-01

    The distributions of the bio-essential trace element dissolved cobalt (DCo) and the apparent particulate Co (PCo) are presented along the GEOTRACES-A02 deep section from 64(o) N to 50(o) S in the western Atlantic Ocean (longest section of international GEOTRACES marine environment program). PCo was

  17. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckel, B.; Baumann, K.-H.; Henrich, R.;

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the coccolith compositions of 213 surface sediment samples from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean were analysed with respect to the environmental parameters of the overlying surface waters. From this data set, the abundance patterns of the main species and their ecological affi...

  18. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...

  19. 76 FR 62692 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Virginia; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Inlet, Virginia; Danger Zone AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense... proposing to amend an existing permanent danger zone in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island... amendment would increase the danger zone to a 30 nautical mile sector. DATES: Written comments must...

  20. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south.

  1. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ..., Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from the..., Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones: All navigable waters of the United...

  2. 75 FR 19356 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Framework...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... (VMS) and to obtain fishery-dependent data to monitor, evaluate, and enforce fishery regulations. Framework Adjustment 1 (FW1) to the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP contains a VMS requirement for... access Maine mahogany quahog vessels. VMS was identified as a need in this fishery to (1) Eliminate...

  3. 75 FR 20980 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Framework...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Monitoring System (VMS) and to obtain fishery-dependent data to monitor, evaluate, and enforce fishery regulations. Framework Adjustment 1 (FW1) to the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP contains a VMS... and limited access Maine mahogany quahog vessels. VMS was identified as a need in this fishery to...

  4. Transport of Antarctic bottom water through the Kane Gap, tropical NE Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozov, E.G.; Tarakanov, R.Y.; van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using th

  5. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... near Port Everglades, Fla. (a) The area. Beginning at a point located at latitude 26°05′30″...

  6. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  7. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters...

  8. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  9. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the...

  10. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean - Potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size dis

  11. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean-potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size dis

  12. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo Cárdenas, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the lionfish (Pterois sp.) invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean has been socially constructed by natural scientists, the media, and stakeholders associated with various marine protected areas in the Caribbean. By examining the use of data and metaphors by these actors,

  13. Arctic and N Atlantic Crustal Thickness and Oceanic Lithosphere Distribution from Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy

    2014-05-01

    The ocean basins of the Arctic and N. Atlantic formed during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as a series of distinct ocean basins, both small and large, leading to a complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust and rifted continental margins. The plate tectonic framework of this region was demonstrated by the pioneering work of Peter Ziegler in AAPG Memoir 43 " Evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic and the Western Tethys" published in 1988. The spatial evolution of Arctic Ocean and N Atlantic ocean basin geometry and bathymetry are critical not only for hydrocarbon exploration but also for understanding regional palaeo-oceanography and ocean gateway connectivity, and its influence on global climate. Mapping crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution represents a substantial challenge for the Polar Regions. Using gravity anomaly inversion we have produced comprehensive maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for the Arctic and N Atlantic region, We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Gravity anomaly and bathymetry data used in the gravity inversion are from the NGA (U) Arctic Gravity Project and IBCAO respectively; sediment thickness is from a new regional compilation. The resulting maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor are used to determine continent-ocean boundary location and the distribution of oceanic lithosphere. Crustal cross-sections using Moho depth from the gravity inversion allow continent-ocean transition structure to be determined and magmatic type (magma poor, "normal" or magma rich). Our gravity inversion predicts thin crust and high continental lithosphere thinning factors in the Eurasia, Canada, Makarov, Podvodnikov and Baffin Basins

  14. Future change in ocean productivity: Is the Arctic the new Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most characteristic features in ocean productivity is the North Atlantic spring bloom. Responding to seasonal increases in irradiance and stratification, surface phytopopulations rise significantly, a pattern that visibly tracks poleward into summer. While blooms also occur in the Arctic Ocean, they are constrained by the sea-ice and strong vertical stratification that characterize this region. However, Arctic sea-ice is currently declining, and forecasts suggest this may lead to completely ice-free summers by the mid-21st century. Such change may open the Arctic up to Atlantic-style spring blooms, and do so at the same time as Atlantic productivity is threatened by climate change-driven ocean stratification. Here we use low and high-resolution instances of a coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, NEMO-MEDUSA, to investigate productivity. Drivers of present-day patterns are identified, and changes in these across a climate change scenario (IPCC RCP 8.5) are analyzed. We find a globally significant decline in North Atlantic productivity (> -20%) by 2100, and a correspondingly significant rise in the Arctic (> +50%). However, rather than the future Arctic coming to resemble the current Atlantic, both regions are instead transitioning to a common, low nutrient regime. The North Pacific provides a counterexample where nutrients remain high and productivity increases with elevated temperature. These responses to climate change in the Atlantic and Arctic are common between model resolutions, suggesting an independence from resolution for key impacts. However, some responses, such as those in the North Pacific, differ between the simulations, suggesting the reverse and supporting the drive to more fine-scale resolutions. This article was corrected on 5 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  15. Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into subtropical mode water (STMW of the North Atlantic. STMW forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg−1 yr−1 between 1988 and 2011, but also an increase in ocean acidification indicators such as pH at rates (−0.0022 ± 0.0002 yr−1 higher than the surface ocean (Bates et al., 2012. It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C between 1988 and 2011 (70 ± 1.8% of which is due to uptake of Cant. The sink of CO2 into the STMW is 20% of the CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic Ocean between 14°–50° N (Takahashi et al., 2009. However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s during a predominantly NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

  16. The Atlantic Ocean at the last glacial maximum: 2. Reconstructing the current systems with a global ocean model

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, A; Schäfer-Neth, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We use a global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with low vertical diffusion and isopycnal mixing to simulate the circulation in the Atlantic Ocean at present-day and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The OGCM includes d18O as a passive tracer. Regarding the LGM sea-surface boundary conditions, the temperature is based on the GLAMAP reconstruction, the salinity is estimated from the available d18O data, and the wind-stress is derived from the output of an atmospheric general circulation m...

  17. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the HUNT from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 25 April to 23 June 1973 (NODC Accession 7700552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using SDT/CDT casts from HUNT in the Atlantic Ocean from April 25, 1973 to June 23, 1973. Data were submitted...

  18. Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, David C

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ≥ 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ≥ 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic

  19. Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic Ocean and atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, H; Walter, K.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of the North Atlantic leading atmospheric winter variability mode strongly depends on the state of the polar stratospheric vortex. If the polar vortex is strong, one teleconnection pattern emerges in the upper troposphere, while two mostly independent ones appear when the vortex is weak. The anomaly patterns associated with the different polarities of these modes show strong differences in the wind fields and in the correlation of atmospheric variability with the sea surface tem...

  20. Tropical Atlantic climate response to different freshwater input in high latitudes with an ocean-only general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Guang; Wan, Xiuquan; Liu, Zedong

    2016-10-01

    Tropical Atlantic climate change is relevant to the variation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) through different physical processes. Previous coupled climate model simulation suggested a dipole-like SST structure cooling over the North Atlantic and warming over the South Tropical Atlantic in response to the slowdown of the AMOC. Using an ocean-only global ocean model here, an attempt was made to separate the total influence of various AMOC change scenarios into an oceanic-induced component and an atmospheric-induced component. In contrast with previous freshwater-hosing experiments with coupled climate models, the ocean-only modeling presented here shows a surface warming in the whole tropical Atlantic region and the oceanic-induced processes may play an important role in the SST change in the equatorial south Atlantic. Our result shows that the warming is partly governed by oceanic process through the mechanism of oceanic gateway change, which operates in the regime where freshwater forcing is strong, exceeding 0.3 Sv. Strong AMOC change is required for the gateway mechanism to work in our model because only when the AMOC is sufficiently weak, the North Brazil Undercurrent can flow equatorward, carrying warm and salty north Atlantic subtropical gyre water into the equatorial zone. This threshold is likely to be model-dependent. An improved understanding of these issues may have help with abrupt climate change prediction later.

  1. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael Møller; Maas, Gregory E.;

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North...... to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical–biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels....... America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently...

  2. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2. PMID:26262815

  3. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2.

  4. Consistency of cruise data of the CARINA database in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hoppema

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Initially a North Atlantic project, the CARINA carbon synthesis was extended to include the Southern Ocean. Carbon and relevant hydrographic and geochemical ancillary data from cruises all across the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean were released to the public and merged into a new database as part of the CARINA synthesis effort. Of a total of 188 cruises, 37 cruises are part of the Southern Ocean, including 11 from the Atlantic sector. The variables from all Southern Ocean cruises, including dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2, total alkalinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate, were examined for cruise-to-cruise consistency in one collective effort. Seawater pH and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs are also part of the database, but the pH quality control (QC is described in another Earth System Science Data publication, while the complexity of the Southern Ocean physics and biogeochemistry prevented a proper QC analysis of the CFCs. The area-specific procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data (i.e. secondary QC, are briefly described here for the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Data from an existing, quality controlled database (GLODAP were used as a reference for our computations – however, the reference data were included into the analysis without applying the recommended GLODAP adjustments so the corrections could be independently verified. The outcome of this effort is an internally consistent, high-quality carbon data set for all cruises, including the reference cruises. The suggested corrections by the inversion analysis were allowed to vary within a fixed envelope, thus accounting for natural variability. The percentage of cruises adjusted ranged from 31% (for nitrate to 54% (for phosphate depending on the variable.

  5. Observational description of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers over the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dourado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Time evolution of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers are described for an upwelling region in the Atlantic Ocean located in Cabo Frio, Brazil (23°00'S, 42°08'W. The observations were obtained during a field campaign carried out by the "Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira", on board of the oceanographic ship Antares of the Brazilian Navy, between July 7 and 10 of 1992. The analysis shown here was based on 19 simultaneous vertical soundings of atmosphere and ocean, carried out consecutively every 4 hours. The period of observation was characterized by a passage of a cold front that penetrated in Cabo Frio on July 6. During the cold front passage the vertical extension of atmospheric (and oceanic mixed layer varied from 200 m (and 13 m to 1000 m (and 59 m. These changes occurred in the first day of observation and were followed by an increase of 1.2°C in the oceanic mixed layer temperature and by a decrease of 6 K and 6 g/kg in the virtual potential temperature and specific humidity of the atmospheric mixed layer. The short time scale variations in the ocean can be explained in terms of the substitution of cold upwelling water by warm downwelling water regime, as the surface winds shift from pre-frontal NE to post-frontal SSW during the cold front passage in Cabo Frio. The large vertical extent of the atmospheric mixed layer can be explained in terms of an intensification of the thermal mixing induced by the warming of the oceanic upper layers combined with the cooling of the lower atmospheric layers during the cold front passage. An intensification of the mechanical mixing, observed during the cold front passage, may also be contributing to the observed variations in the vertical extent of both layers.A evolução temporal das camadas limites atmosféricas e oceânicas são descritas para a região de ressurgência do Oceano Atlântico localizada em Cabo Frio. As observações foram obtidas durante a campanha de medidas

  6. Some hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, D.R.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    An account is given of some hydroids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, collected during dives of submersibles "Nautile" (operated by IFREMER, France) and "Alvin" (operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S.A). The specimens came from three main sectors of the ridge: 15 species from localities

  7. Variability of Atlantic Ocean heat transport and its effects on the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Sutton

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the Atlantic meridional Ocean Heat Transport (OHT has been diagnosed from a simulation of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model, and the mechanisms responsible for this variability have been elucidated. It has been demonstrated that the interannual variability in Atlantic OHT is dominated by windstress-driven Ekman fluctuations. In contrast, the decadal and multidecadal variability is associated with the fluctuations of the Thermohaline Circulation (THC, driven by the fluctuations in deep convection over the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN Sea. The fluctuations of OHT induce Ocean Heat Content (OHC, and Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. The SST anomalies, in turn, have an impact on the atmosphere. The lead-lag relationships between the fluctuations of THC-related OHT and those of OHC and SST raise the possibility that a knowledge of OHT fluctuations could be used to predict variations in Atlantic Sea surface temperatures, and perhaps aspects of climate, several years in advance. A comparison of results from a second, independent, coupled model simulation is also presented, and similar conclusions reached.

  8. Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into the subtropical mode water (STMW that forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg−1 yr−1 between 1988 and 2011. It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C between 1988 and 2011 (~70 % of which is due to uptake of Cant. However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s (NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

  9. Interhemispheric Changes in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content and Their Link to Global Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, H.; Lee, S. K.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. The effect of eddies on the NH (SH) poleward of 30° is opposite with heat flux divergence (convergence), which must be balanced by sinking (rising) motion, consistent with a poleward (equatorward) displacement of the jet stream and mean storm track. The mechanism described here could easily be interpreted for the case of strong SAMHT, with the reverse influence on the interhemispheric atmospheric circulation and monsoons. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  10. Bacterial diversity and biogeography in deep-sea sediments of the South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Bienhold, Christina; Ramette, Alban;

    2010-01-01

    communities in three basins of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean to determine diversity and biogeography of bacterial communities in deep-sea surface sediments. The analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries in each basin revealed a high diversity, representing 521 phylotypes with 98% identity......Microbial biogeographic patterns in the deep sea depend on the ability of microorganisms to disperse. One possible limitation to microbial dispersal may be the Walvis Ridge that separates the Antarctic Lower Circumpolar Deep Water from the North Atlantic Deep Water. We examined bacterial...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1991-07-11 to 1991-09-02 (NODC Accession 0115225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115225 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2010-08-06 (NODC Accession 0114477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114477 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  13. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766

  14. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, Shane; Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-06-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766

  15. High connectivity of the crocodile shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: highlights for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes da Silva Ferrette

    Full Text Available Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai.

  16. Wintertime atmospheric response to Atlantic multidecadal variability: effect of stratospheric representation and ocean-atmosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peings, Yannick; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-08-01

    The impact of the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) on the wintertime atmosphere circulation is investigated using three different configurations of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). Realistic SST and sea ice anomalies associated with the AMV in observations are prescribed in CAM5 (low-top model) and WACCM5 (high-top model) to assess the dependence of the results on the representation of the stratosphere. In a third experiment, the role of ocean-atmosphere feedback is investigated by coupling CAM5 to a slab-ocean model in which the AMV forcing is prescribed through oceanic heat flux anomalies. The three experiments give consistent results concerning the response of the NAO in winter, with a negative NAO signal in response to a warming of the North Atlantic ocean. This response is found in early winter when the high-top model is used, and in late winter with the low-top model. With the slab-ocean, the negative NAO response is more persistent in winter and shifted eastward over the continent due to the damping of the atmospheric response over the North Atlantic ocean. Additional experiments suggest that both tropical and extratropical SST anomalies are needed to obtain a significant modulation of the NAO, with small influence of sea ice anomalies. Warm tropical SST anomalies induce a northward shift of the ITCZ and a Rossby-wave response that is reinforced in the mid-latitudes by the extratropical SST anomalies through eddy-mean flow interactions. This modeling study supports that the positive phase of the AMV promotes the negative NAO in winter, while illustrating the impacts of the stratosphere and of the ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in the spatial pattern and timing of this response.

  17. Changes in column inventories of carbon and oxygen in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in the interior ocean are expected as a direct consequence of increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. This extra DIC is often referred to as anthropogenic carbon (Cant, and its inventory, or increase rate, in the interior ocean has previously been estimated by a multitude of observational approaches. Each of these methods is associated with hard to test assumptions since Cant cannot be directly observed. Results from a simpler concept with fewer assumptions applied to the Atlantic Ocean are reported on here using two large data collections of carbon relevant bottle data. The change in column inventory on decadal time scales, i.e. the storage rate, of DIC, respiration compensated DIC and oxygen is calculated for the Atlantic Ocean. We report storage rates and the confidence intervals of the mean trend at the 95% level (CI, reflecting the mean trend but not considering potential biasing effects of the spatial and temporal sampling. For the whole Atlantic Ocean the mean trends for DIC and oxygen are non-zero at the 95% confidence level: DIC: 0.86 (CI: 0.72–1.00 and oxygen: −0.24 (CI: −0.41–(−0.07 mol m−2 yr−1. For oxygen, the whole Atlantic trend is dominated by the subpolar North Atlantic, whereas for other regions the O2 trends are not significant. The storage rates are similar to changes found by other studies, although with large uncertainty. For the subpolar North Atlantic the storage rates show significant temporal and regional variation of all variables. This seems to be due to variations in the prevalence of subsurface water masses with different DIC and oxygen concentrations leading to sometimes different signs of storage rates for DIC compared to published Cant estimates. This study suggest that accurate assessment of the uptake of CO2 by the oceans will require

  18. Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises

    CERN Document Server

    van Hulten, Marco; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Gehlen, Marion; de Baar, Hein J W; Middag, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A model of aluminium has been developed and implemented in an Ocean General Circulation Model (NEMO-PISCES). In the model, aluminium enters the ocean by means of dust deposition. The internal oceanic processes are described by advection, mixing and reversible scavenging. The model has been evaluated against a number of selected high-quality datasets covering much of the world ocean, especially those from the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises of 2010 and 2011. Generally, the model results are in fair agreement with the observations. However, the model does not describe well the vertical distribution of dissolved Al in the North Atlantic Ocean. The model may require changes in the physical forcing and the vertical dependency of the sinking velocity of biogenic silica to account for other discrepancies. To explore the model behaviour, sensitivity experiments have been performed, in which we changed the key parameters of the scavenging process as well as the input of aluminium into the ocean. This resulted in a bet...

  19. Decadal variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface Temperature in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal variability but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale variability in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of variability in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. The second type of variability is considerably weaker than the first. As in the GOSTA time series, the multidecadal variability in the GFDL SST time series has approximately opposite phases between the tropical North and South Atlantic Oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies revealed a north-south bipolar pattern as the dominant pattern of decadal variability. It is suggested that the bipolar pattern can be interpreted as decadal variability of the interhemispheric gradient of SST anomalies. The decadal and multidecadal timescale variability of the tropical Atlantic SST, both in the actual and in the GFDL model, stands out significantly above the background 'red noise' and is coherent within each of the time series, suggesting that specific sets of

  20. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected from various platforms in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans from 1961-1964 (NODC Accession 0001903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ARGUS in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected...

  1. Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a broad resolution of the Atlantic Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

  2. The reproductive cycle of Sardinella aurita in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean of Northwest Africa. Progress Report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantingh, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    This progress report describes the reproduction patterns of Sardinella aurita in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean off Northwest Africa. Data have been obtained by biological sampling of the catches of the industrial and artisanal fleet.

  3. Inputs of iron, manganese and aluminium to surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the European continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jeroen T.M. de; Boyé, Marie; Gelado-Caballero, Maria D.; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Veldhuis, Marcel J.W.; Nolting, Rob F.; Berg, Constant M.G. van den; Baar, Hein J.W. de

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved Fe, Mn and Al concentrations (dFe, dMn and dAl hereafter) in surface waters and the water column of the Northeast Atlantic and the European continental shelf are reported. Following an episode of enhanced Saharan dust inputs over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean prior and during the cruise in

  4. Latitudinal distribution of Trichodesmium spp. and N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marañón

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the latitudinal distribution of Trichodesmium spp. abundance and community N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean along a meridional transect from ca. 30° N to 30° S in November–December 2007 and April–May 2008. The observations from both cruises were highly consistent in terms of absolute magnitude and latitudinal distribution, showing a strong association between Trichodesmium abundance and community N2 fixation. The highest Trichodesmium abundances (mean = 220 trichomes L−1, and community N2 fixation rates (mean = 60 μmol m−2 d−1 occurred in the Equatorial region between 5° S–15° N. In the South Atlantic gyre, Trichodesmium abundance was very low (ca. 1 trichome L−1 but N2 fixation was always measurable, averaging 3 and 10 μmol m2 d−1 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. We suggest that N2 fixation in the South Atlantic was sustained by other, presumably unicellular, diazotrophs. Comparing these distributions with the geographical pattern in atmospheric dust deposition points to iron supply as the main factor determining the large scale latitudinal variability of Trichodesmium spp. abundance and N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean. We observed a marked South to North decrease in surface phosphate concentration, which argues against a role for phosphorus availability in controlling the large scale distribution of N2 fixation. Scaling up from all our measurements (42 stations results in conservative estimates for total N2 fixation of ∼6 TgN yr−1 in the North Atlantic (0–40° N and ~1.2 TgN yr−1 in the South Atlantic (0–40° S.

  5. Latitudinal distribution of Trichodesmium spp. and N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marañón

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the latitudinal distribution of Trichodesmium spp. abundance and community N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean along a meridional transect from ca. 30° N to 30° S in November–December 2007 and April–May 2008. The observations from both cruises were highly consistent in terms of absolute magnitude and latitudinal distribution, showing a strong association between Trichodesmium abundance and community N2 fixation. The highest Trichodesmium abundances (mean = 220 trichomes L−1 and community N2 fixation rates (mean = 60 μmol m−2 d−1 occurred in the Equatorial region between 5° S–15° N. In the South Atlantic gyre, Trichodesmium abundance was very low (ca. 1 trichome L−1 but N2 fixation was always measurable, averaging 3 and 10 μmol m2 d−1 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. We suggest that N2 fixation in the South Atlantic was sustained by other, presumably unicellular, diazotrophs. Comparing these distributions with the geographical pattern in atmospheric dust deposition points to iron supply as the main factor determining the large scale latitudinal variability of Trichodesmium spp. abundance and N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean. We observed a marked South to North decrease in surface phosphate concentration, which argues against a role for phosphorus availability in controlling the large scale distribution of N2 fixation. Scaling up from all our measurements (42 stations results in conservative estimates for total N2 fixation of ~6 TgN yr−1 in the North Atlantic (0–40° N and 1.2 TgN yr−1 in the South Atlantic (0–40° S.

  6. Dissolved manganese in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, R.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.; Cai, P. H.; van Ooijen, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive dataset (492 samples) of dissolved Mn in the Southern Ocean shows extremely low values of 0.04 up to 0.64 nM in the surface waters and a subsurface maximum with an average concentration of 0.31 nM (n=20; S.D.=0.08 nM). The low Mn in surface waters correlates well with the nut

  7. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. PMID:27020803

  8. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-03 to 2012-04-18 (NCEI Accession 0138036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138036 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  9. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1202 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-23 to 2012-02-08 (NCEI Accession 0130703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130703 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1202 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0903 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2009-05-13 (NODC Accession 0089624)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089624 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0903 in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  11. Emerging impact of Greenland meltwater on deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Claus W.; Behrens, Erik; Biastoch, Arne; Getzlaff, Klaus; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2016-07-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has experienced increasing mass loss since the 1990s. The enhanced freshwater flux due to both surface melt and outlet glacier discharge is assuming an increasingly important role in the changing freshwater budget of the subarctic Atlantic. The sustained and increasing freshwater fluxes from Greenland to the surface ocean could lead to a suppression of deep winter convection in the Labrador Sea, with potential ramifications for the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Here we assess the impact of the increases in the freshwater fluxes, reconstructed with full spatial resolution, using a global ocean circulation model with a grid spacing fine enough to capture the small-scale, eddying transport processes in the subpolar North Atlantic. Our simulations suggest that the invasion of meltwater from the West Greenland shelf has initiated a gradual freshening trend at the surface of the Labrador Sea. Although the freshening is still smaller than the variability associated with the episodic `great salinity anomalies', the accumulation of meltwater may become large enough to progressively dampen the deep winter convection in the coming years. We conclude that the freshwater anomaly has not yet had a significant impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  12. Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 European heat wave

    OpenAIRE

    Duchez, Aurélie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Josey, Simon A; Evans, Dafydd G.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert; McCarthy, Gerard D.; Sinha, Bablu; Berry, David I.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    The North Atlantic and Europe experienced two extreme climate events in 2015: exceptionally cold ocean surface temperatures and a summer heat wave ranked in the top ten over the past 65 years. Here, we show that the cold ocean temperatures were the most extreme in the modern record over much of the mid-high latitude North-East Atlantic. Further, by considering surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling we explain for the first time the genesis of this cold ocean anomaly. ...

  13. Isotopic evidence for biogenic molecular hydrogen production in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; B. Fiedler; P. Fietzek; J. Kaiser; Krol, M.; POPA M. E.; Chen, Q.; Tanhua, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere. The production of marine H2 is assumed to be mainly biological by N2 fixation, but photochemical pathways are also discussed. We present measurements of mole fraction and isotopic composition of dissolved and atmospheric H2 from the southern and northern Atlantic between 2008 and 2010. In total almost 400 samples were taken during five cruises along a transect between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (...

  14. Calibration of the Tide Gauge at King Edward Point, South Georgia Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Teferle, Felix Norman; Hunegnaw, Addisu; Woodworth, P. L.; Foden, Peter R.; S. D. P. Williams; Pugh, Jeffrey; Hibbert, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new pressure tide gauge with Global Sea Level Observing System Number 187 was installed at King Edward Point (KEP), South Georgia Island, South Atlantic Ocean. This installation was carried out as part of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Levels by Altimetry and Island Measurements (ACCLAIM) programme. In 2013 the KEP Geodetic Observatory was established in support of various scientific applications including the monitoring of vertical land movements at KEP. Currently, the observato...

  15. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Eira C. Carballo-Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the lionfish (Pterois sp.) invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean has been socially constructed by natural scientists, the media, and stakeholders associated with various marine protected areas in the Caribbean. By examining the use of data and metaphors by these actors, I identify where invasion discourses converge and diverge. Although consensus exists regarding the non-nativeness, introduction vector, and successful establishment of lionfish throughout the regio...

  16. Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coe, Allison; Kettler, Gregory Carl; Martiny, Adam C.; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Zinser, Erik R.; Chisholm, Sallie

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes—two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted—over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programs. Ecotype abundance displayed weak seasonal fluctuations at HOT and strong seasonal fluctuations at BATS. F...

  17. Impact of the Arctic Ocean Atlantic water layer on Siberian shelf hydrography

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Tremblay, L. Bruno; Bauch, Dorothea; Hölemann, Jens A.; Krumpen, Thomas; Kassens, Heidemarie; Wegner, Carolyn; Heinemann, Günther; Schröder, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the Arctic Ocean Atlantic water (AW) in modifying the Laptev Sea shelf bottom hydrography on the basis of historical records from 1932 to 2008, field observations carried out in April–May 2008, and 2002–2009 cross‐slope measurements. A climatology of bottom hydrography demonstrates warming that extends offshore from the 30–50 m depth contour. Bottom layer temperature‐time series constructed from historical records links the Laptev Sea outer shelf...

  18. Alternate sites for a connecting passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Samuel Jose

    1990-01-01

    CIVINS Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a geotechnical engineering report which includes a topographical profile at three propitious locations across the American continent for the construction of an interoceanic passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Surficial soils as well as the general topography of the centerline of the alignments were investigated to the extent possible and an attempt was made to investigate underlying strata. Some i...

  19. The impact generated on Sea Turtles by Fisheries in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, A.; Bugoni, L.; Prosdocimi, L.; Miller, P.; Laporta, M; Monteiro, D.; Estrades, A.; Albareda, D.

    2006-01-01

    This document, which is directed at the fishing sector, researchers, conservationists and fishery administrators, was developed by researchers who are members of the Specialists Group for Marine Turtle Research and conservation in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWA) in response to the urgent need to evaluate the impact generated on sea turtles by fisheries. Historically, sea turtle conservation efforts have focused almost exclusively on the protection of nesting beaches. Neverthele...

  20. Plate tectonic reconstructions and paleogeographic maps of the central and North Atlantic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Rouzo, Stephane; Srivastava, Shiri

    2012-01-01

    We have established a new plate kinematic model of the central and North Atlantic oceans between North America, Africa, Meseta, Iberia, Flemish Cap, and Galicia Bank from Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous to better understand the nature and timing of rifting of Nova Scotia and Morocco conjugate continental margins since Late Triassic. The maps of salt distributions at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian limit (190 Ma; after salt deposition) and in middle Bajocian (170 Ma) show that an area of the Nov...

  1. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Yi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters for both 127I and 129I. Despite the rather constant ratios of 127I−/127IO3−, the 129I−/129IO3− values reveal variations that apparently response to sources, environmental conditions and residence time. These findings provide a new tracer approach that will strongly enhance the application of anthropogenic 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer. PMID:24284916

  2. Temperature-dependence of planktonic metabolism in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. García-Corral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of planktonic metabolism in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean was assessed on the basis of measurements of gross primary production (GPP, community respiration (CR and net community production (NCP, as well as experimental assessments of the response of CR to temperature manipulations. Metabolic rates were measured at 68 stations along three consecutive longitudinal transects completed during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition, in three different seasons. Temperatures gradients were observed in depth and at basin and seasonal scale. The results showed seasonal variability in the metabolic rates, being the highest rates observed during the spring transect. The overall mean integrated GPP/CR ratio was of 1.39 ± 0.27 decreasing from winter to summer and the NCP for the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during this cruises, was net autotrophy (NCP > 0 in about two-thirds of the total sampled communities (68.2%. Here, we reported the activation energies describing the temperature-dependence of planktonic community metabolism, which generally was higher for CR than for GPP in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, as the metabolic theory of ecology predicts. Also, we performed an assessment of the activation energies describing the responses to in situ temperature at field (EaCR = 1.64 ± 0.36 eV and those derive experimentally by temperature manipulations (EaCR = 1.45 ± 0.6 eV, which showed a great consistency.

  3. Atlantic and Pacific Ocean synergistic forcing of the Mesomerican monsoon over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Bernal, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new replicated, high resolution (~2 yrs) and precisely-dated (± 4 yr) wet season hydroclimate reconstruction for the Mesoamerican sector of the North American Monsoon over the past 2250 years. Our new reconstruction is based on two aragonite stalagmites from southwestern Mexico which replicate oxygen isotope variations over the 950-1950 CE interval, and are calibrated to instrumental rainfall variations in the Basin of Mexico. Such data complement existing dendroclimatic reconstructions of early wet season and winter drought severity. Comparisons to indices of ocean-atmosphere circulation show a combined forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monsoon strengthening coincided with synergistic forcing of a La Niña-like mode and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and vice versa for droughts. Although drought is commonly invoked as an stressor leading to societal change, the role of intensified monsoon onto cultural development is rarely explored. We observe that prominent transitions from drought to pluvial conditions are associated with population increases in three of the major highland Mexico civilizations of Teotihuacan, Tula Grande, and the Aztecs. These data suggest a role for ocean-atmosphere dynamics arising from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans on Mesoamerican monsoon strength.

  4. Identification of an assembly site for migratory and tropical seabirds in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. John Hughes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds are good indicators of wider biodiversity and where they assemble in large numbers signifies sites important to many marine faunal species. Few such large assemblage sites have been identified and none in pelagic waters has been identified in the tropical Atlantic Ocean despite their importance for resident seabirds and those ‘on passage’ during migration. Here, we identify the likely location of just such an assembly site and provide preliminary information about the distribution of pelagic seabirds around Ascension Island in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean using a combination of trans-equatorial seabird migrant tracking data, records of at-sea surveys and land counts of seabirds returning from foraging trips. We found that waters north–north-west of Ascension Island are used more often by seabirds than those south and east of the island. Three-fifths of the species recorded in the assembly site breed at mid- or high-latitudes and some of these migratory seabirds stopover possibly to wait for favourable winds that facilitate onward flight. Our findings are important because to the best of our knowledge no seabird assembly sites have previously been identified in tropical Atlantic Ocean pelagic waters. We provide evidence to support the aspirations of the Marine Reserves Coalition that waters in the vicinity of Ascension Island should be recognised as a sanctuary for marine wildlife and we highlight an area that is worthy of further targeted investigation.

  5. Population structure of Squatina guggenheim (Squatiniformes, Squatinidae) from the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G; Pereyra, S; Gutierrez, V; Oviedo, S; Miller, P; Domingo, A

    2015-01-01

    Population genetic analyses based on both mitochondrial cytochrome b and the internal transcribed spacer 2 of recombinant (r)DNA genes were implemented to examine hypotheses of population differentiation in the angular angel shark Squatina guggenheim, one of the four most-widespread endemic species inhabiting coastal ecosystems in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. A total of 82 individuals of S. guggenheim from 10 sampling sites throughout the Río de la Plata mouth, its maritime front, the outer shelf at the subtropical confluence and the coastal areas of the south-west Atlantic Ocean, were included. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) region supports that the samples from the outer shelf represent an isolated group from other sites. Historical gene flow in a coalescent-based approach revealed significant immigration and emigration asymmetry between sampling sites. Based on the low level of genetic diversity, the existence of a long-term population decline or a past recent population expansion following a population bottleneck could be proposed in S. guggenheim. This demographic differentiation suggests a degree of vulnerability to overexploitation in this endemic and endangered south-west Atlantic Ocean shark, given its longevity and low reproductive potential. PMID:25424738

  6. C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Baer, S. E.; Riebesell, U.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, in addition to other macro- and micronutrients, determine the strength of the ocean's carbon (C) uptake, and variation in the N : P ratio of inorganic nutrient pools is key to phytoplankton growth. A similarity between C : N : P ratios in the plankton biomass and deep-water nutrients was observed by Alfred C. Redfield around 80 years ago and suggested that biological processes in the surface ocean controlled deep-ocean chemistry. Recent studies have emphasized the role of inorganic N : P ratios in governing biogeochemical processes, particularly the C : N : P ratio in suspended particulate organic matter (POM), with somewhat less attention given to exported POM and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Herein, we extend the discussion on ecosystem C : N : P stoichiometry but also examine temporal variation in stoichiometric relationships. We have analyzed elemental stoichiometry in the suspended POM and total (POM + DOM) organic-matter (TOM) pools in the upper 100 m and in the exported POM and subeuphotic zone (100-500 m) inorganic nutrient pools from the monthly data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site located in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean. C : N and N : P ratios in TOM were at least twice those in the POM, while C : P ratios were up to 5 times higher in TOM compared to those in the POM. Observed C : N ratios in suspended POM were approximately equal to the canonical Redfield ratio (C : N : P = 106 : 16 : 1), while N : P and C : P ratios in the same pool were more than twice the Redfield ratio. Average N : P ratios in the subsurface inorganic nutrient pool were ~ 26 : 1, squarely between the suspended POM ratio and the Redfield ratio. We have further linked variation in elemental stoichiometry to that of phytoplankton cell abundance observed at the BATS site. Findings from this study suggest that elemental ratios vary with depth in the euphotic zone, mainly due to different

  7. C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P availability determine the strength of the ocean's carbon (C uptake, and variation in the N : P ratio in inorganic nutrients is key to phytoplankton growth. A similarity between C : N : P ratios in the plankton biomass and deep-water nutrients was observed by Alfred C. Redfield around 80 years ago and suggested that biological processes in the surface ocean controlled deep ocean chemistry. Recent studies have emphasized the role of inorganic N : P ratios in governing biogeochemical processes, particularly the C : N : P ratio in suspended particulate organic matter (POM, with somewhat less attention given to exported POM and dissolved organic matter (DOM. Herein, we extend the discussion on ecosystem C : N : P stoichiometry but also examine temporal variation of stoichiometric relationships. We have analysed elemental stoichiometry in the suspended POM and total (POM + DOM organic matter (TOM pools in the upper 100 m, and in the exported POM and sub-euphotic zone (100–500 m inorganic nutrient pools from the monthly data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site located in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean. C : N : P ratios in the TOM pool were more than twice that in the POM pool. Observed C : N ratios in suspended POM were approximately equal to the canonical Redfield Ratio (C : N : P = 106 : 16 : 1, while N : P and C : P ratios in the same pool were more than twice the Redfield Ratio. Average N : P ratios in the subsurface inorganic nutrient pool were ~ 26 : 1, squarely between the suspended POM ratio and the Redfield ratio. We have further linked variation in elemental stoichiometry with that of phytoplankton cell abundance observed at the BATS site. Findings from this study suggest that the variation elemental ratios with depth in the euphotic zone was mainly due to different growth rates of cyanobacterial cells. These time-series data have also allowed us to examine the

  8. Coherency of late Holocene European speleothem δ18O records linked to North Atlantic Ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; McDermott, Frank; Mudelsee, Manfred; Werner, Martin; Frank, Norbert; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Speleothem δ18O records provide valuable information about past continental environmental and climatic conditions, although their interpretation is often not straightforward. Here we evaluate a compilation of late Holocene speleothem δ18O records using a Monte Carlo based Principal Component Analysis (MC-PCA) method that accounts for uncertainties in individual speleothem age models and for the variable temporal resolution of each δ18O record. The MC-PCA approach permits not only the identification of temporally coherent changes in speleothem δ18O; it also facilitates their graphical depiction and evaluation of their spatial coherency. The MC-PCA method was applied to 11 Holocene speleothem δ18O records that span most of the European continent (apart from the circum-Mediterranean region). We observe a common (shared) mode of speleothem δ18O variability that suggests millennial-scale coherency and cyclicity during the last 4.5 ka. These changes are likely caused by variability in atmospheric circulation akin to that associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, reflecting meridionally shifted westerlies. We argue that these common large-scale variations in European speleothem δ18O records are in phase with changes in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation indicated by the vigour of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), the strength of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and an ocean stacked North Atlantic ice rafted debris (IRD) index. Based on a recent modelling study, we conclude that these changes in the North Atlantic circulation history may be caused by wind stress on the ocean surface driven by shifted westerlies. However, the mechanisms that ultimately force the westerlies remain unclear.

  9. On the Flow of Atlantic Water Towards the Arctic Ocean; a Synergy Between Altimetry and Hydrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafik, L.; Nilsson, J.; Skagseth, O.; Lundberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic climate is strongly influenced by the inflow of warm Atlantic water conveyed by the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current (NwASC); the main heat conveyor into the Arctic Ocean. Based on sea surface height (SSH) data from altimetry, we develop a dynamical measure of the NwASC transport to diagnose its spatio-temporal variability. This supports a dynamical division of the NwASC into two flow regimes; the Svinøy Branch (SvB) in the Norwegian Sea, and the Fram Strait Branch (FSB) west of Spitsbergen. The SvB transport is well correlated with the SSH and atmospheric variability within the Nordic Seas, factors that also affect the inflow to the Barents Sea. In contrast, the FSB is regulated by regional atmospheric patterns around Svalbard and northern Barents Sea. We further relate anomalous flow events to temperature fluctuations of Atlantic water. A warm anomaly is found to propagate northwards, with a tendency to amplify enroute, after events of strong flow in the Norwegian Sea. A roughly 12-months delayed temperature signal is identified in the FSB. This suggests that hydrographic anomalies both upstream from the North Atlantic, and locally generated in the Norwegian Sea, are important for the oceanic heat and salt transport that eventually enters into the Arctic. We believe that the combination of the flow from altimetry and temperature fluctuations in the Nordic Seas can be used to qualitatively predict warm anomalies towards the Arctic Ocean, which could be a valuable addition to the forecast skill of the statistical Arctic sea-ice models.

  10. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  11. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. C. Denier van der Gon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, designating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols indicates that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud and entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  12. New nutrients exert fundamental control on dissolved organic carbon accumulation in the surface Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Letscher, Robert T; Hansell, Dennis A

    2016-09-20

    The inventories of carbon residing in organic matter dissolved in the ocean [dissolved organic carbon (DOC)] and in the atmosphere as CO2 are of the same order of magnitude, such that small changes in the DOC pool could have important consequences in atmospheric carbon and thus climate. DOC in the global ocean is largely formed in the sunlit euphotic zone, but identifying predictable controls on that production is an important yet unrealized goal. Here, we use a testable and causative correlation between the net production of DOC and the consumption of new nutrients in the euphotic zone of the Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrate that new nutrients introduced to the euphotic zone by upwelling in divergence zones and by winter convective overturn of the water column, and the primary production associated with those nutrients, are the ultimate driver of DOC distributions across the Atlantic basins. As new nutrient input will change with a changing climate, the role of DOC in the ocean's biological pump should likewise be impacted.

  13. A euxinic southern North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koster, J.

    1998-01-01

    During mid-Cretaceous times large amounts of organic carbon (Corg) became sequestered in black shales', possibly due to oceanic anoxic events' characterized by the development of an extended oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Here, we provide the first direct evidence for an open ocean OMZ in the Cenomani

  14. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of...

  15. Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vicente, V.; Dall'Olmo, G.; Tarran, G.; Boss, E.; Sathyendranath, S.

    2013-03-01

    are an important component of the oceanic carbon cycle. Yet, due to methodological constraints, the carbon biomass of phytoplankton is poorly characterized. To address this limitation, we have explored the bio-optical relationship between in situ measurements of the particle backscattering coefficient at 470 nm, bbp(470), and the phytoplankton carbon concentration for cells with diameter less than 20 µm (Cf). We found a significant relationship between bbp(470) and Cf for Atlantic oceanic waters with chlorophyll-a concentrations less than 0.4 mg m-3 (or bbp(470) < 0.003 m-1). This relationship could be used to estimate Cf from data collected by in situ autonomous platforms and from remote sensing of ocean color.

  16. Implication of eolian delivery and accumulation of highly reactive iron to the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. K.; Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Iron, although abundant in the Earth's crust, is present at low concentrations in sea water and is a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton. Eolian dust (loess) is a major source of this micronutrient, and its deposition has important implications for the global CO2 budget. In this study, we explore distributions of potentially bioreactive Fe, the soluble fraction required by phytoplankton for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation, in deep-sea sediments in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. We used a state-of-the-art Fe speciation technique to characterize Fe inputs from different source regions, specifically North Africa and Patagonia to address the patterns and implications across glacial-interglacial time scales. In many open-ocean regions the input of new iron to the surface waters is dominated by the atmospheric deposition of soluble iron in eolian dusts. Multiple records have shown dust accumulation is correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles - glacial periods are substantially dustier. Furthermore, the delivery of eolian dust to the North and South Atlantic Oceans are from two very different source regions and soil types. We analyzed IODP cores from these two regions and our preliminary data shows similar pattern of iron distribution from both the North and South Atlantic Oceans. To date we have found no simple global pattern of bioavailable iron distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. We have analyzed a range of size distributions to isolate the dust-dominated fraction and the data shows no size effects in bioavailable form of iron distribution. We will explore the role of deep-water dust dissolution and sedimentary redox implications and its role on the bioreactive Fe record in marine cores.

  17. Mercury and Methylmercury Distributions Along a Longitudinal Transect of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Maglio, M.; Ogorek, J.; Landing, W. M.; Morton, P. L.; Shelley, R.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    From August 1 to September 23, 2013 the A16N Repeat Hydrography Cruise (US CLIVAR program) conducted a nearly longitudinal (~20-25°W) sampling transect of the Atlantic Ocean (63°N to 6°S) originating in Reykjavik, Iceland. Water column profiles were taken at 145 locations along this transect, and at 13 of these locations samples for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were also collected. Although profile depths for this cruise reached nearly 6000 m, Hg and MeHg sampling was limited to 12 discrete samples ranging from the surface to about the 1000 m. All samples were collected while observing strict adherence to trace-metal-free protocols. Upon collection from the rosette, each whole-water sample was immediately acidified to 1% HCl, thus our analysis of THg and MeHg includes both particulate and filter-passing fractions. For MeHg, our results represent a composite of both monomethyl and dimethyl mercury species. All samples were analyzed at the USGS Mercury Research Lab. Our results show several clear and interesting trends. First, an examination of THg versus MeHg reveals a bimodal distribution. Samples with THg > 0.03 pM show a highly correlated and linear distribution (R2=0.72) and a high mean percentage of MeHg (49%). On the other hand, samples with THg levels observed in profiles collected between 9 and 14°N. This region of the North Atlantic Ocean is associated with an oxygen minimum and PCO2 maximum zone both driven by degradation of sinking algal-derived organic matter. Last, the overall results from the Atlantic Ocean show a clear MeHg enrichment compared to similar data collected in the Pacific and Southern Indian Oceans.

  18. Summer mean full depth circulation in North Atlantic Ocean along 59.5 N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Vsevolod; Sokov, Alexey; Gladyshev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The large scale oceanic circulation in the North Atlantic is an important part of the climate system. Warm saline upper-ocean waters derived in subtropics release heat into the atmosphere while moving northward as North Atlantic Current and by mixing with colder fresher Arctic waters sink in the subpolar basins therefore originating reverse equatorward flow of cold fresh water. This mechanism, known as Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is of fundamental importance in the meridional heat transport. Using data from yearly direct hydrographic measurements at 59.5 N with satellite altimetry data in the period 2009-2015 a mean state of the full-depth summer circulation in the region is estimated. Zonal distribution of the 2009-2015 mean summer velocities across the 59.5 N is obtained using four different data sets from (1) pair of WS 300 kHz LADCPs measurements, (2) ship mounted TRDI OS 38 kHz ADCP measurements, (3) AVISO altimetry data (surface absolute geostrophic velocities), and (4) geostrophic velocities data calculated using CTD measurements. By combining those data mean absolute transport is estimated. Results are compared and analyzed confirming and elaborating previous research. Also assessment of the errors associated with full-depth ADCP profiles is settled. This evaluation allows arguing about certainty of collected data and can be used to improve accuracy of circulation rating.

  19. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Newton

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  20. GIS Methodic and New Database for Magmatic Rocks. Application for Atlantic Oceanic Magmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    There are several geochemical Databases in INTERNET available now. There one of the main peculiarities of stored geochemical information is geographical coordinates of each samples in those Databases. As rule the software of this Database use spatial information only for users interface search procedures. In the other side, GIS-software (Geographical Information System software),for example ARC/INFO software which using for creation and analyzing special geological, geochemical and geophysical e-map, have been deeply involved with geographical coordinates for of samples. We join peculiarities GIS systems and relational geochemical Database from special software. Our geochemical information system created in Vernadsky Geological State Museum and institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry from Moscow. Now we tested system with data of geochemistry oceanic rock from Atlantic and Pacific oceans, about 10000 chemical analysis. GIS information content consist from e-map covers Wold Globes. Parts of these maps are Atlantic ocean covers gravica map (with grid 2''), oceanic bottom hot stream, altimeteric maps, seismic activity, tectonic map and geological map. Combination of this information content makes possible created new geochemical maps and combination of spatial analysis and numerical geochemical modeling of volcanic process in ocean segment. Now we tested information system on thick client technology. Interface between GIS system Arc/View and Database resides in special multiply SQL-queries sequence. The result of the above gueries were simple DBF-file with geographical coordinates. This file act at the instant of creation geochemical and other special e-map from oceanic region. We used more complex method for geophysical data. From ARC\\View we created grid cover for polygon spatial geophysical information.

  1. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sakov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003–2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates – a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  2. Air-sea interactions and oceanic processes in the development of different Atlantic Niño patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Rey, Marta; Polo, Irene; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Lazar, Alban

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Niño is the leading mode of inter-annual variability of the tropical Atlantic basin at inter-annual time scales. A recent study has put forward that two different Atlantic Niño patterns co-exist in the tropical Atlantic basin during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The leading mode, Basin-Wide (BW) Atlantic Niño is characterized by an anomalous warming extended along the whole tropical basin. The second mode, the Dipolar (D) Atlantic Niño presents positive Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial band, surrounded by negative ones in the North and South tropical Atlantic. The BW Atlantic Niño is associated with a weakening of both Azores and Sta Helena High, which reduces the tropical trades during previous autumn-winter. On the other hand, the D-Atlantic Niño is related to a strengthening of the Azores and a weakening of Helena High given rise to a meridional Sea Level Pressure (SLP) gradient that originates an intensification of the subtropical trades and anomalous westerlies along the equatorial band. This different wind forcing suggests that different oceanic processes could act in the development of the BW and D Atlantic Niño patterns. For this reason, an inter-annual simulation with the ocean NEMO model has been performed and the heat budget analysis has been analysed for each Atlantic Niño mode. The results suggest that the two Atlantic Nino configurations have different timing. The heat budget analysis reveals that BW Atlantic Nino SST pattern is due to anomalous air-sea heat fluxes in the south tropical and western equatorial Atlantic during the autumn-winter, while vertical processes are responsible of the warming in the central and eastern part of the basin during late-winter and spring. For the D-Atlantic Nino, the subtropical cooling is attributed to turbulent heat fluxes, the equatorial SST signal is mainly forced by vertical entrainment. The role of the oceanic waves in the

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1996-03-17 to 1996-05-20 (NODC Accession 0116640)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116640 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-14 to 2006-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108159 includes Surface underway data collected from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-12-26 to 2009-01-30 (NODC Accession 0110254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110254 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1993-02-06 to 1993-03-18 (NCEI Accession 0143944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143944 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Surface temperatures of the Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean: Implications for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Robinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval in the Earth's history to have experienced warming of the magnitude predicted for the second half of the twenty-first century and is, therefore, a possible analogue for future climate conditions. With continents basically in their current positions and atmospheric CO2 similar to early twenty-first century values, the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth remains elusive. Understanding the behaviour of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Mid-Pliocene is integral to evaluating future climate scenarios owing to its role in deep water formation and its sensitivity to climate change. Under the framework of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) sea surface reconstruction, we synthesize Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic studies by PRISM members and others, describing each region of the North Atlantic in terms of palaeoceanography. We then relate Mid-Pliocene sea surface conditions to expectations of future warming. The results of the data and climate model comparisons suggest that the North Atlantic is more sensitive to climate change than is suggested by climate model simulations, raising the concern that estimates of future climate change are conservative. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider SG609 deployed by Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-19 to 2014-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0131705)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider data gathered as part of the Sustained Ocean Observations for Improving Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Hurricane Seasonal Forecast project funded...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider SG610 deployed by Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-08-11 to 2015-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0145656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider data gathered as part of the Sustained Ocean Observations for Improving Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Hurricane Seasonal Forecast project funded...

  12. Mapping tectonic deformation in the crust and upper mantle beneath Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hejun; Tromp, Jeroen

    2013-08-23

    We constructed a three-dimensional azimuthally anisotropic model of Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean based on adjoint seismic tomography. Several features are well correlated with historical tectonic events in this region, such as extension along the North Atlantic Ridge, trench retreat in the Mediterranean, and counterclockwise rotation of the Anatolian Plate. Beneath northeastern Europe, the direction of the fast anisotropic axis follows trends of ancient rift systems older than 350 million years, suggesting "frozen-in" anisotropy related to the formation of the craton. Local anisotropic strength profiles identify the brittle-ductile transitions in lithospheric strength. In continental regions, these profiles also identify the lower crust, characterized by ductile flow. The observed anisotropic fabric is generally consistent with the current surface strain rate measured by geodetic surveys. PMID:23929947

  13. Potassium-argon radiometric dates of the mid-atlantic ocean floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basalt and six trachyte rock samples from the King's Trough in the mid-Atlantic ocean floor have been dated by the conventional potassium-argon method. The basalts give two different ages, 155+/-6 Ma (late Jurassic) and 53+/-6 Ma (lower Eocene), while the trachytes give a range of ages from 31.6+/-0.6 Ma to 35.2=0.2 Ma and an average of 33.0+/=0.4 Ma (lower oligocene). The Lower Eocene age of the in-situ basalt matches the age of the original volcanic activity of the region while the lower Oligocene age is associated with the subsequent faulting event. The late Jurassic age of the erratic basalt is interesting because of the scarcity of extrusive igneous rocks of that age along the margins of the North Atlantic and, therefore,needs to be investigated further. (author). 4 refs. 2 tabs

  14. Pliocene sea surface temperatures of the north atlantic ocean at 3.0 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.J.; Poore, R.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates based on quantitative analysis of planktic foraminifer faunas in North Atlantic deep sea cores suggest that high-frequency, low-amplitude variability related to orbital forcing was superimposed on long-term changes that delineate intervals within the Pliocene that were both warmer and cooler than today. SST estimates from several DSDP and ODP sites, as well as land sections, have been combined into a synoptic view of SST during a Pliocene warm interval centered at about 3.0 Ma. The Pliocene North Atlantic warm interval SST estimates show little evidence for warming in tropical regions whereas mid- to high-latitude areas show moderate to strong warming. SST estimates for the last interglacial (Isotope Stage 5e) show a similar pattern, but warming during the last interglacial was not as pronounced as the Middle Pliocene warming. The regional distribution of SST estimates during these past warm events suggests an increase in ocean circulation. ?? 1991.

  15. Ocean Dynamics and the Nature of Air-Sea Interactions over the North Atlantic at Decadal Time Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of the air–sea interactions over the North Atlantic on the ocean dynamics is explored by analyzing multicentury integrations with two different coupled ocean–atmosphere models. One is a coupled general circulation model (CGCM), in which both the atmospheric and the oceanic components are represented by general circulation models (GCMs). The second coupled model employs the same atmospheric GCM, but the oceanic GCM is replaced by a fixed-depth mixed layer model, so that variatio...

  16. CARINA-Oxygen: a new high-quality oxygen database for the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. In this paper, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the database and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure optimal consistency between different cruises in order to permit studies of long-term change. The secondary QC is based on a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen database has 113005 oxygen samples from 9535 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted data base. Of the data included in the adjusted data base, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%.

  17. Seasonal and latitudinal patterns of pelagic community metabolism in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Agusti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial patterns in the variability of the pelagic metabolism at the surface of the Atlantic Ocean were analyzed in a series of four oceanographic cruises (LATITUDE 1, 2, 3 and 4. The cruises crossed the oligotrophic waters of North and South subtropical gyres and this explained the low values of both gross primary production (GPP and community respiration (R found. Net community production (NCP, the balance between production and consumption, was strongly related to the variability in R rates (R2=0.72, P<0.0001. NCP was net heterotrophic in 83 % of the data, but showed strong temporal and spatial patterns. At the inter-tropical zone, around 10°–12° N and 10°–12° S, a large variability was observed with values of NCP oscillating from net heterotrophic to net autotrophic seasonally. This variability implied NCP to be net autotrophic in boreal fall and austral spring, and net heterotrophic in boreal spring and austral fall, in the areas around the boundaries of the inter-tropical zone. The variability observed concur with the seasonal climatic and oceanographic regimes of the inter-tropical area, whith documented seasonal changes of the North and South Atlantic equatorial currents system, the Guinea Dome, and the Benguela current. When considering the season of the data obtained, significant differences between spring and fall were found for the surface Atlantic, with water temperature and respiration increasing in autumn, showing a net heterotrophic metabolism, and with temperature and respiration decreasing in spring, where NCP were closer to the metabolic balance. In contrast, no seasonal differences were found for GPP and chlorophyll-a concentration. The results showed new spatial and temporal patterns in the pelagic metabolic balance of the surface Atlantic Ocean with consequences for the carbon flux.

  18. New nutrients exert fundamental control on dissolved organic carbon accumulation in the surface Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Letscher, Robert T.; Hansell, Dennis A.

    2016-09-01

    The inventories of carbon residing in organic matter dissolved in the ocean [dissolved organic carbon (DOC)] and in the atmosphere as CO2 are of the same order of magnitude, such that small changes in the DOC pool could have important consequences in atmospheric carbon and thus climate. DOC in the global ocean is largely formed in the sunlit euphotic zone, but identifying predictable controls on that production is an important yet unrealized goal. Here, we use a testable and causative correlation between the net production of DOC and the consumption of new nutrients in the euphotic zone of the Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrate that new nutrients introduced to the euphotic zone by upwelling in divergence zones and by winter convective overturn of the water column, and the primary production associated with those nutrients, are the ultimate driver of DOC distributions across the Atlantic basins. As new nutrient input will change with a changing climate, the role of DOC in the ocean’s biological pump should likewise be impacted.

  19. Deep-sea whale fall fauna from the Atlantic resembles that of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Shimabukuro, Mauricio; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Perez, Jose A. A.; Soares-Gomes, Abilio; Toyofuku, Takashi; Lima, Andre O. S.; Ara, Koichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Whale carcasses create remarkable habitats in the deep-sea by producing concentrated sources of organic matter for a food-deprived biota as well as places of evolutionary novelty and biodiversity. Although many of the faunal patterns on whale falls have already been described, the biogeography of these communities is still poorly known especially from basins other than the NE Pacific Ocean. The present work describes the community composition of the deepest natural whale carcass described to date found at 4204 m depth on Southwest Atlantic Ocean with manned submersible Shinkai 6500. This is the first record of a natural whale fall in the deep Atlantic Ocean. The skeleton belonged to an Antarctic Minke whale composed of only nine caudal vertebrae, whose degradation state suggests it was on the bottom for 5–10 years. The fauna consisted mainly of galatheid crabs, a new species of the snail Rubyspira and polychaete worms, including a new Osedax species. Most of the 41 species found in the carcass are new to science, with several genera shared with NE Pacific whale falls and vent and seep ecosystems. This similarity suggests the whale-fall fauna is widespread and has dispersed in a stepping stone fashion, deeply influencing its evolutionary history. PMID:26907101

  20. Deep-sea whale fall fauna from the Atlantic resembles that of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Shimabukuro, Mauricio; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Perez, Jose A. A.; Soares-Gomes, Abilio; Toyofuku, Takashi; Lima, Andre O. S.; Ara, Koichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Whale carcasses create remarkable habitats in the deep-sea by producing concentrated sources of organic matter for a food-deprived biota as well as places of evolutionary novelty and biodiversity. Although many of the faunal patterns on whale falls have already been described, the biogeography of these communities is still poorly known especially from basins other than the NE Pacific Ocean. The present work describes the community composition of the deepest natural whale carcass described to date found at 4204 m depth on Southwest Atlantic Ocean with manned submersible Shinkai 6500. This is the first record of a natural whale fall in the deep Atlantic Ocean. The skeleton belonged to an Antarctic Minke whale composed of only nine caudal vertebrae, whose degradation state suggests it was on the bottom for 5–10 years. The fauna consisted mainly of galatheid crabs, a new species of the snail Rubyspira and polychaete worms, including a new Osedax species. Most of the 41 species found in the carcass are new to science, with several genera shared with NE Pacific whale falls and vent and seep ecosystems. This similarity suggests the whale-fall fauna is widespread and has dispersed in a stepping stone fashion, deeply influencing its evolutionary history.

  1. Phytoplankton biovolume is independent from the slope of the size spectrum in the oligotrophic atlantic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno-Ostos, Enrique

    2015-08-06

    Modelling the size-abundance spectrum of phytoplankton has proven to be a very useful tool for the analysis of physical-biological coupling and the vertical flux of carbon in oceanic ecosystems at different scales. A frequent observation relates high phytoplankton biovolume in productive regions with flatter spectrum slope and the opposite in oligotrophic ecosystems. Rather than this, the relationship between high biovolume phytoplankton assemblages and flatter size-abundance spectra does not correspond with measurements of the phytoplankton community in the Atlantic Ocean open waters. As part of the Malaspina Circunnavegation Expedition, sixty seven sampling stations within the Atlantic Ocean covering six oceanographic provinces, at different seasons, produced a complete set of phytoplankton size-spectra whose slope and biovolume did not show any obvious interrelation. In these oligotrophic sites, small (procaryotes) and medium-size (nanoplankton) cells are responsible for the most part of biovolume, and their response to environmental conditions does not apply to changes in the size-abundance spectrum slope as expected in richer, large-cell dominated ecosystems.

  2. Amazon River enhances diazotrophy and carbon sequestration in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, K. [Department of Oceanography, SOEST, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Capone, D.G. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies and Department of Biological Sciences; Carpenter, E.J. [San Francisco State University, Tiburon, CA (United States). Romberg Tiburon Center; Cooley, S. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Department of Marine Sciences; Kustka, A.B. [Ruters, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences; Mahaffey, C. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Department of Earth and Ocean Science; Montoya, J.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Biology; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies and Department of Biological Sciences; Shipe, R. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Institute of the Environment; Subramaniam, A. [Columbia University, Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Yager, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Department of Marine Sciences

    2008-07-15

    The fresh water discharged by large rivers such as the Amazon is transported hundreds to thousands of kilometers away from the coast by surface plumes. The nutrients delivered by these river plumes contribute to enhanced primary production in the ocean, and the sinking flux of this new production results in carbon sequestration. Here, we report that the Amazon River plume supports N2 fixation far from the mouth and provides important pathways for sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA). We calculate that the sinking of carbon fixed by diazotrophs in the plume sequesters 1.7 Tmol of C annually, in addition to the sequestration of 0.6 Tmol of C yr-1 of the new production supported by NO3 delivered by the river. These processes revise our current understanding that the tropical North Atlantic is a source of 2.5 Tmol of C to the atmosphere [Mikaloff-Fletcher SE, et al. (2007) Inverse estimates of the oceanic sources and sinks of natural CO2 and the implied oceanic carbon transport. Global Biogeochem Cycles 21, doi:10.1029/2006GB002751]. The enhancement of N2 fixation and consequent C sequestration by tropical rivers appears to be a global phenomenon that is likely to be influenced by anthropogenic activity and climate change.

  3. Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom.

    The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production.

    Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.

  4. Constraining the climatology of CO2 ocean surface flux for North Atlantic and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Iwona; Piskozub, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    The ocean sink is an important part of the anthropogenic CO2 budget. Because the terrestrial biosphere is usually treated as a residual, constraining the net flux into the ocean sink is crucial for understanding the global carbon cycle. The air-sea interface flux is calculated from millions of measurements of CO2 partial pressures. However the regional and temporal means depend on parametrization of gas transfer velocity as well as on the wind/waves fields used for calculations. A recently developed tool, FluxEngine, created within the ESA funded (SOLAS related) OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases project, creates an opportunity to create an ensemble of regional CO2 flux climatologies for the North Atlantic and Arctic waters using multiple combinations of forcing fields and gas transfer velocity parameterizations. The aim of the study is to provide constraints on the regional monthly averages for the chosen area for the whole "climatology ensemble". This approach is similar to the one used by IPCC for the whole model ensemble used for modeling of the climate. Doing a regional study provides an additional test of the parameterizations because the local flux averages may differ even for parameterizations giving similar global averages. We present the methodology and CO2 flux climatology constrains for selected regions and seasons, the preliminary results of a study which aim is to cover the whole North Atlantic and ice-free areas of Arctic Ocean. The study is done within the new ESA funded OceanFlux Evolution project we are part of and at the same time is part of a PhD thesis funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science).

  5. Sea-air carbon dioxide fluxes along 35°S in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencina-Avila, J. M.; Ito, R. G.; Garcia, C. A. E.; Tavano, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The oceans play an important role in absorbing a significant fraction of the atmospheric CO2 surplus, but there are still uncertainties concerning several open ocean regions, such as the under-sampled South Atlantic Ocean. This study assessed the net sea-air CO2 fluxes and distribution of sea-surface CO2 fugacity (f C O2sw) along the 35°S latitude in the South Atlantic, during 2011 spring and early summer periods. Underway CO2 molar fraction, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements were taken continuously from South American to South African continental shelves. Values of both satellite and discrete in situ chlorophyll-a concentration along the ship's track were used as ancillary data. Both f C O2sw and difference in sea-air fugacity (ΔfCO2) showed high variability along the cruise track, with higher values found on the continental shelf and slope regions. All ΔfCO2 values were negative, implying that a sinking process was occurring during the cruise period, with an average net CO2 flux of -3.1±2.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 (using Wanninkhof, 1992). Physical variables were the main drivers of f C O2sw variability in South American continental shelf and open ocean regions, while the biological factor dominated the South African continental shelf. Algorithms for estimating fCO2 and temperature-normalized fCO2 were developed and applied separately to the three defined sub-regions: the South American shelf, the open ocean and the South African continental shelf, with the regional temperature-normalized fCO2 models showing better results.

  6. Molecular transformation and degradation of refractory dissolved organic matter in the Atlantic and Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Kattner, Gerhard; Flerus, Ruth; McCallister, S. Leigh; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Koch, Boris P.

    2014-02-01

    More than 90% of the global ocean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is refractory, has an average age of 4000-6000 years and a lifespan from months to millennia. The fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that is resistant to degradation is a long-term buffer in the global carbon cycle but its chemical composition, structure, and biochemical formation and degradation mechanisms are still unresolved. We have compiled the most comprehensive molecular dataset of 197 Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses from solid-phase extracted marine DOM covering two major oceans, the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean and the East Atlantic Ocean (ranging from 50° N to 70° S). Molecular trends and radiocarbon dating of 34 DOM samples (comprising Δ14C values from -229‰ to -495‰) were combined to model an integrated degradation rate for bulk DOC resulting in a predicted age of >24 ka for the most persistent DOM fraction. First order kinetic degradation rates for 1557 mass peaks indicate that numerous DOM molecules cycle on timescales much longer than the turnover of the bulk DOC pool (estimated residence times of up to ~100 ka) and the range of validity of radiocarbon dating. Changes in elemental composition were determined by assigning molecular formulae to the detected mass peaks. The combination of residence times with molecular information enabled modelling of the average elemental composition of the slowest degrading fraction of the DOM pool. In our dataset, a group of 361 molecular formulae represented the most stable composition in the oceanic environment (“island of stability”). These most persistent compounds encompass only a narrow range of the molecular elemental ratios H/C (average of 1.17 ± 0.13), and O/C (average of 0.52 ± 0.10) and molecular masses (360 ± 28 and 497 ± 51 Da). In the Weddell Sea DOC concentrations in the surface waters were low (46.3 ± 3.3 μM) while the organic radiocarbon was significantly

  7. A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landschützer, P.; Gruber, N.; Bakker, D.C.E.;

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from (i...... poleward of 40° N, but many other parts of the North Atlantic increased more slowly, resulting in a barely changing Atlantic carbon sink north of the equator (–0.007 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). Surface ocean pCO2 was also increasing less than that of the atmosphere over most of the Atlantic south of the equator......) a continuous improvement of the observations, i.e., the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) v1.5 database and (ii) a newly developed technique to interpolate the observations in space and time. In particular, we use a 2 step neural network approach to reconstruct basin-wide monthly maps of the sea surface partial...

  8. Diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in the deep tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Smith, Danielle; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Bochdansky, Alexander B.

    2013-08-01

    Employing a combination of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and fluorescein isothiocyanate (DAPI-FITC) staining and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we distinguished a variety of taxonomic and morphological types of eukaryotic microbes in the central and deep water masses of the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Samples were taken along a transect across the tropical Atlantic, along the equatorial upwelling and into the West-African upwelling region. Samples were collected as deep as 7000 m in the Romanche Fracture Zone within the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Approximately 50-70% of FISH-identified eukaryotes in deep water masses belong to one of seven groups: kinetoplastids, labyrinthulomycetes, fungi, diplonemids, group II alveolates, MAST 4 (stramenopiles), and an unidentified organism with a peculiar nuclear morphology. A smaller percentage of total eukaryotes was identified in the Central Water, especially in the oxygen minimum zone, than in deep water masses. CARD-FISH probes designed to identify broad taxonomic groups revealed kinetoplastids and fungi were more abundant than noted in previous studies employing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Group II alveolates, in contrast, were much less prevalent than previously reported. On a second survey, eukaryotic microbes were enumerated in the deep-sea basins below the North Atlantic subtropical gyre including the Vema Fracture Zone, which is another prominent trench in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The abundance of eukaryotes and chlorophyll concentrations were significantly different between the two cruises, which covered very different hydrographic regimes with associated high and low levels of primary production, respectively.

  9. Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ∼4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ϵHf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about −1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ∼2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ∼2 ϵHf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ∼5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved

  10. Genetic structure of capelin (Mallotus villosus in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available Capelin (Mallotus villosus is a commercially exploited, key forage-fish species found in the boreal waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. We examined the population structure of capelin throughout their range in the Canadian northwest Atlantic Ocean using genetic-based methods. Capelin collected at ten beach and five demersal spawning locations over the period 2002 through 2008 (N = 3,433 fish were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Temporally distinct samples were identified at three beach spawning locations: Chance Cove, Little Lawn and Straitsview, Newfoundland. Four capelin stocks are assumed for fisheries management in the northwest Atlantic Ocean based on meristics, morphometrics, tag returns, and seasonal distribution patterns. Our results suggested groupings that were somewhat different than the assumed structure, and indicate at least seven genetically defined populations arising from two ancestral populations. The spatial mosaic of capelin from each of the two basal cluster groups explains much of the observed geographic variability amongst neighbouring samples. The genetic-defined populations were resolved at Jost's Dest ≥ 0.01 and were composed of fish collected 1 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 2 along the south and east coasts of Newfoundland, 3 along coastal northern Newfoundland and southern Labrador, 4 along coastal northern Labrador, 5 near the Saguenay River, and at two nearshore demersal spawning sites, 6 one at Grebes Nest off Bellevue Beach on the east coast of Newfoundland, and 7 one off the coast of Labrador at Domino Run. Moreover, the offshore demersal spawners on the Scotian Shelf and Southeast Shoal appeared to be related to the inshore demersal spawners at Grebes Nest and in Domino Run and to beach spawners from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  11. The impact of multidecadal Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variations on the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Delworth, Thomas L.; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-05-01

    The impact of multidecadal variations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on the Southern Ocean (SO) is investigated in the current paper using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. We find that the AMOC can influence the SO via fast atmosphere teleconnections and subsequent ocean adjustments. A stronger than normal AMOC induces an anomalous warm SST over the North Atlantic, which leads to a warming of the Northern Hemisphere troposphere extending into the tropics. This induces an increased equator-to-pole temperature gradient in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) upper troposphere and lower stratosphere due to an amplified tropical upper tropospheric warming as a result of increased latent heat release. This altered gradients leads to a poleward displacement of the SH westerly jet. The wind change over the SO then cools the SST at high latitudes by anomalous northward Ekman transports. The wind change also weakens the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) cell through changes in surface heat flux forcing. The poleward shifted westerly wind decreases the long term mean easterly winds over the Weddell Sea, thereby reducing the turbulent heat flux loss, decreasing surface density and therefore leading to a weakening of the AABW cell. The weakened AABW cell produces a temperature dipole in the SO, with a warm anomaly in the subsurface and a cold anomaly in the surface that corresponds to an increase of Antarctic sea ice. Opposite conditions occur for a weaker than normal AMOC. Our study here suggests that efforts to attribute the recent observed SO variability to various factors should take into consideration not only local process but also remote forcing from the North Atlantic.

  12. Deconflicting Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Delahaye, Daniel; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.

    2016-01-01

    North Atlantic oceanic airspace accommodates more than 1000 flights daily, and is subjected to very strong winds. Flying wind-optimal trajectories yields time and fuel savings for each individual flight. However, when taken together, these trajectories induce a large amount of potential en-route conflicts. This paper analyses the detected conflicts, figuring out conflict distribution in time and space. It further describes an optimization algorithm aimed at reducing the number of conflicts for a daily set of flights on strategic level. Several trajectory modification strategies are discussed, followed with simulation results. Finally, an algorithm improvement is presented aiming at better preserving the trajectory optimality.

  13. Diversity and distribution of single-stranded DNA phages in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Kimberly P; Parsons, Rachel; Symonds, Erin M.; Breitbart, Mya

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of marine phages is highly biased toward double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages; however, recent metagenomic surveys have also identified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages in the oceans. Here, we describe two complete ssDNA phage genomes that were reconstructed from a viral metagenome from 80 m depth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea and examine their spatial and temporal distributions. Both genomes (SARssφ1 and SARssφ2) exhibited si...

  14. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%, olive ridley (27.1% and loggerhead turtles (8.7%. Most olive ridley (81.7% and loggerhead (82.1% turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0% and entangled (31.8%. Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E, but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W. The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  15. Transport of Antarctic bottom water through the Kane Gap, tropical NE Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Morozov; Tarakanov, R.Y.; Van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using three AquaDopp current meters. We found an alternating regime of flow, which changes direction several times during a year. The seasonal signal seems to dominate. The maximum daily ...

  16. Deepwater ichthyofauna communities of two seamounts from the eastern Atlantic Ocean: results from exploratory surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Pedro Vieira; Sabine Christiansen; Rui Coelho; Anneke Denda

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater fish communities were sampled during exploratory surveys on two seamounts of the north- and central eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Demersal fishes from Ampère Seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese mainland, were sampled during the P384 cruise of R.V. Poseidon in May 2009 and the M83/2 cruise of R.V. Meteor in November/December 2010, covering water depths from 60 to 4,400 m. A total of 239 fishes were collected; three chondrichthyan species and 31 teleosts in 2...

  17. Freshwater Variability in the Arctic Ocean and Subpolar North Atlantic: a Comparison from the 1990s to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Myriel; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    A significant increase in liquid freshwater content has been observed in the Arctic Ocean over the last 20 years, whereas the Arctic sea ice volume shrank significantly. In contrast, the North Atlantic became more saline in recent years. Both regions are of great importance for the global ocean circulation and climate, and salinity changes may have a profound impact on the global climate. We found that for the period between 1992 and 2013, the liquid freshwater content of the subpolar North Atlantic, calculated from objectively mapped in-situ salinity measurements, and the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean, i.e. the liquid freshwater content and freshwater stored in sea ice, are significantly negative correlated (r=-0.77). Moreover, the amount of the anomalies are of the same size. Furthermore, the time series hint at multi-decadal oscillations. The highest negative correlation with the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean can be found in the Irminger and Labrador Seas, while we observed a positive correlation east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the path of the North Atlantic Current, which is the source of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean through the Nordic Seas. We suggest a redistribution of freshwater as a response to frequent changes in atmospheric pressure patterns. Under certain conditions the freshwater is re-routed and kept in the Arctic Ocean, while it is released under other conditions. We conclude that decadal scale changes of the freshwater content in the North Atlantic, particularly those in the deep water formation sites like the Labrador Sea, are originating in the Arctic Ocean.

  18. Secondary microseism generation mechanisms and microseism derived ocean wave parameters, NE Atlantic, West of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, S. E.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Nicolau, M.; O'Neill, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waves, driven by atmospheric processes, generate faint continuous Earth vibrations known as microseisms (Bromirski, 1999). Under certain conditions, ocean waves travelling in opposite directions may interact with one another producing a partial or full standing wave. This wave-wave interaction produces a pressure profile, unattenuated with depth, which exerts a pressure change at the seafloor, resulting in secondary microseisms in the 0.1-0.33 Hz band. There are clear correlations between microseism amplitude and storm and ocean wave intensity. We aim to determine ocean wave heights in the Northeast Atlantic offshore Ireland at individual buoy locations, using terrestrially recorded microseism signals. Two evolutionary approaches are used: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Grammatical Evolution (GE). These systems learn to interpret particular input patterns and corresponding outputs and expose the often complex underlying relationship between them. They learn by example and are therefore entirely data driven so data selection is extremely important for the success of the methods. An analysis and comparison of the performance of these methods for a five month period in 2013 will be presented showing that ocean wave characteristics may be reconstructed using microseism amplitudes, adopting a purely data driven approach. There are periods during the year when the estimations made from both the GE and ANN are delayed in time by 10 to 20 hours when compared to the target buoy measurements. These delays hold important information about the totality of the conditions needed for microseism generation, an analysis of which will be presented.

  19. Five decades of N2 fixation research in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar eBenavides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinitrogen (N2 fixation (the reduction of atmospheric N2 to ammonium by specialized prokaryotic microbes, represents an important input of fixed nitrogen and contributes significantly to primary productivity in the oceans. Marine N2 fixation was discovered in the North Atlantic Ocean (NA in the 1960s. Ever since, the NA has been subject to numerous studies that have looked into the diversity and abundance of N2-fixing microbes (diazotrophs, the spatial and temporal variability of N2 fixation rates, and the range of physical and chemical variables that control them. The NA provides 10-25% of the globally fixed N2, ranking as the third basin with the largest N2 fixation inputs in the world’s oceans. This basin suffers a chronic depletion in phosphorus availability, more aeolian dust deposition than any other basin in the world’s oceans, and significant nutrient inputs from important rivers like the Amazon and the Congo. These characteristics make it unique in comparison with other oceanic basins. After five decades of intensive research, here we present a comprehensive review of our current understanding of diazotrophic activity in the NA from both a geochemical and biological perspective. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current methods, future perspectives, and questions which remain to be answered.

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-02-01 to 2016-02-29 (NCEI Accession 0145087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Oceanographic profile temperature, oxygen, nitrate+nitrite and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the North Atlantic ocean from 1988 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0000990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile data collected as part of the Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) from Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS; formerly BBSR)

  2. Zooplankton species identities and other data collected by ATLANTIS II from net casts in NW Atlantic Ocean from 23 November 1988 to 04 December 1988 (NODC Accession 9500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected using net casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from ATLANTIS II. Data were collected from 23 November...

  3. Temperature, salinity, biological and nutrient profiles collected by CTD in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1/28/1905 - 4/12/1994 (NODC Accession 0000125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using CTD from the HELGA and other platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 28...

  4. Temperature profiles from bathythermograph casts from VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations from 16 November 1985 to 02 February 1986 (NCEI Accession 8600063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data was collected from VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data was collected from 16 November 1985 to 02...

  5. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AKHILL and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean from 02 August 1984 to 11 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in the Atlantic Ocean from the AKHILL, ARTEMIDA, AYAKS, and other platforms from 02 August 1984 to 11...

  6. Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data from bottle in South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989 (NODC Accession 0000196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data were collected using bottle in the South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989. Data were...

  7. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 21 November 1981 to 07 December 1981 (NODC Accession 8200194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 21 November 1981 to 07 December...

  8. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Atlantic Ocean from 04 August 1980 - 14 August 1981 (NODC Accession 8200240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Atlantic Ocean from August 4, 1980 to August 14, 1981. Data were...

  9. Zooplankton and other data collected in Northwest Atlantic Ocean from CTD, bottle casts, and other instruments from 10 September 1963 to 24 August 1964 (NODC Accession 7101509)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected using CTD, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 10 September 1963...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-04-01 to 2010-04-30 (NODC Accession 0065424)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-01-01 to 2011-01-31 (NODC Accession 0071851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-02-01 to 2008-02-29 (NODC Accession 0048724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-04-01 to 2013-04-30 (NODC Accession 0105690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-03-01 to 2011-03-31 (NODC Accession 0073284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-02-01 to 2014-02-28 (NODC Accession 0116779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-01-01 to 2013-01-31 (NODC Accession 0101882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-09-01 to 2016-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0156690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-07-01 to 2012-07-31 (NODC Accession 0093398)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-05-01 to 2012-05-31 (NODC Accession 0090246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, and oxygen measurements collected from BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1988 to 1993 (NODC Accession 0002230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 26 September 1988 to 18...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-05-01 to 2016-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0152515)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Documentation for the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) models from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) (NODC Accession 0026419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NODC accession contains documentation files that apply to all data collections archived at NODC relating to the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System...

  3. Temperature profile data collected from BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 09 November 1982 to 15 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8600192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 09 November 1982 to 15...

  4. Temperature profiles from bathythermograph casts from VOLNA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations from 31 March 1985 to 27 April 1985 (NODC Accession 8500291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data was collected from VOLNA and other PLATFORMS in the Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data was collected from 1 March 1985 to 27 April 1985....

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-01-01 to 2007-01-31 (NODC Accession 0046032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-02-01 to 2010-02-28 (NODC Accession 0063918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-11-01 to 2007-11-30 (NODC Accession 0045169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-05-01 to 2014-05-31 (NODC Accession 0119183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-06-01 to 2012-06-30 (NODC Accession 0092434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-12-01 to 2006-12-31 (NODC Accession 0038690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-06-01 to 2007-06-30 (NODC Accession 0041372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-05-01 to 2008-05-31 (NODC Accession 0050607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-06-01 to 2011-06-30 (NODC Accession 0074002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-12-01 to 2009-12-31 (NODC Accession 0062434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-07-01 to 2014-07-31 (NODC Accession 0120760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-01-01 to 2012-01-31 (NODC Accession 0084919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-09-01 to 2008-09-30 (NODC Accession 0051512)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-11-01 to 2006-11-30 (NODC Accession 0038686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-04-01 to 2007-04-30 (NODC Accession 0039230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-06-01 to 2008-06-30 (NODC Accession 0050813)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-06-01 to 2013-06-30 (NODC Accession 0109999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-12-01 to 2012-12-31 (NODC Accession 0101112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-07-01 to 2006-07-31 (NODC Accession 0038000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-08-01 to 2014-08-31 (NODC Accession 0121623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-06-01 to 2015-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0129547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-12-01 to 2007-12-31 (NODC Accession 0046092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-01-01 to 2014-01-31 (NODC Accession 0116220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-08-01 to 2015-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0131500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-09-01 to 2009-09-30 (NODC Accession 0060235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-01-01 to 2009-01-31 (NODC Accession 0052486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-03-01 to 2010-03-31 (NODC Accession 0064868)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-11-01 to 2015-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0138739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-04-01 to 2009-04-30 (NODC Accession 0055660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-05-01 to 2009-05-31 (NODC Accession 0057379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-10-01 to 2008-10-31 (NODC Accession 0051618)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-10-01 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0069617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-10-01 to 2009-10-31 (NODC Accession 0060954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-03-01 to 2015-03-31 (NODC Accession 0127243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-11-01 to 2011-11-30 (NODC Accession 0082168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-09-01 to 2006-09-30 (NODC Accession 0038417)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-09-01 to 2013-09-30 (NODC Accession 0113643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-07-01 to 2009-07-31 (NODC Accession 0058273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-04-01 to 2011-04-30 (NODC Accession 0073425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-05-01 to 2011-05-31 (NODC Accession 0073607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-31 (NODC Accession 0067579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-05-01 to 2013-05-31 (NODC Accession 0108058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-05-01 to 2007-05-31 (NODC Accession 0041112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-04-01 to 2012-04-30 (NODC Accession 0089163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-01-01 to 2016-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0141436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-12-01 to 2011-12-31 (NODC Accession 0083186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-08-01 to 2011-08-31 (NODC Accession 0075308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-08-01 to 2010-08-31 (NODC Accession 0068299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-03-01 to 2014-03-31 (NODC Accession 0117684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-30 (NODC Accession 0066881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-04-01 to 2008-04-30 (NODC Accession 0050464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-07-01 to 2011-07-31 (NODC Accession 0074617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-12-01 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0140223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-06-01 to 2006-06-30 (NODC Accession 0037715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-07-01 to 2015-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0130523)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-02-01 to 2007-02-28 (NODC Accession 0038868)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-03-01 to 2007-03-31 (NODC Accession 0039052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-07-01 to 2013-07-31 (NODC Accession 0111743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-10-01 to 2011-10-31 (NODC Accession 0079058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-05-01 to 2010-05-31 (NODC Accession 0066108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-03-01 to 2009-03-31 (NODC Accession 0054211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2010-11-01 to 2010-11-30 (NODC Accession 0070404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-12-01 to 2008-12-31 (NODC Accession 0051875)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-04-01 to 2015-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0127550)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-02-01 to 2009-02-28 (NODC Accession 0053280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-07-01 to 2016-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0156232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-01-01 to 2015-01-31 (NODC Accession 0125594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2011-02-01 to 2011-02-28 (NODC Accession 0072610)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-08-01 to 2008-08-31 (NODC Accession 0051460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-10-01 to 2007-10-31 (NODC Accession 0044360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2008-11-01 to 2008-11-30 (NODC Accession 0051620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-02-01 to 2012-02-29 (NODC Accession 0086247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-09-01 to 2015-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0133934)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-03-01 to 2012-03-31 (NODC Accession 0087573)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  19. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-02-01 to 2015-02-28 (NODC Accession 0126591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  20. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2015-05-01 to 2015-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0129412)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  1. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2012-11-01 to 2012-11-30 (NODC Accession 0100023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  2. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2016-03-01 to 2016-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0146057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  3. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-10-01 to 2006-10-31 (NODC Accession 0038590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  4. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2013-08-01 to 2013-08-31 (NODC Accession 0112743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  5. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2014-04-01 to 2014-04-30 (NODC Accession 0118274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  6. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2007-07-01 to 2007-07-31 (NODC Accession 0041385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  7. Chemical and physical data from bottle casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean from 07 June 1961 to 05 December 1989 (NODC Accession 0000305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, temperature, chemical, and physical data were collected using bottle casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean from June 7, 1961 to December 5, 1989. Data...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  10. Temperature data from thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida by from 01 January 2000 to 31 December 2003 (NODC Accession 0002518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using SBE 39 thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003 as part...

  11. Temperature profile data from CTD casts from the NOAA WHITING in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 1998-07-05 to 1998-11-13 (NODC Accession 9800198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA WHITING in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from July 5, 1998 to November 13, 1998. Data were...

  12. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1969 to 31 August 1995 (NODC Accession 0000426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CHARLES DARWIN and other vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1969 to 31 August 199. CTD data include...

  13. Meteorological and physical data from XSV casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from the Ship of Opportunity, 03 March 1999 to 29 June 1999 (NODC Accession 0000797)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and physical data were collected using XSV casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 03 March 1999 to 29 June 1999. Data were submitted by the US...

  14. Temperature data from buoy casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from 01 August 1928 to 04 September 1932 (NODC Accession 0000242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using buoy casts from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from August 1, 1928 to September 4, 1932 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 07 March 1981 to 24 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8200180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 07 March 1981 to 24 July 1981. Data...

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 05 March 1987 to 31 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data were...

  17. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the SACKVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean from 15 January 1963 to 18 January 1963 (NODC Accession 7600961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the SACKVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the St. Andrews Biological Station from 15 January...

  18. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the GALLATIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from on 16 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the GALLITIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) on 16 March...

  19. Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Hazeleger, Wilco; Severijns, Camiel [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Campos, Edmo J.D. [University of Sao Paulo (IOUSP), Oceanographic Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to investigate the impact of the interruption of Agulhas leakage of Indian ocean water on the tropical Atlantic, a region where strong coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions occur. The effect of a shut down of leakage of Indian ocean water is isolated from the effect of a collapse of the MOC. In our experiments, the ocean model is forced with boundary conditions in the southeastern corner of the domain that correspond to no interocean exchange of Indian ocean water into the Atlantic. The southern boundary condition is taken from the Levitus data and ensures an MOC in the Atlantic. Within this configuration, instead of warm and salty Indian ocean water temperature (cold) and salinity (fresh) anomalies of southern ocean origin propagate into the South Atlantic and eventually reach the equatorial region, mainly in the thermocline. This set up mimics the closure of the ''warm water path'' in favor of the ''cold water path''. As part of the atmospheric response, there is a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The changes in trade winds lead to reduced Ekman pumping in the equatorial region. This leads to a freshening and warming of the surface waters along the equator. Especially in the Cold Tongue region, the cold and fresh subsurface anomalies do not reach the surface due to the reduced upwelling. The anomaly signals are transported by the equatorial undercurrent and spread away from the equator within the thermocline. Part of the anomaly eventually reaches the Tropical North Atlantic, where it affects the Guinea Dome. Surprisingly, the main effect at the surface is small on the equator and relatively large at the Guinea Dome. In the atmosphere, the northward shift of the ITCZ is associated with a band of negative precipitation anomalies and higher salinities over the Tropical South Atlantic. An important implication of these results is that the

  20. Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 European heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchez, Aurélie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Josey, Simon A.; Evans, Dafydd G.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert; McCarthy, Gerard D.; Sinha, Bablu; Berry, David I.; J-M Hirschi, Joël

    2016-07-01

    The North Atlantic and Europe experienced two extreme climate events in 2015: exceptionally cold ocean surface temperatures and a summer heat wave ranked in the top ten over the past 65 years. Here, we show that the cold ocean temperatures were the most extreme in the modern record over much of the mid-high latitude North-East Atlantic. Further, by considering surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling we explain for the first time the genesis of this cold ocean anomaly. We find that it is primarily due to extreme ocean heat loss driven by atmospheric circulation changes in the preceding two winters combined with the re-emergence of cold ocean water masses. Furthermore, we reveal that a similar cold Atlantic anomaly was also present prior to the most extreme European heat waves since the 1980s indicating that it is a common factor in the development of these events. For the specific case of 2015, we show that the ocean anomaly is linked to a stationary position of the Jet Stream that favours the development of high surface temperatures over Central Europe during the heat wave. Our study calls for an urgent assessment of the impact of ocean drivers on major European summer temperature extremes in order to provide better advance warning measures of these high societal impact events.

  1. North Atlantic thermohaline circulation predictability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    CERN Document Server

    Griffies, S M; Griffies, Stephen M.; Bryan, Kirk

    1995-01-01

    Predictability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) variability as simulated in the GFDL coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model is established for a set of ensemble experiments. The ensembles consist of identical oceanic initial conditions underneath a model atmosphere chosen randomly from the model climatology. This experimental design is based on the separation in time scales present in the model which motivates the assumption that the predictability deduced from these ensembles provides an upper limit to the model's THC predictability. The climatology is taken from a multi-century model integration whose THC variability has power concentrated at the 40-60 year time scale. A linear stochastic perspective is shown to be generally consistent with the ensemble statistics. The linear theory suggests a natural measure of ensemble predictability as the time at which the ensemble variance becomes a subjectively defined fraction (0.5 used here) of the climatological variance. It is furth...

  2. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-02-19 to 2011-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0130849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130849 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  3. Chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-15 to 2010-03-05 (NODC Accession 0117396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117396 includes chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  4. TRACE METALS, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION and other data from MELVILLE and KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean from 1972-07-18 to 1974-06-10 (NCEI Accession 8200147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trace metals, bottom depth, sediment properties, and other data were collected using bottle casts in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from the KNORR and MELVILLE from...

  5. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 October 1985 to 25 October 1985 (NODC Accession 8500306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS on the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  6. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 March 1985 to 28 March 1985 (NODC Accession 8600039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  7. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 June 1985 to 27 June 1985 (NODC Accession 8500302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  8. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 May 1986 to 30 May 1986 (NODC Accession 8600203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  9. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 June 1987 to 19 June 1987 (NODC Accession 8700270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  10. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 July 1985 to 30 July 1985 (NODC Accession 8500303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the National...

  11. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 November 1985 to 05 November 1985 (NODC Accession 8500307)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  12. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 March 1986 to 26 March 1986 (NODC Accession 8600152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  13. Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 February 1986 to 21 February 1986 (NODC Accession 8600105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, oceanographic, wave spectra, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations. Data were collected...

  14. The modern and glacial overturning circulation in the Atlantic ocean in PMIP coupled model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Weber

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC to LGM forcings and boundary conditions in nine PMIP coupled model simulations, including both GCMs and Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity. Model results differ widely. The AMOC slows down considerably (by 20–40% during the LGM as compared to the modern climate in four models, there is a slight reduction in one model and four models show a substantial increase in AMOC strength (by 10–40%. It is found that a major controlling factor for the AMOC response is the density contrast between Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at their source regions. Changes in the density contrast are determined by the opposing effects of changes in temperature and salinity, with more saline AABW as compared to NADW consistently found in all models and less cooling of AABW in all models but one. In only two models is the AMOC response during the LGM directly related to the response in net evaporation over the Atlantic basin. Most models show large changes in the ocean freshwater transports into the basin, but this does not seem to affect the AMOC response. Finally, there is some dependence on the accuracy of the control state.

  15. Holocene trends in the foraminifer record from the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andersson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The early to mid-Holocene thermal optimum is a well-known feature in a wide variety of paleoclimate archives from the Northern Hemisphere. Reconstructed summer temperature anomalies from across northern Europe show a clear maximum around 6 ka. For the marine realm, Holocene trends in sea-surface temperature reconstructions for the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea do not exhibit a consistent pattern of early to mid-Holocene warmth. Sea-surface temperature records based on alkenones and diatoms generally show the existence of a warm early to mid-Holocene optimum. In contrast, several foraminifer and radiolarian based temperature records from the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea show a cool mid-Holocene anomaly and a trend towards warmer temperatures in the late Holocene. In this paper, we revisit the foraminifer record from the Vøring Plateau in the Norwegian Sea. We also compare this record with published foraminifer based temperature reconstructions from the North Atlantic and with modelled (CCSM3 upper ocean temperatures. Model results indicate that while the seasonal summer warming of the sea-surface was stronger during the mid-Holocene, sub-surface depths experienced a cooling. This hydrographic setting can explain the discrepancies between the Holocene trends exhibited by phytoplankton and zooplankton based temperature proxy records.

  16. Holocene trends in the foraminifer record from the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andersson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The early to mid-Holocene thermal optimum is a well-known feature in a wide variety of paleoclimate archives from the Northern Hemisphere. Reconstructed summer temperature anomalies from across northern Europe show a clear maximum around 6000 years before present (6 ka. For the marine realm, Holocene trends in sea-surface temperature reconstructions for the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea do not exhibit a consistent pattern of early to mid-Holocene warmth. Sea-surface temperature records based on alkenones and diatoms generally show the existence of a warm early to mid-Holocene optimum. In contrast, several foraminifer and radiolarian based temperature records from the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea show a cool mid-Holocene anomaly and a trend towards warmer temperatures in the late Holocene. In this paper, we revisit the foraminifer record from the Vøring Plateau in the Norwegian Sea. We also compare this record with published foraminifer based temperature reconstructions from the North Atlantic and with modelled (CCSM3 upper ocean temperatures. Model results indicate that while the seasonal summer warming of the sea-surface was stronger during the mid-Holocene, sub-surface depths experienced a cooling. This hydrographic setting can explain the discrepancies between the Holocene trends exhibited by phytoplankton and zooplankton based temperature proxy records.

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-10-04 to 2000-12-01 (NODC Accession 0113246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113246 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean...

  18. The global warming in the North Atlantic Sector and the role of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, R.; Keenlyside, N. S.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Omrani, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interaction in a warming climate, based on a long-term earth system model experiment forced by the RCP 8.5 scenario, the strongest greenhouse gas forcing used in the climate projections for the 5th Assessement report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). In addition to a global increase in SSTs as a direct response to the radiative forcing, the model shows a distinct change of the local sea surface temperature (SST hereafter) patterns in the Gulf Stream region: The SST front moves northward by several hundred kilometers, likely as a response of the wind-driven part of the oceanic surface circulation, and becomes more zonal. As a consequence of a massive slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, the northeast North Atlantic only shows a moderate warming compared to the rest of the ocean. The feedback of these changes on the atmosphere was studied in a set of sensitivity experiments based on the SST climatology of the coupled runs. The set consists of a control run based on the historical run, a run using the full SST from the coupled RCP 8.5 run and two runs, where the SST signal was deconstructed into a homogenous mean warming part and a local pattern change. In the region of the precipitation maximum in the historical run the future scenario shows an increase of absolute SSTs, but a significant decrease in local precipitation, low-level convergence and upward motion. Since warmer SSTs usually cause the opposite, this indicates that the local response in that region is connected to the (with respect to the historical run) weakened SST gradients rather than to the absolute SST. Consistently, the model shows enhanced precipitation north of this region, where the SST gradients are enhanced. However, the signal restricts to the low and mid-troposphere and does not reach the higher model levels. There is little evidence for a large-scale response to the changes in the Gulf

  19. Seasonal variability of turbulent heat fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on WHOI flux product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mean seasonal variability of turbulent heat fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is examined using the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) flux product. The most turbulent heat fluxes occur during winter seasons in the two hemispheres, whose centers are located at 10°~20°N and 5°~15°S respectively. In climatological ITCZ, the turbulent heat fluxes are the greatest from June to August, and in equatorial cold tongue the turbulent heat fluxes are the greatest from March to May. Seasonal variability of sensible heat flux is smaller than that of latent heat flux and mainly is dominated by the variations of air-sea temperature difference. In the region with larger climatological mean wind speed (air-sea humidity difference), the variations of air-sea humidity difference (wind speed) dominate the variability of latent heat flux. The characteristics of turbulent heat flux yielded from theory analysis and WHOI dataset is consistent in physics which turns out that WHOI's flux data are pretty reliable in the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Limited response of peatland CH4 emissions to abrupt Atlantic Ocean circulation changes in glacial climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Hopcroft

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice-core records show that abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic warming events of the last glacial period were accompanied by large increases in the atmospheric CH4 concentration (up to 200 ppbv. These abrupt changes are generally regarded as arising from the effects of changes in the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation and the resultant climatic impact on natural CH4 sources, in particular wetlands. We use two different ecosystem models of wetland CH4 emissions to simulate northern CH4 sources forced with coupled general circulation model simulations of five different time periods during the last glacial to investigate the potential influence of abrupt ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CH4 levels during D-O events. The simulated warming over Greenland of 7–9 °C in the different time-periods is at the lower end of the range of 11–15 °C derived from ice-cores, but is associated with strong impacts on the hydrological cycle, especially over the North Atlantic and Europe during winter. We find that although the sensitivity of CH4 emissions to the imposed climate varies significantly between the two ecosystem emissions models, the model simulations do not reproduce sufficient emission changes to satisfy ice-core observations of CH4 increases during abrupt events. This suggests that alternative scenarios of climatic change could be required to explain the abrupt glacial CH4 variations.

  1. Parasite infections (Trematoda, Digenea) of Sagitta friderici (Chaetognatha) from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean: prevalence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daponte, María C; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A; Palmieri, Mónica A; Ostrowskide Núñez, Margarita

    2006-08-30

    The following chaetognaths were found in the Atlantic Ocean between 34 to 40 degrees S and 52 degrees 20' to 62 degrees 00' W: Sagitta friderici, S. tasmanica, S. minima, S. gazellae, and S. enflata (in order of abundance). Of these, only S. friderici was parasitised by unencysted metacercariae of the families Derogenidae (Derogenes sp.), Hemiuridae (Ectenurus sp.) and Fellodistomidae (Monascus filiformis), and encysted metacercariae of Lepocreadiidae. The percentage of infection for each sampling station varied from 0.033 to 0.001 in August and from 0.02 to 0.001 in October 1996, with the highest values occurring at stations closer to the coast. The intensity of infection (worms per host) varied from 1 to 3 for Ectenurus sp. and was 1 for Derogenes sp., Monascus filiformis and Lepocreadiidae. Unencysted metacercariae were found in mature developmental stages of chaetognaths, whereas encysted ones occurred mainly in juveniles. The size and length of the ovaries of parasitised and unparasitised chaetognaths did not differ significantly. This is the first report of encysted Lepocreadiidae metacercariae and a progenetic metacercaria of Ectenurus sp. in Chaetognatha from the SW Atlantic Ocean. PMID:17058603

  2. Taxonomy of quaternary deep-sea ostracods from the Western North Atlantic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Okahashi, H.; Cronin, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (32??47.041??? N, 76??17.179??? W; 1798m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. ?? The Palaeontological Association, 2009.

  3. First record of a digenean from invasive lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans, (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S A; Barse, A M; Curran, S S; Morris, J A

    2011-10-01

    Adults of Lecithochirium floridense (Digenea: Hemiuridae) parasitized the stomach in each of 22 necropsied lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) (prevalence  =  100%, mean intensity  =  11), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean off Beaufort, North Carolina (34°14.83'N, 76°35.25'W). This is the first report of a digenean from the invasive lionfish and that of L. floridense from a species of Pterois. The leech specimen previously identified as Myzobdella lugubris from P. volitans in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean is re-identified as Trachelobdella lubrica based on a study of the original voucher specimen. PMID:21506808

  4. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  5. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H.; Mittermayer, Felix H.; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae’s sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks. PMID:27551924

  6. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks. PMID:27551924

  7. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  8. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2014-04-23

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Physical and remineralization processes govern the cobalt distribution in the deep western Atlantic ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dulaquais

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of the bio-essential trace element dissolved Co (DCo and the apparent particulate Co (PCo are presented along the GEOTRACES-A02 deep section from 64° N to 50° S in the West Atlantic Ocean. PCo was determined as the difference between total cobalt (TCo, unfiltered samples and DCo. DCo concentrations ranged from 14.7 pM to 94.3 pM, and PCo concentrations from undetectable values to 18.8 pM. The lowest DCo concentrations were observed in the subtropical domains, and the highest in the low-oxygenated Atlantic Central Waters (ACW that appeared to be the major reservoir of DCo in the West Atlantic. In the Antarctic Bottom Waters, the enrichment in DCo with ageing of the water-mass can be related to suspension and redissolution of bottom sediments a well as diffusion of DCo from abyssal sediments. Mixing and dilution of deep water-masses, rather than scavenging of DCo onto settling particles, generated the meridional decrease of DCo along the southward large-scale circulation in the deep West Atlantic. Furthermore the apparent scavenged profile of DCo observed in the deep waters likely resulted from the persistence of relatively high concentrations in intermediate waters and low DCo concentrations in underlaying bottom waters. We suggested that the 2010 Icelandic volcanic eruption can be a source of DCo that could have been transported in the core of the North-East Atlantic Deep Waters. At intermediate depths, the high concentrations of DCo recorded in the ACW linearly correlated with the apparent utilization of oxygen (AOU, indicating that remineralization of DCo can be significant (representing up to 29% of the DCo present. Furthermore the preferential remineralization of phosphate (P compared to Co in these low-oxygenated waters suggested a decoupling between the deep cycles of P and Co. The vertical diffusion of DCo from the ACW appeared to be a significant source of DCo into the surface waters of the equatorial domain

  10. Deepwater ichthyofauna communities of two seamounts from the eastern Atlantic Ocean: results from exploratory surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pedro Vieira

    2015-11-01

    Demersal fishes from Ampère Seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese mainland, were sampled during the P384 cruise of R.V. Poseidon in May 2009 and the M83/2 cruise of R.V. Meteor in November/December 2010, covering water depths from 60 to 4,400 m. A total of 239 fishes were collected; three chondrichthyan species and 31 teleosts in 21 families were identified. The assemblages showed a vertical zonation with little overlap, but indications for an affinity of species to certain water masses were only vague. Although most of the species present new records for Ampère Seamount, all of them have been known for the NE Atlantic and endemic species were not found. Senghor Seamount is an important fishing ground around the Cape Verde archipelago in the central eastern Atlantic. During the cruises M79/3 of R.V. Meteor in September/October 2009 and P423 of R.V. Poseidon in December 2011, a total of 106 deep-sea fishes of 28 species belonging to 18 families were caught on the seamount summit, along the slopes and on the adjacent abyssal plane. We accounted 6 new records for the Cape Verde deep-sea fish fauna. Most species have been known from other areas of the Atlantic Ocean, but these findings are an important contribution to our understanding of the distribution of deepwater fish species. The co-occurrence of northern and southern fish species at Senghor Seamount, or the Cape Verde area in general, can be attributed to the large-scale hydrographic regime with two water masses merging at the Cape Verde Frontal Zone, the North Atlantic Central Water and the South Atlantic Central Water. In general, differences between the adjacent abyssal plain and seamount slopes and summit point to the role of substrate type and habitat complexity in shaping community composition. Additionally, similarities between the fish fauna associated to other Atlantic seamounts supports the hypothesized key role of these physiographic features for species dispersion.

  11. Mare Occidentale Mare Occidentale: the adventure of imagining the Atlantic Ocean through sixteenth century maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lois

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde el descubrimiento de América y a lo largo de todo el siglo XVI, una de las principales preocupaciones de los cartógrafos fue el dibujo cada vez más preciso de las costas del continente americano y de las islas atlánticas. Los estudios de los mapas de la época suelen concentrarse en los ensayos que los cartógrafos hicieron para diseñar las tierras nuevas, en especial, de América. En ese sentido, el océano Atlántico parecía ser el espacio que se definía por la negativa: aquello que no era tierra y que quedaba entre América y Europa. El Atlántico comenzó a ser objeto de diversas valoraciones simbólicas que fueron relevantes en la reorganización del imaginario geográfico de la época. El Atlántico, lejos de ser un espacio “hueco”, era parte de los territorios nuevos que se estaban conquistando y, así, fue integrado, con sus singularidades, a la nueva imagen del mundo. En este trabajo proponemos explorar los modos en que el Atlántico fue cartografiado en los mapamundis europeos del siglo XVI para analizar las formas en que este océano fue moldeado dentro del imaginario de un mundo geográfico que rápidamente se expandía y transformaba.Since the discovery of America and throughout the sixteenth century, one of the main concerns of cartographers was to draw with increasing precision the coasts of continental America and the Atlantic islands. The study of several maps from that time is included in essays developed by cartographers to outline the new land, especially in the case of America. In this sense, the Atlantic Ocean seemed to be the space defined by the negation of the above: that was not land and which filled up the space between America and Europe. The Atlantic Ocean started to be the object of a number of symbolic valuations which were relevant in the reorganization of the geographical imaginary space of the time. Far from being an “empty” space, the Atlantic Ocean, was part of the new territories being

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1987 to 07 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 12 July 1987 to 17 July 1987 (NODC Accession 8700267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  14. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology based on the World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity from observations collected from 1955-01-13 to 2012-12-31 (NCEI accession 0130919) (NCEI Accession 0130919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwest Atlantic (NWA) plays a crucial role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. The Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current System are the key...

  15. Reproductive aspects of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae, in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Regina dos Santos Tambourgi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to study the reproductive biology of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 234 specimens were collected as bycatch during pelagic longline fisheries targeting tunas and swordfish, between December 2003 and December 2010. The fishing area was located between latitudes 10N and 35S and longitudes 3E and 40W. Of the 234 individuals sampled, 118 were females (with sizes ranging from 81 to 227 cm TL, total length and 116 males (ranging from 80 to 242 cm TL. The reproductive stages of the females were classed as immature, mature, preovulatory and pregnant, while males were divided into immature, maturing and mature. The size at maturity for females was estimated at 170.0 cm TL, while that for males was between 170.0 and 190.0 cm TL. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 1 to 10 follicles and uterine fecundity from 1 to 10 embryos. The reproductive cycle of this species is most likely biennial, with parturition occurring once every two years.

  16. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  17. Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bentum, E.C.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Free and sulfur-bound biomarkers in sediments deposited in the northern proto North Atlantic (Newfoundland Basin, ODP Site 1276) during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) were studied. The delta C-13 records of phytane and lycopane confirmed the stratigraphic position of the posi

  18. Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, E.C. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Free and sulfur-bound biomarkers in sediments deposited in the northern proto North Atlantic (Newfoundland Basin, ODP Site 1276) during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) were studied. The δ 13C records of phytane and lycopane confirmed the stratigraphic position of the positive

  19. On the impact of oceanic turbulence on tropical climate variability: Upper ocean diapycnal heat flux and mixing processes in the central and eastern tropical Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengler, Marcus; Hummels, Rebecca [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ocean has a major influence on tropical Atlantic climate variability. This is most noticeable in the close link between interannual variability of sea surface temperature in the upwelling regions of the tropical Atlantic and variability of rainfall in the counties surrounding the Gulf of Guinea and in northeast Brazil. A key processes controlling sea surface temperature in the upwelling regions is turbulent mixing of water masses just below the mixed layer. Here, we investigate the seasonal variability of upper-ocean mixing processes in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean from microstructure measurements acquired during 6 cruises between September 2005 and 2007. The data set revealed that the upper equatorial Atlantic Ocean is a major mixing hot spot and showed turbulent heat flux to be a dominant term in the mixed layer heat balance. There is, however, a pronounced seasonal cycle in the diapycnal heat flux with maximum values occurring during boreal summer and low values during winter. The processes leading to this variability are discussed. The results suggest that climate models need to accurately model equatorial turbulence to realistically simulate tropical climate variability.

  20. An ensemble estimation of the variability of upper-ocean heat content over the tropical Atlantic Ocean with multi-ocean reanalysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jieshun [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Balmaseda, Magdalena A. [European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Current ocean reanalysis systems contain considerable uncertainty in estimating the subsurface oceanic state, especially in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Given this level of uncertainty, it is important to develop useful strategies to identify realistic low-frequency signals optimally from these analyses. In this paper, we present an ''ensemble'' method to estimate the variability of upper-ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Atlantic based on multiple-ocean reanalysis products. Six state-of-the-art global ocean reanalysis products, all of which are widely used in the climate research community, are examined in terms of their HC variability from 1979 to 2007. The conventional empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the HC anomalies from each individual analysis indicates that their leading modes show significant qualitative differences among analyses, especially for the first modes, although some common characteristics are discernable. Then, the simple arithmetic average (or ensemble mean) is applied to produce an ensemble dataset, i.e., the EM analysis. The leading EOF modes of the EM analysis show quantitatively consistent spatial-temporal patterns with those derived from an alternative EOF technique that maximizes signal-to-noise ratio of the six analyses, which suggests that the ensemble mean generates HC fields with the noise reduced to an acceptable level. The quality of the EM analysis is further validated against AVISO altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA) data and PIRATA mooring station data. A regression analysis with the AVISO SLA data proved that the leading modes in the EM analysis are realistic. It also demonstrated that some reanalysis products might contain higher level of intrinsic noise than others. A quantitative correlation analysis indicates that the HC fields are more realistic in the EM analysis than in individual products, especially over the equatorial regions, with signals contributed from all ensemble members. A

  1. Environmental change influences the life history of salmon Salmo salar in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N; Albretsen, J

    2016-02-01

    Annual mean total length (LT) of wild one-sea-winter (1SW) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar of the Norwegian River Imsa decreased from 63 to 54 cm with a corresponding decrease in condition factor (K) for cohorts migrating to sea from 1976 to 2010. The reduction in LT is associated with a 40% decline in mean individual mass, from 2 to 1·2 kg. Hatchery fish reared from parental fish of the same population exhibited similar changes from 1981 onwards. The decrease in LT correlated negatively with near-surface temperatures in the eastern Norwegian Sea, thought to be the main feeding area of the present stock. Furthermore, S. salar exhibited significant variations in the proportion of cohorts attaining maturity after only one winter in the ocean. The proportion of S. salar spawning as 1SW fish was lower both in the 1970s and after 2000 than in the 1980s and 1990s associated with a gradual decline in post-smolt growth and smaller amounts of reserve energy in the fish. In wild S. salar, there was a positive association between post-smolt growth and the sea survival back to the River Imsa for spawning. In addition, among smolt year-classes, there were significant positive correlations between wild and hatchery S. salar in LT, K and age at maturity. The present changes may be caused by ecosystem changes following the collapse and rebuilding of the pelagic fish abundance in the North Atlantic Ocean, a gradual decrease in zooplankton abundance and climate change with increasing surface temperature in the Norwegian Sea. Thus, the observed variation in the life-history traits of S. salar appears primarily associated with major changes in the pelagic food web in the ocean.

  2. Argo data assimilation into HYCOM with an EnOI method in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mignac

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An ocean data assimilation system to assimilate Argo temperature (T and salinity (S profiles into HYCOM was constructed, implemented and evaluated for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (78° S to 50° N and 98° W to 20° E. The system is based on the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI algorithm proposed by Xie and Zhu (2010, especially made to deal with the hybrid nature of HYCOM vertical coordinate system with multiple steps. The Argo T/S profiles were projected to the model vertical space to create pseudo-observed layer thicknesses (Δ pobs which correspond to the model target densities. The first step was to assimilate Δ pobs considering the sub-state vector composed by the model layer thickness (Δ p and the baroclinic velocity components. After that, T and S were assimilated separately. At last, T was diagnosed below the mixed layer to preserve the density of the model isopycnal layers. Five experiments were performed from 1 January 2010 until 31 December 2012: a control run without assimilation, and four assimilation runs considering different vertical localizations of T, S and Δ p. The assimilation experiments were able to significantly improve the thermohaline structure produced by the control run. They reduced the RMSD of T (S calculated with respect to Argo independent data in 34.11% (43.56% in comparison to the control run. In some regions, such as the west North Atlantic, substantial corrections in the 20 °C isotherm depth and the upper ocean heat content towards climatological states were achieved. The runs with vertical localization of Δ p showed positive impacts in the correction of the thermohaline structure and reduced the RMSD of T (S from 0.993 °C (0.149 psu to 0.905 °C (0.138 psu for the whole domain with respect to the other assimilation runs.

  3. Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phytoplankton assemblages and the associated optical properties of the water body is important for the further development of algorithms for large-scale remote sensing of phytoplankton biomass and the identification of phytoplankton functional types (PFTs, which are often representative for different biogeochemical export scenarios. Optical in-situ measurements aid in the identification of phytoplankton groups with differing pigment compositions and are widely used to validate remote sensing data. In this study we present results from an interdisciplinary cruise aboard the RV Polarstern along a north-to-south transect in the eastern Atlantic Ocean in November 2008. Phytoplankton community composition was identified using a broad set of in-situ measurements. Water samples from the surface and the depth of maximum chlorophyll concentration were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and microscopy. Simultaneously, the above- and underwater light field was measured by a set of high spectral resolution (hyperspectral radiometers. An unsupervised cluster algorithm applied to the measured parameters allowed us to define bio-optical provinces, which we compared to ecological provinces proposed elsewhere in the literature. As could be expected, picophytoplankton was responsible for most of the variability of PFTs in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Our bio-optical clusters agreed well with established provinces and thus can be used to classify areas of similar biogeography. This method has the potential to become an automated approach where satellite data could be used to identify shifting boundaries of established ecological provinces or to track exceptions from the rule to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical cycles in the ocean.

  4. Hydroclimatology of Extreme Precipitation and Floods Originating from the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jennifer

    This study explores seasonal patterns and structures of moisture transport pathways from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico that lead to extreme large-scale precipitation and floods over land. Storm tracks, such as the tropical cyclone tracks in the Northern Atlantic Ocean, are an example of moisture transport pathways. In the first part, North Atlantic cyclone tracks are clustered by the moments to identify common traits in genesis locations, track shapes, intensities, life spans, landfalls, seasonal patterns, and trends. The clustering results of part one show the dynamical behavior differences of tropical cyclones born in different parts of the basin. Drawing on these conclusions, in the second part, statistical track segment model is developed for simulation of tracks to improve reliability of tropical cyclone risk probabilities. Moisture transport pathways from the North Atlantic Ocean are also explored though the specific regional flood dynamics of the U.S. Midwest and the United Kingdom in part three of the dissertation. Part I. Classifying North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Tracks by Mass Moments. A new method for classifying tropical cyclones or similar features is introduced. The cyclone track is considered as an open spatial curve, with the wind speed or power information along the curve considered as a mass attribute. The first and second moments of the resulting object are computed and then used to classify the historical tracks using standard clustering algorithms. Mass moments allow the whole track shape, length and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin are clustered with K-means by mass moments producing an optimum of six clusters with differing genesis locations, track shapes, intensities, life spans, landfalls, seasonality, and trends. Even variables that are not directly clustered show distinct separation between clusters. A trend analysis confirms recent conclusions

  5. Splitting of Atlantic water transport towards the Arctic Ocean into the Fram Strait and Barents Sea Branches - mechanisms and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Skagseth, Øystein; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Walczowski, Waldemar; Lien, Vidar

    2016-04-01

    The heat content in the Arctic Ocean is to a large extent determined by oceanic advection from the south. During the last two decades the extraordinary warm Atlantic water (AW) inflow has been reported to progress through the Nordic Seas into the Arctic Ocean. Warm anomalies can result from higher air temperatures (smaller heat loss) in the Nordic Seas, and/or from an increased oceanic advection. But the ultimate fate of warm anomalies of Atlantic origin depends strongly on their two possible pathways towards the Arctic Ocean. The AW temperature changes from 7-10°C at the entrance to the Nordic Seas, to 6-6.5°C in the Barents Sea opening and 3-3.5°C as the AW leaving Fram Strait enters the Arctic Ocean. When AW passes through the shallow Barents Sea, nearly all its heat is lost due to atmospheric cooling and AW looses its signature. In the deep Fram Strait the upper part of Atlantic water becomes transformed into a less saline and colder surface layer and thus AW preserves its warm core. A significant warming and high variability of AW volume transport was observed in two recent decades in the West Spitsbergen Current, representing the Fram Strait Branch of Atlantic inflow. The AW inflow through Fram Strait carries between 26 and 50 TW of heat into the Arctic Ocean. While the oceanic heat influx to the Barents Sea is of a similar order, the heat leaving it through the northern exit into the Arctic Ocean is negligible. The relative strength of two Atlantic water branches through Fram Strait and the Barents Sea governs the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean. According to recently proposed mechanism, the Atlantic water flow in the Barents Sea Branch is controlled by the strength of atmospheric low over the northern Barents Sea, acting through a wind-induced Ekman divergence, which intensifies eastward AW flow. The Atlantic water transport in the Fram Strait Branch is mainly forced by the large-scale low-pressure system over the eastern Norwegian and

  6. Newly Compiled and Gridded Seasonal Sea Surface T and S for the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer-Neth, Christian; Paul, A.

    2002-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, several institutes reconstructed past sea surface conditions, mainly focusing on the sea surface temperatures (SST) for more or less limited regions of the Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). These reconstructions were based on different proxy data and employed different methods, too. Moreover, even the LGM time slice definitions were not alike in all cases, making it even more difficult to compile a consistent, ocean-wide set of temperatures that...

  7. An Integrated Assessment of the Introduction of Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles complex) to the Western Atlantic Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Whitfield, Paula E.

    2003-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles complex) are venomous coral reef fishes from the Indian and western Pacific oceans that are now found in the western Atlantic Ocean. Adult lionfish have been observed from Miami, Florida to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and juvenile lionfish have been observed off North Carolina, New York, and Bermuda. The large number of adults observed and the occurrence of juveniles indicate that lionfish are established and reproducing along the southeast United States co...

  8. Formation of extreme surface turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Gavrikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in total oceanic heat loss in the North Atlantic is studied. The atmospheric circulation patterns enhancing ocean-atmosphere heat flux in regions with significant contributions of the extreme heat fluxes (up to 60% of the net heat loss) are analyzed. It is shown that extreme heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream and the Greenland and Labrador Seas occur in zones with maximal air pressure gradients, i.e., in cyclone-anticyclone interaction zones.

  9. North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water: Their Interaction and Influence on Modes of the Global Ocean Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Brix, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Interhemispheric signal transmission in the Atlantic Ocean connects the deep water production regions of both hemispheres. The nature of these interactions and large scale responses to perturbations on time scales of years to millenia have been investigated using a global general circulation model based on the primitive equations coupled to a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model with a viscous-plastic rheology. The coupled model reproduces many aspects of today´s oceanic circulation. Testing t...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-02-19 to 2011-04-23 (NODC Accession 0109933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109933 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  11. Ocean acidification in the subpolar North Atlantic: rates and mechanisms controlling pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Zunino, Patricia; Fröb, Friederike; Carracedo, Lidia I.; Ríos, Aida F.; Mercier, Herlé; Olsen, Are; Pérez, Fiz F.

    2016-06-01

    Repeated hydrographic sections provide critically needed data on and understanding of changes in basin-wide ocean CO2 chemistry over multi-decadal timescales. Here, high-quality measurements collected at twelve cruises carried out along the same track between 1991 and 2015 have been used to determine long-term changes in ocean CO2 chemistry and ocean acidification in the Irminger and Iceland basins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Trends were determined for each of the main water masses present and are discussed in the context of the basin-wide circulation. The pH has decreased in all water masses of the Irminger and Iceland basins over the past 25 years with the greatest changes in surface and intermediate waters (between -0.0010 ± 0.0001 and -0.0018 ± 0.0001 pH units yr-1). In order to disentangle the drivers of the pH changes, we decomposed the trends into their principal drivers: changes in temperature, salinity, total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (both its natural and anthropogenic components). The increase in anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) was identified as the main agent of the pH decline, partially offset by AT increases. The acidification of intermediate waters caused by Cant uptake has been reinforced by the aging of the water masses over the period of our analysis. The pH decrease of the deep overflow waters in the Irminger basin was similar to that observed in the upper ocean and was mainly linked to the Cant increase, thus reflecting the recent contact of these deep waters with the atmosphere.

  12. Crystallization depth beneath an oceanic detachment fault (ODP Hole 923A, Mid-Atlantic Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissenberg, C. Johan; Rioux, Matthew; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Bowring, Samuel A.; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic detachment faults are increasingly recognized as playing an integral role in the seafloor spreading process at slow and ultraslow spreading mid-ocean ridges, with significant consequences for the architecture of the oceanic lithosphere. Although melt supply is considered to play a critical control on the formation and evolution of oceanic detachments, much less well understood is how melts and faults interact and influence each other. Few direct constraints on the locus and depth of melt emplacement in the vicinity of detachments are available. Gabbros drilled in ODP Hole 923A near the intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Kane transform fault (23°N; the MARK area) represent magmas emplaced into the footwall of such a detachment fault and unroofed by it. We here present U-Pb zircon dates for these gabbros and associated diorite veins which, when combined with a tectonic reconstruction of the area, allow us to calculate the depths at which the melts crystallized. Th-corrected single zircon U-Pb dates from three samples range from 1.138 ± 0.062 to 1.213 ± 0.021 Ma. We find a crystallization depth of 6.4 +1.7/-1.3 km, and estimate that the melts parental to the gabbros were initially emplaced up to 1.5 km deeper, at <8 km below the seafloor. The tectonic reconstruction implies that the detachment fault responsible for the exposure of the sampled sequence likely crossed the ridge axis at depth, suggesting that melt emplacement into the footwall of oceanic detachment faults is an important process. The deep emplacement depth we find associated with "detachment mode" spreading at ˜1.2 Ma appears to be significantly greater than the depth of magma reservoirs during the current "magmatic mode" of spreading in the area, suggesting that the northern MARK segment preserves a recent switch between two temporally distinct modes of spreading with fundamentally different lithospheric architecture.

  13. N2O and CH4 distribution and fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Andy; Brown, Ian; Shutler, Jamie; Ashton, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a natural source of both N2O and CH4 contributing up to 30% and 10% of the global atmospheric emissions respectively. That said, marine sources are not well constrained owing to a paucity of observations. For both gases there are regional hotspots of production, often associated with upwelling areas and coastal environments, though the distribution of source and sink areas are often spatially and temporarily variable. Here we present data from the greater North Atlantic Ocean to examine factors affecting regional variability in the distribution of both gases and then provide an assessment of seasonal variability for the North East continental shelf region. The flux of gases between the ocean and atmosphere is described by the concentration gradient between the two phases and the gas transfer velocity, the determination of which is directly influenced by wind speed. The measurement of wind speed on ships at sea coincident with analyses of dissolved gases is prone to errors associated with the moving platform and turbulence associated with air masses at the sea surface. To address this problem we provide comparative estimates of the air-sea exchange of both gases determined by ship-based and remotely sensed measurements of wind speed and surface temperature.

  14. Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial populations in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, S. B.; Koch, B. P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Pohl, C.; Kattner, G.; Yamasaki, S.; Lara, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about cultivable bacteria. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton (55 μm) samples were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (prokaryotes represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l-1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC) and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104-107 and 102-105 colony forming units (CFU) l-1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 %) were found in the nanoplankton fraction (prokaryotes, cultivable Vibrio showed a stronger and highly significant correlation with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively). In cold waters of the mesopelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l-1). The depth-wise decrease in CBC and Vibrio coincided with the decrease in both DOC and POC. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats.

  15. Diurnal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere over the Remote Southern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Gioia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A diel (24-h cycle with daytime atmospheric concentrations higher than nighttime concentrations by a factor of 1.5–3 was observed for several low molecular weight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in remote areas of the tropical South Atlantic during a cruise in October–November 2005. In contrast, high molecular weight PCBs and PAHs did not display diurnal variability. A model which has successfully explained diel variability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs over land could not reproduce the observed diel cycle by considering variability in temperature, atmospheric OH radical concentrations, atmospheric boundary layer height and wind speed as causal factors. We used the model to conduct two bounding scenarios to explore the possibility that phytoplankton biomass turn-over in the surface ocean drives the observed variability in air concentrations. The model could only qualitatively reproduce the field observations of diel variability for low chlorinated PCB congeners when the ocean acts as a source of pollutants to the atmosphere, and when variability in biomass drives variability in the capacity of the surface ocean.

  16. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  17. Glacial marine carbon cycle sensitivities to Atlantic ocean circulation reorganization by coupled climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Chikamoto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM marine carbon cycle sensitivity experiments is conducted to test the effect of different physical processes, as simulated by two atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM experiments, on the atmospheric pCO2. One AOGCM solution exhibits an increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW formation, whereas the other mimics an increase in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW associated with a weaker NADW. Due to enhanced gas solubility associated with lower sea surface temperature, both experiments generate a reduction of atmospheric pCO2 by about 20–23 ppm. However, neither a weakening of NADW nor an increase of AABW formation causes a large atmospheric pCO2 change. A marked enhancement in AABW formation is required to represent the reconstructed vertical gradient of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC during LGM conditions. The efficiency of Southern Ocean nutrient utilization reduces in response to an enhanced AABW formation, which counteracts the circulation-induced ocean carbon uptake.

  18. In Situ Boundary Layer Coral Metabolism in the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, Wade

    2013-04-01

    and Chris Langdon, Brice Loose, Dwight Gledhill, Diana Hsueh, Derek Manzello, Ian Enochs, Ryan Moyer We present net ecosystem productivity (nep) and net ecosystem calcification (nec) in coral and seagrass ecosystems using the boundary layer gradient flux technique (CROSS). Coastal anthropogenic inputs and changes in global ocean chemistry in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has emerged in recent years as a topic of considerable concern. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable from eroded environmental conditions including ocean acidification and water pollution. The Atlantic Ocean Acidification Testbed (AOAT) project monitors metabolism to ascertain the continuing health of coral reef ecosystems. The CROSS boundary layer nep/nec approach is one component of this diagnostic program. Certification of CROSS as an operational monitoring tool is underway in the AOAT. CROSS inspects a benthic community and measures productivity/respiration and calcification/dissolution over an area of 10 square meters. Being a boundary layer tool, advection and complex mesoscale flows are not a factor or concern and CROSS is autonomous and can be used at deep benthic sites. The interrogation area is not enclosed therefore exposed to ambient light, flow, and nutrient levels. CROSS is easy to deploy, unambiguous, and affordable. Repeated measurements have been made from 2011-2012 in reefal systems in La Parguera Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys, USA. Diurnal, seasonal and regional metabolism will be compared and discussed. The ability to accurately probe benthic ecosystems provides a powerful management and research tool to policy makers and researchers.

  19. Geographic distribution of archaeal ammonia oxidizing ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eSintes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo, exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization.

  20. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Haberleitner, Elisabeth; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo), exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization. PMID:26903961

  1. Tropical extra-tropical thermocline water mass exchanges in the Community Climate Model v.3 Part I: the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wainer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatological annual mean tropical-extra-tropical pathways of thermocline waters in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated with the NCAR CCSM numerical coupled model. Results from three numerical experiments are analyzed: Two are fully coupled runs with different spatial resolution (T42 and T85 for the atmospheric component. The third numerical experiment is an ocean-only run forced by NCEP winds and fluxes. Results show that the different atmospheric resolutions have a significant impact on the subduction pathways in the Atlantic because of how the wind field is represented. These simulation results also show that the water subducted at the subtropics reaching the EUC is entirely from the South Atlantic. The coupled model ability to simulate the STCs is discussed.

  2. Heterogeneity of the North Atlantic oceanic lithosphere based on integrated analysis of GOCE satellite gravity and geological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans;

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of modeling of the gravity and density structure of the upper mantle for the off-shore area of the North Atlantic region. The crust and upper mantle of the region is expected to be anomalous: a part of the region affected by the Icelandic plume has an anomalously shallow ba...... and with anomalous oceanic lithosphere....

  3. Aerosol time-series measurements over the tropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean: Dust sources, elemental composition and mineralogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patey, M.D.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Pearce, R.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic receives the largest dust loading of any of the world's oceans due to its proximity to North African deserts and prevailing wind patterns. The supply of biologically important trace elements and nutrients via aerosols has an important influence on biogeochemical processes and ecos

  4. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury(Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseousmercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  5. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  6. 76 FR 47441 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks... vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during a Labor Day weekend fireworks display on... from Apache Pier, which is located on the Atlantic Ocean. The fireworks display is scheduled...

  7. Sulphur in the western North Atlantic Ocean atmosphere: results from a summer 1988 ship/aircraft experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James N.; Keene, William C.; Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Whelpdale, Douglas M.; Sievering, Herman; Merrill, John T.; Boatman, Joe F.

    1990-12-01

    To investigate the relative importance of anthropogenic versus marine sources of sulfur in the North Atlantic Ocean troposphere, sulfur species were measured from aircraft, ship, and island based platforms as part of the Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment conducted during the summer of 1988. Four synoptic meteorological cases were examined: flow from highly populated North America, lightly populated North America, tropical oceanic regions, and polar oceanic regions. Literature values suggest that 2-10 μmol m-2 day-1 of (CH3)2S are emitted from the ocean to the atmosphere in marine regions associated with the first three synoptic cases. Data from this experiment indicate that 36, 16, and 14 μmol m-2 day-1, for the highly populated North America, lightly populated North America, and tropical oceanic regions synoptic cases, respectively, were deposited to the ocean's surface. Differences between previously estimated natural emissions and calculated deposition suggest that anthropogenic sources of sulfur contribute significantly to sulfur deposition for these cases. The sulfur deposition rate for the polar oceanic regions synoptic case was 20 μmol m-2 day-1 . Given the larger range of literature values for the corresponding (CH3)2S emission rate (1-14 μmol m-2 day-1 ) , however, the relative importance of the nonmarine S source is less certain in this case.

  8. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems.

  9. Conflict Resolution for Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace with Wind Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic in the North Atlantic oceanic airspace (NAT) experiences very strong winds caused by jet streams. Flying wind-optimal trajectories increases individual flight efficiency, which is advantageous when operating in the NAT. However, as the NAT is highly congested during peak hours, a large number of potential conflicts between flights are detected for the sets of wind-optimal trajectories. Conflict resolution performed at the strategic level of flight planning can significantly reduce the airspace congestion. However, being completed far in advance, strategic planning can only use predicted environmental conditions that may significantly differ from the real conditions experienced further by aircraft. The forecast uncertainties result in uncertainties in conflict prediction, and thus, conflict resolution becomes less efficient. This work considers wind uncertainties in order to improve the robustness of conflict resolution in the NAT. First, the influence of wind uncertainties on conflict prediction is investigated. Then, conflict resolution methods accounting for wind uncertainties are proposed.

  10. Low-frequency whale and seismic airgun sounds recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Mellinger, David K.; Dziak, Robert P.; Fox, Christopher G.

    2004-04-01

    Beginning in February 1999, an array of six autonomous hydrophones was moored near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (35 °N-15 °N, 50 °W-33 °W). Two years of data were reviewed for whale vocalizations by visually examining spectrograms. Four distinct sounds were detected that are believed to be of biological origin: (1) a two-part low-frequency moan at roughly 18 Hz lasting 25 s which has previously been attributed to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); (2) series of short pulses approximately 18 s apart centered at 22 Hz, which are likely produced by fin whales (B. physalus); (3) series of short, pulsive sounds at 30 Hz and above and approximately 1 s apart that resemble sounds attributed to minke whales (B. acutorostrata); and (4) downswept, pulsive sounds above 30 Hz that are likely from baleen whales. Vocalizations were detected most often in the winter, and blue- and fin whale sounds were detected most often on the northern hydrophones. Sounds from seismic airguns were recorded frequently, particularly during summer, from locations over 3000 km from this array. Whales were detected by these hydrophones despite its location in a very remote part of the Atlantic Ocean that has traditionally been difficult to survey.

  11. Chemotaxonomic phytoplankton patterns on the eastern boundary of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R.; Gibberd, M.-J.; Lamont, T.; Aiken, J.; Holligan, P.

    2016-05-01

    Surface pigment data from a transect along the eastern boundary of the Atlantic Ocean was analysed using CHEMTAX to yield more detailed information on the composition of phytoplankton communities. Total chlorophyll a concentrations varied from 0.03 mg m-3 in a northern oligotrophic region to 30.3 mg m-3 in the Benguela ecosystem. Diatoms dominated the Benguela, while both diatoms and haptophytes were the major groups in the Canary ecosystem and the temperate NE Atlantic. Prochlorococcus was the most prominent group in the southern oligotrophic region (15.5°S-15°N) although haptophytes were also a significant component of the population. In contrast, haptophytes dominated the northern oligotrophic region (21°-40°N). Photo-pigment indices indicated that chlorophyll b was mainly associated with prasinophytes and chlorophyll c with diatoms. Elevated photosynthetic carotenoids were due to increased proportions of haptophytes, but also linked with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Photoprotective carotenoids were more prominently associated with Prochlorococcus and to a lesser extent to Synechococcus.

  12. Drift diving by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available Many pinniped species perform a specific dive type, referred to as a 'drift dive', where they drift passively through the water column. This dive type has been suggested to function as a resting/sleeping or food processing dive, and can be used as an indication of feeding success by calculating the daily change in vertical drift rates over time, which reflects the relative fluctuations in buoyancy of the animal as the proportion of lipids in the body change. Northwest Atlantic hooded seals perform drift dives at regular intervals throughout their annual migration across the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. We found that the daily change in drift rate varied with geographic location and the time of year and that this differed between sexes. Positive changes in buoyancy (reflecting increased lipid stores were evident throughout their migration range and although overlapping somewhat, they were not statistically associated with high use areas as indicated by First Passage Time (FPT. Differences in the seasonal fluctuations of buoyancy between males and females suggest that they experience a difference in patterns of energy gain and loss during winter and spring, associated with breeding. The fluctuations in buoyancy around the moulting period were similar between sexes.

  13. The North Atlantic subpolar circulation in an eddy-resolving global ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Alice; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Holliday, N. Penny; Cunningham, Stuart A.; Blaker, Adam T.; Coward, Andrew C.

    2015-02-01

    The subpolar North Atlantic represents a key region for global climate, but most numerical models still have well-described limitations in correctly simulating the local circulation patterns. Here, we present the analysis of a 30-year run with a global eddy-resolving (1/12°) version of the NEMO ocean model. Compared to the 1° and 1/4° equivalent versions, this simulation more realistically represents the shape of the Subpolar Gyre, the position of the North Atlantic Current, and the Gulf Stream separation. Other key improvements are found in the representation of boundary currents, multi-year variability of temperature and depth of winter mixing in the Labrador Sea, and the transport of overflows at the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. However, the salinity, stratification and mean depth of winter mixing in the Labrador Sea, and the density and depth of overflow water south of the sill, still present challenges to the model. This simulation also provides further insight into the spatio-temporal development of the warming event observed in the Subpolar Gyre in the mid 1990s, which appears to coincide with a phase of increased eddy activity in the southernmost part of the gyre. This may have provided a gateway through which heat would have propagated into the gyre's interior.

  14. Ecological traits influencing range expansion across large oceanic dispersal barriers: insights from tropical Atlantic reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Osmar J; Madin, Joshua S; Robertson, D Ross; Rocha, Luiz A; Wirtz, Peter; Floeter, Sergio R

    2012-03-01

    How do biogeographically different provinces arise in response to oceanic barriers to dispersal? Here, we analyse how traits related to the pelagic dispersal and adult biology of 985 tropical reef fish species correlate with their establishing populations on both sides of two Atlantic marine barriers: the Mid-Atlantic Barrier (MAB) and the Amazon-Orinoco Plume (AOP). Generalized linear mixed-effects models indicate that predictors for successful barrier crossing are the ability to raft with flotsam for the deep-water MAB, non-reef habitat usage for the freshwater and sediment-rich AOP, and large adult-size and large latitudinal-range for both barriers. Variation in larval-development mode, often thought to be broadly related to larval-dispersal potential, is not a significant predictor in either case. Many more species of greater taxonomic diversity cross the AOP than the MAB. Rafters readily cross both barriers but represent a much smaller proportion of AOP crossers than MAB crossers. Successful establishment after crossing both barriers may be facilitated by broad environmental tolerance associated with large body size and wide latitudinal-range. These results highlight the need to look beyond larval-dispersal potential and assess adult-biology traits when assessing determinants of successful movements across marine barriers.

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-01-13 to 1995-04-02 (NODC Accession 0115764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115764 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LE NOROIT in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-09-09 to 1995-10-11 (NODC Accession 0115686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115686 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LE NOROIT in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1982-12-01 to 1983-02-18 (NODC Accession 0116706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116706 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-11-09 to 1995-12-01 (NODC Accession 0112941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112941 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-18 to 2013-10-02 (NODC Accession 0117699)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117699 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MALCOLM BALDRIDGE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-07-04 to 1993-08-30 (NODC Accession 0114997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114997 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MALCOLM BALDRIDGE in the North Atlantic Ocean and...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-02-13 to 1993-03-19 (NODC Accession 0115158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115158 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-06-07 to 2002-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115586 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-11-01 to 2006-11-30 (NODC Accession 0108089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108089 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2005-06-09 to 2005-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108086 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-06-06 to 2007-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108090 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-04 to 2005-09-26 (NODC Accession 0108087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108087 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-09-03 to 2007-09-24 (NODC Accession 0108091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108091 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  8. Grain-size signature of Saharan dust over the Atlantic Ocean at 12°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, Michelle; Korte, Laura; Munday, Chris; Brummer, Geert-Jan; Stuut, Jan-Berend

    2015-04-01

    Every year, an estimated 200 million tons of Saharan dust are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. On its way from source to sink, the dust can be influenced by many climatic processes, but it also affects climate itself in various ways that are far from understood. In order to constrain the relations between atmospheric dust and climate, we deployed ten submarine sediment traps along a transect in the Atlantic Ocean at 12˚N, at 1200m and 3500m water depth. These have been sampling Saharan dust settling in the ocean since October 2012. Samples of seven of these sediment traps have been successfully recovered during RV Pelagia cruise 64PE378 in November 2013. The transect also includes three floating dust collectors and two on-land dust collectors, and all the instruments lie directly underneath the largest dust plume originating from the African continent. This study focuses on the size of the dust particles, which can have an effect on the positive or negative radiation balance in the atmosphere. Small particles in the high atmosphere can reflect incoming radiation and therefore have a cooling effect on climate. Large particles in the lower atmosphere have the opposite effect by absorbing reflected radiation from the Earth's surface. Mineral dust also affects carbon export to the deep ocean by providing mineral ballast for organic particles, and the size of the dust particles directly relates to the downward transport velocity. Here I will present the measured grain-size distributions of samples from seven sediment traps recovered from the 12°N-latitude transect. The data show seasonal variations, with finer grained dust particles during winter and spring, and coarser grained particles during summer and fall. Samples from multiple years should give more details about the dust's seasonality. Also a fining trend of the grain sizes of the dust particles from source (Africa) to sink (Caribbean) is observed, which is also expected due to intuitive relationships between

  9. Ocean acidification trends in the North Atlantic: strength and controlling mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Zunino, Patricia; Fröb, Friederike; Fajar, Noelia M.; Ríos, Aida F.; Mercier, Herlé; Olsen, Are; Pérez, Fiz F.

    2016-04-01

    The global ocean has absorbed ˜30% of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere by human activities (anthropogenic CO2, Cant) between 1750 to the present day. The highest Cant storage rates have been found in the subpolar North Atlantic. It is very likely that such accumulation causes chemical changes in seawater CO2 chemistry in this region. Repeated hydrographic sections provide critically needed data and understanding about changes in the basin-wide seawater CO2 chemistry over multi-decadal timescales. Here, high-quality measurements collected at thirteen cruises carried out along the same track between 1981 and 2015 have been used to determine long-term chemical changes in seawater CO2 chemistry and ocean acidification (OA) in the Irminger and Iceland basins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Trends were determined for each of the main water masses of the region and are discussed in the context of the basin-wide circulation. The pH has decreased in all water masses present in the Irminger and Iceland basins, with greatest changes in surface and intermediate waters (up to -0.0015 ± 0.0002 pH unitsṡyr‑1 in surface waters and up to -0.0013 ± 0.0002 pH unitsṡyr‑1 in intermediate waters). In order to disentangle the drivers of the pH changes, we decomposed the trends into their principal components: changes in temperature, salinity, total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (both its natural and anthropogenic components). The Cant increase was identified as the main agent of the pH decline, partially offset by AT increases. The acidification of intermediate waters caused by Cant uptake has been reinforced by the aging of these water masses over the period of our analysis. The pH decrease of the deep overflow waters of the Irminger basin was similar to that observed in the upper ocean, and was mainly linked to the Cant increase, thus reflecting the recent contact of these deep waters with the atmosphere.

  10. The Ocean-Continent Transition at the North Atlantic Volcanic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. S.; Christie, P. A.; Kusznir, N. J.; Roberts, A. M.; Eccles, J.; Lunnon, Z.; Parkin, C. J.; Smith, L. K.; Spitzer, R.; Roberts, A. W.

    2005-05-01

    The continental margins of the northern North Atlantic are the best studied volcanic margins in the world. There is a wealth of integrated wide-angle and deep seismic profiles across the continent-ocean transition and the adjacent oceanic and continental crust, several of which form conjugate margin studies. We show new results from the integrated Seismic Imaging and Modelling of Margins (iSIMM) profiles across the Faroes continental margin which image both the extruded volcanics which generate seaward dipping reflector sequences and the underlying lower-crustal intrusions from which the extruded basalts are fed. This enables estimation of the degree of continental stretching and the total volume of melt generated from the mantle at the time of continental breakup. The new results are set in the context of profiles along the entire northern North Atlantic margins. The pattern of melt generation during continental breakup and the initiation of seafloor spreading allows us to map the pattern of enhanced sub-lithospheric mantle temperatures caused by initiation of the Iceland mantle plume over this period. The initial mantle plume thermal anomalies have the shape of rising hot sheets of mantle up to 2000 km in length, which focus into a more axisymmetric shape under the present location of Iceland. These spatial and temporal variations in the mantle temperature exert important controls on the history of uplift and subsidence and thermal maturation of the sediments near the continental margin and its hinterland. The iSIMM Scientific Team comprises NJ Kusznir, RS White, AM Roberts, PAF Christie, R Spitzer, N Hurst, ZC Lunnon, CJ Parkin, AW Roberts, LK Smith, V Tymms, J Eccles and D Healy. The iSIMM project is supported by Liverpool and Cambridge Universities, Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Badley Technology Limited, WesternGeco, Amerada Hess, Anadarko, BP, ConocoPhillips, ENI-UK, Statoil, Shell, the NERC and DTI. We thank WesternGeco for provision of Q-streamer data.

  11. Origins and seasonality of greenhouse gases over the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Sabrina G.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Wang, Zhiting

    2016-04-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has become the reference network for all total-column observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like CO2, CH4, CO, N2O and others. Within TCCON, the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) has been operating a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on Ascension Island (8°S, 14°W) since May 2012. This is currently the only TCCON station covering the South Atlantic Ocean. So far, the measurements span more than two complete seasonal cycles. Due to its location in the southern trade wind zone, the station is downwind from Africa most of the time. A detailed trajectory analysis shows that different parts of the total atmospheric column typically have different origins. Air in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) typically comes from the deep southern Atlantic Ocean and had only little GHG exchange with land surfaces. However, air in the free troposphere above the PBL usually comes from tropical and southern Africa and sometimes also from South America. A detailed analysis allowed us to separate the total column of CH4 into a tropospheric and stratospheric part. Together with independent flask measurements from the surface, the effects of the different origins of air parcels can be seen in the PBL, the free troposphere and the stratosphere. For example, there are striking differences in seasonality for CH4 between the PBL and the free troposphere. Unlike over typical land stations, trace gas concentrations in the free troposphere above Ascension Island seem to be generally much higher than near the surface. Above the PBL, there is a whole layer of GHGs transported from Africa which shows land seasonal effects and biomass burning signals. This layer remains undetectable for surface observations.

  12. Leatherback turtle movements, dive behavior, and habitat characteristics in ecoregions of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L Dodge

    Full Text Available Leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, are highly migratory predators that feed exclusively on gelatinous zooplankton, thus playing a unique role in coastal and pelagic food webs. From 2007 to 2010, we used satellite telemetry to monitor the movements and dive behavior of nine adult and eleven subadult leatherbacks captured on the Northeast USA shelf and tracked throughout the Northwest Atlantic. Leatherback movements and environmental associations varied by oceanographic region, with slow, sinuous, area-restricted search behavior and shorter, shallower dives occurring in cool (median sea surface temperature: 18.4°C, productive (median chlorophyll a: 0.80 mg m(-3, shallow (median bathymetry: 57 m shelf habitat with strong sea surface temperature gradients (median SST gradient: 0.23°C km(-1 at temperate latitudes. Leatherbacks were highly aggregated in temperate shelf and slope waters during summer, early fall, and late spring and more widely dispersed in subtropical and tropical oceanic and neritic habitat during late fall, winter and early spring. We investigated the relationship of ecoregion, satellite-derived surface chlorophyll, satellite-derived sea surface temperature, SST gradient, chlorophyll gradient and bathymetry with leatherback search behavior using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The most well supported model showed that differences in leatherback search behavior were best explained by ecoregion and regional differences in bathymetry and SST. Within the Northwest Atlantic Shelves region, leatherbacks increased path sinuosity (i.e., looping movements with increasing SST, but this relationship reversed within the Gulf Stream region. Leatherbacks increased path sinuosity with decreasing water depth in temperate and tropical shelf habitats. This relationship is consistent with increasing epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass with decreasing water depth, and bathymetry may be a key feature in identifying

  13. Coupling of the distribution of silicon isotopes to the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Jones, Janice L.

    2015-06-01

    The distribution of silicon isotopes within silicic acid, δ30Si(OH)4, was examined along a section in the North Atlantic from the Cape Verde Islands off Africa to Cape Cod, Massachusetts in North America. Surface water displayed elevated δ30Si(OH)4 associated with biological fractionation of Si during silica production. Below 300 m variations in δ30Si(OH)4 were closely tied to the distribution of water masses as diagnosed through optimum multiparameter analysis, confirming a tight relationship between δ30Si(OH)4 and the meridional overturning circulation in the Atlantic. A linear relationship between δ30Si(OH)4 and the inverse of silicic acid concentration supported control of Si isotope distribution by conservative mixing of end member water masses of different isotopic composition in the Atlantic. There was a suggestion of a weak local minimum in δ30Si(OH)4 in deep waters above the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal zone on the mid-Atlantic Ridge consistent with the light δ30Si(OH)4 of hydrothermal waters. The lightest δ30Si(OH)4 values were observed in the deep western and deep eastern basins where Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) dominated. The heaviest values in subsurface waters occurred in North Atlantic Deep Water due to strong ventilation and the contribution of heavy northern source waters that are influenced by the Arctic Ocean. The concept of a silicon isotope bipole is introduced to explain how the isotopic differences between the northern and southern end-member water masses arise, and how they influence Si isotope distributions. Northern end-member water masses are heavy due to the influence of the Arctic Ocean. Bottom topography prevents light deep waters from entering the Arctic and the further removal of light isotopes through local biological productivity results in extremely heavy δ30Si(OH)4 within the Arctic. Light AABW dominates the southern end member. The Southern Ocean silicic acid trap distills heavier isotopes of Si out of the

  14. Indications for a North Atlantic ocean circulation regime shift at the onset of the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, C.-F.; Divine, D. V.; Donges, J. F.; Miettinen, A.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    A prominent characteristic of the reconstructed Northern Hemisphere temperature signal over the last millennium is the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we report indications for a non-linear regime shift in the North Atlantic ocean circulation at the onset of the LIA. Specifically, we apply a novel statistical test based on horizontal visibility graphs to two ocean sediment August sea-surface temperature records from the Norwegian Sea and the central subpolar basin and find robust indications of time-irreversibility in both records during the LIA onset. Despite a basin-wide cooling trend, we report an anomalous warming in the central subpolar basin during the LIA that is reproduced in ensemble simulations with the climate model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-3α as a result of a non-linear regime shift in the subpolar North Atlantic ocean circulation. The identified volcanically triggered non-linear transition in the model simulations provides a plausible explanation for the signatures of time-irreversibility found in the ocean sediment records. Our findings indicate a potential multi-stability of the North Atlantic ocean circulation and its importance for regional climate change on centennial time scales.

  15. Variability of suspended particulate matter concentrations and organic compounds in frontal zones of the Atlantic and Southern oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Kravchishina, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate forms of the organic compounds (hydrocarbons, lipids, and chlorophyll a) were determined in the surface water layers of the Atlantic and Southern oceans during February to May of 2012 and 2014. It was found that the distribution of concentrations of the studied components is mainly affected by the location of frontal zones. When ice cover forms in the Southern Ocean, the changes in water temperature and phytoplankton development at the ice-water interface result in an increase of the concentrations of SPM, chlorophyll a, and, to a lesser extent, of lipids and hydrocarbons in the surface water layer. The occasional sharp increase of hydrocarbon concentrations caused by anthropogenic pollution was registered at local parts of water areas in the east of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as in the North and Baltic seas.

  16. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

  17. Temporal and spatial characteristics of sea surface height variability in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cromwell

    2006-01-01

    -correlation is found between the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the amplitude of the leading four PCs of interannual SSH variability. The only exception is an anti-correlation found over the North Atlantic basin between the NAO and the 4th PC. In the subtropical front, the East Atlantic Pattern index is anti-correlated with the leading PC for SSH variations lowpass filtered at 30 days. Further investigation of forcing mechanisms is suggested using hindcasts from ocean general circulation models.

  18. Modeling the impact of iron and phosphorus limitations on nitrogen fixation in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Hood

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this study is to simulate subsurface N* (sensu, Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997; GS97 anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean and determine the basin wide rates of N2-fixation that are required to do so. We present results from a new Atlantic implementation of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model that includes an explicit, dynamic representation of N2-fixation with light, nitrogen, phosphorus and iron limitations, and variable stoichiometric ratios. The model is able to reproduce nitrogen, phosphorus and iron concentration variability to first order. The latter is achieved by incorporating iron deposition directly into the model's detrital iron compartment which allows the model to reproduce sharp near surface gradients in dissolved iron concentration off the west coast of Africa and deep dissolved iron concentrations that have been observed in recent observational studies. The model can reproduce the large scale N* anomaly patterns but requires relatively high rates of surface nitrogen fixation to do so (1.8×1012 moles N yr−1 from 10° N–30° N, 3.4×1012 moles N yr−1 from 25° S–65° N. In the model the surface nitrogen fixation rate patterns are not co-located with subsurface gradients in N*. Rather, the fixed nitrogen is advected away from its source prior to generating a subsurface N* anomaly. Changes in the phosphorus remineralization rate (relative to nitrogen linearly determine the surface nitrogen fixation rate because they change the degree of phosphorus limitation, which is the dominant limitation in the Atlantic in the model. Phosphorus remineralization rate must be increased by about a factor of 2 (relative to nitrogen in order to generate subsurface N* anomalies that are comparable to the observations. We conclude that N2-fixation rate estimates for the Atlantic (and globally may need to be revised upward, which

  19. Modeling the impact of iron and phosphorus limitations on nitrogen fixation in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Coles

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this study is to simulate subsurface N* (sensu, Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997 anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean and determine the basin wide rates of N2 fixation that are required to do so. We present results from an Atlantic implementation of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model that includes an explicit, dynamic representation of N2 fixation with light, nitrogen, phosphorus and iron limitations, and variable stoichiometric ratios. The model is able to reproduce nitrogen, phosphorus and iron concentration variability to first order. The latter is achieved by incorporating iron deposition directly into the model's detritus compartment which allows the model to reproduce sharp near surface gradients in dissolved iron concentration off the west coast of Africa and deep dissolved iron concentrations that have been observed in recent observational studies. The model can reproduce the large scale N* anomaly patterns but requires relatively high rates of surface nitrogen fixation to do so (1.8×1012 moles N yr−1 from 10° N–30° N, 3.4×1012 moles N yr from 25° S–65° N. In the model the surface nitrogen fixation rate patterns are not co-located with subsurface gradients in N*. Rather, the fixed nitrogen is advected away from its source prior to generating a subsurface N* anomaly. Changes in the phosphorus remineralization rate (relative to nitrogen linearly determine the surface nitrogen fixation rate because they change the degree of phosphorus limitation, which is the dominant limitation in the Atlantic. Phosphorus remineralization rate must be increased by about a factor of 2 (relative to nitrogen in order to generate subsurface N* anomalies that are comparable to the observations. We conclude that N2 fixation rate estimates for the Atlantic (and globally may need to be revised upward, which will help resolve imbalances

  20. Decadal predictability of extreme fresh water export events from the Arctic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and subpolar North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Torben; Olsen, Steffen M.; Ringgaard, Ida M.; May, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt fresh water releases originating in the Arctic Ocean have been documented to affect ocean circulation and climate in the North Atlantic area. Therefore, in this study, we investigate prospects for predicting such events up to one decade ahead. This is done in a perfect model setup by a combination of analyzing a 500 year control experiment and dedicated ensemble experiment aimed at predicting selected 10 year long segments of the control experiment. The selected segments are characterized by a large positive or negative trend in the total fresh water content in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis of the components (liquid fresh water and sea ice) reveals that they develop in a near random walk manner. From this we conclude that the main mechanism is integration of fresh water in the Beaufort Gyre through Ekman pumping from the randomly varying atmosphere. Therefore, the predictions from the ensemble experiments are on average not better than a damped persistence predictions. By running two different families of ensemble predictions, one starting from the 'observed' ocean globally, and one starting from climatology in the Arctic Ocean and from the observed ocean elsewhere, we conclude that the former outperforms the latter for the first few years as regards liquid fresh water and for the first year as regards sea ice. Analysis of the model experiments in terms of the fresh water export from the Arctic Ocean into Nordic seas and the subpolar North Atlantic reveals a very modest potential for predictability.

  1. A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landschützer, P.; Gruber, N.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Schuster, U.; Nakaoka, S.; Payne, M. R.; Sasse, T. P.; Zeng, J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink has been shown to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 through 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from (i) a continuous improvement of the observations, i.e. the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) v1.5 database and (ii) a newly developed technique to interpolate the observations in space and time. In particular, we use a two-step neural network approach to reconstruct basin-wide monthly maps of the sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at a resolution of 1° × 1°. From those, we compute the air-sea CO2 flux maps using a standard gas exchange parameterization and high-resolution wind speeds. The neural networks fit the observed pCO2 data with a root mean square error (RMSE) of about 10 μatm and with almost no bias. A check against independent time-series data and new data from SOCAT v2 reveals a larger RMSE of 22.8 μatm for the entire Atlantic Ocean, which decreases to 16.3 μatm for data south of 40° N. We estimate a decadal mean uptake flux of -0.45 ± 0.15 Pg C yr-1 for the Atlantic between 44° S and 79° N, representing the sum of a strong uptake north of 18° N (-0.39 ± 0.10 Pg C yr-1), outgassing in the tropics (18° S-18° N, 0.11 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1), and uptake in the subtropical/temperate South Atlantic south of 18° S (-0.16 ± 0.06 Pg C yr-1), consistent with recent studies. The strongest seasonal variability of the CO2 flux occurs in the temperature-driven subtropical North Atlantic, with uptake in winter and outgassing in summer. The seasonal cycle is antiphased in the subpolar latitudes relative to the subtropics largely as a result of the biologically driven winter-to-summer drawdown of CO2. Over the 10 yr analysis period (1998 through 2007), sea surface pCO2 increased faster than that of the atmosphere in large areas poleward of 40° N

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  6. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-12-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic. PMID:23565357

  7. Population genetic structure in Atlantic and Pacific Ocean common murres (Uria aalge): natural replicate tests of post-Pleistocene evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Pocock, J A; Taylor, S A; Birt, T P; Damus, M; Piatt, J F; Warheit, K I; Friesen, V L

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the factors that influence population differentiation in temperate taxa can be difficult because the signatures of both historic and contemporary demographics are often reflected in population genetic patterns. Fortunately, analyses based on coalescent theory can help untangle the relative influence of these historic and contemporary factors. Common murres (Uria aalge) are vagile seabirds that breed in the boreal and low arctic waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Previous analyses revealed that Atlantic and Pacific populations are genetically distinct; however, less is known about population genetic structure within ocean basins. We employed the mitochondrial control region, four microsatellite loci and four intron loci to investigate population genetic structure throughout the range of common murres. As in previous studies, we found that Atlantic and Pacific populations diverged during the Pleistocene and do not currently exchange migrants. Therefore, Atlantic and Pacific murre populations can be used as natural replicates to test mechanisms of population differentiation. While we found little population genetic structure within the Pacific, we detected significant east-west structuring among Atlantic colonies. The degree that population genetic structure reflected contemporary population demographics also differed between ocean basins. Specifically, while the low levels of population differentiation in the Pacific are at least partially due to high levels of contemporary gene flow, the east-west structuring of populations within the Atlantic appears to be the result of historic fragmentation of populations rather than restricted contemporary gene flow. The contrasting results in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans highlight the necessity of carefully considering multilocus nonequilibrium population genetic approaches when reconstructing the demographic history of temperate Northern Hemisphere taxa. PMID:19140977

  8. An early to mid-Pleistocene deep Arctic Ocean ostracode fauna with North Atlantic affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Rodriquez-Lazaro, J.; Brenner, Alec R.

    2015-01-01

    An early to middle Pleistocene ostracode fauna was discovered in sediment core P1-93-AR-23 (P23, 76.95°N, 155.07°W) from 951 meter water depth from the Northwind Ridge, western Arctic Ocean. Piston core P23 yielded more than 30,000 specimens and a total of about 30 species. Several early to mid-Pleistocene species in the genera Krithe,Echinocythereis, Pterygocythereis, and Arcacythere are now extinct in the Arctic and show taxonomic affinities to North Atlantic Ocean species. Our results suggest that there was a major ostracode faunal turnover during the global climate transitions known as the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, ~ 1.2 to 0.7 Ma) and the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE, ~ 400 ka) reflecting the development of perennial sea ice during interglacial periods and large ice shelves during glacial periods over the last 400,000 years.

  9. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Ricardo P.; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R.; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D.; Ted Strub, P.; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-11-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf.

  10. Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Taylor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phytoplankton assemblages and the associated optical properties of the water body is important for the further development of algorithms for large-scale remote sensing of phytoplankton biomass and the identification of phytoplankton functional types (PFTs, which are often representative for different biogeochemical export scenarios. Optical in-situ measurements aid in the identification of phytoplankton groups with differing pigment compositions and are widely used to validate remote sensing data. In this study we present results from an interdisciplinary cruise aboard the R/V Polarstern along a north-to-south transect in the eastern Atlantic Ocean in November 2008. Phytoplankton community composition was identified using a broad set of in-situ measurements. Water samples from the surface and the depth of maximum chlorophyll concentration were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and microscopy. Simultaneously, the above- and underwater light field was measured by a set of high spectral resolution (hyperspectral radiometers. An unsupervised cluster algorithm applied to the measured parameters allowed us to define bio-optical provinces, which are compared to ecological provinces proposed elsewhere in the literature. This method has the potential to become an automated approach where satellite data could be used to identify shifting boundaries of established ecological provinces or to track exceptions from the rule to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical cycles in the ocean.

  11. Discovery of a chemosynthesis-based community in the western South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Adriana; Haag, Taiana; Simão, Taiz L. Lopes; Medina-Silva, Renata; Utz, Laura R. P.; Bogo, Maurício R.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Zamberlan, Priscilla M.; Augustin, Adolpho H.; Lourega, Rogério V.; Rodrigues, Luiz F.; Sbrissa, Gesiane F.; Kowsmann, Renato O.; Freire, Antonio F. M.; Miller, Dennis J.; Viana, Adriano R.; Ketzer, João M. M.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Chemosynthetic communities have been described from a variety of deep-sea environments across the world's oceans. They constitute very interesting biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, and also given their potential as indicators of the presence and abundance of consistent hydrocarbon-based nutritional sources. Up to now such peculiar biotic assemblages have not been reported for the western South Atlantic Ocean, leaving this large region undocumented with respect to the presence, composition and history of such communities. Here we report on the presence of a chemosynthetic community off the coast of southern Brazil, in an area where high-levels of methane and the presence of gas hydrates have been detected. We performed metagenomic analyses of the microbial community present at this site, and also employed molecular approaches to identify components of its benthic fauna. We conducted phylogenetic analyses comparing the components of this assemblage to those found elsewhere in the world, which allowed a historical assessment of the structure and dynamics of these systems. Our results revealed that the microbial community at this site is quite diverse, and contains many components that are very closely related to lineages previously sampled in ecologically similar environments across the globe. Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaeal groups were found to be very abundant at this site, suggesting that methane is indeed an important source of nutrition for this community. In addition, we document the presence at this site of a vestimentiferan siboglinid polychaete and the bivalve Acharax sp., both of which are typical components of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities. The remarkable similarity in biotic composition between this area and other deep-sea communities across the world supports the interpretation that these assemblages are historically connected across the global oceans, undergoing colonization from distant sites and

  12. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (4th root vespagrams to enhance the SS precursors and determine how they sample the mantle. Our data show detection of localized structure on the discontinuity boundaries as well as additional horizons, such as the X-discontinuity and a potential reflection from a discontinuity near the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These structures are related to the transition from predominantly old ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while deeper reflectors are associated with the subduction of the ancient Farallon slab. A comparison of the

  13. High-resolution ocean pH dynamics in four subtropical Atlantic benthic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, C. A.; Clemente, S.; Sangil, C.; Hernández, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of ocean pH are largely unknown in coastal environments and ocean acidification studies often do not account for natural variability yet most of what is known about marine species and populations is found out via studies conducted in near shore environments. Most experiments designed to make predictions about future climate change scenarios are carried out in coastal environments with no research that takes into account the natural pH variability. In order to fill this knowledge gap and to provide reliable measures of pH oscillation, seawater pH was measured over time using moored pH sensors in four contrasting phytocenoses typical of the north Atlantic subtropical region. Each phytocenosis was characterized by its predominant engineer species: (1) Cystoseira abies-marina, (2) a mix of gelidiales and geniculate corallines, (3) Lobophora variegata, and (4) encrusting corallines. The autonomous pH measuring systems consisted of a pH sensor; a data logger and a battery encased in a waterproof container and allowed the acquisition of high-resolution continuous pH data at each of the study sites. The pH variation observed ranged by between 0.09 and 0.24 pHNBS units. A clear daily variation in seawater pH was detected at all the studied sites (0.04-0.12 pHNBS units). Significant differences in daily pH oscillations were also observed between phytocenoses, which shows that macroalgal communities influence the seawater pH in benthic habitats. Natural oscillations in pH must be taken into account in future ocean acidification studies to put findings in perspective and for any ecological recommendations to be realistic.

  14. Ocean and atmosphere coupling, connection between sub-polar Atlantic air temperature, Icelandic minimum and temperature in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Boško

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper correlation between the northern part of the Atlantic ocean (belt between 50-65°N and the atmospheric pressure is examined. Connection between the ocean temperature and atmospheric pressure is the most obvious in the El Nino southern oscillation mechanism. Thus, so far it is not known that such a mechanism exist in the Atlantic ocean. The main accent in the presented paper is focused on the connection between Iceland low and the sea surface temperature (SST in the subpolar part of the Atlantic ocean (used data are in grid 5x5°. By hierarchical cluster analysis five relatively unified clusters of sea surface temperatures grid cells are defined. By multiple linear regression, we examined the correlation between each of the depicted clusters with position and intensity of Iceland low, and identified the most important grid cells inside every cluster. The analysis of the relation between Iceland low and air temperature in Serbia and Belgrade has shown the strongest correlation for the longitude of this centre of action. .

  15. Oceanic source strength of carbon monoxide on the basis of basin-wide observations in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keyhong; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-01-01

    We measured the carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean from 50°N to 50°S during the UK Atlantic Meridional Transect expedition (AMT-7) in October 1998, covering the open ocean and coastal regions. Throughout the cruise track, atmospheric CO concentrations continually decreased southwards in the northern hemisphere with sporadic low and high concentrations encountered. South of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) atmospheric CO was enhanced by ∼10 ppb compared to north of the ITCZ due likely to biomass burning emissions prevailing in the tropical continents. The remainder of the southern hemisphere remains nearly invariable except for the vicinity of Rio de la Plata. The surface seawater was supersaturated everywhere along the track and its saturation anomaly oscillated up to 90, exhibiting a typical diurnal cycle. The maximal dissolved CO concentration in the diurnal cycle appeared 2-5 hours behind the local maximum of solar insolation in the open ocean and the time lag further increased in the coastal region. The global ocean flux of CO to the atmosphere was estimated to be 14 Tg(CO) a(-1) within the range of 4-24 Tg(CO) a(-1). This is within uncertainty almost identical to what was estimated on the basis of the basin-wide observations in the Pacific and the Atlantic, but more than ∼4 times lower than the values appeared in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports.

  16. Oceanic source strength of carbon monoxide on the basis of basin-wide observations in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keyhong; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-01-01

    We measured the carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean from 50°N to 50°S during the UK Atlantic Meridional Transect expedition (AMT-7) in October 1998, covering the open ocean and coastal regions. Throughout the cruise track, atmospheric CO concentrations continually decreased southwards in the northern hemisphere with sporadic low and high concentrations encountered. South of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) atmospheric CO was enhanced by ∼10 ppb compared to north of the ITCZ due likely to biomass burning emissions prevailing in the tropical continents. The remainder of the southern hemisphere remains nearly invariable except for the vicinity of Rio de la Plata. The surface seawater was supersaturated everywhere along the track and its saturation anomaly oscillated up to 90, exhibiting a typical diurnal cycle. The maximal dissolved CO concentration in the diurnal cycle appeared 2-5 hours behind the local maximum of solar insolation in the open ocean and the time lag further increased in the coastal region. The global ocean flux of CO to the atmosphere was estimated to be 14 Tg(CO) a(-1) within the range of 4-24 Tg(CO) a(-1). This is within uncertainty almost identical to what was estimated on the basis of the basin-wide observations in the Pacific and the Atlantic, but more than ∼4 times lower than the values appeared in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. PMID:26648555

  17. Climate and vegetation changes around the Atlantic Ocean resulting from changes in the meridional overturning circulation during deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handiani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bølling-Allerød (BA, starting ~ 14.5 ka BP is one of the most pronounced abrupt warming periods recorded in ice and pollen proxies. The leading explanation of the cause of this warming is a sudden increase in the rate of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean and the resulting effect on the heat transport by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. In this study, we used the University of Victoria (UVic Earth System-Climate Model (ESCM to run simulations, in which a freshwater perturbation initiated a BA-like warming period. We found that under present climate conditions, the AMOC intensified when freshwater was added to the Southern Ocean. However, under Heinrich event 1 (HE1, ~ 16 ka BP climate conditions, the AMOC only intensified when freshwater was extracted from the North Atlantic Ocean, possibly corresponding to an increase in evaporation or a decrease in precipitation in this region. The intensified AMOC led to a warming in the North Atlantic Ocean and a cooling in the South Atlantic Ocean, resembling the bipolar seesaw pattern typical of the last glacial period.

    In addition to the physical response, we also studied the simulated vegetation response around the Atlantic Ocean region. Corresponding with the bipolar seesaw hypothesis, the rainbelt associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ shifted northward and affected the vegetation pattern in the tropics. The most sensitive vegetation area was found in tropical Africa, where grass cover increased and tree cover decreased under dry climate conditions. An equal but opposite response to the collapse and recovery of the AMOC implied that the change in vegetation cover was transient and robust to an abrupt climate change such as during the BA period, which is also supported by paleovegetation data. The results are in agreement with paleovegetation records from Western tropical Africa, which also show a reduction in forest cover during this

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...