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Sample records for atlantic molly poecilia

  1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ploidy determination and overall genetic diversity. Kathrin P. Lampert Dunja K. Lamatsch Susanne Schories Armin Hopf Francisco J. García De León ...

  2. Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)-prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Mahlow, Kristin; Hennige-Schulz, Carmen; Kronmarck, Claudia; Tiedemann, Ralph; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2009-08-21

    Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments). The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk). When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent

  3. SUBACTUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  4. SUBACUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  5. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

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    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  6. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

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    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  7. Development of thyroid neoplasia in old age in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper we have described the appearance of a thyrotrophin sensitive thyroid neoplasm in a few senile individuals from a laboratory population of guppies, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters). Material has now been examined from the closely related species, Poecilia formosa, the Amazon molly, in which the incidence of thyroid neoplasms in the senile fish of our clones approaches 100 percent. The spontaneous growth seen in the old mollies was large, occupying much of the pharyngeal region. It was formed of three zones; at the center were inactive follicles with flattened epithelial cells enclosing a dense uneroded colloid. Peripherally, there was an area which microfollicles predominated, and the follicular epithelial cells frequently were swollen and balloon-like. The outermost area of the growth contained many afollicular groups of epithelial cells, lying amongst a great deal of loose connective tissue. The thyroid tissue was invasive, destroying muscle and bone. We have suggested that the spontaneous thyroid neoplasia in old P. formosa and L. reticulatus arise in a similar way. They develop as a result of the inability of the aging thyroid to respond to thyrotrophic hormone. Under continued pituitary stimulation the thyroid cells greatly proliferate and hypertrophy, and form a neoplasia. The appearance is described of massive thyroid growths which were experimentally induced by the injection into young mollies of cells with damaged DNA. There were striking differences between the induced and the spontaneous thyroid growths. The neoplasia of old fish was highly variable in structure, but the induced neoplasia had a regular appearance. Neoplastic tissue closely resembled normal thyroid tissue--but the growth was exuberant and highly invasive. We suggest that the differences between the neoplasm of old age and the induced neoplasm may reflect a different hormonal status.

  8. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa

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    Woodhead, A.D.; Pond, V.; Dailey, K.

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  9. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-06-22

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species.

  10. The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish ( Poecilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult male molly fishes were reared up to ten days in control water or in water containing sodium perchlorate at concentrations of 1, 5, 25 and 125 ppm. Remarkable steatosis, fibrosis, hyperemia and necrosis were distinguished in parallel with increasing sodium perchlorate concentrations. The striking cellular damages ...

  11. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

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    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  12. Insights into the Social Behavior of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Fish (Poecilia mexicana in Light and Darkness through the Use of a Biomimetic Robot

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    David Bierbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots (BRs are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

  13. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. latipinna. Eight microsatellite loci were found to be poly- morphic. Sixteen primers allowed species identification and eight primers allowed diagnosis of different ploidy levels in. P. formosa. These microsatellites will be useful to gain new insights into the population structures, clonal variability and reproductive biology of a ...

  14. Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-05-27

    During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present.

  15. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

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    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

  16. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression. PMID:21507250

  17. Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish (Poecilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... potassium, 0.030 ± 0.008 mg/L for aluminium, 0.08 ± 0.055 mg/L for iron, and 6 ± 1 mg/L for nitrate. Sodium perchlorate 1-hydrate (Panreac Quimica SA-PA 134387,. CAS Number: 7791-07-3; Eksper Ltd. İzmir, Turkey) was used as the source of perchlorate and was added directly to system water.

  19. (colouration) in progeny of Poecilia reticulate (guppy)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is high demand for ornamental fishes with improve colouration. Colouration is sex specific in Poecilia reticulate (Guppy) and the colour variation within the wild and exotic breeds is at variance. The effect of parental sex and breed on colouration of progeny in Poecilia reticulata (Guppy) was studied. Two breeds of P.

  20. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

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    Ewa Kulczykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops: masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT and isotocin (IT, counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates.

  1. Population Genomics of the Euryhaline Teleost Poecilia latipinna.

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    J C B Nunez

    Full Text Available Global climate change and increases in sea levels will affect coastal marine communities. The conservation of these ecologically important areas will be a challenge because of their wide geographic distribution, ecological diversity and species richness. To address this problem, we need to better understand how the genetic variation of the species in these communities is distributed within local populations, among populations and between distant regions. In this study we apply genotyping by sequencing (GBS and examine 955 SNPs to determine Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna genetic diversity among three geographically close mangrove salt marsh flats in the Florida Keys compared to populations in southern and northern Florida. The questions we are asking are whether there is sufficient genetic variation among isolated estuarine fish within populations and whether there are significant divergences among populations. Additionally, we want to know if GBS approaches agree with previous studies using more traditional molecular approaches. We are able to identify large genetic diversity within each saltmarsh community (π ≈ 36%. Additionally, among the Florida Key populations and the mainland or between southern and northern Florida regions, there are significant differences in allele frequencies seen in population structure and evolutionary relationships among individuals. Surprisingly, even though the cumulative FST value using all 955 SNPs within the three Florida Key populations is small, there are 29 loci with significant FST values, and 11 of these were outliers suggestive of adaptive divergence. These data suggest that among the salt marsh flats surveyed here, there is significant genetic diversity within each population and small but significant differences among populations. Much of the genetic variation within and among populations found here with GBS is very similar to previous studies using allozymes and microsatellites. However, the

  2. An Examination of the Most Recent Episode of Molly Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamates, Amy L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Sheehan, Brynn E.; Preonas, Peter D.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study examined event-level characteristics (e.g., contextual factors, risk behaviors) during the most recent episode of Molly use among a sample of college students who reported previously using Molly. Participants Participants (N = 151; 66.7% female) were drinkers aged 18 to 25. Data were collected from October to November 2014, February to April 2015, and September to November 2015. Method Participants completed measures regarding typical Molly use and items related to context and behaviors during their most recent episode of Molly use. Results Findings revealed that our sample most commonly reported using Molly earlier in the evening while hanging out with friends or at a party. Additionally, sexual and other drug use behaviors commonly occurred when using Molly. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary information in guiding future work exploring Molly use and potential substance-related issues associated with the context of when and how Molly is consumed. PMID:29033463

  3. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

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    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  4. How accurate is MOLLI T1 mapping in vivo? Validation by spin echo methods.

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    Mitchell A Cooper

    Full Text Available T1 mapping is a promising quantitative tool for assessing diffuse cardiomyopathies. The purpose of this study is to quantify in vivo accuracy of the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI cardiac T1 mapping sequence against the spin echo gold standard, which has not been done previously. T1 accuracy of MOLLI was determined by comparing with the gold standard inversion recovery spin echo sequence in the calf muscle, and with a rapid inversion recovery fast spin echo sequence in the heart. T1 values were obtained with both conventional MOLLI fitting and MOLLI fitting with inversion efficiency correction. In the calf (n = 6, conventional MOLLI fitting produced inconsistent T1 values with error ranging from 8.0% at 90° to 17.3% at 30°. Modified MOLLI fitting with inversion efficiency correction improved error to under 7.4% at all flip angles. In the heart (n = 5, modified MOLLI fitting with inversion correction reduced T1 error to 5.5% from 14.0% by conventional MOLLI fitting. This study shows that conventional MOLLI fitting can lead to significant in vivo T1 errors when not accounting for the lower adiabatic inversion efficiency often experienced in vivo.

  5. Effect of Heating on the Viscosity and Rheology of Grewia mollis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effect of concentration and prolonged heating on the rheological properties of gums from Grewia mollis, Bombax ceiba and their binary mixtures. After extraction, the gums were divided into four batches each. The binary mixture was obtained by triturating Grewia mollis and Bombax ceiba gum in a ...

  6. Megastimanes and ergostane type steroid from leaves Cratylia mollis (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luciano S.; Lima, Marcos V.B.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Inst. de Quimica; Giulietti, Ana M.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    From the methanolic extract of the leaves of Cratylia mollis were obtained by chromatographic techniques (3S,5S,6S,9R)-3,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-beta-ionol (1), and a new bis-norisoprenoid named (4S{sup *}, 6S{sup *})-4-but-1E-enyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohex-2-enone (2) as well as 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy ergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated based on MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic data analyses. (author)

  7. Comparison of updates to the Molly cow model to predict methane production from dairy cows fed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Beukes, P C; Hanigan, M D; Waghorn, G; Muetzel, S; McNamara, J P

    2013-08-01

    Molly is a deterministic, mechanistic, dynamic model representing the digestion, metabolism, and production of a dairy cow. This study compared the predictions of enteric methane production from the original version of Molly (MollyOrigin) and 2 new versions of Molly. Updated versions included new ruminal fiber digestive parameters and animal hormonal parameters (Molly84) and a revised version of digestive and ruminal parameters (Molly85), using 3 different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometry constructs to describe the VFA pattern and methane (CH4) production (g of CH4/d). The VFA stoichiometry constructs were the original forage and mixed-diet VFA constructs and a new VFA stoichiometry based on a more recent and larger set of data that includes lactate and valerate production, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria, as well as protozoal pools. The models' outputs were challenged using data from 16 dairy cattle 26 mo old [standard error of the mean (SEM)=1.7], 82 (SEM=8.7) d in milk, producing 17 (SEM=0.2) kg of milk/d, and fed fresh-cut ryegrass [dry matter intake=12.3 (SEM=0.3) kg of DM/d] in respiration chambers. Mean observed CH4 production was 266±5.6 SEM (g/d). Mean predicted values for CH4 production were 287 and 258 g/d for MollyOrigin without and with the new VFA construct. Model Molly84 predicted 295 and 288 g of CH4/d with and without the new VFA settings. Model Molly85 predicted the same CH4 production (276 g/d) with or without the new VFA construct. The incorporation of the new VFA construct did not consistently reduce the low prediction error across the versions of Molly evaluated in the present study. The improvements in the Molly versions from MollyOrigin to Molly84 to Molly85 resulted in a decrease in mean square prediction error from 8.6 to 8.3 to 4.3% using the forage diet setting. The majority of the mean square prediction error was apportioned to random bias (e.g., 43, 65, and 70% in MollyOrigin, Molly84, and Molly85, respectively, on

  8. Antioxidant, phenolic and antifungal profiles of Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Carlos; Leyton, Miguel; Osorio, Mauricio; Silva, Viviana; Fleming, Francisco; Paz, Marilyn; Madrid, Alejandro; Mellado, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Acanthus mollis is used as ornamental and medicinal plant. The ethnopharmacology reports indicate that extracts have anti-inflammatory activity. Phytoconstituents profile was evaluated by estimating the content of anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenols. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated using four methods: Hydrogen atoms transfer (TRAP, ORAC and DPPH assays), and single electron transfer (FRAP assay). Finally, antifungal activity was determined by the M27-A2 test. The results shown that ethanol extracts have the highest concentration of phenols, anthraquinones and flavonoids. Total antioxidant capacity, extracts of ethyl acetate and ethanol are those with the highest activity, which correlates strongly with the presence of phenols. The antifungal activity measured in various strains of Candida is concentrated in ethyl acetate extracts of flower and leaf ethanol, a phenomenon may be related to antioxidant activity.

  9. Santal monohydrate, an isoflavone isolated from Wyethia mollis

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    Kyle S. Knight

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one monohydrate], C16H12O6·H2O, is a monohydrate of a natural product santal isolated from Wyethia mollis. In the santal molecule, the dihedral angle between the benzoquinone and dihydroxyphenyl fragments is 53.9 (1° and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into corrugated layers parallel to the ac plane. The short distance of 3.474 (5 Å between the centroids of the benzene rings in neighbouring santal molecules reveals then existence of π–π interactions within the layers.

  10. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, A M; Magurran, A E

    2006-10-07

    Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation.

  12. MOLLI and AIR T1 mapping pulse sequences yield different myocardial T1 and ECV measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, KyungPyo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Both post-contrast myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) have been reported to be associated with diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Recently, the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) field is recognizing that post-contrast myocardial T1 is sensitive to several confounders and migrating towards ECV as a measure of collagen volume fraction. Several recent studies using widely available Modified Look-Locker Inversion-recovery (MOLLI) have reported ECV cutoff values to distinguish between normal and diseased myocardium. It is unclear if these cutoff values are translatable to different T1 mapping pulse sequences such as arrhythmia-insensitive-rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping, which was recently developed to rapidly image patients with cardiac rhythm disorders. We sought to evaluate, in well-controlled canine and pig experiments, the relative accuracy and precision, as well as intra- and inter-observer variability in data analysis, of ECV measured with AIR as compared with MOLLI. In 16 dogs, as expected, the mean T1 was significantly different (p ECV between MOLLI (21.8 ± 2.1%) and AIR (19.6 ± 2.4%) was also significantly different (p ECV calculations were similar between MOLLI and AIR. In six pigs, the coefficient of repeatability (CR), as defined by the Bland-Altman analysis, in T1 calculation was considerably lower for MOLLI (32.5 ms) than AIR (82.3 ms), and the CR in ECV calculation was also lower for MOLLI (1.8%) than AIR (4.5%). In conclusion, this study shows that MOLLI and AIR yield significantly different T1 and ECV values in large animals and that MOLLI yields higher precision than AIR. Findings from this study suggest that CMR researchers must consider the specific pulse sequence when translating published ECV cutoff values into their own studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Food and Feeding Habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata , from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, from drainage canal systems in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria, was investigated over a period of 24 months. Fish samples were collected monthly from 15 study sites. A total of 2400 fish stomachs were analyzed using the numerical and frequency of occurrence ...

  14. Prevalence and Histopathologic Study of Lernaea cyprinacea in Two Species of Ornamental Fish (Poecilia latipinna and Xiphophorus helleri) in Kerman, South-East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Lernaeids are crustacean parasites that are globally distributed among freshwater and marine fish. Approximately 110 species of Lernaeids have been divided into 14 genera. The most common species of Lernaeids is Lernaea cyprinacea, which has been transmitted to ornamental fish worldwide. The economic importance of L. cyprinacea is increasing because of the epidemic caused by the parasite in most of the ornamental fish breeding centers in different parts of the world. The parasite affects its host's health, decreases growth rate, and causes abnormal metabolic activity. Accumulation of these parasites in some parts of the body causes painful points and has harmful outcomes for the functioning and survival of the host. The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence of L. cyprinacea among ornamental fish within 1 year from September-October 2011 to September-October 2012. In total, 3520 fish [3380 mollies (Poecilia latipinna) and 140 swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri)] were collected from 10 fish maintenance and breeding centers in Kerman, Iran. Of 3520 fish, only 186 fish (5.3%) were infected with L. cyprinacea, and the remaining fish (94.7%) were not infected. The swordtails (X. helleri) and mollies (P. latipinna) showed the highest (10.7%) and the lowest (5.1%) level of infection, respectively. In other words, there was a significant correlation between species of fish and L. cyprinacea infection (pornamental fish reproduction and breeding centers in Kerman, public knowledge should increase through management methods; physical and chemical treatments should also be applied to inform the public regarding the risk of infection and other internal diseases that may be associated with ornamental fish.

  15. A modified version of the Molly rumen model to quantify methane emissions from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetharaniam, I; Vibart, R E; Hanigan, M D; Janssen, P H; Tavendale, M H; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    We modified the rumen submodel of the Molly dairy cow model to simulate the rumen of a sheep and predict its methane emissions. We introduced a rumen hydrogen (H2) pool as a dynamic variable, which (together with the microbial pool in Molly) was used to predict methane production, to facilitate future consideration of thermodynamic control of methanogenesis. The new model corrected a misspecification of the equation of microbial H2 utilization in Molly95, which could potentially give rise to unrealistic predictions under conditions of low intake rates. The new model included a function to correct biases in the estimation of net H2 production based on the default stoichiometric relationships in Molly95, with this function specified in terms of level of intake. Model parameters for H2 and methane production were fitted to experimental data that included fresh temperate forages offered to sheep at a wide range of intake levels and then tested against independent data. The new model provided reasonable estimates relative to the calibration data set, but a different parameterization was needed to improve its predicted ability relative to the validation data set. Our results indicate that, although feedback inhibition on H2 production and methanogen activity increased with feeding level, other feedback effects that vary with diet composition need to be considered in future work on modeling rumen digestion in Molly.

  16. Karyotypic studies of Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and C. mollis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae - Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, S M; Torres, G A; Sobrinho, F S; Pereira, A V; Davide, L C

    2007-09-30

    Cratylia argentea and C. mollis (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae) are legume shrubs native to the Cerrado and Caatinga, respectively. Both species show great resistance to drought and high nutritive value, which makes them a valuable forage resource in tropical regions. Cytogenetic studies were carried out on accessions of C. argentea and C. mollis from Germplasm Banks of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Juiz de Fora, MG) and Embrapa Semi-Arido (Petrolina, PE), respectively. Root tips were treated with 3 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline and slides were made using the air-dry technique. Karyotype description for each accession took into account the following features: chromosome number; total length, relative length and arm ratio of each chromosome; haploid set length, and degree of asymmetry. Mitotic metaphases in both species showed 2n = 22 chromosomes, where this is the first report of diploid number for C. mollis. Chromosome length was also quite similar for the two species, ranging from 5.08 to 2.50 microm in C. argentea and 5.12 to 2.51 microm in C. mollis, with haploid sets of equal size, measuring 38.10 and 37.85 microm, respectively. However, they did not show the same karyotypic formula, which was 5 m + 4 sm + 2 st for C. argentea and 7 m + 2 sm + 2 st for C. mollis. This indicates the occurrence of rearrangements within chromosomes I and VI. Both karyotypes showed a tendency for asymmetry.

  17. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  18. T1 measurements in the human myocardium: the effects of magnetization transfer on the SASHA and MOLLI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Matthew D; Piechnik, Stefan K; Tunnicliffe, Elizabeth M; Neubauer, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative mapping of the native T1 of the heart using the modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) technique provides high quality diagnostic information without requiring contrast agents. Previous work has considered the effects of T2 relaxation on MOLLI T1 measurements, finding that the T1 measured by MOLLI is biased, and that Saturation-recovery single-Shot Acquisition generates a more precise T1. However, despite detailed experiments and simulation the exact relaxation times observed in vivo remain unexplained, but might be due to magnetization transfer (MT). We used an MT simulation based on the Bloch-McConnell equations to evaluate the most common MOLLI and saturation-recovery single-shot acquisition sequence variants. For myocardial tissue we find that the T1 measured by saturation-recovery single-shot acquisition is insensitive to MT and T2, whereas MT reduces the T1 measured by MOLLI (>10%) in addition to the effects due to T2 relaxation. The consequences of this T1 underestimation by MOLLI are relevant. Increases in the actual T1 and T2 and decreases in MT will all result in an increase in T1 measured by MOLLI. Myocardial infarction demonstrates increased native T1 and T2 and decreased MT, indicating that these biases enhance the sensitivity of MOLLI to detect this and possibly other cardiovascular disease states. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Agresividad agonística en "Poecilia reticulata" Peters, 1859

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Hernández, Cristhian

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Se observa que la asimetría en talla no es determinante en las interacciones agresivas que tienen lugar entre machos de Poecilia reticulata, aunque éstos se muestra más agresivos cuando los contendientes son de talla similar. Por otro lado, el contexto ambiental condiciona la agresividad desplegada, de modo que la posibilidad de contacto directo entre contendientes incrementa la agresividad. Al contrario, cuando el riesgo de predación es muy elevado la agresiv...

  20. Characterization of Modified Look Locker (MOLLI) using Bloch Simulations and Corroboration with Scan Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gai, N.D.; Stehning, C.; Nacif, M.; Bluemke, D.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript shows that Bloch simulations provide a convenient way for predicting response of a modified Look Locker (MOLLI) T1 mapping sequence to various parameters that affect T1 accuracy of the technique. In particular, the effect of T2 on accuracy is shown. Phantom- and first in vivo

  1. Identification of myocardial diffuse fibrosis by 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  2. Postglacial recolonization and the biogeography of Palmaria mollis (Rhodophyta) along the Northeast Pacific coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, S.C; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively

  3. The anatomy of branch abscission layers in Perebea mollis and Naucleopsis guianensis (Castilleae, Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    The shedding of branches along a preformed layer is a complex phenomenon in which several types of xylem elements are involved. The abscission layers in Perebea mollis and Naucleopsis guianensis are distinguished from the normally developed xylem by the presence of shorter unlignified fibres with

  4. Life Review in the Novels of Molly Keane, Elizabeth Bowen, and Peter Taylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt-Brown, A. M.

    Gerontologists have studied the role of memory and reminiscence in later life to see if life review leads to increased satisfaction in old age. Novelists offer some concrete examples of the varying ways that this review can affect the self-esteem of aging persons. Molly Keane, Elizabeth Bowen, and Peter Taylor all agree that late middle age…

  5. Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Intskirveli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata, bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function belongs in the visual system-response functions, the full development of which requires the accumulation of individual visual experience.

  6. Selección sexual en Poecilia reticulata (Guppys)

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Buceta, Paula

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Del análisis de la literatura se puede concluir que las hembras de Poecilia reticulata al seleccionar a sus parejas con fines reproductivos, tienden a escoger machos con una ornamentación llamativa y a individuos que realicen movimientos destacables a la hora de efectuar el cortejo. No obstante, nuestros resultados muestran que la respuesta de selección de las hembras es muy variable, sin que se pueda definir ningún patrón concreto de selección o característica de los machos, tanto de co...

  7. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata prefer males that can learn fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, A J; Watt, P J

    2009-10-01

    The role of learning ability as a potentially desirable male trait in sexual selection was investigated in the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Mate preference tests and the rate at which a male learnt two mazes were used to determine whether female preference was related to male learning ability. In addition, male body size and saturation of the orange patches were measured. Female preference was found to be related to rate of learning, such that males that learnt the mazes faster were found to be more attractive to females, but was not found to be related to body size or saturation.

  8. Pharmaceutical Properties and Applications of a Natural Polymer from Grewia mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Nep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of naturally occurring biocompatible materials has been the focus of recent research activity in the design of dosage forms for immediate and controlled release formulations. Grewia gum is an intracellular gum obtained by extraction from the inner stem bark of the shrub Grewia mollis (Malvaceae. It grows abundantly (wild or cultivated in the middle belt region of Nigeria, and the mucilage has been used by indigenes of this belt as thickener in soups. Grewia gum has been investigated for potential applications in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The industrial extrapolation of the applications of the gum has, however, been slowed by the limited structural, toxicological, and stability data available on the gum. This paper highlights ethnobotanical uses of G. mollis shrub and discusses the structural features, functional properties, and applications of grewia gum with emphases on its pharmaceutical potentials.

  9. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  10. Acute toxicity of Amanranthus viridus extract on guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsirapoj, S; Sudthonghong, C; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    Many Thai plant species shows the responsible for controlling insects from the host plants. To avoid potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, this present study was investigated for acute toxicity from Amaranthus viridis to Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 5 times and the 1-, 3- and 24-h LC50 was determined for the guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for Amaranthus viridis concentration extract which extracted by Soxhlet's extraction method with ethanol as solvent. Water temperature was regulated at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Data obtained from the acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit analysis statistical method. The 24-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as ca. 947 mg L(-1) (r2 = 0.95). However, in this concentration, no mortality was observed at higher concentration for 30 second.

  11. Familiarity affects collective motion in shoals of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scarlet; Lukeman, Ryan; Schaerf, Timothy M; Ward, Ashley J W

    2017-09-01

    The coordinated and synchronized movement of animals in groups often referred to as collective motion emerges through the interactions between individual animals within the group. Factors which affect these interactions have the potential to shape collective movement. One such factor is familiarity, or the tendency to bias behaviour towards individuals as a result of social recognition. We examined the effect of familiarity on the expression of collective motion in small shoals of female guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ). Groups comprising familiar individuals were more strongly polarized than groups of unfamiliar individuals, particularly when in novel surroundings. The ability to form more strongly polarized shoals potentially promotes information transfer and enhances the anti-predator benefits of grouping.

  12. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency

  13. Description of Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) wingei n. sp. from the Paría Peninsula, Venezuela, including notes on Acanthophacelus Eigenmann, 1907 and other subgenera of Poecilia Bloch and Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.; Kempkes, M.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomy of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, is reviewed and the closely related Campoma guppy, P. wingei n. sp., is described. Formerly, the common guppy was not judged to be closely related to any other species of Poecilia, but the new species is the second species to be

  14. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat (Triticum aestivum)-American dune grass (Leymus mollis) translocation line resistant to stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y; Wang, J; He, F; Ma, H; Wang, H

    2012-05-22

    Leymus mollis, a perennial allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28), known as American dune grass, is a wild relative of wheat that could be useful for cultivar improvement. Shannong0096, developed from interspecific hybridization between common wheat cv. Yannong15 and L. mollis, was analyzed with cytological procedures, genomic in situ hybridization, stripe-rust resistance screening and molecular marker analysis. We found that Shannong0096 has 42 chromosomes in the root-tip cells at mitotic metaphase and 21 bivalents in the pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase I, demonstrating cytogenetic stability. Genomic in situ hybridization probed with total genomic DNA from L. mollis gave strong hybridization signals in the distal region of two wheat chromosome arms. A single dominant Yr gene, derived from L. mollis and temporarily designated as YrSn0096, was found on the long arm of chromosome 4A of Shannong0096. YrSn0096 should be a novel Yr gene because none of the previously reported Yr genes on chromosome 4A are related to L. mollis. This gene was found to be closely linked to the loci Xbarc236 and Xksum134 with genetic distances of 5.0 and 4.8 cM, respectively. Based on data from 267 F(2) plants of Yannong15/Huixianhong, the linkage map of YrSn0096, using the two molecular markers, was established in the order Xbarc236-YrSn0096-Xksum134. Shannong0096 appeared to be a unique wheat-L. mollis translocation with cryptic alien introgression. Cytogenetic stability, a high level of stripe-rust resistance, the common wheat background, and other positive agronomic traits make it a desirable donor for introducing novel alien resistance genes in wheat breeding programs, with the advantage of molecular markers that can be used to confirm introgression.

  15. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  16. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Soares

    Full Text Available Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  17. Aerial Jumping in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S.

    2013-01-01

    Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal. PMID:23613883

  18. Exploring the solitaire illusion in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J; Agrillo, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion that occurs when the spatial arrangement of items influences quantity estimation. To date, this illusion has been reported in monkeys, although it seems to be weaker compared with its prevalence in humans, and no study has investigated whether nonprimate species perceive it. In the present work, we asked whether a more distantly related species, fish, perceived the solitaire illusion. To achieve this goal, adult guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) were trained to select the array containing the larger quantity of black dots in the presence of 2 mixed arrays containing white and black dots. After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with novel dot quantities, including test trials with 2 solitaire arrangements. The overall performance of the subjects indicated that they perceived the illusion, although analyses at the individual level indicated interindividual differences. These results align with recent evidence from nonhuman primates suggesting that distantly related species also may perceive this illusion, even though numerosity misperception arising from the solitaire arrangement appears to be less robust than in human and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Geographical variation in allometry in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egset, C K; Bolstad, G H; Rosenqvist, G; Endler, J A; Pélabon, C

    2011-12-01

    Variation in static allometry, the power relationship between character size and body size among individuals at similar developmental stages, remains poorly understood. We tested whether predation or other ecological factors could affect static allometry by comparing the allometry between the caudal fin length and the body length in adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) among populations from different geographical areas, exposed to different predation pressures. Neither the allometric slopes nor the allometric elevations (intercept at constant slope) changed with predation pressure. However, populations from the Northern Range in Trinidad showed allometry with similar slopes but lower intercepts than populations from the Caroni and the Oropouche drainages. Because most of these populations are exposed to predation by the prawn Macrobrachium crenulatum, we speculated that the specific selection pressures exerted by this predator generated this change in relative caudal fin size, although effects of other environmental factors could not be ruled out. This study further suggests that the allometric elevation is more variable than the allometric slope. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Who is 'Molly'? MDMA adulterants by product name and the impact of harm-reduction services at raves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleemi, Sarah; Pennybaker, Steven J; Wooldridge, Missi; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-08-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), often sold as 'Ecstasy' or 'Molly', is commonly used at music festivals and reported to be responsible for an increase in deaths over the last decade. Ecstasy is often adulterated and contains compounds that increase morbidity and mortality. While users and clinicians commonly assume that products sold as Molly are less-adulterated MDMA products, this has not been tested. Additionally, while pill-testing services are sometimes available at raves, the assumption that these services decrease risky drug use has not been studied. This study analyzed data collected by the pill-testing organization, DanceSafe, from events across the United States from 2010 to 2015. Colorimetric reagent assays identified MDMA in only 60% of the 529 samples collected. No significant difference in the percentage of samples testing positive for MDMA was determined between Ecstasy and Molly. Individuals were significantly less likely to report intent to use a product if testing did not identify MDMA (relative risk (RR) = 0.56, p = 0.01). Results suggest that Molly is not a less-adulterated substance, and that pill-testing services are a legitimate harm-reduction service that decreases intent to consume potentially dangerous substances and may warrant consideration by legislators for legal protection. Future research should further examine the direct effects of pill-testing services and include more extensive pill-testing methods.

  1. Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) for clinical myocardial T1-mapping at 1.5 and 3 T within a 9 heartbeat breathhold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechnik, Stefan K; Ferreira, Vanessa M; Dall'Armellina, Erica; Cochlin, Lowri E; Greiser, Andreas; Neubauer, Stefan; Robson, Matthew D

    2010-11-19

    T1 mapping allows direct in-vivo quantitation of microscopic changes in the myocardium, providing new diagnostic insights into cardiac disease. Existing methods require long breath holds that are demanding for many cardiac patients. In this work we propose and validate a novel, clinically applicable, pulse sequence for myocardial T1-mapping that is compatible with typical limits for end-expiration breath-holding in patients. The Shortened MOdified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) method uses sequential inversion recovery measurements within a single short breath-hold. Full recovery of the longitudinal magnetisation between sequential inversion pulses is not achieved, but conditional interpretation of samples for reconstruction of T1-maps is used to yield accurate measurements, and this algorithm is implemented directly on the scanner. We performed computer simulations for 100 msT1 3T. In-vivo myocardial T1-mapping using this method and the previous gold-standard (MOLLI) was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T, 4 volunteers with contrast injection at 1.5T, and 4 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI) at 3T. We found good agreement between the average ShMOLLI and MOLLI estimates for T1 T1 values, with estimates characterized by a constant 4% underestimation for T1 = 800-2700 ms. In-vivo, ShMOLLI measurements required 9.0 ± 1.1 s (MOLLI = 17.6 ± 2.9 s). Average healthy myocardial T1 s by ShMOLLI at 1.5T were 966 ± 48 ms (mean ± SD) and 1166 ± 60 ms at 3T. In MI patients, the T1 in unaffected myocardium (1216 ± 42 ms) was similar to controls at 3T. Ischemically injured myocardium showed increased T1 = 1432 ± 33 ms (p T1. The in-vivo variability within ShMOLLI T1-maps was only 14% (1.5T) or 18% (3T) higher than the MOLLI maps, but the MOLLI acquisitions were twice longer than ShMOLLI acquisitions. ShMOLLI is an efficient method that generates immediate, high-resolution myocardial T1-maps in a short breath-hold with high precision

  2. Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI for clinical myocardial T1-mapping at 1.5 and 3 T within a 9 heartbeat breathhold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiser Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T1 mapping allows direct in-vivo quantitation of microscopic changes in the myocardium, providing new diagnostic insights into cardiac disease. Existing methods require long breath holds that are demanding for many cardiac patients. In this work we propose and validate a novel, clinically applicable, pulse sequence for myocardial T1-mapping that is compatible with typical limits for end-expiration breath-holding in patients. Materials and methods The Shortened MOdified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI method uses sequential inversion recovery measurements within a single short breath-hold. Full recovery of the longitudinal magnetisation between sequential inversion pulses is not achieved, but conditional interpretation of samples for reconstruction of T1-maps is used to yield accurate measurements, and this algorithm is implemented directly on the scanner. We performed computer simulations for 100 msIn-vivo myocardial T1-mapping using this method and the previous gold-standard (MOLLI was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T, 4 volunteers with contrast injection at 1.5T, and 4 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI at 3T. Results We found good agreement between the average ShMOLLI and MOLLI estimates for T1 In-vivo, ShMOLLI measurements required 9.0 ± 1.1 s (MOLLI = 17.6 ± 2.9 s. Average healthy myocardial T1 s by ShMOLLI at 1.5T were 966 ± 48 ms (mean ± SD and 1166 ± 60 ms at 3T. In MI patients, the T1 in unaffected myocardium (1216 ± 42 ms was similar to controls at 3T. Ischemically injured myocardium showed increased T1 = 1432 ± 33 ms (p in-vivo variability within ShMOLLI T1-maps was only 14% (1.5T or 18% (3T higher than the MOLLI maps, but the MOLLI acquisitions were twice longer than ShMOLLI acquisitions. Conclusion ShMOLLI is an efficient method that generates immediate, high-resolution myocardial T1-maps in a short breath-hold with high precision. This technique provides a valuable

  3. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage.

  4. Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

    2009-08-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development.

  5. Ecology and morphological characters of different populations of Poecilia sphenops vandepolli (Cyprinidontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feltkamp, Constance A.; Kristensen, Ingvar

    1970-01-01

    In the Netherlands Antilles, opposite the Venezuelan coast, the cyprinodont fish Poecilia sphenops vandepolli is found in fresh water, in brackish water, in the sea and in supersaline water. When comparing the populations from fresh water, sea water and supersaline water some significant

  6. PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

  7. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  8. Constituintes químicos das folhas e do caule de Coccoloba mollisCasaretto (Polygonaceae

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    Patrícia Emanuella S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available O estudo químico das frações neutra em hexano das folhas e em diclorometano do caule de Coccoloba mollis resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno pentacíclico (simiarenol, que pela primeira vez ocorre em Polygonaceae, dois fitoesteróides (sitostenona e sitosterol, um diterpeno (trans-fitol e de um benzenóide (ácido vanílico que está sendo descrito pela vez neste gênero. A identificação estrutural destes compostos foi feita com base na análise dos dados espectrais (IV, EM e RMN, incluindo DEPT e HMQC, bem como pela comparação com dados descritos na literatura.

  9. Flash Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Oil from Elaeagnus mollis Diels Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Ding, Qingzhen; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2017-04-03

    A flash extraction method was used to isolate Elaeagnus mollis oil (EMO). The optimal extraction parameters, sample/solvent ratio and extraction temperature, were determined to be 1:10 (g/mL) and 40°C, respectively. Especially, the extraction yield reached 49.30% when the extraction time was as short as 2 min. No obvious difference was observed in fatty acid composition, iodine value, saponification number, total phenolic content and tocopherol content between flash-extracted EMO and Soxhlet-extracted EMO, but their physicochemical values were lower than those of cold-pressed EMO. Cold-pressed EMO had higher oxidation stability, DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities than flash-extracted EMO and Soxlet extracted EMO. The flash extraction is demonstrated to be an alternative, efficient method for the vegetable oil production.

  10. USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae from Western Ghats region, Karnataka, India

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    Rajesh K. Joshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis as obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Twentyseven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%, followed by α-humulene (17.3%, piperitenone oxide (8.5%, cis-piperitone oxide (6.0% and E-β-farnesene (5.9%. The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%, followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065±0.008-0.937±0.139mg/mL, 0.468±0.069-3.333±0.527 mg/mL and 0.117±0.0170.338±0.062mg/mL respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be

  12. Cardiac MOLLI T1 mapping at 3.0 T: comparison of patient-adaptive dual-source RF and conventional RF transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasper, Michael; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Sträter, Alexandra S; Settles, Marcus; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Rummeny, Ernst J; Huber, Armin M

    2017-06-01

    To prospectively compare image quality and myocardial T1 relaxation times of modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) imaging at 3.0 T (T) acquired with patient-adaptive dual-source (DS) and conventional single-source (SS) radiofrequency (RF) transmission. Pre- and post-contrast MOLLI T1 mapping using SS and DS was acquired in 27 patients. Patient wise and segment wise analysis of T1 times was performed. The correlation of DS MOLLI measurements with a reference spin echo sequence was analysed in phantom experiments. DS MOLLI imaging reduced T1 standard deviation in 14 out of 16 myocardial segments (87.5%). Significant reduction of T1 variance could be obtained in 7 segments (43.8%). DS significantly reduced myocardial T1 variance in 16 out of 25 patients (64.0%). With conventional RF transmission, dielectric shading artefacts occurred in six patients causing diagnostic uncertainty. No according artefacts were found on DS images. DS image findings were in accordance with conventional T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Phantom experiments demonstrated good correlation of myocardial T1 time between DS MOLLI and spin echo imaging. Dual-source RF transmission enhances myocardial T1 homogeneity in MOLLI imaging at 3.0 T. The reduction of signal inhomogeneities and artefacts due to dielectric shading is likely to enhance diagnostic confidence.

  13. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  14. Pengaruh ukuran tubuh ikan Poecilia reticulata pada daya pemangsaannya terhadap larva Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Moehammadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know the influence of poecilia reticulata body size, in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The research was experimental method with Complete Random Design., each treatment with 5 replications. The taken body size of Poecilia reticulata were; 1,50 cm; 2.50 cm; and 3.50 cm. the size of fish €™s body was measured from the tip of snout up to the end of fin (cm. The feeding capacity was determined by subtracting the first amount of larvae which was given the rest of larvae after 24 hours. The result showed that the difference of size of Poecilia reticulate body was significantly different in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The fish whose body size was 1.50 cm had the lowest feeding capacity by eating 77.2 larvae for average, and the highest one was the fist which body size was 2.50 cm by eating 113.6 larvae for average, subsequently the feeding capacity decrease to the fish which body size was 3.50 cm because of eating 100,6 larvae for 24 hours.

  15. Erich Fromm's productivity: creativity as exemplified by Joyce's blooming of Leopold and Molly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    According to Erich Fromm, the productive character expresses what he called the life force in ways that are, by nature, artistic in quality. His valuing of the vital and the artistic, fueled by this life force in our potential to be human, serves as the cornerstone of his model of psychoanalysis. Gilbert Rose, author of Necessary Illusion: Art as "Witness", also has identified the parallel between analytic and artistic processes, building on the assumption that the therapeutic alliance and the aesthetic alliance are one and the same. In elaborating this assumption and extending the parallel between Rose and Fromm, I draw the conclusion that the qualities of relationships have an impact on one's ability to express oneself creatively, to live an artistic life--that is, to live productively. Psychoanalysis is, in practice, a process that is artistic, creative, and re-creative in nature. To the degree that authentic expression of emotionally charged implicit knowledge of the ineffable (the emotional life that resides deep in the bodymind) results in transformation and healing, the process is artistic in nature. This process is exemplified by examining the life and literary creations of James Joyce, especially Joyce's characters of Molly and Leopold Bloom in Ulysses.

  16. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  17. Malaria Disease Mapping in Malaysia based on Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah Samat, Nor; Mey, Liew Wan

    2017-09-01

    Disease mapping is the visual representation of the geographical distribution which give an overview info about the incidence of disease within a population through spatial epidemiology data. Based on the result of map, it helps in monitoring and planning resource needs at all levels of health care and designing appropriate interventions, tailored towards areas that deserve closer scrutiny or communities that lead to further investigations to identify important risk factors. Therefore, the choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important because production of disease risk map relies on the model used. This paper proposes Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model to estimate the relative risk for Malaria in Malaysia. The analysis involved using the number of Malaria cases that obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The outcomes of analysis are displayed through graph and map, including Malaria disease risk map that constructed according to the estimation of relative risk. The distribution of high and low risk areas of Malaria disease occurrences for all states in Malaysia can be identified in the risk map.

  18. Systolic ShMOLLI myocardial T1-mapping for improved robustness to partial-volume effects and applications in tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa M; Wijesurendra, Rohan S; Liu, Alexander; Greiser, Andreas; Casadei, Barbara; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan; Piechnik, Stefan K

    2015-08-28

    T1-mapping using the Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (ShMOLLI) technique enables non-invasive assessment of important myocardial tissue characteristics. However, tachyarrhythmia may cause mistriggering and inaccurate T1 estimation. We set out to test whether systolic T1-mapping might overcome this, and whether T1 values or data quality would be significantly different compared to conventional diastolic T1-mapping. Native T1 maps were acquired using ShMOLLI at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Healthcare) in 10 healthy volunteers (5 male) in sinus rhythm, at varying prescribed trigger delay (TD) times: 0, 50, 100 and 150 ms (all "systolic"), 340 ms (MOLLI TD 500 ms, the conventional TD for ShMOLLI) and also "end diastolic". T1 maps were also acquired using a shorter readout, to explore the effect of reducing image readout time and sensitivity to systolic motion. The feasibility and image quality of systolic T1-mapping was tested in 15 patients with tachyarrhythmia (n = 13 atrial fibrillation, n = 2 sinus tachycardia; mean HR range 93-121 bpm). In healthy volunteers, systolic readout increased the thickness of myocardium compared to the diastolic readout. There was a small overall effect of TD on T1 values (p = 0.04), with slightly shorter T1 values in systole compared to diastole (maximum difference 10 ms). While there were apparent gender differences (with no effect of TD on T1 values in males, more marked differences in females, and exaggeration of this effect in thinner myocardial segments in females), dilatation and erosion of contours suggested that the effect of TD on T1 in females was almost entirely due to more partial-volume effects in diastole. All T1 maps were of excellent quality, but systolic TD and shorter readout were associated with less variability in segmental T1 values. In tachycardic patients, systolic acquisitions produced consistently excellent T1 maps (median R (2) = 0.993). In healthy volunteers, systolic

  19. Landscapes of the mind: postdramatic features in Brian Friel's Molly SweeneyDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n58p113

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stegh Camati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary debate regarding the new languages of the stage has developed into multiple directions. In Molly Sweeney (1994, Brian Friel rejects dramatic progression and interpersonal dialogue to privilege direct interaction with the audience that intensifies the production of presence. He combines conventional and postdramatic features in his presentation of alternating monologues by three speakers - Molly, Frank and Mr. Rice - whose solo voices create an allegory on the unwillingness of communication in our time. The emerging landscapes of the mind force the audience to deal with the indeterminacy of meaning, extending representation beyond dramatic action in the theatre.

  20. Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae from Brazil Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2% with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09. The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2% apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09. A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito.

  1. Aging changes in the heart of a poeciliid fish, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Histological surveys of the hearts of guppies Poecilia reticulatus throughout their lifespan showed no aging changes until the fish were three years old. In younger fishes the hearts were healthy, even in the three individuals with wasting disease, where there was considerable loss of muscle throughout the body. There was a loss of muscle fibers in the ventricle in old fish, and deposition of collagen in the bulbus arteriosus. Guppies of three years and older also had a marked accumulation of melanomacrophages in the atrium. It seems unlikely that degeneration of the heart is involved in mortality of guppies in the wild.

  2. Preferencias en el apareamiento de las hembras de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1858, en condiciones de turbidez

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Valera, Dolors

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Poecilia reticulata, comúnmente conocida como guppi, presenta un marcado dimorfismo sexual y variada coloración, siendo ésta última un factor importante en la selección sexual. Se estudia las preferencias de las hembras hacia machos con diferencias morfológicas y color en las colas bajo diferentes condiciones de turbidez del agua. No se observó ninguna tendencia en la elección de éstas en función de las características de la cola de los machos, sin embargo, el tiempo de cortejo empleado ...

  3. Effect of Temperature on Reproduction and Sex Ratio of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arfah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny.  In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean than that of 30°C (10 males, while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny.  Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock reared at 30°C is higher than that of 27°C.  Incubation time of embryo before birth is sorter in broodstock reared at 30°C (4-12 days compared with 27°C (18-22 days.  However, several progeny of broodstock reared at 30°C had abnormal vertebrae. Keywords: guppy, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduction, monosex   ABSTRAK Suhu air inkubasi diduga dapat mempengaruhi reproduksi induk ikan dan nisbah kelamin keturunannya.  Pada penelitian ini, induk ikan gapi (Poecilia reticulata Peters dipelihara pada suhu 27°C, 30°C dan suhu 33°C untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap reproduksi dan rasio kelamin keturunannya.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk ikan gapi yang dipelihara pada suhu 27°C menghasilkan anak lebih banyak (rata-rata 16 ekor daripada di suhu 30°C (10 ekor, sementara induk gagal melahirkan pada suhu pemeliharaan 33°C. Proporsi anak jantan yang dihasilkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih banyak dibandingkan pada suhu 27°C.  Waktu inkubasi embrio sebelum dilahirkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih singkat, yaitu 4-12 hari, dibandingkan pada  suhu 27°C, 18-22 hari.  Namun demikian beberapa anak ikan yang lahir dari induk yang dipelihara pada suhu suhu 30°C mengalami abnormalitas pada bagian tulang belakangnya.  Kata kunci: ikan gapi, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduksi, monoseks

  4. Tank cultivation of the red algae Palmaria mollis: Effects of nutrients on growth rate, biochemical quality, and epiphytic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, D.; Langdon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis) is a candidate for aquaculture production in Oregon due to its high protein content, fast growth rate, and ability to fare in cold water conditions. Current cultivation methods use the F/2 medium to supply nutrients to macroalgae cultures. The F/2 medium is a costly mixture of nitrate, phosphate, trace metals and vitamins. The F/2 medium has been the standard for microalgae cultivation, but research has lacked on the necessity of all or part of this mixture for macroalgae cultivation. This study is designed to contribute to the development of Pacific dulse cultivation by measuring how different fertilizer regimens affect the growth, biochemical composition, and quality of Palmaria mollis (C-3 variety) in hopes to reduce the production cost. I hypothesis that dulse will not require additional nutrients during summer cultivation, due to summer upwelling conditions. Experiments were conducted in a flow-through water system, controlling for flow rate, stocking density, and nutrient supplementation. To test this, two replicates of four nutrient regimes were organized: no supplemental nutrients, all nutrients (standard F/2 medium), nitrate/phosphate only, and nitrate/phosphate with trace metals. Each tank was monitored weekly for color quality, epiphytic growth, specific growth rate, production and a final biochemical analysis. This study has preliminarily concluded that supplemental nutrients have no significant effect on production or biochemical quality, but does have an effect quality of epiphytic growth.

  5. Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) for high-resolution T1 mapping of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messroghli, Daniel R; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Kozerke, Sebastian; Higgins, David M; Sivananthan, Mohan U; Ridgway, John P

    2004-07-01

    A novel pulse sequence scheme is presented that allows the measurement and mapping of myocardial T1 in vivo on a 1.5 Tesla MR system within a single breath-hold. Two major modifications of conventional Look-Locker (LL) imaging are introduced: 1) selective data acquisition, and 2) merging of data from multiple LL experiments into one data set. Each modified LL inversion recovery (MOLLI) study consisted of three successive LL inversion recovery (IR) experiments with different inversion times. We acquired images in late diastole using a single-shot steady-state free-precession (SSFP) technique, combined with sensitivity encoding to achieve a data acquisition window of T1 using signal intensities from regions of interest and pixel by pixel. T1 accuracy at different heart rates derived from simulated ECG signals was tested in phantoms. T1 estimates showed small systematic error for T1 values from 191 to 1196 ms. In vivo T1 mapping was performed in two healthy volunteers and in one patient with acute myocardial infarction before and after administration of Gd-DTPA. T1 values for myocardium and noncardiac structures were in good agreement with values available from the literature. The region of infarction was clearly visualized. MOLLI provides high-resolution T1 maps of human myocardium in native and post-contrast situations within a single breath-hold. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. MDMA (ecstasy/molly) use among African Americans: The perceived influence of hip-hop/rap music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Estreet, Anthony T

    2018-02-12

    Over the past two decades, the demographic profile of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) users has changed. In particular, African American MDMA use has risen in some cities. One explanation of this new trend is the drug's recent popularity (as molly) in hip-hop/rap (HHR) music. Several top rappers endorse the drug as a way to have fun or get women "loose." There are currently no studies, however, that investigate the extent to which African American MDMA users listen to HHR music or the influence that these pro-MDMA messages have on their use of the drug. To address this gap, the current study used survey data to (a) identify the extent to which HHR music is listened to by African American MDMA users and (b) assess the perceived influence of HHR music on their decision to begin using. Qualitative interview data are also presented to contextualize the influence of these messages on their use of MDMA. The findings of this study suggest that African American MDMA users are high consumers of HHR music and that pro-MDMA messages in HHR music are influencing their expectations of the drug and their decision to initiate use. These findings add to the limited amount of research on African American MDMA use and have the potential to inform future interventions.

  7. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae in rats

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    Pongri Adarki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50. In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

  8. Characterization of Benign Myocarditis Using Quantitative Delayed-Enhancement Imaging Based on Molli T1 Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Marcel; Gilles, Raymond J; Azzabou, Noura; Marty, Benjamin; Vignaud, Alexandre; Greiser, Andreas; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-10-01

    Delayed contrast enhancement after injection of a gadolinium-chelate (Gd-chelate) is a reference imaging method to detect myocardial tissue changes. Its localization within the thickness of the myocardial wall allows differentiating various pathological processes such as myocardial infarction (MI), inflammatory myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies. The aim of the study was first to characterize benign myocarditis using quantitative delayed-enhancement imaging and then to investigate whether the measure of the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) can be used to discriminate between MI and myocarditis.In 6 patients with acute benign myocarditis (32.2 ± 13.8 year-old, subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) and 18 patients with MI (52.3 ± 10.9 year-old, subendocardial/transmural LGE), myocardial T1 was determined using the Modified Look-Locker Imaging (MOLLI) sequence at 3 Tesla before and after Gd-chelate injection. T1 values were compared in LGE and normal regions of the myocardium. The myocardial T1 values were normalized to the T1 of blood, and the ECV was calculated from T1 values of myocardium and blood pre- and post-Gd injection.In both myocarditis and MI, the T1 was lower in LGE regions than in normal regions of the left ventricle. T1 of LGE areas was significantly higher in myocarditis than in MI (446.8 ± 45.8 vs 360.5 ± 66.9 ms, P = 0.003) and ECV was lower in myocarditis than in MI (34.5 ± 3.3 vs 53.8 ± 13.0 %, P = 0.004).Both inflammatory process and chronic fibrosis induce LGE (subepicardial in myocarditis and subendocardial in MI). The present study demonstrates that the determination of T1 and ECV is able to differentiate the 2 histological patterns.Further investigation will indicate whether the severity of ECV changes might help refine the predictive risk of LGE in myocarditis.

  9. Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van J.M.C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Deneer, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The

  10. Infarct myocardium tissue heterogeneity assessment using pre-contrast and post-contrast T1 maps acquired with Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Voigt, T.; Wiethoff, A.; Shetty, A.K.; Crichton, S.; Murday, D.; Rinaldi, A.; Nagel, E.; Puntmann, V.O.; Schaeffter, T.; Razavi, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    We aim to explore tissue heterogeneity assessment using T1 maps generated with the modified Look Locker (MOLLI) sequence in patients with previous myocardial infarct. Conclusion: Differences between healthy myocardium and scarred tissues can be reliably distinguished from the R1 values derived from

  11. Actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña comparado con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia  0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  12. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICÓTICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAS HOJAS DE Minthostachys mollis (MUÑA COMPARADO CON EL FLUCONAZOL EN CULTIVO DE Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia 0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  13. Adaptation of the gill epithelium of an euryhaline fish, the guppy (Poecilia vivipara, to freshwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Moraes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O peixe eurihalino sul-americano Poecilia vivipara (BLOCH; SNEIDER, 1801, o guppy, é encontrado tanto em estuários quanto em águas de rios, o que sugere uma alta adaptabilidade aos diferentes ambientes de salinidade. Neste trabalho, estudamos a adaptação do epitélio interlamelar, do arco e do rastelo das brânquias dos peixes de estuário de água doce. Os resultados revelam que o epitélio branquial de Poecilia vivipara pode ajustar-se à água doce, diminuindo a proporção volumétrica (PV de células mucosas do epitélio interlamelar e aumentando a PV de células clorídricas. No entanto, não houve nenhuma evidência de alteração morfológica semelhante na região do rastelo branquial. O epitélio do rastelo branquial parece ser parte de um compartimento diferente que é menos sensível a variações de salinidade.

  14. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  15. SASHA versus ShMOLLI: a comparison of T1 mapping methods in health and dilated cardiomyopathy at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Benedict T; Springer, Fabian; Hare, James L; Gerche, Andre La; Iles, Leah; Ellims, Andris H; Schmitt, Benjamin; Taylor, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance derived T1 mapping parameters are a non-invasive method of estimating diffuse myocardial fibrosis. This study aims to to determine the native T1 time, post contrast T1 time and extracellular volume (ECV) derived from T1 mapping and to evaluate the ability of T1 mapping techniques to discriminate healthy myocardium from dilated cardiomyopathy. Seventy-nine participants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and twenty-two patients with Dilated cardiomyopathy were included in the study. Each participant had T1 mapping sequences performed at 3 T in the mid short axis slice-both SASHA and ShMOLLI T1 mapping were performed. Native T1, post contrast T1 and ECV values were compared in health and dilated cardiomyopathy. Native T1, post contrast T1 and ECV differed significantly between SASHA and ShMOLLI techniques (P T1 parameters had similar ability to discriminate normal from abnormal myocardium (ROC AUC 0.691 to 0.830). Converting T1 values to Z scores significantly improved the agreement between SASHA and ShMOLLI techniques, particularly for post contrast T1 (ICC 0.19 to 0.895) and ECV (ICC 0.461 to 0.880). T1 mapping values from SASHA and ShMOLLI show strong correlation for post contrast measures, though with a consistent offset for all measures in health and dilated cardiomyopathy. All measures obtained using SASHA and ShMOLLI allow good discrimination between dilated cardiomyopathy and normal myocardium.

  16. Assessment of the evaluation of liver T1 mapping imaging applying virtual ECG gating on a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Suk-Jun; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-10-01

    A T1 mapping calculation error may occur in a physicochemical environment with large relaxivity. We evaluated through a simulated electrocardiogram (ECG) the administration of a contrast with high relaxivity and its effect on the heart rate by using a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence. The agarose 2% phantom of high relaxivity environment was developed by diluting gadoxetic acid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 contrast media. The gold standard T1 determination was based on coronal single section imaging with a 2D inversion-recovery turbo spin echo sequence (2D-IRTSE) in a 3T MR unit. Using the identical 3T MR scanner, we acquired T1 mapping for the MOLLI pulse sequence with various virtual heart rates. T1 mapping data of the two different pulse sequences ( i.e., 2D-IRTSE and MOLLI) were measured to investigate the accuracy and the specificity. An in vivo study was conducted in the same manner as the phantom experiments for liver T1 mapping imaging in three healthy volunteers. The MOLLI pulse sequence showed an error rate of less than 10% at a contrast agent concentration of 0.4 mmol/L, and significant error, compared with the reference value, was observed at 0.6 mmol/L or higher. The percentage error of the T1 value did not correlated with the RR ( i.e., the time between heart beats) change that was observed (P =.270). Based on the in-vivo liver test, T1 mapping imaging of an abdominal organ as the liver can be successfully achieved using the applied virtual ECG gating on the MOLLI sequence.

  17. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  18. Conservação de Dimorphandra mollis benth. (fabaceae baseada na estrutura genética de populações naturais Conservation of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (fabaceae based on the genetic structure of natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado com grande potencial econômico e tem sido alvo de intensa exploração, principalmente de seus frutos por causa do princípio ativo do composto rutina, importante para a produção de fármacos. Algumas propostas têm surgido para uma coleta controlada desses frutos, de forma a minimizar a perda de diversidade genética, entretanto existem poucas informações sobre aspectos ecológicos e genéticos da espécie. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo da estrutura genética por meio de marcadores aloenzimáticos, visando dar subsídios a propostas de conservação de populações naturais de D. mollis. Dez locos polimórficos foram utilizados para estimar as frequências alélicas referentes a 180 indivíduos, distribuídos em três populações naturais (Campina Verde, Vargem da Cruz e Pau de Fruta no Município de Jequitaí, Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados indicam alta diversidade genética da espécie ( ou = 0,463, sendo pequena a variabilidade genética entre populações ( > ou = 0,025. Foi verificada ausência de endogamia dentro das populaçõe s( ou = -0,018 ( 0,007. O fluxo gênico estimado no conjunto das populações foi alto, com igual a 4,0, e suficiente para contrapor os efeitos da deriva genética. a alta diversidade genética nas populações da espécie indica potencial para a conservação genética in situ e também para o seu manejo. As estratégias de manejo da espécie devem considerar o tamanho efetivo populacional, no intuito de manter os níveis de variabilidade genética observados e a regeneração natural nas áreas. Palavras-chave: Fava d'anta, Marcadores aloenzimáticos e Variabilidade genética.Dimorphandra mollis is a native species of Cerrado and has high economic value due to the active compound Rutin present in its fruit, which has made it a target of intense commercial exploitation. Some proposals to minimize the negatives genetic

  19. Myocardial T1-mapping at 3T using saturation-recovery: reference values, precision and comparison with MOLLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Sebastian; Meßner, Nadja M; Budjan, Johannes; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Mattler, Uwe; Papavassiliu, Theano; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2016-11-18

    Myocardial T1-mapping recently emerged as a promising quantitative method for non-invasive tissue characterization in numerous cardiomyopathies. Commonly performed with an inversion-recovery (IR) magnetization preparation at 1.5T, the application at 3T has gained due to increased quantification precision. Alternatively, saturation-recovery (SR) T1-mapping has recently been introduced at 1.5T for improved accuracy. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the robustness and precision of SR T1-mapping at 3T and to establish accurate reference values for native T1-times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) of healthy myocardium. Balanced Steady-State Free-Precession (bSSFP) Saturation-Pulse Prepared Heart-rate independent Inversion-REcovery (SAPPHIRE) and Saturation-recovery Single-SHot Acquisition (SASHA) T1-mapping were compared with the Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence at 3T. Accuracy and precision were studied in phantom. Native and post-contrast T1-times and regional ECV were determined in 20 healthy subjects (10 men, 27 ± 5 years). Subjective image quality, susceptibility artifact rating, in-vivo precision and reproducibility were analyzed. SR T1-mapping showed T1 = 100-2300 ms. The average quality and artifact scores of the T1-mapping methods were: MOLLI:3.4/3.6, SAPPHIRE:3.1/3.4, SASHA:2.9/3.2; (1: poor - 4: excellent/1: strong - 4: none). SAPPHIRE and SASHA yielded significantly higher T1-times (SAPPHIRE: 1578 ± 42 ms, SASHA: 1523 ± 46 ms), in-vivo T1-time variation (SAPPHIRE: 60.1 ± 8.7 ms, SASHA: 70.0 ± 9.3 ms) and lower ECV-values (SAPPHIRE: 0.20 ± 0.02, SASHA: 0.21 ± 0.03) compared with MOLLI (T1: 1181 ± 47 ms, ECV: 0.26 ± 0.03, Precision: 53.7 ± 8.1 ms). No significant difference was found in the inter-subject variability of T1-times or ECV-values (T1: p = 0.90, ECV: p = 0.78), the observer agreement (inter: p > 0.19; intra: p > 0.09) or

  20. Protective effect of total flavonoid C-glycosides from Abrus mollis extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced lipotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Chen, Mi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Guo, Hong-Li; Sun, Li-Xin; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Abrus mollis is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for treating acute and chronic hepatitis, steatosis, and fibrosis. It was found that the total flavonoid C-glycosides from Abrus mollis extract (AME) showed potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. To further investigate the hepatoprotective effect of AME and its possible mechanisms, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury models were applied in the current study. The results indicated that AME significantly attenuated LPS-induced lipid accumulation in mouse primary hepatocytes as measured by triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) assays and Oil Red O staining. Meanwhile, AME exerted a protective effect on LPS-induced liver injury as shown by decreased liver index, serum aminotransferase levels, and hepatic lipid accumulation. Real-time PCR and immunoblot data suggested that AME reversed the LPS-mediated lipid metabolism gene expression, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1). In addition, LPS-induced overexpression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were dramatically reversed by AME. Furthermore, AME also decreased the expression of LPS-enhanced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Here, it is demonstrated for the first time that AME ameliorated LPS-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and that this effect of AME can be attributed to its modulation of hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis. This study also suggested that the hepatoprotective effect of AME may be related to its down-regulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of T1 mapping techniques for ECV quantification. Histological validation and reproducibility of ShMOLLI versus multibreath-hold T1 quantification equilibrium contrast CMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Marianna; White, Steve K; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Sado, Daniel M; Maestrini, Viviana; Flett, Andrew S; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan; Roberts, Neil; Moon, James C

    2012-12-28

    Myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) is elevated in fibrosis or infiltration and can be quantified by measuring the haematocrit with pre and post contrast T1 at sufficient contrast equilibrium. Equilibrium CMR (EQ-CMR), using a bolus-infusion protocol, has been shown to provide robust measurements of ECV using a multibreath-hold T1 pulse sequence. Newer, faster sequences for T1 mapping promise whole heart coverage and improved clinical utility, but have not been validated. Multibreathhold T1 quantification with heart rate correction and single breath-hold T1 mapping using Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) were used in equilibrium contrast CMR to generate ECV values and compared in 3 ways.Firstly, both techniques were compared in a spectrum of disease with variable ECV expansion (n=100, 50 healthy volunteers, 12 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 18 with severe aortic stenosis, 20 with amyloid). Secondly, both techniques were correlated to human histological collagen volume fraction (CVF%, n=18, severe aortic stenosis biopsies). Thirdly, an assessment of test:retest reproducibility of the 2 CMR techniques was performed 1 week apart in individuals with widely different ECVs (n=10 healthy volunteers, n=7 amyloid patients). More patients were able to perform ShMOLLI than the multibreath-hold technique (6% unable to breath-hold). ECV calculated by multibreath-hold T1 and ShMOLLI showed strong correlation (r(2)=0.892), little bias (bias -2.2%, 95%CI -8.9% to 4.6%) and good agreement (ICC 0.922, range 0.802 to 0.961, pECV correlated with histological CVF% by multibreath-hold ECV (r(2)= 0.589) but better by ShMOLLI ECV (r(2)= 0.685). Inter-study reproducibility demonstrated that ShMOLLI ECV trended towards greater reproducibility than the multibreath-hold ECV, although this did not reach statistical significance (95%CI -4.9% to 5.4% versus 95%CI -6.4% to 7.3% respectively, p=0.21). ECV quantification by single breath-hold ShMOLLI T1

  2. Comparison of T1 mapping techniques for ECV quantification. Histological validation and reproducibility of ShMOLLI versus multibreath-hold T1 quantification equilibrium contrast CMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) is elevated in fibrosis or infiltration and can be quantified by measuring the haematocrit with pre and post contrast T1 at sufficient contrast equilibrium. Equilibrium CMR (EQ-CMR), using a bolus-infusion protocol, has been shown to provide robust measurements of ECV using a multibreath-hold T1 pulse sequence. Newer, faster sequences for T1 mapping promise whole heart coverage and improved clinical utility, but have not been validated. Methods Multibreathhold T1 quantification with heart rate correction and single breath-hold T1 mapping using Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) were used in equilibrium contrast CMR to generate ECV values and compared in 3 ways. Firstly, both techniques were compared in a spectrum of disease with variable ECV expansion (n=100, 50 healthy volunteers, 12 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 18 with severe aortic stenosis, 20 with amyloid). Secondly, both techniques were correlated to human histological collagen volume fraction (CVF%, n=18, severe aortic stenosis biopsies). Thirdly, an assessment of test:retest reproducibility of the 2 CMR techniques was performed 1 week apart in individuals with widely different ECVs (n=10 healthy volunteers, n=7 amyloid patients). Results More patients were able to perform ShMOLLI than the multibreath-hold technique (6% unable to breath-hold). ECV calculated by multibreath-hold T1 and ShMOLLI showed strong correlation (r2=0.892), little bias (bias -2.2%, 95%CI -8.9% to 4.6%) and good agreement (ICC 0.922, range 0.802 to 0.961, pECV correlated with histological CVF% by multibreath-hold ECV (r2= 0.589) but better by ShMOLLI ECV (r2= 0.685). Inter-study reproducibility demonstrated that ShMOLLI ECV trended towards greater reproducibility than the multibreath-hold ECV, although this did not reach statistical significance (95%CI -4.9% to 5.4% versus 95%CI -6.4% to 7.3% respectively, p=0.21). Conclusions ECV quantification by

  3. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  4. [Diet of the tropical freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Haeckel) and Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes (Cyprinidontiformes: Poeciliidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Jiménez, Patricia; Beto, Héctor Toledo

    2007-06-01

    We analyzed the diet and feeding habits of the fishes Heterandria bimaculata and Poecilia sphenops. Specimens were captured monthly in "Los Carros" damp, Morelos, Mexico (18 degrees 37' N, 98 degrees 43' W). We quantified gut content by the numerical method and by the frequency of occurrence method; and used the MacArthur and Levin's indices for niche overlap. The diet of H. bimaculata was composed by 16 prey categories, mainly dipterans (Culicidae predominated), independently of sex, size and season. The index of niche overlap was high, from 0.74 to 0.99. The diet of P. sphenops consisted of 11 items, detritus being the most consumed, also independently of sex, size and season. The niche overlap index was high (0.99), indicating overlapping for all analyses. There was little diet overlap (0.26) between the two species.

  5. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-07

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection.

  6. Variation in anti-predator behavior among five strains of inbred guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Martell, Christopher M; Brodie, Edmund D

    2006-09-01

    Quantitative genetic studies frequently utilize inbred strains of animals as tools for partitioning the direct and indirect effects of genes from environmental effects in generating an observed phenotype, however, this approach is rarely applied to behavioral studies. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, perform a set of anti-predator behaviors that may provide an ideal system to study how complex behavioral traits are generated. To assess the utility of ornamental guppies in quantitative genetics studies of behavior, we assayed five morphologically distinct strains of ornamental guppies for response to predator cues and for variation in response among strains. Despite individual variation, all five strains responded to predator cues and differences among strains were found for all assayed behaviors, including measures of boldness and predator avoidance.

  7. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the differential leukocyte count in fish Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Renčko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of a single gamma-irradiation with a 60Co source at a dose of 20 Gy (1.05 Gy/min on the guppy Poecilia reticulata (females, n = 60, which has not been determined before in this fish. We observed food intake, clinical symptoms, pathological-anatomical and histological changes and differential leukocyte count in the irradiated guppies compared to the control ones. In the first days, timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were exophthalmia, emaciation and intravital haemorrhages. Livers of irradiated guppies were characterized by hepatic steatosis. Leukogram determinations were carried out on days 3, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Relative lymphopaenia was observed in irradiated fish and the mean relative monocyte count in irradiated guppies increased from 8.7 to 20.6 within 3 days. Other important values obtained from the leukogram included relative neutropaenia, eosinopaenia and basopaenia, observed on day 3 after irradiation.

  8. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) introducing an alien parasite, Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae) to Africa, the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Smit, Willem J; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2017-12-01

    Introduced alien fish species and their associated parasites may result in a serious threat to indigenous biodiversity. Furthermore, this may have negative impacts on cultured fish as well as on native parasitic fauna. In the present study, the invasive Asian nematode, Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), is reported from the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) for the first time in Africa. This parasite is assumed to be introduced into Africa along with the introduction of exotic poeciliid fishes, which are known to be the most common hosts of C. cotti in ornamental fish industry worldwide.The presence of this parasite in both aquarium-cultured fish as well as fish from natural waterbodies is evidence of the introduction of the alien organisms due to insufficient prophylactic veterinary control during transfer of non-native hosts between countries and the spread of them by the anthropogenic introduction to natural systems.

  9. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  10. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Arendt, Jeffrey D; Chandramouli, Radhika; Reznick, David N

    2010-08-01

    Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth may be an adaptive mechanism that buffers the growth trajectory of young organisms from deviations caused by reduced food availability. Theory generally assumes that rapid juvenile compensatory growth impacts reproduction only through its positive effects on age and size at maturation, but potential reproductive costs to juvenile compensatory growth remain virtually unexplored. We used a food manipulation experiment to examine the reproductive consequences of compensatory growth in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Compensatory growth did not affect adult growth rates, litter production rates or investment in offspring size. However, compensatory growth had negative effects on litter size, independent of the effects of female body length, resulting in a 20% decline in offspring production. We discuss potential mechanisms behind this observed cost to reproduction.

  11. Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2013-10-23

    Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae.

  12. Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

    2005-09-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp.

  13. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  14. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  15. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3 EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB. (LABIATAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO SUÁREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis . Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre la germinación. Los porcentajes de germinación fueron superiores a 80% para los tratamientos con luz (semilla fotoblástica positiva, donde el tratamiento con luz roja tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el proceso de germinación.

  16. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  17. Identification of myocardial diffuse fibrosis by 11 heartbeat MOLLI T1mapping: averaging to improve precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie; Heng, Ee Ling; Nyktari, Evangelia; Asimakopoulos, George; de Souza, Anthony; Giri, Shivraman; Pierce, Iain; Jabbour, Andrew; Firmin, David; Frenneaux, Michael; Gatehouse, Peter; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. For assessment of T 1 mapping precision, a cohort of 15 healthy volunteers underwent two CMR scans on separate days using an 11 heartbeat MOLLI with a 5(3)3 beat scheme to measure native T 1 and a 4(1)3(1)2 beat post-contrast scheme to measure post-contrast T 1 , allowing calculation of partition coefficient and ECV. To assess correlation of T 1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction. A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two mid ventricular level averaged T 1 maps provided improved precision (Intraclass correlation 0.93 vs 0.84) and correlation with histology (R 2  = 0.83 vs 0.36) for diffuse fibrosis compared to a single mid-ventricular level alone. ECV was more precise and correlated better than native T 1 mapping. T 1 mapping sequences with repeated averaging could be considered for applications of 11 heartbeat MOLLI, especially when small changes in native T 1 /ECV might affect clinical management.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Del-Rio, Juan Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Robles-García, Miguel Angel; Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J.; Wong-Corral, Francisco J.; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition) were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%). On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%), antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition), and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample) were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis. PMID:26451153

  20. Motivations for Using MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) among African Americans: Implications for Prevention and Harm-Reduction Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences. This is the first study to directly examine MDMA motivations specifically among African American drug users, and findings shed light on why some African Americans use MDMA. A better understanding of why African Americans use this drug should help to inform prevention and harm-reduction efforts. Study findings show the need for health messages that include the potential consequences of mixing MDMA with other drugs, and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors after taking MDMA. These data contrast with motivations (e.g., introspection, self-enlightenment, getting into the music) commonly reported among groups of largely White MDMA users, suggesting that interventions tailored specifically for African American users are needed.

  1. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aymn T; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Ali, Soad S; Azhar, Esam I; Abdel-Dayem, Umama A; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE) on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr) for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  2. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  3. Examining the link between personality and laterality in a feral guppy Poecilia reticulata population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, E; Brown, C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined whether variation in the strength and direction of lateralization in a detour task was linked with variation in three common personality measurements: boldness, activity and sociability, in a population of wild guppies Poecilia reticulata. Additionally, the aim was to determine whether any consistent correlations between these behavioural traits, known as behavioural syndromes, were present in the study population. The results revealed that all three personality traits were highly repeatable over time in both sexes. Evidence of a complex syndrome in the form of a correlation between boldness, sociability and activity was found; however, this relationship was only present in males. Males that were more active in a familiar environment emerged more quickly from shelter into a novel environment and were more social. In general, male P. reticulata were bold, active and antisocial compared to females, with these differences probably a reflection of opposing life-history strategies. Only a weak link between the strength of cerebral lateralisation and personality was discovered and this was mediated by sex. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

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    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  5. [Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poecilidae) in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Patricia Devezé; Mendiola, Juan Lorenzo Reta; Sánchez Luna, Basilio

    2004-12-01

    Poecilia reticulata, also known as guppy, is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures. The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days. We developed a technology for raising guppys, which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction, nursery, feeding, and commercialization, evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study. The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico. Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH levels). A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City. Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season, place of origin, and resistance to handling. The hydrobiological characteristics were: average temperature 31.4 degrees C, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl(-1), and pH level 6.8. With these values we built a production function, and used it to evaluate profitability. We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16, with a net annual income of US$257.67. The system may provide two permanent jobs.

  6. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Jun; van Oosterhout, Cock; Kawata, Masakado

    2011-02-04

    The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp) were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  7. Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

    2013-08-15

    Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

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    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  9. The Genome of the Trinidadian Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, and Variation in the Guanapo Population.

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    Axel Künstner

    Full Text Available For over a century, the live bearing guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has been used to study sexual selection as well as local adaptation. Natural guppy populations differ in many traits that are of intuitively adaptive significance such as ornamentation, age at maturity, brood size and body shape. Water depth, light supply, food resources and predation regime shape these traits, and barrier waterfalls often separate contrasting environments in the same river. We have assembled and annotated the genome of an inbred single female from a high-predation site in the Guanapo drainage. The final assembly comprises 731.6 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 5.3 MB. Scaffolds were mapped to linkage groups, placing 95% of the genome assembly on the 22 autosomes and the X-chromosome. To investigate genetic variation in the population used for the genome assembly, we sequenced 10 wild caught male individuals. The identified 5 million SNPs correspond to an average nucleotide diversity (π of 0.0025. The genome assembly and SNP map provide a rich resource for investigating adaptation to different predation regimes. In addition, comparisons with the genomes of other Poeciliid species, which differ greatly in mechanisms of sex determination and maternal resource allocation, as well as comparisons to other teleost genera can begin to reveal how live bearing evolved in teleost fish.

  10. Effect of nonylphenol on plasma vitellogenin of male adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Rui

    2005-02-01

    Adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed to 4-nonylphenol (NP) at nominal concentrations of 10, 60, and 150 microg/L for 7, 14, or 21 days. Significant induction of vitellogenin (VTG) was found in male guppies exposed to 1 microg/L of 17beta-estradiol and 60 or 150 microg/L of NP after 7, 14, or 21 days. Maximum induction was seen after 14 days of treatment at these concentrations. On the other hand, significant induction of VTG in male guppies exposed to 10 microg/L of NP was observed only after 21 days of treatment. A time-dependent tendency of reduction of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male guppies treated with 17beta-estradiol or NP was observed, but no corresponding concentration-dependent tendency was detected. There were also no differences in the liver somatic index (LSI) of male fish treated with various concentrations of NP during the above-mentioned exposure periods. Preliminary data presented in this study strongly suggests that measurement of plasma VTG induction in male guppies is a suitable and rather sensitive indicator of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sexual characteristics of male guppies Poecilia reticulata serve as effect biomarkers of estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Gao, Su; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-10-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are considered a candidate model species for the identification and testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Male guppies may be used to address the challenge of making potential linkages between alterations of biomarkers, both at the cellular and organ level, and adverse outcomes. In the present study, a predictive relationship between sex characteristics and reproductive output was observed in male guppies that underwent a long-term toxicity test with 0.5 μg/L 17β-estradiol administered during the juvenile period. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that 17β-estradiol exposure caused a significant increase in testicular 17β-estradiol levels as well as the induction of exposure biomarkers, namely hepatic vitellogenin. Exposure to 17β-estradiol also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently reduced the gonadosomatic index, sperm counts, and the coloration index. These changes of male sexual characteristics further translated into adverse influences on reproduction, as measured by a decrease in off spring production and survival rate. Our results suggest that the above-mentioned sexual characteristics of male guppies may be considered potential in vivo biomarkers of estrogen effects on reproduction.

  12. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

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    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  13. The effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility: Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection of guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Willow; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-08-01

    Inbreeding can threaten population persistence by reducing disease resistance through the accelerated loss of gene diversity (i.e. heterozygosity). Such inbreeding depression can affect many different fitness-related traits, including survival, reproductive success, and parasite susceptibility. Empirically quantifying the effects of inbreeding on parasite resistance is therefore important for ex-situ conservation of vertebrates. The present study evaluates the disease susceptibility of individuals bred under three different breeding regimes (inbred, crossed with full siblings; control, randomly crossed mating; and fully outbred). Specifically, we examined the relationship between inbreeding coefficient (F-coefficient) and susceptibility to Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection in a live bearing vertebrate, the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Host-breeding regime significantly affected the trajectories of parasite population growth on individual fish. Inbred fish showed significantly higher mean parasite intensity than fish from the control and outbred breeding regimes, and in addition, inbred fish were slower in purging their gyrodactylid infections. We discuss the role of inbreeding on the various arms of the immune system, and argue that the increased disease susceptibility of inbred individuals could contribute to the extinction vortex. This is one of the first studies to quantify the effects of inbreeding and breeding regime on disease susceptibility in a captive bred vertebrate of wild origin, and it highlights the risks faced by small (captive-bred) populations when exposed to their native parasites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

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    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-07

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish.

  16. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  17. Selection by parasites in spate conditions in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, C; Mohammed, R S; Hansen, H; Archard, G A; McMullan, M; Weese, D J; Cable, J

    2007-06-01

    Gyrodactylids are ubiquitous fish parasites and yet, with the notable exception of Gyrodactylus salaris, few studies have reported the effect of these parasites on host survival in natural populations. Here, we assess the impact of the parasite load of gyrodactylids (G. turnbulli and G. bullatarudis) on the survival and migration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in their natural habitat of the Aripo River in Trinidad. The recapture rate of males declined by 19% with every additional parasite, a remarkably high figure given that the parasite load in this study ranged from zero to 20 worms. In addition, with an increased number of parasites, males were more prone to be recovered downstream. In contrast, no effect of parasitism was observed in females. The mean parasite load sharply declined after a series of flushing events during heavy seasonal downpours. The parasite load varied significantly between fish depending on their location in the river, and the size of the fish explained variation in parasite load between individuals. The present study indicates that tropical gyrodactylid parasites can play an important role in the ecology of natural fish populations, causing intense bouts of natural selection in guppies during heavy rains in the wet season.

  18. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  19. Impacts of the antidepressant fluoxetine on the anti-predator behaviours of wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Minna; McLennan, Alisha; Johnstone, Christopher P; Clarke, Bradley O; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-02-01

    Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognised as a major threat to aquatic communities. One compound of great concern is fluoxetine, which is one of the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs in the world and frequently detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 28-d fluoxetine exposure at two environmentally relevant levels (measured concentrations: 4ng/L and 16ng/L) on anti-predator behaviour in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata). This was achieved by subjecting fluoxetine-exposed and unexposed guppies to a simulated bird strike and recording their subsequent behavioural responses. We found that exposure to fluoxetine affected the anti-predator behaviour of guppies, with exposed fish remaining stationary for longer (i.e. 'freezing' behaviour) after the simulated strike and also spending more time under plant cover. By contrast, control fish were significantly more active and explored the tank more, as indicated by the distance covered per minute over the period fish spent swimming. Furthermore, behavioural shifts were sex-dependent, with evidence of a non-monotonic dose-response among the fluoxetine-exposed fish. This is one of the first studies to show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine can alter the anti-predator behaviour of adult fish. In addition to the obvious repercussions for survival, impaired anti-predator behaviour can have direct impacts on fitness and influence the overall population dynamics of species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain size does not impact shoaling dynamics in unfamiliar groups of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szorkovszky, Alexander; Romenskyy, Maksym; Perna, Andrea; Buechel, Severine D; Zeng, Hong-Li; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Sumpter, David; Kolm, Niclas

    2018-02-01

    Collective movement is achieved when individuals adopt local rules to interact with their neighbours. How the brain processes information about neighbours' positions and movements may affect how individuals interact in groups. As brain size can determine such information processing it should impact collective animal movement. Here we investigate whether brain size affects the structure and organisation of newly forming fish shoals by quantifying the collective movement of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from large- and small-brained selection lines, with known differences in learning and memory. We used automated tracking software to determine shoaling behaviour of single-sex groups of eight or two fish and found no evidence that brain size affected the speed, group size, or spatial and directional organisation of fish shoals. Our results suggest that brain size does not play an important role in how fish interact with each other in these types of moving groups of unfamiliar individuals. Based on these results, we propose that shoal dynamics are likely to be governed by relatively basic cognitive processes that do not differ in these brain size selected lines of guppies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): drosopterin synthesis balances carotenoid availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Cummings, Molly E; Hudon, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are distributed along an environmental gradient in carotenoid availability that limits the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males. The amount of synthetic red pteridines (drosopterins) in the orange spots covaries with the carotenoid content, such that the ratio of the two types of pigments is roughly conserved across streams. Carotenoids and drosopterins have different spectral properties and thus the ratio of the two types of pigments affects the shape of the orange spot reflectance spectrum. Geographic conservation of the carotenoid:drosopterin ratio suggests that males may be under selection to maintain a particular hue. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the pigmentation and coloration of guppies from six streams in the field to that of second-generation descendants of the same populations raised on three dietary carotenoid levels in the laboratory. The results show clearly that the geographic variation in drosopterin production is largely genetic and that the hue of the orange spots is conserved among populations in the field, relative to the laboratory diet groups. This is a countergradient pattern because genetic differences between populations in drosopterin production mask the effect of carotenoid availability on the hue of the orange spots. The potential for countergradient sexual selection to contribute to reproductive isolation between populations is discussed.

  2. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  4. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppiesPoecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli , shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish.

  5. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  6. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  7. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3 EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB.(LABIATAE Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3 on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO SUÁREZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre la germinación. Los porcentajes de germinación fueron superiores a 80% para los tratamientos con luz (semilla fotoblástica positiva, donde el tratamiento con luz roja tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el proceso de germinación.Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  8. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  9. The integrated pharmacokinetics of major rhodojaponins correlates with the cardiotoxicity after oral administration of Rhododendri Mollis Flos extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei-Chi; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Jiang; Luo, Na; Song, Wei; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2014-11-18

    Rhododendri Mollis Flos (RMF), termed as Naoyanghua in Chinese, is a traditional anti-rheumatoid arthritis and bruises herb with associated cardiotoxicity. The predominant rhodojaponins occurring in RMF are responsible for its efficacy and toxicity. The narrow therapeutic window of rhodojaponins necessitates monitoring the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics so as to ensure the safety in practical applications of RMF. Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group, a low-dose group and a high-dose group. After oral administration of RMF extract, the cardiotoxicity of RMF was evaluated by assessing ventricular function and by measuring the plasma levels of LDH, CK-MB and AST. Then, an LC-MS method was established to determine the rat plasma concentrations of three major rhodojaponins including rhodojaponin I, II and III (R-I, II and III) and was applied to pharmacokinetic study. Finally, based on an AUC-weighting approach, the integrated pharmacokinetics of three rhodojaponins was determined. Compared with control group, cardiotoxicity was observed in RMF-treated rats with left ventricular dysfunction and with the continuously increased levels of LDH and CK-MB in a dose-dependent manner. The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, t1/2, Tmax and Cmax) for R-I, II and III were markedly different, and the integrated pharmacokinetics was therefore converted to describe the holistic pharmacokinetic profiles of R-I, II and III, which correlated pretty well with cardiotoxicity. It was found that myocardial damage was elicited by RMF extract in a dose-dependent manner and the plasma levels of LDH and CK-MB could reveal the severity of myocardial injury as potential markers. This study also highlighted the potential of integrated pharmacokinetics to provid a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic behaviors of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  10. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation: preliminary results of revegetation experiments of maritime tundra with Elymus mollis on Adak Island, Alaska. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, C C; McCord, R A

    1982-08-01

    The vegetation of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska is maritime tundra (Amundsen, 1977). While maritime tundra is not characterized by the presence of permafrost, the soil temperatures remain low (5 to 7/sup 0/C) year-round (Williams, 1980). The low soil temperature, a high level of soil moisture, and a low level of incident solar radiation are thought to delay the development of the vegetation. Natural revegetation of natural or man made open areas is relatively slow. Disturbed areas from World War II military activity are not completely revegetated after almost 40 years. Because of the windy and wet climate of the region, exposed soil is unstable and subject to extensive freeze-thaw action and erosion. Insults to the vegetation, both marine and aeolian, are common. Successful reproduction by seed is uncommon among species of this flora. The primary means of reproduction appears to be by vegetative propagules which are usually fragments of the shoot and rhizome. While the transport of the fragments by wind and water aids in the dispersal of the propagules, the same action often removes these fragments from open areas. This later activity further delays the revegetation of open and disturbed areas. Elymus mollis Trin. is the most successful major native species found to date as it fragments due to wind and water action and transplants easily. Transplanting experiments with sprigs of Elymus mollis Trin. have been conducted on Adak Island, Alaska since 1977. Preliminary results indicate that Elymus mollis may be transplanted for revegetation with a survival rate of at least 90 percent. Experiments were set up in 1979 to determine appropriate planting density, sprig rhizome length, and best time of year for transplanting. Preliminary results for these experiments are reported here.

  11. Biomarkers of Organic Contamination in the South-American Fishes Poecilia vivipara and Jenynsia multidentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke Ferreira, Roger; Monserrat, José Maria; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler Luís; Kalb, Ana Cristina; Stegeman, John; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso; Zanette, Juliano

    2017-01-01

    South American Cyprinodontiform fishes are potential candidates to be used as model species in environmental toxicology. We sought for molecular and biochemical biomarkers of pollution in Poecilia vivipara (Poecilidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae). Partial nucleotide sequences for the cytochrome P450 1A (cyp1A), a classical biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants in fish, were identified in P. vivipara and J. multidentata (∼ 650 nucleotides) using degenerated primers and PCR. These sequences shared ∼ 90 % identity in the predicted amino acid sequence with the corresponding Cyp1A region of Fundulus heteroclitus. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that cyp1A transcription was strongly induced in the liver and gills of J. multidentata (∼185-fold and ∼20-fold, respectively) and P. vivipara (122-fold and 739-fold, respectively), after 24-hrs exposure to 1 μM of the synthetic cyp1A inducer β-naphthoflavone (BNF). After 24 hs of injection with 1 μg.g-1 of the environmental carcinogenic contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a decreased total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals was observed both in liver of J. multidentata and gills of P. vivipara. BaP injection in both fishes did not cause changes in lipid peroxides (TBARS) levels, suggesting an absence of an oxidative stress situation caused by BaP injection in this study. The newly identified cyp1As would serve as general biomarkers of exposure to organic contaminant in future studies using P. vivipara and J. multidentata. The results also points out to the important species-specific differences in the biomarker responses in those South American cyprinodontiform fishes, which would suggests distinct resistance/susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:22852852

  12. Spatial Discounting of Food and Social Rewards in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhoff, Nelly; Stevens, Jeffrey R.; Reader, Simon M.

    2011-01-01

    In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in non-human animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting), but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting for food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an examination of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. Analysis of travel times suggests that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance) and benefits (food, social partners). PMID:21738517

  13. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M T; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range.

  14. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  15. Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

    2009-12-22

    Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive.

  16. Invasion success and genetic diversity of introduced populations of guppies Poecilia reticulata in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Anna K; Breden, Felix; Alexander, Heather J; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Thakurta, Sumita G; Brooks, Robert

    2005-10-01

    High genetic diversity is thought to characterize successful invasive species, as the potential to adapt to new environments is enhanced and inbreeding is reduced. In the last century, guppies, Poecilia reticulata, repeatedly invaded streams in Australia and elsewhere. Quantitative genetic studies of one Australian guppy population have demonstrated high additive genetic variation for autosomal and Y-linked morphological traits. The combination of colonization success, high heritability of morphological traits, and the possibility of multiple introductions to Australia raised the prediction that neutral genetic diversity is high in introduced populations of guppies. In this study we examine genetic diversity at nine microsatellite and one mitochondrial locus for seven Australian populations. We used mtDNA haplotypes from the natural range of guppies and from domesticated varieties to identify source populations. There were a minimum of two introductions, but there was no haplotype diversity within Australian populations, suggesting a founder effect. This was supported by microsatellite markers, as allelic diversity and heterozygosity were severely reduced compared to one wild source population, and evidence of recent bottlenecks was found. Between Australian populations little differentiation of microsatellite allele frequencies was detected, suggesting that population admixture has occurred historically, perhaps due to male-biased gene flow followed by bottlenecks. Thus success of invasion of Australia and high additive genetic variance in Australian guppies are not associated with high levels of diversity at molecular loci. This finding is consistent with the release of additive genetic variation by dominance and epistasis following inbreeding, and with disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on fitness traits.

  17. Evolution of MHC class IIB in the genome of wild and ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, C; Joyce, D A; Cummings, S M

    2006-08-01

    This is the first study to quantify genomic sequence variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild and ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We sequenced 196-219 bp of exon 2 MHC class IIB (DAB) in 56 wild Trinidadian guppies and 14 ornamental strain guppies. Each of two natural populations possessed high allelic richness (15-16 alleles), whereas only three or fewer DAB alleles were amplified from ornamental guppies. The disparity in allelic richness between wild and ornamental fish cannot be fully explained by fixation of alleles by inbreeding, nor by the presence of non-amplified sequences (ie null alleles). Rather, we suggest that the same allele is fixed at duplicated MHC DAB loci owing to gene conversion. Alternatively, the number of loci in the ornamental strains has contracted during >100 generations in captivity, a hypothesis consistent with the accordion model of MHC evolution. We furthermore analysed the substitution patterns by making pairwise comparisons of sequence variation at the putative peptide binding region (PBR). The rate of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) only marginally exceeded synonymous substitutions (dS) in PBR codons. Highly diverged sequences showed no evidence for diversifying selection, possibly because synonymous substitutions have accumulated since their divergence. Also, the substitution pattern of similar alleles did not show evidence for diversifying selection, plausibly because advantageous non-synonymous substitutions have not yet accumulated. Intermediately diverged sequences showed the highest relative rate of non-synonymous substitutions, with dN/dS>14 in some pairwise comparisons. Consequently, a curvilinear relationship was observed between the dN/dS ratio and the level of sequence divergence.

  18. Transcriptome assemblies for studying sex-biased gene expression in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Eshita; Künstner, Axel; Fraser, Bonnie A; Zipprich, Gideon; Kottler, Verena A; Henz, Stefan R; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-05-26

    Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are generally associated with differential gene expression between the sexes. The study of molecular evolution and genomic location of these differentially expressed, or sex-biased, genes is important for understanding inter-sexual divergence under sex-specific selection pressures. Teleost fish provide a unique opportunity to examine this divergence in the presence of variable sex-determination mechanisms of recent origin. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, displays sexual dimorphism in size, ornaments, and behavior, traits shaped by natural and sexual selection in the wild. To gain insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the guppy's sexual dimorphism, we assembled a reference transcriptome combining genome-independent as well as genome-guided assemblies and analyzed sex-biased gene expression between different tissues of adult male and female guppies. We found tissue-associated sex-biased expression of genes related to pigmentation, signal transduction, and spermatogenesis in males; and growth, cell-division, extra-cellular matrix organization, nutrient transport, and folliculogenesis in females. While most sex-biased genes were randomly distributed across linkage groups, we observed accumulation of ovary-biased genes on the sex linkage group, LG12. Both testis-biased and ovary-biased genes showed a significantly higher rate of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) compared to unbiased genes. However, in somatic tissues only female-biased genes, including those co-expressed in multiple tissues, showed elevated ratios of non-synonymous substitutions. Our work identifies a set of annotated gene products that are candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism in guppies. The differential genomic distribution of gonad-biased genes provides evidence for sex-specific selection pressures acting on the nascent sex chromosomes of the guppy. The elevated rates of evolution of testis-biased and female-biased genes indicate

  19. Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D

    2009-12-03

    Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6.

  20. Evolution of juvenile growth rates in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata): predator regime or resource level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N

    2005-02-07

    Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that growth rate can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow growth, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid growth. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) evolve differences in behaviour, morphology and life-history traits in response to predation, thus demonstrating that predators are potent agents of selection. Predators in low-predation environments prey preferentially on small guppies, but those in high-predation environments appear to be non-selective. Because guppies can outgrow their main predator in low- but not high-predation localities, we predict that predation will select for higher growth rates in the low-predation environments.However, low-predation localities also tend to have lower productivity than high-predation localities, yield-ing the prediction that guppies from these sites should have slower growth rates. Here we compare the growth rates of the second laboratory-born generation of guppies from paired high- and low-predation localities from four different drainages. In two out of four comparisons, guppies from high-predation sites grew significantly faster than their low-predation counterparts. We also compare laboratory born descendants from a field introduction experiment and show that guppies introduced to a low-predation environment evolved slower growth rates after 13 years, although this was evident only at the high food level. The weight of the evidence suggests that resource availability plays a more important role than predation in shaping the evolution of growth rates.

  1. Reasons for the Invasive Success of a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Population in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Caya; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine; Ramnarine, Indar; Magurran, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed

  2. Tracking the startle response of guppies Poecilia reticulata in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanesyan, A; Rodd, F H; Ryu, W S

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of startle behaviours of guppies Poecilia reticulata, in dyads or alone, from two populations that show distinct differences in shoaling behaviour was performed. During the first few seconds after a startling stimulus, changes in behaviour, which could be critical if an individual is to survive a predatory attack, and the interactions between pairs of P. reticulata were examined. The enhanced social interactions immediately after the stimulus, as a proxy for shoaling behaviour, and their dissipation were quantified. Social (individuals tested in dyads) v. asocial (tested alone) responses to the startling stimulus were also compared. The three-dimensional reconstruction, from a two-camera, high-frame-rate tracking system allowed for the tracking of the individuals' speed and speed recovery and, for P. reticulata in dyads, interindividual distance and orientation. For the dyads from the high-predation population, the closer the individuals were to each other, the more likely they were to be parallel, but no correlation was found for the low-predation P. reticulata. The startle response of P. reticulata comprised the following sequence: freezing, darting and skittering and recovery to pre-stimulus swimming behaviour. Upon repeated encounters with the stimulus, a reduced shoaling and startle response was observed, although the rate of reduction was faster in P. reticulata from the high-predation population than those from the low-predation population. The results are discussed in light of what is known about the anti-predator behaviour of this species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M. T.; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  4. Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata population in Trinidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caya Sievers

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing

  5. Phenotypic plasticity changes correlations of traits following experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Corey A; Ruell, Emily W; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-11-01

    Colonization of novel environments can alter selective pressures and act as a catalyst for rapid evolution in nature. Theory and empirical studies suggest that the ability of a population to exhibit an adaptive evolutionary response to novel selection pressures should reflect the presence of sufficient additive genetic variance and covariance for individual and correlated traits. As correlated traits should not respond to selection independently, the structure of correlations of traits can bias or constrain adaptive evolution. Models of how multiple correlated traits respond to selection often assume spatial and temporal stability of trait-correlations within populations. Yet, trait-correlations can also be plastic in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes across environments, is of particular interest because it can induce population-wide changes in the combination of traits exposed to selection and change the trajectory of evolutionary divergence. We tested the ability of phenotypic plasticity to modify trait-correlations by comparing phenotypic variance and covariance in the body-shapes of four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to their ancestral population. We found that phenotypic plasticity produced both adaptive and novel aspects of body-shape, which was repeated in all four experimental populations. Further, phenotypic plasticity changed patterns of covariance among morphological characters. These findings suggest our ability to make inferences about patterns of divergence based on correlations of traits in extant populations may be limited if novel environments not only induce plasticity in multiple traits, but also change the correlations among the traits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the presence of alternative preys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Barnali; Aditya, Gautam; Banerjee, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872) on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of R. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N) and diet breadth (B) were measured following Manly's selectivity index (Si) as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2,33 = 34.91; p < 0.001). The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05-0.27; p < 0.05) compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N) and diet breadth (B) ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances. P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  7. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

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    Nelly eMühlhoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  8. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Populations in Panama.

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    Celestino Martínez

    Full Text Available Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection, could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not variation in the native range.

  9. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

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    Patricia Devezé Murillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC,oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1y pH (6.8.Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para

  10. Relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots of male guppies Poecilia reticulata as mating traits preferred by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, K; Shimada, Y; Kudo, H; Sato, A

    2010-07-01

    Digitally modified videos of male guppies Poecilia reticulata were used to examine the relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots as mating traits preferred by females. The females prioritized the area of the orange spots over intensity for their mate preference.

  11. Controles físico, físico-químico, químico e microbiológico dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae

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    Silviane Z. Hubinger

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a qualidade dos fitoterápicos, é importante salientar que a preocupação com esta questão inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e produção, desde a coleta do vegetal até o produto final. O controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e seus extratos é essencial quando utilizados como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos. Neste trabalho foram utilizadas diversas técnicas (farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas visando estabelecer parâmetros de qualidade dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae, popularmente conhecida como faveiro. Os resultados obtidos determinaram as características físico-químicas da droga vegetal e mostraram que o pó dos frutos e o extrato etanólico 70% de D. mollis apresentam um teor de flavonóides de 10,25% e 17,21%, respectivamente. A análise fitoquímica preliminar dos frutos caracterizou a presença de taninos, saponinas e flavonóides. Na análise microbiológica do extrato não houve crescimento de patógenos entre os testes realizados.

  12. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alimentación de los peces dulceacuícolas tropicales Heterandria bimaculata y Poecilia sphenops (Cyprinidontiformes: Poeciliidae

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    Patricia Trujillo-Jiménez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la dieta y los hábitos alimentarios de Heterandria bimaculata y Poecilia sphenops. Se tomaron muestras mensuales en la presa "Los Carros", Morelos, México (10°37´ N, 98°43´ W. El contenido intestinal fue analizado de acuerdo con los métodos numérico (No y el de frecuencia de presencia (FO. Se utilizó el índice de traslape de MacArthur y Levin. H. bimaculata presentó la ingestión de 16 componentes alimenticios. Los odonatos y los himenópteros fueron los más consumidos en le estación de lluvias, mientras que en el estiaje fueron los himenópteros y coleópteros. La talla II fue la que registró la mayor diversidad, siendo los himenópteros los más consumidos en las tres tallas. El índice de traslape en cada uno de los análisis fue de 0.74 a 0.99. P. sphenops consumió 11 tipos de alimento; el detrito registró los porcentajes más altos independientemente de sexo, tamaño y época (índice de traslape = 0.99. Ambas especies comparten seis alimentos, pero en bajas proporciones (índice de traslape = 0.26.Diet of the tropical freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Haeckel and Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes (Cyprinidontiformes: Poeciliidae. We analyzed the diet and feeding habits of the fishes Heterandria bimaculata and Poecilia sphenops. Specimens were captured monthly in "Los Carros" damp, Morelos, Mexico (18°37´ N, 98°43´ W. We quantified gut content by the numerical method and by the frequency of occurrence method; and used the MacArthur and Levin´s indices for niche overlap. The diet of H. bimaculata was composed by 16 prey categories, mainly dipterans (Culicidae predominated, independently of sex, size and season. The index of niche overlap was high, from 0.74 to 0.99. The diet of P. sphenops consisted of 11 items, detritus being the most consumed, also independently of sex, size and season. The niche overlap index was high (0.99, indicating overlapping for all analyses. There was little diet overlap (0

  14. INFECÇÃO COM TROFOZOÍTOS DE Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (CILIOPHORA EM Poecilia vivipara (POECILIIDAE COMO HOSPEDEIRO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH TROPHOZOITES OF Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (CILIOPHORA IN Poecilia vivipara (POECILIIDAE AS AN EXPERIMENTAL HOST

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    Alexander Camaras Berestinas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o grau de parasitismo em Poecilia vivipara infectado experimentalmente com trofozoítos de Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Em frascos de 400 mL de água com aeração constante foram acondicionados quatro peixes, com duas réplicas e adicionadas as quantidades de 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 20 trofozoítos/peixe. Os valores médios da temperatura da água, pH e oxigênio dissolvido foram de 19,5±0,39ºC, 6,35±0,09 e 7,02±0,45mg/L, respectivamente. Antes de se proceder à infecção, os animais foram tratados com solução de formalina 1:4000 durante uma hora por dois dias consecutivos. Obtiveram-se os parasitos de cinco alevinos de Salminus brasiliensis infectados, mantidos em placas de Petri com água por trinta minutos. Coletaram-se os trofozoítos com pipeta Pasteur e adicionou-se o número respectivo em cada tratamento. Para evitar que os parasitos ficassem aderidos às placas, cada uma foi mantida no respectivo frasco durante o período. Após sete dias, os peixes foram sacrificados e examinados, exceto os expostos a 20 trofozoítos/peixe, os quais morreram em dois dias. O valor médio do tratamento com 20 trofozoítos/peixe foi significativamente maior (P<0,05 do que os tratamentos 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16. Indica-se o inóculo entre 1 e 16 trofozoítos/ peixe como viável para o estudo de infecção experimental na espécie estudada, pelo fato de os peixes permanecerem parasitados durante todo o período experimental. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, infecção experimental, Poecilia vivipara This experiment studied the parasitic degree in Poecilia vivipara experimentally infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis trophozoites. In flasks with 400 mL of water, four fish were maintained with constant aeration in two replicates and added 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 trophozoites/fish. Mean values of water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were 19.5±0.39ºC, 6.35±0.09 and 7.02±0.45mg/L, respectively. Before experimental

  15. Optimized AIR and investigational MOLLI cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequences produce similar intra-scan repeatability in patients at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, KyungPyo; Collins, Jeremy; Lee, Daniel C; Wilcox, Jane E; Markl, Michael; Carr, James; Kim, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the precision of arrhythmia-insensitive rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping through pulse sequence optimization and then evaluate the intra-scan repeatability in patients at 3T against investigational modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping. In the first development phase (five human subjects), we implemented and tested centric-pair k-space ordering to suppress image artifacts associated with eddy currents. In the second development phase (15 human subjects), we determined optimal flip angles to reduce the measurement variation in T1 maps. In the validation phase (35 patients), we compared the intra-scan repeatability between investigational MOLLI and optimized AIR. In 23 cardiac planes, conventional centric k-space ordering (3.7%) produced significantly (p T1 , native blood T1 , post-contrast myocardial T1 , post-contrast blood T1 ), flip angles of 55-65° produced lower measurement variation while producing results that are not significantly different from those produced with the previously used flip angle of 35° (p > 0.89, intra-class correlation coefficient ≥ 0.95 for all four measurement types). Compared with investigational MOLLI (coefficient of repeatability, CR = 40.0, 77.2, 26.5, and 25.9 ms for native myocardial, native blood, post-contrast myocardial, and post-contrast blood T1 , and 2.0% for extracellular volume (ECV) measurements, respectively), optimized AIR (CR = 54.3, 89.7, 30.5, and 14.7 ms for native myocardial, native blood, post-contrast myocardial, and post-contrast blood T1 , and 1.6% for ECV measurements, respectively) produced similar absolute intra-scan repeatability in all 35 patients in the validation phase. High repeatability is critically important for longitudinal studies, where the goal is to monitor physiologic/pathologic changes, not measurement variation. Optimized AIR cardiac T1 mapping is likely to yield high scan-retest repeatability for pre-clinical and clinical

  16. MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychedelic effects, similar to the hallucinogens mescaline and LSD. MDMA is known as a “club drug” because ... Researchers are still working to understand MDMA’s addictive properties. But, some users experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms after ...

  17. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... decreased appetite decreased interest in and pleasure from sex It's possible that some of these effects may ...

  18. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

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    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  19. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  20. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

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    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  1. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

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    Anna K Lindholm

    Full Text Available Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  2. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Anna K.; Sandkam, Ben; Pohl, Kristina; Breden, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group. PMID:26529081

  3. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICÓTICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAS HOJAS DE Minthostachys mollis (MUÑA) COMPARADO CON EL FLUCONAZOL EN CULTIVO DE Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine M. Alcalá-Marcos; A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra; L Arturo Alejandro-Paredes; Eduardo Huayané-Linares

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña) en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%), grupo muña 50% (GM50%), grupo muña 100% (GM100%), un g...

  4. Self-Reported Ecstasy/MDMA/"Molly" Use in a Sample of Nightclub and Dance Festival Attendees in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M

    2017-01-02

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of "Molly," which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use-nightlife attendees. We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18-25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was utilized. We examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime ecstasy use. Self-reported lifetime ecstasy use was common (42.8%, 95% CI: 32.8, 52.7). Use was most common among older participants, frequent party attendees, and those reporting higher levels of exposure to users. Those surveyed outside of festivals were less likely to report use compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs (AOR = 0.37, p = .015). Over a third of ecstasy users (36.8%)reported use in pill, powder, and crystal form. Ecstasy users were also more likely to report use of other drugs, including novel psychoactive substances (e.g., 2C series drugs, synthetic cathinones ["bath salts"]). Half (50.4%) reported suspecting (21.9%) or finding out (28.5%) that their ecstasy had ever contained a drug other than MDMA. A large percentage of nightlife attendees in NYC report lifetime ecstasy use. Findings should inform prevention and harm reduction programming. Further research is needed as ecstasy continues to change (e.g., in form, purity, and name).

  5. ANÁLISE HISTOLÓGICA, HISTOQUÍMICA E ULTRAESTRUTURAL DA MUSCULATURA DORSAL E VENTRAL DO GUARU (Poecilia vivipara BLOCHI & SCHNEIDER, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rezende dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Poecilia vivipara (guaru, a neotropical, small, euryhalinefish, has been being used as a biomonitor. Dorsal and ventralmuscles of Poecilia vivipara were analyzed to standardize methodologiesfor evaluating the normal tissue structure, in order to usethem in toxicity studies. Thus, chemical and physical fixations werecarried out, aiming at the histological and histochemical proceduresof staining and reaction. The methods HE and MT revealed theorganization of SSMF with epiaxial and hypaxial muscle bundlesand associated conjunctive. MA marked the SSMF and facilitatedthe observation of sarcomeres in the presence of a thin metacromaticallystained band. Part of the SSMF was positive PAS andreactive amylase, indicating the distribution of glycogen withinthe fibers. In the presence of SBB the fibers were reactive mainlyin the dorsal region, indicating the presence of lipids. Cells withmitochondrial enzyme-rich cytoplasm were found in SDH pH 10.5.The SSMF stained with AT were arranged in alternating transversebands, which correspond to the pattern seen under the MET. The useof these methodologies allowed the indication of Poecilia viviparamuscles as a tool for environmental variations studies, because itsnormal structure is standard in teleosts.

  6. Potencial germinativo de sementes de fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae sob diferentes procedências, datas de coleta e tratamentos de escarificação Germinative potential of fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae seeds from different locations and collection dates under distinct scarification treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais que possuem sementes duras e impermeáveis à água freqüentemente apresentam problemas para germinar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar tratamentos pré-germinativos em laboratório que permitam abreviar, aumentar e uniformizar a germinação das sementes de Dimorphandra mollis, além de avaliar essa germinação em diferentes épocas e locais de coleta. Foram coletadas sementes de D. mollis em quatro municípios do norte de Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela e Jequitaí, em duas datas distintas: agosto e setembro de 2004. As sementes foram submetidas a cinco tratamentos de escarificação: lixamento, imersão em ácido sulfúrico por 10 e por 20 min, imersão em água quente a 70 ºC e controle (sementes intactas. Nos testes de germinação, um delineamento experimental casualizado foi utilizado, com 10 repetições de 10 sementes de cada tratamento, localidade e data de coleta. Os efeitos dos diferentes tratamentos na germinação das sementes foram avaliados através da análise de variância e teste t. Após a análise, constatou-se que as sementes coletadas em agosto (X= 47,8 ± 6,8%, na localidade de Montes Claros (X= 41,7 ± 9,7%, e escarificadas mecanicamente (X= 83,0 ± 8,2% denotaram maior potencial germinativo. Nesse sentido, sementes de fava-d'anta apresentam dormência imposta pelo tegumento, com potencial germinativo maior no tratamento com lixa. Além disso, o grau de maturação das sementes e fatores ecológicos locais parecem interferir na germinação das sementes da espécie estudada.Forest species with hard and impermeable seeds often have problems to germinate. The present work aimed to select pre-germinative treatments in laboratory to homogenize the germination of Dimorphandra mollis seeds and to compare the germination rates of seeds collected from different periods and locations. D. mollis seeds were collected at four different regions in northern Minas Gerais: Montes Claros

  7. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  8. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  9. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of myocardial T1 mapping: A comparison of four T1 estimation algorithms for modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiaxin; Liu, Dapeng; Sung, Kyunghyun; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Hu, Peng

    2017-11-01

    To compare the accuracy and precision of four different T1 estimation algorithms for modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI). Four T1 estimation algorithms, including the original fit, inversion group (IG) fit, instantaneous signal loss simulation (InSiL), and Bloch equation simulation with slice profile correction (BLESSPC) were studied. T1 estimation accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and sensitivity to heart rate (HR), flip angle (FA), and acquisition scheme (AcS) variations were compared in simulation, phantom, and volunteer studies. T1 estimation accuracy of IG (-2.4% ± 3.9%) and original fit (-3.2% ± 1.4%) were worse than BLESSPC (0.2% ± 1.5%) and InSiL (-0.7% ± 2.1%). The original fit had the best precision for T1 from 409-1884 ms for the same FA (0.67% ± 0.16% versus 0.90% ± 0.23% using IG, 0.78% ± 0.11% using InSiL, 0.77% ± 0.12% using BLESSPC). BLESSPC generated the most consistent in vivo T1 values over different FAs and AcS, and the T1 estimation reproducibility was similar (P > 0.3) among the four methods when FA = 35°. When using FA = 50°, the reproducibility was significantly improved only when using BLESSPC (1.6% ± 0.9 versus 2.6% ± 1.9%, P T1 estimation using BLESSPC and FA = 50° is superior to conventional MOLLI with FA = 35° in accuracy and precision. Further clinical studies in varying pathological conditions are warranted to confirm our findings. Magn Reson Med 78:1746-1756, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  11. Diet of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1959 in streams from Paraná River basin: influence of the urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Zaia Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the diet of Poecilia reticulata in rural (RS and urban stream (US and under seasonal influence. We hypothesized that rainfall have a strong negative impact on the diet of the species in the US, due to its abrupt effect on food resources; in RS this effect is less apparent. Both streams belong to Pirapó River sub-basin, Paraná River basin. Fishes were sampled bimonthly, between July 2007 and June 2008 in three sample sites along the longitudinal gradient of the streams, using electrofishing. According to the Feeding Index, in both streams the population consumed almost exclusively detritus associated with aquatic organisms (>95%, regardless of the hydrological period. The main taxa explored by fish were Simuliidae in RS and Chironomidae in US. The diet was significantly different between streams; however, the seasonal factor was not significant, showing that the results were partially consistent with the suggested proposal. In US stream the diet of the fish followed an ordinarily pattern found in urban environments. Thus, P. reticulata can be used as a tool to assess environmental conditions due to its ability to reach bioindicator organisms, such as Chironomidae species.

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Gamma-Irradiation on Microbial Contamination and on Histological Changes of Muscle in Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Beňová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbial skin and organ contamination and on the histological changes of fish skeletal musculature. The aquarium fish Poecilia reticulata were exposed to the radiation effect of 60Co at the doses of 20 and 30 Gy (11.36 Gy/min. Frequent intravital haemorrhages were observed from day 8 after the exposure. A general long-term body fading appeared from day 10 to day 30 of the experiment. Microbiological and histological examinations were done on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Individual muscle cells were bound together into fascicles surrounded by connective tissue. No significant morphological changes were observed on skeletal muscle cells, except for more watery connective tissue. The presence of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila was proved in the body surface samples and in aquarium water based on the microbiological test. A moderate increase of the number of E. coli and A. hydrophila was observed in the intestines in both exposed groups (20 and 30 Gy depending on the time that elapsed from the exposure (from 1 × 101 to 6 × 103 CFU. However, the heart, liver and musculature remained sterile. No microbial contamination of musculature was found for the intravital ionizing radiation dose of 30 Gy even for the single specimen killed on day 28 from the exposure.

  14. Investigation of acute toxicity of Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidacae) extract on guppies, Poecilia reticulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriarcharungroj, Sudatip; Chuaysuwan, Varithorn; Sudthonghong, Chaiwud; Bullangpoti, Vasakorn

    2008-01-01

    Jotropha gossypifolio L. (Etphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa, L. (Capparidacae), Thai-plant species, have phytocidal chemical components and responsible for controlling and repelling insects from the host plants. To avoid potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, this present study was investigated for acute toxicity. Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 5 times and the 24-h LC50 was determined for the guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each Jatropha gossypifolia L. and Cleome viscosa, L. concentration extract which extracted by Soxhlet extraction method with ethanol as solvent. Water temperature was regulated at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Data obtained from the acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the probit analysis statistical method. The 24-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as ca. 3100 ppm (r2=0.95) and 5300 ppm ((r2=0.96) for Jatropha gossypifolia L. and Cleome viscosa, L. extract, respectively. However, in this concentration, no mortality was observed at higher concentration for 30 second.

  15. Morphologic analysis of developmental phases and gill ontogenesis in neotropical species Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae exposed to different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated and characterized the different phases of development and the cell types present in the gill epithelium of embryos, larvae, and fingerlings of guppy (Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801 specimens exposed to water with salinity ranging from 0‰ to 20‰. The development of P. vivipara was classified into eight phases. The yolk was intensely eosinophilic, with glycidic and lipidic components between phases 1 to 7. After the development of their branchial epithelium, the presence of pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells, and mucous cells (MCs was observed. The understanding of ontogenesis indicates the sequence of cellular origin. Only type IV MCs located in the gill rays was detected from phase 3 through phase 7. Other types of MCs were observed only when the fingerlings were exposed to salinity changes and showed to be lectin-reactive, thus indicating that P. vivipara modulates the cellular behavior when submitted to salinity changes. Exposure to variable saline concentrations did not interfere in the initial development of guppies. The presence of a yolk sac until the fingerling phase characterized this species as ovoviviparous.

  16. Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: colour vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin; Young, C Megan; Breden, Felix

    2015-02-01

    A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for covariation in visual tuning, light environment and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low-predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high-predation' environments. Here, we show that colour vision also varies across populations, with 'low'-predation guppies investing more of their colour vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in 'low-predation' populations than 'high-predation' populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed that the frequency of a coding polymorphism differed between high- and low-predation populations. Together, this shows that the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of female preference variation in this model system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena A Kottler

    Full Text Available The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  18. Pigment Pattern Formation in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Involves the Kita and Csf1ra Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A.; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore–melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics. PMID:23666934

  19. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces histomorphological and protein expression changes in the liver of the female guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Paula Rezende; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2017-02-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are among the most common herbicides found in aquatic systems, but limited data are available about their mode of action and hepatotoxicity in fish. This study investigated the hepatotoxicity induced by GBH in the guppy Poecilia reticulata using a histopathological assessment associated with a proteomic approach. Guppies were exposed to GBH for 24 h at 1.8 mg of glyphosate L -1 , corresponding to 50% of the LC 50, 96 h . The results indicate that the GBH at 1.8 mg of glyphosate L -1 induce the development of hepatic damage in P. reticulata, which is exposure-time dependent. The histopathological indexes demonstrate that GBH cause inflammatory, regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the liver of guppies. Using 2D gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 18 proteins that changed by GBH were identified and were related to the cellular structure, motility and transport, energy metabolism and apoptosis. The results show that the acute exposure to GBH causes hepatic histopathological damage related to protein expression profile changes in P. reticulata, indicating that a histopathological assessment associated with a proteomic analysis provides a valuable approach to assess the toxic effects of GBH in sentinel fish species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Molecular characterization and confocal laser scanning microscopic study of Pygidiopsis macrostomum (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) parasites of guppies Poecilia vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J N; Costa, V S; Mantovani, C; Barros, E; Santos, E G N; Mafra, C L; Santos, C P

    2017-02-01

    Pygidiopsis macrostomum and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis (Digenea: Heterophyidae) parasitize guppies as intermediate hosts and, respectively, fish-eating mammals or birds as definitive hosts. Heterophyids have zoonotic potential, and molecular studies associated with morphological and ecological aspects have helped to clarify their taxonomy and phylogeny. Poecilia vivipara naturally parasitized by metacercariae of both species (100% prevalence) exhibit no external signs of parasitism. In this work, four new sequences of P. macrostomum (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS2 rDNA) and one new sequence of A. (P.) pindoramensis (mtDNA cox-1) are presented. Phylogeny reconstructions linked P. macrostomum to other heterophyids, but the separation of the Heterophyidae and Opisthorchiidae remains unclear. Additionally, we used indirect immunocytochemistry and the phalloidin-fluorescence techniques allied with confocal laser scanning microscopy to describe muscular and neuronal structures of P. macrostomum. A complex arrangement of muscular fibres is associated with the tegument, suckers, gut and reproductive system. Radial fibres around the ventral sucker are thick, branched and extend to the body wall. High-resolution confocal imaging revealed a typical digenean muscular arrangement and important heterophyid morphological traits. These data will support future control measures to reduce the parasitism in guppies reared in fish farming systems, especially for aquarium and experimental purposes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1987-12-01

    Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  3. The genetic and environmental basis of adaptive differences in shoaling behaviour among populations of Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, M; Ghalambor, C K; Reznick, D N

    2009-09-01

    The degree of plasticity an individual expresses when moving into a new environment is likely to influence the probability of colonization and potential for subsequent evolution. Yet few empirical examples exist where the ancestral and derived conditions suggest a role for plasticity in adaptive genetic divergence of populations. Here we explore the genetic and plastic components of shoaling behaviour in two pairs of populations of Poecilia reticulata (Trinidadian guppies). We contrast shoaling behaviour of guppies derived from high- and low-predation populations from two separate drainages by measuring the shoaling response of second generation laboratory-reared individuals in the presence and absence of predator induced alarm pheromones. We find persistent differences in mean shoaling cohesion that suggest a genetic basis; when measured under the same conditions high-predation guppies form more cohesive shoals than low-predation guppies. Both high and low-predation guppies also exhibit plasticity in the response to alarm pheromones, by forming tighter, more cohesive shoals. These patterns suggest a conserved capacity for adaptive behavioural plasticity when moving between variable predation communities that are consistent with models of genetic accommodation.

  4. Cholinergic alterations by exposure to pesticides used in control vector: Guppies fish (Poecilia reticulta) as biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, E J; Ventura-Ramón, H G; Díaz-Resendiz, K J G; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2018-02-01

    Spinosad and temephos are two of the most used pesticides in Mexico for the control of vector causing disease such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. The aim of this study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of these two pesticides using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism. Guppies were exposed for 7 and 21 days to technical grade temephos and spinosad at 1.0 and 0.07 g/L, respectively, (10 and 0.5 mg/L of active substance; concentrations recommended by the Ministery of Health of the State (Secretaría de Salud de Nayarit (SSN) Mexico)). Subsequently, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and acetylcholine concentrations (ACh) in muscle tissue were determined. Temephos exposure decreased AChE activity and increased ACh concentration, whereas exposure to spinosad only increased ACh concentration. Though cholinergic alterations were more severe in fish exposed to temephos, both pesticides were equally lethal during the first seven days after exposure. Nonetheless, temephos was more lethal after 21 days.

  5. 75 FR 11129 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Atlantic Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... ; Mail or hand deliver to Daniel T. Furlong, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Council by telephone (302) 674-2331. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Daniel T. Furlong, Mid-Atlantic...

  6. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken...... with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number...

  7. Genetic improvement of variety pattern chromatic Half BlackBlue or Diamond of ornamental fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata; Peters, 1859 through mass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a standard computerized digitized based on the number of pixels. They found eight characteristic blue color tones in both the body and dorsal fin to be used in the potential for mass selection breeding color pattern of the commercial variety or Half Black-Blue Diamond ornamental fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Ten pairs of sires selected with an average of eighty F1 offspring per couple (Total = 734, were randomly selected twelve male animals more attractive for its beauty subjective color, divided into two groups, one blue and one to find a light blue color digital mathematical pattern by the number of pixels.

  8. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National... hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region, and blacknose sharks and non-blacknose SCS in the Atlantic region...

  9. Protective role of Spirulina feed in a freshwater fish (Poecilia reticulata Peters) exposed to an azo dye-methyl red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, K P

    2005-12-01

    Acute toxicity of an azo dye-methyl red (5-40 ppm) was examined under starving conditions, on two groups of Poecilia reticulata--a freshwater fish, fed on different diets prior to their exposure to dye. Besides natural feed, fish of group-1 also received Spirulina feed for one month (feed population), whereas those of group-2 received only natural feed (non-feed population). The mortality data revealed non-feed population to be more tolerant to feed stress during acute toxicity study, whereas feed population exhibited better tolerance to the combined stress of both feed and methyl red; especially at higher concentrations of the latter. RBCs in methyl red treatments acquired different shapes (poikilocytosis) and an increase in their size (anisocytosis) was also noticed. Percentage of such abnormal RBCs was almost equal in both feed and non-feed populations, except at a lower concentration (5 ppm), at which percentage of poikilocytic RBCs was lesser in the feed population. RBC counts in the control non-feed fish (34.5 x 10(4)/mm3) were significantly lower than control feed population (50.0 x 10(4) /mm3). Their number decreased with an increase in methyl red concentrations in non-feed population (9-26%), but percent reduction in RBC counts was almost similar (20-26%) at various concentrations of methyl red (5-30 ppm) in the feed population. Despite reduction in RBC counts, feed population did not suffer from anemia in methyl red treatments, as evident by their RBC counts which were almost equal to control fish of non-feed population. The results suggest that Spirulina feed improves tolerance of test organism towards methyl red manifested by noticeable reduction in the cytotoxic effects on RBCs and a lower mortality rate at higher concentrations of dye.

  10. Gender-specific histopathological response in guppies Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate or its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Adriana Maria; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Pires, Fernando Santiago; de Freitas, Meire Alves; Leite, Vanessa Rafaela Milhomem Cruz; Arana, Sarah; Moreira, Paulo César; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2017-09-01

    Ecotoxicity of glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was investigated in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We tested the effects of these chemicals on the gills and liver of both male and female guppies using qualitative and quantitative histopathological analyses associated with histopathological condition indexes. Both genders showed similar median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) at 96 h for GLY (68.78 and 70.87 mg l -1 ) and AMPA (180 and 164.32 mg l -1 ). However, the histopathological assessment of both fish organs exposed to sublethal concentrations of GLY (35 mg l -1 ) and AMPA (82 mg l -1 ) for 96 h showed a tissue- and gender-specific histopathological response. In both exposure assays, fish presented mainly progressive changes, such as proliferation of the interlamellar epithelium, partial and total fusion of secondary lamellae. The liver showed mainly regressive changes, such as steatosis, pyknotic nuclei and high distribution of collagen fibers. Unusually large hepatocytes as degenerated cells were also detected. Histopathological changes in gills were similar for the males and females, but the liver response was different between the genders. The hepatic inflammatory changes were more common in males. The increase in the area of hepatocyte vacuoles is gender dependent with higher values in the male compared to the female guppies exposed to GLY and AMPA. Multiparametric analysis indicated that the male guppies are more sensitive than females, particularly in the presence of AMPA. Our study shows that the histopathological assessment associated with gender-specific response can be successfully used in ecotoxicological assessment of GLY and the metabolite AMPA. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  12. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  13. The agricultural contaminant 17β-trenbolone disrupts male-male competition in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Patrick; Saaristo, Minna; Bertram, Michael G; Tomkins, Raymond B; Allinson, Mayumi; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-11-01

    Despite a growing literature highlighting the potential impact of human-induced environmental change on mechanisms of sexual selection, relatively little is known about the effects of chemical pollutants on male-male competition. One class of environmental pollutant likely to impact male competitive interactions is the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), a large and heterogeneous group of chemical contaminants with the potential to influence morphology, physiology and behaviour at minute concentrations. One EDC of increasing concern is the synthetic, androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone, which is used globally to promote growth in beef cattle. Although 17β-trenbolone has been found to cause severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in fish, its potential impact on male-male competition has yet to be investigated. To address this, we exposed wild male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone (average measured concentration: 8 ng/L) for 21 days using a flow-through system. We found that, in the presence of a competitor, 17β-trenbolone-exposed males carried out more frequent aggressive behaviours towards rival males than did unexposed males, as well as performing less courting behaviour and more sneak (i.e., coercive) mating attempts towards females. Considering that, by influencing mating outcomes, male-male competition has important consequences for population dynamics and broader evolutionary processes, this study highlights the need for greater understanding of the potential impact of EDCs on the mechanisms of sexual selection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal dynamics of epidermal responses of guppies Poecilia reticulata to a sublethal range of waterborne zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, C; Marcogliese, D J; Scott, M E

    2009-12-01

    This study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of guppies Poecilia reticulata induced by waterborne zinc (Zn). Laboratory-reared P. reticulata fry were maintained individually in separate vessels containing artificial water (8 microg l(-1) Zn) to which 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 microg l(-1) Zn was added. Their epidermal response to Zn was monitored regularly over 4 weeks. Compared with controls, mucus was rapidly released and mucous cell numbers decreased at all concentrations. Thereafter mucous release, epidermal thickness, numbers and size of mucous cells fluctuated at a rate that varied with Zn concentration, but fluctuations declined after day 18. Results clearly highlight the dynamic nature of the epidermal response to sublethal concentrations of waterborne Zn. In general, low concentrations of Zn induced a rapid response with reduced numbers and size of mucous cells and shift in mucin composition, and a subsequent thickening of the epidermis. Epidermal thickness and mucous cell area fluctuated over time but were normal after a month of exposure to low Zn concentrations. The number of mucous cells, however, remained low. Virtually all mucous cells from fish maintained in 15 and 60 microg l(-1) Zn contained acidic mucins throughout the month, whereas fish maintained at 30 microg l(-1) Zn responded by production of neutral mucins during the first 12 days followed by a mixture of neutral and acidic mucins. At 120 microg l(-1) Zn, the most dramatic effects were the gradual but sustained decrease in numbers and area of mucous cells, and the shift to acidic mucins in these cells. Thus, as concentration of Zn increased, the epidermal responses indicated a disturbed host response (dramatic decline in mucous cell numbers, with mixed composition of mucins), which may have been less effective in preventing Zn uptake across the epithelium.

  15. Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, K Håkan; Ask, Katarina; Olsén, Hanna; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1 μg L(-1). In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15 μg L(-1). They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reprint of "Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, K Håkan; Ask, Katarina; Olsén, Hanna; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1 μgL(-1). In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15 μgL(-1) for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15 μgL(-1). They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15 μgL(-1) significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Actividad antimicótica in vitro y metabolitos del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys Mollis (muña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Demostrar la actividad antimicótica in vitro y la elucidación de algunos de los metabolitos del aceite esencial de hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña proveniente del distrito de Huacrapuquio (2700 msnm, Junín. Materiales y métodos. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de destilación por arrastre de vapor de agua. Este fue sometido a análisis físico-químico y determinación de la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases. Mediante el método de agar en difusión se evaluó la inhibición del crecimiento fúngico de Candida albicans y también por el método de dilución en tubo para Trichophytun tonsurans, Trichophytun mentagrophytes, Microsporun canis. Resultados. Se encontraron los siguientes monoterpenos: pulegona, mentona, limoneno y mirceno. El aceite esencial de muña inhibió completamente el desarrollo de T. tonsurasn, T. mentagrophytes y M. canis con ambos métodos de evaluación y dosis, para C. albicans se logró un halo de inhibición de 30 mm para el aceite esencial al 100% y de 35 mm al 50%. Conclusiones. Se demostró la actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de muña, probablemente por la acción de los monoterpenos encontrados.

  18. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  20. Systolic MOLLI T1 mapping with heart-rate-dependent pulse sequence sampling scheme is feasible in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Songnan; Ma, Xiaohai; Greiser, Andreas; Zhang, Tianjing; An, Jing; Bai, Rong; Dong, Jianzeng; Fan, Zhanming

    2016-03-15

    T1 mapping enables assessment of myocardial characteristics. As the most common type of arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) is often accompanied by a variety of cardiac pathologies, whereby the irregular and usually rapid ventricle rate of AF may cause inaccurate T1 estimation due to mis-triggering and inadequate magnetization recovery. We hypothesized that systolic T1 mapping with a heart-rate-dependent (HRD) pulse sequence scheme may overcome this issue. 30 patients with AF and 13 healthy volunteers were enrolled and underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 3 T. CMR was repeated for 3 patients after electric cardioversion and for 2 volunteers after lowering heart rate (HR). A Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence was acquired before and 15 min after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. For AF patients, both the fixed 5(3)3/4(1)3(1)2 and the HRD sampling scheme were performed at diastole and systole, respectively. The HRD pulse sequence sampling scheme was 5(n)3/4(n)3(n)2, where n was determined by the heart rate to ensure adequate magnetization recovery. Image quality of T1 maps was assessed. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood. Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) was calculated. In volunteers with repeated T1 mapping, the myocardial native T1 and ECV generated from the 1st fixed sampling scheme were smaller than from the 1st HRD and 2nd fixed sampling scheme. In healthy volunteers, the overall native T1 times and ECV of the left ventricle (LV) in diastolic T1 maps were greater than in systolic T1 maps (P T1 times and ECV generated from the fixed sampling scheme were smaller than in the 1st and 2nd HRD sampling scheme (all P T1 maps with artifact were found in diastole than in systole (P T1 times and ECV of the left ventricle (LV) in diastolic T1 maps were greater than systolic T1 maps, either with fixed or HRD sampling scheme (all P T1 mapping with heart-rate-dependent pulse sequence scheme

  1. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided......There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects...... by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...

  2. The role of predation in variation in body shape in guppies Poecilia reticulata: a comparison of field and common garden phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J G; Di Nardo, P; Rodd, F H

    2009-10-01

    The body shapes of both wild-caught and laboratory-reared male and female Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata from two low-predation and two high-predation populations were studied, but predation regime did not seem to be the most important factor affecting body shape. Instead, complicated patterns of plasticity in body shape among populations and the sexes were found. In particular, populations differed in the depth of the caudal peduncle, which is the muscular region just anterior to the tail fin rays and from which most swimming power is generated. Strikingly, the direction of population differences in caudal peduncle depth observed in wild-caught individuals was reversed when P. reticulata were raised in a common laboratory environment.

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  4. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  5. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F G; Peixoto, M G; Pinto, B C T; Teixeira, T P

    2009-02-01

    Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  6. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  7. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC321 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

  8. Simultaneous determination of three flavonoid C-glycosides in mice biosamples by HPLC-ESI-MS method after oral administration of Abrus mollis extract and its application to biodistribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Du, Huibing; Liang, Chunyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Zhang, Mohan; Zhang, Luyong; Ye, Wencai; Li, Ping

    2012-08-15

    A simple HPLC-ESI-MS method was developed for the determination of vicenin-2 (1), isoschaftoside (2), and schaftoside (3) of Abrus mollis extract in mice plasma and tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys). The separation was achieved by HPLC on a Shim-Pack CLC-ODS column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid (mobile phase A, 72%) and methanol-isopropanol (9:1) (mobile phase B, 28%). The electrospray source of the MS was operated in the selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode at m/z 593 ([M-H]⁻) for 1, and 563 ([M-H]⁻) for 2 and 3, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) of 1-3 was in the range of 8.5-12.6 ng/mL for plasma, and 32.5-49.4 ng/g for tissue tested. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 25 ng/mL for plasma, and 100 ng/g for tissue. The calibration curves were linear in all matrices (r² > 0.994) in the concentration range of 25-500 ng/mL in plasma or 100-1250 ng/g in tissue, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision studies demonstrate that the method is precise with coefficients of variation intra-day and inter-day below 5.9 and 7.4% for all the samples, respectively. The recoveries of three flavonoid C-glycosides ranged from 95.3 to 106.4% for plasma, and 92.6 to 107.3% for tissues. Following oral administration of A. mollis extract to mice at a dose of 72 mg/kg, the concentrations of 1-3 in plasma and tissues were quantifiable in bio-samples collected up to 180 min. The method described is suitable for studies on the distribution of three flavonoid C-glycosides of A. mollis extract in plasma and different tissues of mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  10. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  11. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  12. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  13. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  14. Anesthesia induces stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Inger Hilde; Kiessling, Anders; Samuelsen, Ole Bent; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2010-09-01

    Stress in response to anesthesia with benzocaine, MS-222, metomidate and isoeugenol was studied in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) with no concomitant stress from handling or confinement in association with anesthesia or sampling. All of the anesthetics tested induced a stress response in all species, displayed by a release of cortisol to the water. MS-222 anesthesia elicited the highest cortisol release rates, reaching maximum levels 0.5 h post-exposure and returning to basal levels after 3-4 h. Benzocaine anesthesia caused a bimodal response where the initial peak in cortisol release rate was followed by a second increase lasting towards the end of the trial (6 h). This bimodality was more profound in Atlantic salmon than in Atlantic halibut and Atlantic cod. Metomidate anesthesia induced the lowest release of cortisol of the agents tested in both Atlantic halibut and Atlantic cod, but resulted in a bimodal response in Atlantic salmon where the initial increase in cortisol release was followed by a larger increase peaking at 2-2.5 h post exposure before returning to basal levels after 5 h. The stress induced in Atlantic salmon by isoeugenol anesthesia resembled that of MS-222, but did not reach the same elevated level. Overall, the cortisol release was most profound in Atlantic salmon followed by Atlantic halibut and Atlantic cod.

  15. in guppies (Poecilia reticuillta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tial reproduction of males (Farr 1980, Gorlick 1976. Houde. 1988, Kodric-Browl1 1992, 1993, Reynolds e/ ul. 1993). Male guppies have several exaggerated secondary sexual characters including orange (carotenoid), black (melanin), iri- descent (structural) and yellow pigments, and exaggerated dorsal and caudal fins.

  16. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS...

  17. Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidaeen Heredia,Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Urriola Hernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859,a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones.La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos. El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%.Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidaein Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia reticulata were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 mm (range 17.80 and 51.50 mmand the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g. This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404.The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos(range 8.0 and 197.6.The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376.The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova(range 7.0 and 179.0.The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0

  18. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  20. Germinação, vigor e sanidade de sementes de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. obtidas de frutos coletados no solo e na planta Germination, vigor and sanity of "fava d'anta" (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds obtained from fruits collected both in the soil and in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes obtidas a partir de frutos maduros coletados no solo e nas plantas de fava d'anta, espécie medicinal nativa do Cerrado, ameaçada de extinção, cujos frutos são ricos em rutina. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída de uma caixa gerbox contendo 15 sementes cada. A qualidade fisiológica foi determinada por meio de testes de germinação e vigor, avaliando-se a porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a massa seca das raízes primárias. A qualidade sanitária foi determinada pela identificação dos microorganismos patogênicos associados às sementes, bem como pela porcentagem de ocorrência destes em cada parcela. Os fungos identificados nas sementes pertencem aos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletrotrichum, Helminthosporium, Nigrospora, Penicillum, Phoma e Phomopsis. Sementes oriundas de frutos coletados no solo foram mais contaminadas por agentes patogênicos e apresentaram germinação (56,67%, vigor e sanidade inferiores às sementes obtidas de frutos coletados na planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds obtained from mature fruits collected in the soil and in "fava d'anta" plants. Dimorphandra mollis constitutes an endangered medicinal species native to cerrado and presents fruits rich in rutin. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 10 replicates. Each replicate consisted of a gerbox containing 15 seeds each. Physiological quality was assessed through germination and vigor tests by evaluating germination percentage, germination velocity index (GVI, and primary root dry matter. Sanitary quality was evaluated by identifying pathogenic microorganisms associated with the seeds, as well as their occurrence percentage in each plot. The

  1. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  2. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  3. Comportamento, sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lebistes, Poecilia reticulata, submetidos a agentes utilizados na profilaxia de doenças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183 Behaviour, survival, and development of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, submitted to agents used in the prophylaxis of diseases - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento, a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas saudáveis de Poecilia reticulata submetidas à profilaxia contra bactérias, fungos e parasitas, foi conduzido no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, um experimento delineado ao acaso com 6 tratamentos (controle, azul de metileno, cloranfenicol, formalina, KMnO4 e NaCl e 4 repetições. Os banhos profiláticos variaram conforme o tratamento, de 30 minutos a 48 horas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se, por 20 dias, o desenvolvimento dos animais. A análise comportamental realizada durante o banho mostrou que, quando expostos à formalina, os animais perdiam o senso de direção e chocavam-se contra a parede. O desenvolvimento das larvas no tratamento com cloranfenicol apresentou-se melhor (P Aiming to evaluate the behavioural, survival and developmental responses of healthy larvae of Poecilia reticulata subjected to the prophyllatic against bacteria, fungi and parasites, a randomized experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná, using six treatments (control, methylene blue, chloramphenicol, formalin, KMnO4 and NaCl and four repetitions. Length prophylactic treatment varied from 30 minutes to 48 hours. After bath treatment, animals’ growth was evaluated during the following 20 days. Behavioural analysis during bath treatment showed that when the animals were exposed to formalin, they lost their sense of direction and collided against the wall. In the treatment with chloramphenicol, development of the larvae was better (P < 0.05 when treated with formalin. In relation to survival, there were no differences between the treatments. Thus, any methodology may be applied in this study when related to survival. Prophylaxis with chloramphenicol is the preferred treatment to formalin when evaluating growth

  4. Activity determination of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase enzymes in the gill of Poecilia vivipara (Osteichthyes, Cyprinodontiformes in different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Marcelo da Cunha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to know the tolerance mechanisms through the salinity variation by Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase and enzymes encountered in the gills of Poecilia vivipara. In field, the presence of this species was observed in salinities of 0 and 28?. In laboratory, these fish were maintained in aquarium with mean salinity of 30? and positive responses were obtained. Some adult specimens, collected in a lagoon of the Coqueiros Beach, were utilized as matrixes. In the experiments the specimens used were those born in the test aquarium. For each salinity studied three replicates were made with three specimens for each one. The alevins were maintained in salinities of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35? during a month for adaptation. Gills were extracted in appropriate buffer for isolation of plasma membrane and used for specific dosage of the total enzymatic activity of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase. The relation of alevins to their adaptation towards the salinity variation was also studied. The activity of the two enzymes showed a different result. The major expression of Na+ K+ - ATPase was observed in 20? (35 µmoles Pi.mg protein.h-1, the best salinity to cultivate P. vivipara.

  5. Comparative light and electron microscopic study of the auditory organs of two species of fishes (pisces): Hyphessobrycon simulans (Ostariophysi) and Poecilia reticulata (Acanthopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, I; Schneider, H

    1999-02-01

    Hyphessobrycon simulans has a Weberian apparatus for transmission of sound energy to the auditory organ, whereas Poecilia reticulata does not. The fine structure of the auditory organs is identical in the two species. The better hearing - expressed by large bandwidth and high sensitivity - typical of the Ostariophysi - seems to be based exclusively on the presence of the Weberian apparatus. The sensory epithelium of the saccule and the lagena is made up of hair (sensory) cells and supporting cells. The vertically orientated macula sacculi is divided into a dorsal and a ventral cell area with oppositely arranged hair-cell kinocilia. The sagitta takes up the center of the saccule and shows only three small sites with connections to the otolithic membrane. Remarkably, the dorsal sensory cells are connected to the ventral part of the otolith, but the ventral cells are connected to the dorsal part. The macula of the lagena also comprises a dorsal and a ventral cell area with oppositely arranged hair cells. The sensory cells in all maculae are of type II. They exhibit a striking apical cell protrusion, the cuticular villus. It is partially fused with the kinocilium in the contact zones and joined to the otolithic membrane. The cuticular villus probably stabilizes the long kinocilia.

  6. Histopathological alterations observed in the liver of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae as a tool for the environmental quality assessment of the Cachoeira River, BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DV Paulo

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations in liver have been widely used as a tool in studies for monitoring environmental quality. To evaluate the environmental quality in the Cachoeira river, five spots were monitored between the municipal districts of Itapé and Ilhéus, using liver histological analysis. The species chosen for analysis was Poecilia vivipara due to the fact that it is one of the most abundant in the sampling. The routine technique of inclusion and impregnation in paraffin was used, and the cuts were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E. Histopathological alterations in the liver were evaluated semi-quantitatively and based on the severity of the lesions. The results of the histopathological alteration frequency together with the average taken from the Histopathological Alteration Index from points 1 (Vila de Itapé and 2 (Fazenda Santa Amélia showed that in this area the environment is more threatened because of some stressor agent, possibly contaminants that seem to be acting in the environment and endangering the health of fish. The statistic results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among points 1, 2 and 4, which means they are very similar to one another, and are ecologically endangered.

  7. Gradient Evolution of Body Colouration in Surface- and Cave-Dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the Role of Phenotype-Assortative Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  8. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  9. The impact of parasites on the life history evolution of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): the effects of host size on parasite virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J; van Oosterhout, C

    2007-11-01

    There is large spatial and temporal variation in the Gyrodactylus parasite fauna across natural guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations in Trinidad. The life history evolution of these fish could be affected differently in the various habitats depending on the local parasite selection pressure. Here, we experimentally infected three guppy populations with three gyrodactylid strains in the laboratory and monitored the infection by recording the number of parasites and host mortality in a full factorial design. The origin of the guppy population and parasite strain, and the size of the hosts explained significant variation in the survival of hosts. Larger fish carried the highest parasite loads and experienced the highest mortality rates, which suggests that parasite-mediated selection may favour smaller phenotypes, possibly counter-balancing selection pressures by gape-limited predators, mate choice and female fecundity. We observed significant variation in virulence between parasite strains with the captive-bred experimental strain (Gt3) causing the highest mortality of hosts whilst reaching only relatively low maximum burdens. This suggests that adaptations to the captive environment and/or inbreeding depression may alter the virulence of such captive-bred parasites. There were significant differences in survival rate between guppy populations, with infected guppies from the large population of the Lower Aripo River showing a higher survival rate than the fish from the small and genetically less diverse Upper Aripo River population.

  10. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Balancing selection, random genetic drift, and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in two wild populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterhout, Cock; Joyce, Domino A; Cummings, Stephen M; Blais, Jonatan; Barson, Nicola J; Ramnarine, Indar W; Mohammed, Ryan S; Persad, Nadia; Cable, Joanne

    2006-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is rapidly increasing, but there are still enigmatic questions remaining, particularly regarding the maintenance of high levels of MHC polymorphisms in small, isolated populations. Here, we analyze the genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and sequence variation at exon 2 of the MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in two wild populations of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We compare the genetic variation of a small (Ne, 100) and relatively isolated upland population to that of its much larger (Ne approximately 2400) downstream counterpart. As predicted, microsatellite diversity in the upland population is significantly lower and highly differentiated from the population further downstream. Surprisingly, however, these guppy populations are not differentiated by MHC genetic variation and show very similar levels of allelic richness. Computer simulations indicate that the observed level of genetic variation can be maintained with overdominant selection acting at three DAB loci. The selection coefficients differ dramatically between the upland (s > or = 0.2) and lowland (s guppies in the upland habitat, which has resulted in high levels of MHC diversity being maintained in this population despite considerable genetic drift.

  12. Population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in Trinidad and Tobago: evidence for a dynamic source-sink metapopulation structure, founder events and population bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, N J; Cable, J; Van Oosterhout, C

    2009-03-01

    Riverine fish populations are traditionally considered to be highly structured and subject to strong genetic drift. Here, we use microsatellites to analyse the population structure of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), focussing on the headwater floodplain area of the Caroni drainage in Trinidad. We also analyse the population genetics of guppies in the Northern Drainage in Trinidad, a habitat characterized by rivers flowing directly into the sea, and a small isolated population in Tobago. Upland Caroni populations are highly differentiated and display low levels of genetic diversity. However, we found no evidence to suggest that these upland populations experienced recent population crashes and the populations appear to approach mutation-drift equilibrium. Dominant downstream migration over both short- and long-time frames has a strong impact on the population genetics of lowland Caroni populations. This drainage system could be considered a source-sink metapopulation, with the tributary furthest downstream representing a 'super sink', receiving immigrants from rivers upstream in the drainage. Moreover, the effective population size in the lowlands is surprisingly low in comparison with the apparently large census population sizes.

  13. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Ulloa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia reticulata —evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual— fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. reticulata.

  15. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  16. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: four long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew N; Churcher, Allison M; Dick, Kevin J; Laver, Chris R J; Owens, Greg L; Polack, Megan D; Ward, Pam R; Breden, Felix; Taylor, John S

    2008-07-18

    Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  17. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  18. The role of Atlantic overturning circulation in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R

    2017-11-22

    Observed Atlantic major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is associated with a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North Atlantic sulfate aerosol optical depth has not increased (but shows a modest decline) over this period, suggesting the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is not likely due to recent changes in anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Instead, we find coherent multidecadal variations involving the inferred AMOC and Atlantic major hurricane frequency, along with indices of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and inverted vertical wind shear. Our results provide evidence for an important role of the AMOC in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency.

  19. An analytical model which determines the apparent T1for Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery - Analysis of the longitudinal relaxation under the influence of discontinuous balanced (classical MOLLI) and spoiled gradient echo readouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Thomas; Reiter, Theresa; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf

    2017-08-09

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shifts more and more into the focus of clinical research. Especially determination of relaxation times without/and with contrast agents becomes the foundation of tissue characterization, e.g. in cardiac MRI for myocardial fibrosis. Techniques which assess longitudinal relaxation times rely on repetitive application of readout modules, which are interrupted by free relaxation periods, e.g. the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery = MOLLI sequence. These discontinuous sequences reveal an apparent relaxation time, and, by techniques extrapolated from continuous readout sequences, a putative real T 1 is determined. What is missing is a rigorous analysis of the dependence of the apparent relaxation time on its real partner, readout sequence parameters and biological parameters as heart rate. This is provided in this paper for the discontinuous balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) and spoiled gradient echo readouts. It turns out that the apparent longitudinal relaxation rate is the time average of the relaxation rates during the readout module, and free relaxation period. Knowing the heart rate our results vice versa allow to determine the real T 1 from its measured apparent partner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. The role of Atlantic overturning circulation in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Observed Atlantic major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005–2015 is associated with a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North Atlantic sulfate aerosol optical ...

  1. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA573 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP...

  2. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting Director...

  3. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September 20...

  4. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS...

  5. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing...

  6. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  7. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  8. Effects of crude extracts of a saxitoxin-producer strain of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming behavior of wild and laboratory reared guppy Poecilia vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Karina C; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Dos Santos, Everton G N; Cunha, Rodolfo A; Santos, Cláudia P

    2017-04-01

    The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is an invasive species in water supply reservoirs worldwide, which can produces cylindrospermopsins and saxitoxins. In the wild, guppy (Poecilia vivipara) can be exposed to cyanotoxins, but those born and reared in laboratory are free of this contact. The aim of this paper was to comparatively measure the locomotor activity of 'wild' and 'lab' P. vivipara before and after exposure to crude extracts of two different cultures of C. raciborskii (CYRF-01), a saxitoxin-procucer strain. The movement of each fish was recorded using an image monitoring system (Videomex V(®)) before and after 48 h exposure to cyanobacterial extracts. Each experiment was performed during 4 h, with 1 h acclimation and 3 h recording period of the parameters Distance performed (DP), Swimming time (SwT), Stereotypic time (StT), Resting time (RT) and Average speed (AS). The quantification of saxitoxin in the solutions was performed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The weight or the total length did not influence the locomotor activity of fish in any of the experiments. The saxitoxin value was similar for both cultures (Culture 1: 7.3 μg L(-1) and Culture 2: 8.6 μg L(-1)). However, in experiments with Culture 1 an increased activity in most parameters was observed, while in Culture 2, a decreased activity was observed only in 'lab' fish. Wild fish was less affected, showing higher resistance to both cyanobacterial crude extracts. This study showed that different cultures of the same strain of C. raciborskii and with similar contents of saxitoxin are able to change the locomotor activity of P. vivipara, contributing to the validation of the use of behavioral parameters to the evaluation of sublethal effects of toxic cyanobacteria on fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Species Boundaries Using Multilocus Species Delimitation in a Morphologically Conserved Group of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes, the Poecilia sphenops Species Complex (Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin C.; Alda, Fernando; Breitman, M. Florencia; Bermingham, Eldredge; van den Berghe, Eric P.; Johnson, Jerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including ‘non-adaptive radiations’ containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci) from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial ‘major-lineages’ diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively) 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the importance of

  10. Effects of light environment during growth on the expression of cone opsin genes and behavioral spectral sensitivities in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Ohtsuki, Hajime; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-05-18

    The visual system is important for animals for mate choice, food acquisition, and predator avoidance. Animals possessing a visual system can sense particular wavelengths of light emanating from objects and their surroundings and perceive their environments by processing information contained in these visual perceptions of light. Visual perception in individuals varies with the absorption spectra of visual pigments and the expression levels of opsin genes, which may be altered according to the light environments. However, which light environments and the mechanism by which they change opsin expression profiles and whether these changes in opsin gene expression can affect light sensitivities are largely unknown. This study determined whether the light environment during growth induced plastic changes in opsin gene expression and behavioral sensitivity to particular wavelengths of light in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Individuals grown under orange light exhibited a higher expression of long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes and a higher sensitivity to 600-nm light than those grown under green light. In addition, we confirmed that variations in the expression levels of LWS opsin genes were related to the behavioral sensitivities to long wavelengths of light. The light environment during the growth stage alters the expression levels of LWS opsin genes and behavioral sensitivities to long wavelengths of light in guppies. The plastically enhanced sensitivity to background light due to changes in opsin gene expression can enhance the detection and visibility of predators and foods, thereby affecting survival. Moreover, changes in sensitivities to orange light may lead to changes in the discrimination of orange/red colors of male guppies and might alter female preferences for male color patterns.

  11. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  13. Teaching Atlantic Studies in American High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Stresses the importance of Atlantic studies within the framework of United States history, European history, and the contemporary world scene. Ways of integrating Atlantic studies into the high school social studies curriculum are suggested. Topics discussed include objectives, audiovisual aids, supplementary reading material, and global political…

  14. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  15. The Atlantic diet – Origin and features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela L. Vaz-Velho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite globalization there still are food patterns which are clearly differentiated from one region to another in Europe and elsewhere.  In this study the Atlantic Diet is considered as thetraditional diet in Portugal and Galicia, a regionin northwest Spain.This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the Atlantic Diet food pattern in order to fully exploit the potential of this Atlantic gastronomical heritage.The background of the Atlantic Diet concept, the characterization of Atlantic Diet foods and a compilation of scientific findings related to the consumption of these foods are covered.A brief description of the Mediterranean Diet, the primitive pattern and the updated Mediterranean pyramid are also included in order to aid understanding of the globalization of this previously local health food pattern.Final remarks and suggestions for further studies are made.

  16. EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus mollis H.B.K., induces apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through thioredoxin- and reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (EM is a traditional herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, the efficacy of EM in treating human leukemia is currently unknown. In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in EM23-mediated apoptosis was suggested by observed disruptions in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23 caused a marked increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger, almost fully reversed EM23-mediated apoptosis. In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR, two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. Concomitantly, Trx regulated the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 and its downstream regulatory targets, the p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. EM23-mediated activation of ASK1/MAPKs was significantly inhibited in the presence of NAC. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB was suppressed by EM23, as suggested by the observed blockage of p65 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation and reversion of IκBα degradation following EM23 treatment. Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.

  17. Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia reticulata En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elías-Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia reticulata en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de julio del año 2000 a junio del 2001. Se establecieron tres estaciones donde se registraron las siguientes variables físicas y químicas; transparencia, alcalinidad, dureza, pH, conductividad, temperatura y turbiedad por métodos convencionales. Los peces se capturaron con una red de cuchara de marco rectangular de 100 x 50 cm (área barrida de 0.5 m2, con luz de malla de 0.5 cm. Los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. Se registraron las siguientes variables morfométricas de los organismos; peso (gr y longitud patrón (mm. Se calculó la abundancia y biomasa, así como la ecuación de crecimiento de acuerdo al modelo de Von Bertalanffy. Se encontró que el agua del sistema es templada, turbia, alcalina, dura y somera. La mayor abundancia (6,148 organismos y biomasa (677.28 g se presentó en la estación I, caracterizada por la mayor presencia de visitantes al lago que arroja desperdicios alimenticios al sistema. Los meses con mayor abundancia fueron julio (1,483 org y agosto (1,252 org y los de mayor biomasa agosto (145.12 gr y marzo (138.63 gr. La longitud máxima obtenida de 61.55 mm y la tasa de crecimiento de 0.2987 son valores similares a los obtenidos en sistemas naturales.

  18. Salinity-dependent copper accumulation in the guppy Poecilia vivipara is associated with CTR1 and ATP7B transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evelise Sampaio; Abril, Sandra Isabel Moreno; Zanette, Juliano; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) accumulation and regulation of key-genes involved in Cu homeostasis were evaluated in freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated guppies Poecilia vivipara. Fish were exposed (96h) to environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu (0, 5.0, 9.0 and 20.0μg/L). In freshwater guppies, gill and liver Cu accumulation was dependent on Cu concentration in the exposure medium. In saltwater guppies, this dependence was observed only in the gut. These findings indicate that Cu accumulation was salinity- and tissue-dependent. Key genes involved in Cu metabolism were sequenced for the first time in P. vivipara. Transcripts coding for the high-affinity copper transporter (CTR1) and copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B) were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The full-length CTR1 open reading frame (1560bp) and a partial ATP7B (690bp) were discovered. Predicted amino acid sequences shared high identities with the CTR1 of Fundulus heteroclitus (81%) and the ATP7B of Sparus aurata (87%). Basal transcriptional levels addressed by RT-qPCR in control fish indicate that CTR1 and ATP7B was highly transcribed in liver of freshwater guppies while CTR1 was highly transcribed in gut of saltwater guppies. This could explain the higher Cu accumulation observed in liver of freshwater guppies and in gut of saltwater guppies, because CTR1 is involved in Cu uptake. Reduced gill mRNA expression of CTR1 was observed in freshwater guppies exposed to 20.0μg/L Cu and in saltwater guppies exposed to 5.0μg/L Cu. In turn, reduced mRNA expression of gut ATP7B was observed in freshwater and salt water guppies exposed to 9.0 and 20.0μg/L Cu. Liver CTR1 and ATP7B transcription were not affected by Cu exposure. These findings suggest that gill CTR1 and gut ATP7B are down-regulated to limit Cu absorption after exposure to dissolved Cu, while liver CTR1 and ATP7B levels are maintained to allow Cu storage and detoxification. In conclusion, findings reported here

  19. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... finalized 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) allow NMFS to make an in-season adjustment to the...

  20. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP...

  1. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery...

  2. Note on the distribution of ectopic thyroid tissue in five species of poeciliid fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Bryant, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in young Amazon mollies induces proliferation of ectopic thyroid tissue in the spleen. The authors have surveyed untreated mollies, Poecilia formosa, and four closely related poeciliid fishes to see if ectopic thyroid tissue occurs normally in the spleen. If this were the case, it is possible that the tissue may have been stimulated to proliferate by the injected compounds. We found no instances of ectopic thyroid at any site in 50 untreated Amazon mollies examined nor in some 50 spleens dissected from other untreated fish. Splenic thyroid tissue was found in five guppies from 50 surveyed, but did not occur in other species.

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). Atlantic Herring,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Service, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for reviewing the manuscript. vi Figure 1. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). ATLANTIC HERRING NOMENCLATURE...extensively reviewed by Svetividov Scales between gill openings and (1952). caudal base ca. 56-62; ventral scutes Preferred common name . Atlantic...summer, 7 A AL and cladocerans in summer and autumn Ann - Jeffreys Ledge area in winter (Sherman and Perkins 1971). (Creaser and Libby 1982). Adults Food

  4. Efeito de poluentes químicos cumulativos e mutagênicos durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético de Poecilia vivípara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae Effect of cumulative chemical and mutagenic pollutants during ontogenic development of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Morais

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Viver em sociedade é uma característica do Homo sapiens, e esta vantagem permitiu-lhe ocupar tantos biomas. Aumento populacional e desenvolvimento tecnológico trouxeram paralelamente acréscimo ao volume de dejetos eliminados nos mananciais de água. Conhecer modelos biológicos que permitam averiguar níveis de contaminação destes mananciais é o propósito desta pesquisa. Células do epitélio branquial do guaru (Poecilia vivípara modificam o seu comportamento em face de variações ambientais, mantendo a homeostasia em condições adversas. Nosso propósito foi conhecer a origem e diferenciação dos tipos celulares no desenvolvimento das brânquias, procurando detectar variações do epitélio branquial em embriões de fêmeas prenhes expostas ao chumbo (poluente cumulativo e mutagênico. Formaram-se dois grupos, o controle e o experimental, que foi exposto à solução de acetato de chumbo a 1 ppm. Observaram-se os embriões nos estágios 24, 30 e 36 (Vernier, 1969, analisados sob microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram quantificados e mensurados os embriões por fêmea. Notou-se a formação dos arcos, filamentos, rastelo e lamelas branquiais. No epitélio, células do cloro se diferenciam primeiro, e no estágio 36 surgem as células mucosas no rastelo branquial. Não houve diferenças morfológicas de células epiteliais das br��nquias entre os grupos. A viviparidade pode ser o fato de explicaçãoLiving in society is a feature of Homo sapiens and this fact gives him the advantage of occupying many biomes. Population increase and technological development brought a growth in the volume of dejects thrown into water sources. Knowledge of biological models that evaluates contamination levels of these sources is the aim of this research. Cells of the branchial epithelium of Poecilia vivipara, popularly known as guaru, modify their behavior in the presence of environmental variations and keep the homeostasis in adverse

  5. Índice mitótico em células epiteliais da brânquia de Guaru (Poecilia vivipara tratados com frações da casca do caule e da folha de pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. S. Motter

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants of the Cerrado bioma are used as medicinal plants. The pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis is representative of those equipped with molluscicidal action against schistosomiasis. This paper sets out to verify the toxic action of pequi fractions in other aquatic animals before they are used in rivers or lakes. Analysis were made of the alterations to the mitotic index of epithelia cells in the gills of guppy (Poecilia vivipara exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction of leaf pequi and bark. Animals exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (leaf, no significant change was observed in the mitotic index when compared with the control group, whereas in fish exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (bark we detected an increase in mitotic index of the epithelia cells in two regions of the branchial filaments. Thus, ethyl-acetate fractions (leaf could be used against schistosomiasis, given their high efficacy and low action as piscicide.

  6. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: 2. CULTURING, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF FISH IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu percobaan pemberantasan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dengan penyebaran ikan pema­kan jentik Poecilia reticulata di sawah telah dilakukan. Untuk memacu peran serta petani, penyebaran ikan P. reticulata dilakukan bersamaan dengan minapadi di mana ikan Cyprinus carpio dipelihara di sawah. Beberapa aspek yang diteliti dalam percobaan ini adalah (1 biologi jentik An. aconitus dan ikan dan (2 cara-cara berkembangbiaknya ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebaran An. aconitus di sawah pada umumnya 1/2 — 1 meter dari tepi pematang sawah, daya makan ikan P. reticulata rata rata adalah 119,4 jentik/hari, daya reproduksi rata-rata ikan P. reticulata adalah 109,3 ikan/bulan, daya produksi ikan C. carpio berkisar antara 5000 — 10.000 telur/3 bulan tergantung pada umur ikan betina. Kepadatan ikan P. reticulata 2 ikan/m2 dapat menanggulangi populasi jentik di sawah.

  7. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  8. Mountain ranges favour vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bablu Sinha; Adam T. Blaker; Joël J.-M. Hirschi; Sarah Bonham; Matthew Brand; Simon Josey; Robin S. Smith; Jochem Marotzke

    2012-01-01

      We use a global Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) to show that the major mountain ranges of the world have a significant role in maintenance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC...

  9. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  10. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  11. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  12. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  13. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  14. Atlantic-THORpex Observing System Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atlantic - THORpex Observing System Test (ATOST) is part of an international research program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather...

  15. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  17. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... marlin as the waters of the entire Atlantic Ocean and maintained the management unit definitions of... the HMS definition in the MSA, when the Regional Fishery Management Councils managed Atlantic HMS, the... definition and to continue to manage that species via Secretarial management. This action will amend the MSA...

  18. The role of Atlantic-Arctic exchange in North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829838; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multidecadal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature occurs with two dominant periods. In this paper we investigate the origin of these two time scales in a 500 year control run of the GFDL CM2.1 model. We focus on the exchange between the Atlantic

  19. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Workshops (this AP is also called the...

  20. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.

    2001-01-01

    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary

  1. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... management alternatives available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin...

  2. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery will...

  3. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with the findings of...

  4. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National....S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals for management of fishery in the future. NMFS is requesting...

  5. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or... for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. These actions could affect fishing...

  6. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries (sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks, blue sharks, porbeagle sharks, and pelagic sharks (other than porbeagle and blue sharks), non-blacknose small coastal...

  7. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks and...

  8. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark... adjustments, and applies to commercial Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is...

  9. 75 FR 250 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...; Atlantic Commercial Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks (LCS), small coastal sharks (SCS), and pelagic sharks based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2008 and 2009 Atlantic commercial shark...

  10. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any..., fishing opportunities for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. The proposed measures could...

  11. 76 FR 53652 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus...-427-8503 or by fax: 301-713-1917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Atlantic shark fisheries are...

  12. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2005-09-16

    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account.

  13. Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, Virginia: hole completion reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.

    1979-03-01

    A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following geothermal test holes drilled in Virginia are summarized: Creeds, Norfolk Naval Base, Langley Air Force Base, Wattsville, Withams, and Atlantic.

  14. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  15. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  16. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in models and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We use a simplified model of the North Atlantic ocean to study the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is a low-frequency variation found in sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic ocean. A mechanism for the AMO has previously been described; here we study the excitation of

  17. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Part 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... shark stock assessments that were completed from 2009 to 2012. The assessments for Atlantic blacknose...

  18. Impact of interbasin exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Dijkstra, H.A.; Leeuwen, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    The thermohaline exchange between the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean is analyzed, using a data set based on WOCE hydrographic data. It is shown that the salt and heat transports brought about by the South Atlantic subtropical gyre play an essential role in the Atlantic heat and salt budgets. It

  19. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  20. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

    2006-04-18

    Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  1. Atlantic Canada : Dancing with whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2003-03-03

    A major question in the Atlantic provinces that needs resolving concerns the how much waters and sea floors that can be considered protected area before disruption of industrial activity in the vicinity of those areas occurs, especially where there is potential for natural gas and crude oil. Another question that needs pondering relates to the amount of money that the federal government is willing to spend to study the effects on marine habitats resulting from this industrial activity. The consideration being given to a region called the Gully, as to whether it should be declared an official marine protected zone, brought these questions to the forefront. A canyon approximately 70 kilometres (km) long and 20 km wide, the Gully is a potentially resource-rich area located in deep water 300 km east of Cape Breton at the edge of the Scotian Shelf. A pilot project was implemented in 1998, but no clear decision has yet been made concerning the status of the Gully. According to a biology professor at Dalhousie University in Halifax, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans is busy obtaining the proper approvals for its designation as a fully protected area. The northern bottlenose whale can be found in this canyon. This professor advocates a ban on industrial activity in the vicinity of the Gully, as he believes that seismic surveys and exploratory drilling pose a danger to the whales. He would like to see more funding allocated to research programs. Companies conducting seismic surveys in the vicinity of the Gully have to comply with environmental standards.

  2. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collection......, emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  3. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  4. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red... document is also accessible via the Internet at http://www.nefmc.org . NMFS prepared a Final Regulatory...

  5. 75 FR 35767 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... (SERMA) in the South Atlantic, and receive updates on state enforcement efforts of 2010 snapper grouper... ] Conservation Biology Institute (MCBI) which addresses the challenges of enforcing regulations within the vast...

  6. 78 FR 4129 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    .... Receive an update on the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Communication Group Social Media Workshop. 3.... Review Joint Mackerel Amendment 19, which addresses bag limit sales of king mackerel, Spanish mackerel...

  7. Persistent influence of tropical North Atlantic wintertime sea surface temperature on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    This study explores the seasonally lagged impact of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic main development region (MDR) on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season. It is found that wintertime SST anomalies in the MDR can persist into the summer, explaining 42% of the variance in the subsequent hurricane season's SST during 1951-2010. An anomalously warm wintertime in the MDR is usually followed by an anomalously active hurricane season. Analysis shows an important constraint on the seasonal evolution of the MDR SST by the water vapor feedback process, in addition to the well-known wind-evaporation-SST and cloud-SST feedback mechanisms over the tropical North Atlantic. The water vapor feedback influences the seasonal evolution of MDR SST by modulating seasonal variations of downward longwave radiation. This wintertime thermal control of hurricane activity has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of hurricane activity over the North Atlantic.

  8. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., or selling of hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) caught in association with ICCAT fisheries. This rule would...

  9. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... blacknose sharks, NMFS is declaring the following stock status determinations. Sandbar sharks are still overfished, but no longer experiencing overfishing. Dusky sharks are still overfished and still experiencing...

  10. North Atlantic storm track response to decadal fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankignoul, C.; Msadek, R.; Li, L.

    2009-12-01

    The mechanisms of the atmospheric circulation response to a sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly induced by decadal fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in a climate model is investigated using prescribed change experiments with its atmospheric component coupled to a slab ocean. The prescribed SST anomaly in the North Atlantic is the surface signature of the AMOC influence on the atmosphere detected in the coupled simulation. It follows the AMOC by a few years and resembles the model Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A diagnostic analysis with daily data emphasizes the role of transient-eddy forcing in shaping and maintaining the equilibrium response. We show that in response to an intensified AMOC, the North Atlantic storm tracks are enhanced and shifted northward during summer, consistently with a strengthening of the westerlies. The winter response to the AMOC-induced North Atlantic warming is an intensification of the subtropical jet and a southward shift of the Atlantic storm track activity, resulting in an equatorward shift of the polar jet. The atmospheric response is highly non linear in both seasons as the result of a strong interaction between transient eddies and the mean flow. This study emphasizes that decadal fluctuations of the AMOC can affect the storm tracks location and intensity, both in winter and summer, leading to significant dynamical changes in the atmosphere associated with global climate impacts.

  11. Opportunity potential matrix for Atlantic Canadians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Danchuk; Ed Thomson

    1992-01-01

    Opportunity for provision of Parks Service benefit to Atlantic Canadians was investigated by mapping travel behaviour into a matrix in terms of origin, season, purpose, distance, time, and destination. Findings identified potential for benefit in several activity areas, particularly within residents' own province.

  12. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  13. Subpolar North Atlantic glider observations for OSNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Hodges, B.; Bower, A. S.; Yang, J.; Lin, X.

    2016-02-01

    OSNAP is an international program designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water-column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The observational efforts of this program are focused largely along lines connecting Labrador to Greenland, and Greenland to Scotland. The OSNAP experimental plan includes continuous sampling by Slocum G2 gliders along the latter (easternmost) of these two sections, specifically across the northeastward-flowing North Atlantic Current in the Iceland Basin. The glider observations, a collaboration between the Ocean University of China and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, provide higher spatial resolution of water properties than is possible from moorings alone. These observations commenced in June 2015 with a mission to fly back and forth along a section between two OSNAP moorings, profiling from the surface to 1000-m depth. As of September 2015, five sections (including over 240 profiles) have been recorded. As expected, the data indicates energetic intraseasonal variability at smaller scales than can be captured by the OSNAP mooring array. We are investigating how this variability may impact calculated fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater. The glider repeatedly crossed a cyclonic eddy between the two moorings, enabling study of fine thermohaline structure during the development and dissipation of mesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic. With additional sensors measuring fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and multispectral light, the dataset also has the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the biogeochemical processes of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic.

  14. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Andrew J.

    1983-01-01

    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  15. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  16. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  17. Predicting multiyear North Atlantic Ocean variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wouters, B.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Corti, S.; Palmer, T.; Lloyd Smith, D.; Dunstone, N.; Kroger, J.; Pohlmann, H.; Storch, von J.S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the skill of retrospective multiyear forecasts of North Atlantic ocean characteristics obtained with ocean-atmosphere-sea ice models that are initialized with estimates from the observed ocean state. We show that these multimodel forecasts can skilfully predict surface and subsurface ocean

  18. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  19. Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning". Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management.

  20. The South Atlantic Coupled Variability and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardi, Rodrigo Jose

    The dominant mode of coupled variability over the South Atlantic Ocean is known as "South Atlantic Dipole" (SAD) and is characterized by a dipole in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies with centers over the tropical and the extratropical South Atlantic. Previous studies have shown that variations in SST related to SAD modulate large-scale patterns of precipitation over the Atlantic Ocean. Here we show that variations in the South Atlantic SST are associated with changes in daily precipitation over eastern South America. This study is based on observational and regional atmospheric modeling. Rain gauge precipitation, satellite derived sea surface temperature and reanalysis data are used to investigate the variability of the subtropical and tropical South Atlantic and impacts on precipitation. SAD phases are assessed by performing Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis of sea level pressure and SST anomalies. We show that during neutral El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, SAD plays an important role in modulating cyclogenesis and the characteristics of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Positive SST anomalies over the extratropical South Atlantic (SAD negative phase) are related to increased cyclogenesis near southeast Brazil as well as the migration of extratropical cyclones further north. As a consequence, these systems organize convection and increase precipitation over eastern South America. Numerical experiments forced with prescribed SST anomalies showed that even though the Atlantic SST affects the position of the cyclone associated with the SACZ, the atmospheric response and precipitation patters over land were opposite from the observational results. On the other hand, experiments forced with prescribed anomalous driving fields showed that the atmospheric component of SAD plays a significant role for the right position and intensity of precipitation associated with the SACZ. SAD negative anomalies provide the low-level and upper

  1. Spatiotemporal relationships between earthquakes of the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantic continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Oluwaseyi J.

    The seismicity of the mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) was compared in space and time with the seismicity along the Atlantic continental margins of Europe, Africa, North America, the Carribean and South America in a bid to appraise the level of influence of the ridge push force at the MAR on the Atlantic coastal seismicity. By analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of many earthquakes (along with the patterns in their stress directions) in diverse places with similar tectonic settings, it is hoped that patterns that might be found indicate some of the average properties of the forces that are causing the earthquakes. The spatial analysis of the dataset set used shows that areas with higher seismic moment release along the north MAR spatially correlate with areas with relatively lower seismic moment release along the north Atlantic continental margins (ACM) and vice versa. This inverse spatial correlation observed between MAR seismicity and ACM seismicity might be due to the time (likely a long time) it takes stress changes from segments of the MAR currently experiencing high seismic activity to propagate to the associated passive margin areas presently experiencing relatively low seismic activity. Furthermore, the number of Atlantic basin and Atlantic coast earthquakes occurring away from the MAR is observed to be independent of the proximity of earthquake's epicenters from the MAR axis. The effect of local stress as noted by Wysession et al. (1995) might have contributed to the independence of Atlantic basin and Atlantic coast earthquake proximity from the MAR. The Latchman (2011) observation of strong earthquakes on a specific section of the MAR being followed by earthquakes on Trinidad and Tobago was tested on other areas of the MAR and ACM. It was found that that the temporal delay observed by Latchman does not exist for the seismicity along other areas along the MAR and ACM. Within the time window used for this study, it appears that seismicity is occurring

  2. Response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre to persistent North Atlantic oscillation like forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Katja; Bentsen, Mats [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Drange, Helge [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    The response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) to a persistent positive (or negative) phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model forced with idealized atmospheric reanalysis fields. The integrations are analyzed with reference to a base-line integration for which the model is forced with idealized fields representing a neutral state of the NAO. In the positive NAO case, the results suggest that the well-known cooling and strengthening of the SPG are, after about 10 years, replaced by a warming and subsequent weakening of the SPG. The latter changes are caused by the advection of warm water from the subtropical gyre (STG) region, driven by a spin-up of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the effect of an anomalous wind stress curl in the northeastern North Atlantic, which counteracts the local buoyancy forcing of the SPG. In the negative NAO case, however, the SPG response does not involve a sign reversal, but rather shows a gradual weakening throughout the integration. The asymmetric SPG-response to the sign of persistent NAO-like forcing and the different time scales involved demonstrate strong non-linearity in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation response to atmospheric forcing. The latter finding indicates that analysis based on the arithmetic difference between the two NAO-states, e.g. NAO+ minus NAO-, may hide important aspects of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. (orig.)

  3. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  4. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  5. Diagnosing overflow waters in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2015-04-01

    Danmark Strait overflow water (DSOW) and Iceland Faroe overflow water (ISOW) are important for the formation and transformation of deep waters in the North Atlantic. In this work the volume transport, variability, and pathways of DSOW and ISOW are diagnosed using the one degree ocean-ice coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) that is forced by CORE2 inter-annual forcing. The oceanic component (MICOM) features an isopycnal coordinate that is referenced to 2000 db. The issues related to the coarse resolution such as the southward transport of ISOW to the western European Basin, the lack of overflow water in the western North Atlantic, and the western boundary detachment of the deep western boundary current are addressed. The effects of diapycnal mixing on the behavior of overflow descent at Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel and its downstream evolution are examined.

  6. Operating in the North Atlantic MNPS Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Conor

    This paper considers the issue of operating aircraft through the North Atlantic's Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace. Noting that aircraft constantly strive for reduced fuel burn and uplift, it describes how flight operators and pilots conduct safe, efficient flights through the region. Reference is made to mechanisms of the North Atlantic MNPS airspace in terms of its Organized Track Structure and other routes that exist. These different structures emphasize the level of flexibility available. Flight planning procedures and requirements necessary to obtain oceanic Air Traffic Control (ATC) clearances are mentioned, as is an account of how communication and position reporting procedures operate to apply the Mach Number technique. Other aspects of MNPS operations such as ETOPS operational restrictions, meteorological effects, the employment of Reduced Vertical Separation Minima and planned regional changes aim to provide an overview of the MNPS system's current and future air traffic management.

  7. South Atlantic paleobathymetry since early Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Lucía; Eagles, Graeme

    2017-09-18

    We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as seafloor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation. This gateway, together with subsiding volcano-tectonic barriers would have played a key role in Late Cretaceous climate changes. Later deepening and widening of the South Atlantic, together with gateway opening at Drake Passage would lead, by mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) to the establishment of modern-style thermohaline circulation.

  8. Copyright, Interfaces, and a Possible Atlantic Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzoso, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    Recent copyright cases on both sides of the Atlantic focused on important interoperability issues. While the decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union in SAS Institute, Inc.v. World Programming Ltd. assessed data formats under the EU Software Directive, the ruling by the Northern District of California Court in Oracle America, Inc. v. Google Inc. dealt with application programming interfaces. The European decision is rightly celebrated as a further important step in the promotion...

  9. Ballistic Missile Defense and the Atlantic Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, David S.

    1982-01-01

    T h e Atlantic Alliance may be at the threshold of a new debate on the implications of ballistic missile defense (BMD) for European security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and several U.S. Senators and Congressmen support a thorough review of U.S. BMD options, including possible revision of the 1972 Anti- Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and its 1974 Protocol. Although active defense of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) seems the most likely application f...

  10. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  11. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  12. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  13. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  14. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  15. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. 78 FR 3401 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Scoping Process; Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management... support for an amendment (Amendment 16) to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Atlantic Mackerel, Squid...

  5. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  6. Sound Speed Structure of the Western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    for the western South Atlantic between 9°S and 36°S latitude and for the entire western South Atlantic by Buscaglia (1971). All these sources...both the Brazil Plain and Argentine Plain. Similar perturbations are also evident along winter cross-section A. As noted by Buscaglia (1971), the top...Duedall and Coote (1972) and throughout the western South Atlantic Ocean by Buscaglia (1971). In the presence of this intermixing, the MIW sound speed

  7. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  8. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  9. Obtención de un patrón cromático digital para ser utilizado en la mejora genética por selección masal de la variedad Half Black-Blue o Diamante del pez ornamental Guppy (Poecilia reticulata; Peters, 1859)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo determina un patrón digitalizado computarizado basado en la cantidad de píxeles. S e encontró ocho tonos de color azul característico tanto en el cuerpo como en la aleta dorsal para ser utilizado en el potencial mejoramiento genético por selección masal del patrón cromático de la variedad comercial Half Black - Blue o Diamante del pez orna mental Guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) . De diez parejas de padrillos escogidos con un promedio de ochenta crías F1 por cada pareja (Tota...

  10. Response of North Atlantic Ocean Chlorophyll a to the Change of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuanling; Shu, Qi; Zhao, Chang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Zhaohua; Qiao, Fangli

    2017-04-01

    Changes in marine phytoplankton are a vital component in global carbon cycling. Despite this far-reaching importance, the variable trend in phytoplankton and its response to climate variability remain unclear. This work presents the spatiotemporal evolution of the chlorophyll a trend in the North Atlantic Ocean by using merged ocean color products for the period 1997-2016. We find a dipole pattern between the subpolar gyre and the Gulf Stream path,and chlorophyll a trend signal propagatedalong the opposite direction of the North Atlantic Current. Such a dipole pattern and opposite propagation of chlorophyll a signal are consistent with the recent distinctive signature of the slowdown of the Atlantic MeridionalOverturning Circulation (AMOC). It is suggested that the spatiotemporal evolution of chlorophyll a during the two most recent decades is a part of the multidecadal variation and regulated byAMOC, which could be used as an indicator of AMOC variations.

  11. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  12. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  13. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Faroese Channels – the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe–Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel – there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe–Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe–Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv  =  106 m3 s−1. Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe–Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect

  14. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bogi; Poulsen, Turið; Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Karin; Hátún, Hjálmar; Østerhus, Svein; Darelius, Elin; Berx, Barbara; Quadfasel, Detlef; Jochumsen, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    Through the Faroese Channels - the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel - there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe-Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe-Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe-Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect potential impacts from offshore activities in the

  15. 75 FR 4348 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... ADDRESSES: Send comments to: Daniel T. Furlong, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel T. Furlong, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management...

  16. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs...

  17. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs...

  18. 78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs...

  19. 76 FR 74724 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National Marine... implementing Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP...

  20. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed... under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The procedures for...

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  2. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  3. Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859: análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae, foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com lectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata.

  4. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  5. 78 FR 44095 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...; shark management measures regarding rebuilding scalloped hammerhead and blacknose sharks (Amendment 5a), rebuilding dusky sharks (Amendment 5b), and shark catch shares (Amendment 6); and swordfish management... Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted with NMFS on: Amendment 1...

  6. 77 FR 4282 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... tuna management; revitalizing the swordfish fishery; shark management measures such as rebuilding scalloped hammerhead, dusky, and blacknose sharks and catch shares; and items contained in the Advanced... FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted...

  7. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... and Education Advisory Panel (AP) and a Social Media Workshop in conjunction with the South Carolina... Social Media Workshop will be conducted from 1:30 p.m. until 5 p.m. on October 26, 2011 and from 8:30 a.m... Special Management Zones in the South Atlantic Exclusive Economic Zone, and strategic planning for...

  8. 75 FR 30732 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Species (HMS) Management Division, Office of Sustainable Fisheries (F/SF1), NMFS, 55 Great Republic Drive... Atlantic bluefin tuna stock (ICCAT Recommendation 08-04), i.e., 50 percent of the U.S. quota, or 488.7 mt... landings is now available, and it indicates a total 2009 underharvest of 388.6 mt. Thus, in this final...

  9. 78 FR 12705 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. NMFS will hold one public..., and do not include dead discards. We will adjust the quotas in the final rule based on updated data, including dead discard data, if available. Thus, while the 2013 proposed North Atlantic swordfish quota is...

  10. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  11. 78 FR 24148 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Plan (FMP) to address the results of recent shark stock assessments for several shark species, including dusky sharks. In that notice, based on the 2010/2011 Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR...

  12. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... considering the inclusion of Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks in an amendment to the 2006 Consolidated Highly..., sandbar, and blacknose sharks. A new stock assessment is ongoing for Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks, and...

  13. 75 FR 50715 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service.... This change ensures that the process is preserved for adjusting annual shark quotas based on over- and..., among other things, pelagic shark quotas and annual quota adjustments. The instructions, however...

  14. Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off the Light House Beach, Lagos, Nigeria. ... hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton components reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic and oceanic environment. Keywords: Physico-chemistry, micro-algae, sea, Lighthouse Beach, Atlantic Ocean ...

  15. 78 FR 11156 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... (MREP) and Managing Our Nations' Fisheries 3 Conference. 2. Receive an update on the use of social media tools, including: The Atlantic Coast Communication Group Social Media Workshop; the status of the... South Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico Mackerel Amendment 19, pertaining to permits and tournament sale...

  16. 77 FR 50988 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... of management history and current regulations for mutton snapper, greater amberjack, gray triggerfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC177 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the South Atlantic Fishery Management...

  17. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson

    2008-01-01

    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of North Atlantic tropical cyclones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month of genesis and their lifecycles and to study the role of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) in North Atlantic cyclogenesis. Between 1980 and 2004, 269 tropical cyclones (TCs) were formed over the North Atlantic, 77% of which occurred during the August-October period and 95% of major hurricanes (TCs in which the ...

  19. Opal phytoliths in a north atlantic dust fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, D W; Burckle, L H; Heezen, B C

    1967-03-10

    Minute bodies (less than 80 microns) of isotropic silica, originally precipitated by terrestrial plants, are found together with freshwater diatoms in falls of dust over the ocean. Eolian transport from Africa can explain the occurrence of similar plant remains in deep-sea sediments of the equatorial Atlantic as far west as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  20. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  1. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  2. 78 FR 53404 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 14 AGENCY: National Marine... the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid and Butterfish Management Plan. The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council developed Amendment 14 to improve catch monitoring for the Atlantic mackerel, squid, and...

  3. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  4. Modelling of the North Atlantic eddy characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Konstantin; Ibrayev, Rashit

    2017-04-01

    We investigate eddy characteristics of the Atlantic basin circulation and their impact on the ocean heat transport. A 15-year-long numerical experiment is performed with the global 3-dimensional z-coordinate INMIO ocean general circulation model of 0.1 deg., 49 levels resolution in conditions of the CORE-II protocol. The model is tuned to maximal intensity of eddies production by using only biharmonic filters instead of lateral viscous and diffusive terms in the model equations. Comparison with viscous and coarse-resolution simulations shows the increase of explicitly resolved heat transfer fraction and absolute values. Vertical turbulent mixing is parameterized by the Munk-Anderson scheme including convective adjustment. The sea ice is described by a simple thermodynamic submodel. The eddying velocity and temperature field components are defined as anomalies relative to the 3-month sliding mean. The regional distributions of hydrological parameters, eddy kinetic energy, heat convergence, meridional heat transport (MHT) and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction, and their temporal variability are analyzed. In some parts of the basin the simulated eddy heat transport is opposite to the mean flow transport and may change direction with depth. The MHT intensity is slightly below observationally based assessments with notable influence of the East Greenland current simulation bias. The work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project N 14-27-00126) and performed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences.

  5. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  6. Edges and Overlaps in Northwest Atlantic Phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Byers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As marine environments change, the greatest ecological shifts—including resource usage and species interactions—are likely to take place in or near regions of biogeographic and phylogeographic transition. However, our understanding of where these transitional regions exist depends on the defining criteria. Here we evaluate phylogeographic transitions using a bootstrapping procedure that allows us to focus on either the strongest genetic transitions between a pair of contiguous populations, versus evaluation of transitions inclusive of the entire overlap between two intraspecific genetic lineages. We compiled data for the Atlantic coast of the United States, and evaluate taxa with short- and long-dispersing larval phases separately. Our results are largely concordant with previous biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses, indicating strong biotic change associated with the regions near Cape Cod, the Delmarva Peninsula, and eastern Florida. However, inclusive analysis of the entire range of sympatry for intraspecific lineages suggests that broad regions—the Mid-Atlantic Bight and eastern Florida–already harbor divergent intraspecific lineages, suggesting the potential for ecological evaluation of resource use between these lineages. This study establishes baseline information for tracking how such patterns change as predicted environmental changes take place.

  7. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  8. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.

  9. Impact of North Atlantic - GIN Sea exchange on deglaciation evolution of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J.; Liu, Z.; He, F.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Colose, C.

    2011-08-01

    In a transient simulation of the last deglaciation with a fully coupled model (TraCE-21000), an overshoot of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is simulated and proposed as a key factor for the onset of the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming event. There is collaborating evidence for an AMOC overshoot at the BA in various proxy reconstructions although the mechanism governing its behavior is not well understood. Here, we present two new sensitivity experiments to explicitly illustrate the impact of North Atlantic - GIN Sea exchange on the AMOC's deglacial evolution. Results show that this oceanic exchange dominates the convection restarting in the GIN Sea, the occurrence of the AMOC overshoot, and the full BA warming.

  10. Atlante project; Progetto atlante. Quadro di riferimento, analisi degli strumenti esistenti, implementazione metodologica e applicazione prototipale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, R.; Del Cellio, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the Atlante project a joint program of Emilia Romagna region and Italian ENEA based on the concept of substantiality and the most important methods and models used in the territorial planning. [Italian] La redazione del presente volume e' stata articolata in modo da bilanciare, da un lato l'esigenza di rispettare il programma di attivita' previsto nell'ambito della Convenzione fra Regione Emilia Romagna ed ENEA.

  11. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic): Atlantic Salmon,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    smolts After hatching, the eleuthero- of that year class. embryos ( alevin or yolk-sac larvae), about 15 mm long, remain buried in the On reaching a...R.H., and J.L. Metcalfe. Ritter, J.A. 1975. Relationships of 1979. Responses ot Atlantic smolt size and age with age at salmon, alevins to...Fecundity of eggs and alevins under varied North Pmerican Salmonidae. U.S. temperature regimes. J. Fish. Fish. Wildl. Serv. Fish. Bull. Res. Board

  12. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  13. ATLANTIC BIRDS: a data set of bird species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasui, Érica; Metzger, Jean Paul; Pimentel, Rafael G; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bovo, Alex A D A; Martensen, Alexandre C; Uezu, Alexandre; Regolin, André L; Bispo de Oliveira, Arthur Â; Gatto, Cassiano A F R; Duca, Charles; Andretti, Christian B; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Luz, Daniela; Mariz, Daniele; Alexandrino, Eduardo R; de Barros, Fabio M; Martello, Felipe; Pereira, Iolanda M D S; da Silva, José N; Ferraz, Katia M P M D B; Naka, Luciano N; Dos Anjos, Luiz; Efe, Márcio A; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Pichorim, Mauro; Gonçalves, Maycon Sanyvan S; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique Chaves; Dias, Rafael A; Muylaert, Renata D L; Rodrigues, Rodolpho C; da Costa, Thiago V V; Cavarzere, Vagner; Tonetti, Vinicius R; Silva, Wesley R; Jenkins, Clinton N; Galetti, Mauro; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2018-02-01

    South America holds 30% of the world's avifauna, with the Atlantic Forest representing one of the richest regions of the Neotropics. Here we have compiled a data set on Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird occurrence (150,423) and abundance samples (N = 832 bird species; 33,119 bird individuals) using multiple methods, including qualitative surveys, mist nets, point counts, and line transects). We used four main sources of data: museum collections, on-line databases, literature sources, and unpublished reports. The data set comprises 4,122 localities and data from 1815 to 2017. Most studies were conducted in the Florestas de Interior (1,510 localities) and Serra do Mar (1,280 localities) biogeographic sub-regions. Considering the three main quantitative methods (mist net, point count, and line transect), we compiled abundance data for 745 species in 576 communities. In the data set, the most frequent species were Basileuterus culicivorus, Cyclaris gujanensis, and Conophaga lineata. There were 71 singletons, such as Lipaugus conditus and Calyptura cristata. We suggest that this small number of records reinforces the critical situation of these taxa in the Atlantic Forest. The information provided in this data set can be used for macroecological studies and to foster conservation strategies in this biodiversity hotspot. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Data Paper if data are used in publications and teaching events. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Forest productivity in southwestern Europe is controlled by coupled North Atlantic and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-González, Jaime; Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A; Herrero, Asier; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Stoffel, Markus; Lucas-Borja, Manuel E; Andivia, Enrique; Sancho-García, Cesar; Zavala, Miguel A

    2017-12-20

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) depicts annual and decadal oscillatory modes of variability responsible for dry spells over the European continent. The NAO therefore holds a great potential to evaluate the role, as carbon sinks, of water-limited forests under climate change. However, uncertainties related to inconsistent responses of long-term forest productivity to NAO have so far hampered firm conclusions on its impacts. We hypothesize that, in part, such inconsistencies might have their origin in periodical sea surface temperature anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean (i.e., Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO). Here we show strong empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis using 120 years of periodical inventory data from Iberian pine forests. Our results point to AMO+ NAO+ and AMO-NAO- phases as being critical for forest productivity, likely due to decreased winter water balance and abnormally low winter temperatures, respectively. Our findings could be essential for the evaluation of ecosystem functioning vulnerabilities associated with increased climatic anomalies under unprecedented warming conditions in the Mediterranean.

  15. An electrical analogy relating the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E Kurtz

    Full Text Available The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a period of 60-80 years, creating a regular variation in North Atlantic sea surface temperature known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO. This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its period. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation period are in good agreement with measured values.

  16. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we

  17. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Christopher R J; Taylor, John S

    2011-03-29

    PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Juvenile and adult (male and female) guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for > 85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA) value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR). Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin

  18. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2017-04-15

    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  20. De novo lipogenesis in Atlantic salmon adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Marta; Todorčević, Marijana; Torgersen, Jacob; Škugor, Stanko; Navarro, Isabel; Ruyter, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous teleost fish utilize glucose poorly, and the reason for this is not known. It is possible that the capacity of adipocytes to synthesize lipids from carbohydrate precursors through a process known as "de novo lipogenesis" (DNL) is one of the factors that contributes to glucose intolerance in Atlantic salmon. Primary adipocytes from Atlantic salmon differentiated in vitro were incubated with radiolabelled glucose in order to explore the capacity of salmon adipocytes to synthesize and deposit lipids from glucose through DNL. The lipid-storage capacity of adipocytes incubated with glucose was compared with that of cells incubated with the fatty acid palmitic acid. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to assess changes of genes and proteins involved in glucose and lipid transport and metabolism. Less than 0.1% of the radiolabelled glucose was metabolized to the fatty acids 16:0 and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase products 16:1 and 18:1 by DNL, whereas approximately 40% was converted to glycerol to form the triacylglycerol backbone of lipids. Transcriptional analysis indicated that adipocytes ensure the availability of necessary cofactors and other substrates for lipid synthesis and storage from glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and glyceroneogenesis. We have shown for the first time that the DNL pathway is active in fish adipocytes. The capacity of the pathway to convert glucose into cellular lipids for storage is relatively low. The limited capacity of adipocytes to utilize glucose as a substrate for lipid deposition may contribute to glucose intolerance in salmonids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  2. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  3. Low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D. S.; Löscher, C. R.; Krahmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations...... in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L-1) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which...... are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. N2O isotope and isotopomer signatures, as well as molecular genetic results, also point towards a major shift in the N2O cycling pathway in the core of the low oxygen eddy discussed here, and we...

  4. Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Fishermen' s Atlantic City Windfarm, LLC, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm final report under US DOE Advanced Technology Demonstration project documents achievements developing a demonstration scale offshore wind project off the coast of New Jersey.

  5. Atlantic NAD 83 Protraction Limits (non-clipped)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  6. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  7. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  8. Atlantic City, New Jersey Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic City, New Jersey Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  9. Gillnet selectivity for North Sea Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger; Lassen, H.; Madsen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Gillnet selectivity curves for North Sea Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fitted to catch data obtained with six different mesh sizes. The selectivity curves investigated included frequently used selectivity models following the normal, lognormal, and gamma distributions. Another group...

  10. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  11. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  12. 78 FR 52506 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... until 12 noon 1. Receive a presentation on the Logic Model. 2. Review and discuss the Mid-Atlantic... from SERO and the NMFS SEFSC. The Council will review and develop recommendations on Experimental...

  13. Atlantic Sharpnose and Blacknose Shark Congressional Supplemental Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Life history data were collected from Atlantic sharpnose and blacknose sharks during the Congressional Supplemental Program during 2011. Data collected include...

  14. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  15. Atlantic NAD 83 Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Atlantic Region. Each SOBD describes a...

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) in Adobe PDF format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree high. OPDs are...

  17. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  18. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  19. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two...... different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  20. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Education Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Crouse

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Education Review is a peer-reviewed, online journal that provides a forum for studies pertaining to educational issues of interest to educators and researchers in the Mid-Atlantic region. The Review publishes articles that contribute to the knowledge base of researchers, policy-makers, teachers, and administrators. To appeal to a broad educational audience, articles cover a spectrum in their level of analysis, subject focus, and methodological approach.

  2. Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Education Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Crouse

    2013-01-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Education Review is a peer-reviewed, online journal that provides a forum for studies pertaining to educational issues of interest to educators and researchers in the Mid-Atlantic region. The Review publishes articles that contribute to the knowledge base of researchers, policy-makers, teachers, and administrators. To appeal to a broad educational audience, articles cover a spectrum in their level of analysis, subject focus, and methodological approach.

  3. Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    series of mixed layers separated by sharp interfaces. The discovery of these ‘ thermohaline staircases’ by Tait and Howe (1968) further stimulated...EVOLUTION OF THERMOHALINE STAIRCASES IN TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC by Steven Wall December 2007 Thesis Advisor: Timour Radko Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic 6. AUTHOR(S

  4. North Atlantic circulation in a 1000 year climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joanne; Hughes, Christopher; Bingham, Rory

    2009-01-01

    The North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is important for ocean heat transport in the Atlantic, so it is widely monitored and modelled. Previous work based on a few decades of model simulations has shown that the overturning north of about 40N is quite different from that further south, and that changes in the circulation can be accuratelymonitored using pressuremeasurements at the western boundary, and reasonably well using tide gauge data. Here, we extend these analyses t...

  5. Population Structuring and Migration Pathway of Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population structure of Atlantic Bonito Sarda sarda in the Mediterranean Sea and possible pathway of migration for spawning and feeding was discussed on the bases of genetic and morphological dataset. The effects of topographic and hydrographic factors on the connectivity and migration pattern of Atlantic Bonito in Turkish, Bulgarian and Croatian marine waters and fishery management implications of putative stocks were correspondingly referred

  6. Atlantic effects on recent decadal trends in global monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Li, Xichen; Xie, Shang-Ping; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Natural climate variability contributes to recent decadal climate trends. Specifically the trends during the satellite era since 1979 include Atlantic and Indian Ocean warming and Pacific cooling associated with phase shifts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and enhanced global monsoon (GM) circulation and rainfall especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we evaluate effects of the oceanic changes on the global and regional monsoon trends by partial ocean temperature restoring experiments in a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Via trans-basin atmosphere-ocean teleconnections, the Atlantic warming drives a global pattern of sea surface temperature change that resembles observations, giving rise to the enhanced GM. The tropical Atlantic warming and the resultant Indian Ocean warming favor subtropical deep-tropospheric warming in both hemispheres, resulting in the enhanced monsoon circulations and precipitation over North America, South America and North Africa. The extratropical North Atlantic warming makes an additional contribution to the monsoon enhancement via Eurasian continent warming and resultant land-sea thermal gradient over Asia. The results of this study suggest that the Atlantic multidecadal variability can explain a substantial part of global climate variability including the recent decadal trends of GM.

  7. Recent Decadal Trend in the North Atlantic Wind Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the climatic trend of the North Atlantic wind energy using cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP wind data for the period 1988–2011. Results show the following. (1 The North Atlantic WPD exhibited a significant increasing trend of 4.45  (W/m2/yr over the past 24 years. (2 The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean WPD shows a noticeable regional difference. More than half of the North Atlantic Ocean has a significantly increasing trend in WPD. The increasing trend in the mid-high latitudes is stronger than that in the low latitudes, and the trend is stronger in the west than in the east. The area with the strongest increasing trend is located along the southern coast of Greenland of 35 (W/m2/yr. (3 There is a noticeable seasonal difference in the variation of WPD. The strongest increasing trend occurs in December-January-February (DJF, followed by September-October-November (SON and March-April-May (MAM, and the weakest occurs in June-July-August (JJA. The increasing trend in different areas is dominated by different seasons. (4 There is no leading or lagging correlation between WPD and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. However, there is a noticeable negative correlation between the Niño3 index and WPD in most of the North Atlantic.

  8. Climate variability and marine ecosystem impacts: a North Atlantic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. S.; Lear, W. H.

    In recent decades it has been recognized that in the North Atlantic climatic variability has been largely driven by atmospheric forcing related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO index began a pronounced decline around 1950 to a low in the 1960s. From 1970 onward the NAO index increased to its most extreme and persistent positive phase during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Changes in the pattern of the NAO have differential impacts on the opposite sides of the North Atlantic and differential impacts in the north and south. The changes in climate resulting from changes in the NAO appear to have had substantial impacts on marine ecosystems, in particular, on fish productivity, with the effects varying from region to region. An examination of several species and stocks, e.g. gadoids, herring and plankton in the Northeast Atlantic and cod and shellfish in the Northwest Atlantic, indicates that there is a link between long-term trends in the NAO and the productivity of various components of the marine ecosystem. While broad trends are evident, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of how this climate variability affects the productivity of various components of the North Atlantic marine ecosystem.

  9. Large-scale sequence analyses of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Coucheron, Dag H; Andreassen, Morten; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Furmanek, Tomasz; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Emblem, Ase; Breines, Ragna; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Stenseth, Nils C; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2009-06-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a key species in the North Atlantic ecosystem and commercial fisheries, with increasing aquacultural production in several countries. A Norwegian effort to sequence the complete 0.9Gbp genome by the 454 pyrosequencing technology has been initiated and is in progress. Here we review recent progress in large-scale sequence analyses of the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome and genome-wide microRNA identification in the Atlantic cod. The nuclear genome will be de novo sequenced with 25 times oversampling. A total of 120 mitochondrial genomes, sampled from several locations in the North Atlantic, are being completely sequenced by Sanger technology in a high-throughput pipeline. These sequences will be included in a new database for maternal marker reference of Atlantic cod diversity. High-throughput 454 sequencing, as well as Evolutionary Image Array (EvoArray) informatics, is used to investigate the complete set of expressed microRNAs and corresponding mRNA targets in various developmental stages and tissues. Information about microRNA profiles will be essential in the understanding of transcriptome complexity and regulation. Finally, developments and perspectives of Atlantic cod aquaculture are discussed in the light of next-generation high-throughput sequence technologies.

  10. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  11. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NCEI Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  12. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral...

  13. Water Mass Variability at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika

    2017-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the sub-polar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the sub-tropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) can be regarded as the southern border of the sub-polar gyre transporting water from the tropical regions northward. On its way towards the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) the NAC has partly mixed with waters from the sub-polar gyre and crosses the MAR split into several branches. For the study we analyzed data of water mass variability and transport fluctuations from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) project (2012-2015) which provided time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the MAR. The time depending positions of the NAC branches over the MAR were obtained from mooring time series and compared to sea surface velocities from altimeter data. The results show a high variability of NAC pathways over the MAR. Transition regimes with strong meandering and eddies could be observed as well as periods of strong NAC branches over the Fracture Zones affecting water mass exchange at all depth levels. A positive temperature trend at depths between 1000-2000 m was found at the Faraday Fracture Zone (FFZ). This warming trend was also detected by Argo floats crossing the MAR close to the FFZ region. During the second phase of RACE (RACE-II, 2016-2018) a mooring array across the eastern shelf break at Goban Spur was deployed to monitor the poleward Eastern Boundary

  14. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs...

  15. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  16. Trans Atlantic Infrasound Payload (TAIP) Operation Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lees, Jonathan M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Carolina Infrasound package, added as a piggyback to the 2016 ULDB ight, recorded unique acoustic signals such as the ocean microbarom and a large meteor. These data both yielded unique insights into the acoustic energy transfer from the lower to the upper atmosphere as well as highlighted the vast array of signals whose origins remain unknown. Now, the opportunity to y a payload across the north Atlantic offers an opportunity to sample one of the most active ocean microbarom sources on Earth. Improvements in payload capabilities should result in characterization of the higher frequency range of the stratospheric infrasound spectrum as well. Finally, numerous large mining and munitions disposal explosions in the region may provide \\ground truth" events for assessing the detection capability of infrasound microphones in the stratosphere. The flight will include three different types of infrasound sensors. One type is a pair of polarity reversed InfraBSU microphones (standard for high altitude flights since 2016), another is a highly sensitive Chaparral 60 modified for a very low corner period, and the final sensor is a lightweight, low power Gem infrasound package. By evaluating these configurations against each other on the same flight, we will be able to optimize future campaigns with different sensitivity and mass constraints.

  17. Unusual subpolar North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom in 2010: Volcanic fertilization or North Atlantic Oscillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.; Painter, Stuart C.; Penny Holliday, N.; Stinchcombe, Mark C.; Giering, Sarah L. C.

    2013-10-01

    In summer and autumn 2010, a highly anomalous phytoplankton bloom, with chlorophyll concentration more than double that of previous years, was observed in the Irminger Basin, southwest of Iceland. Two unusual events occurred during 2010 which had the potential to promote the unusual bloom. First, in spring 2010, the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland erupted, depositing large quantities of tephra into the subpolar North Atlantic. Second, during the winter of 2009/2010 the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) became extremely negative, developing into the second strongest negative NAO on record. Hydrographic conditions were highly anomalous in the region, with an influx of freshwater spreading through the basin, and unusual nutrient and mixed layer depth conditions. Here we use a combination of satellite, modeled and in situ data to investigate whether the input of iron from the volcanic eruption or change in hydrographic conditions due to the extreme negative NAO were responsible for the anomalous phytoplankton bloom. We conclude that changes in physical forcing driven by the NAO, and not the volcanic eruption, stimulated the unusual bloom.

  18. Impact of North Atlantic - GIN Sea exchange on deglaciation evolution of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J.; Liu, Z.; He, F.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

    2011-02-01

    The Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming is the most pronounced abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation. Two notable features of the BA onset are found in our transient simulation of the last deglaciation with CCSM3: the first is the occurrence of an overshoot in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC, about 20 Sv as to 13 Sv at Last Glacial Maximum) and the second is the subsequent transition of AMOC from a glacial (about 13 Sv) to an interglacial mean state (about 18 Sv). Here, we present two new sensitivity experiments to explicitly illustrate the impact of North Atlantic - GIN Sea exchange on the deglaciation evolution of the AMOC. In these sensitivity experiments, the oceanic exchange during the BA onset is inhibited by introducing a Partial Blocking scheme. In response to this, the deep-water formation in the GIN Sea is reduced by 80% compared to the transient simulation. This in turn results in a reduced AMOC overshoot followed by a lower mean state of the AMOC. Our results therefore suggest that, oceanic processes were more important than the external forcings and atmospheric processes for the AMOC evolution during the BA onset.

  19. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  20. Influence of North Atlantic variability on the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, M.; Huettl-Kabus, S.; Klein, B.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Sein, D.; Klein, H.

    2012-04-01

    Influence of North Atlantic variability on the North Sea Michaela Markovic, Sabine Hüttl-Kabus, Birgit Klein, Uwe Mikolajewicz *, Holger Klein and Dimitry Sein * Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH), Hamburg, Germany * Max-Planck-Institute (MPI-M), Hamburg, Germany To study the impact of the North Atlantic variability on the North Sea, observations and coupled model data were used. Temperature increases in the North Atlantic have been reported for the last twenty years and similar changes are observed in the North Sea. This study using the ocean model MPI-OM (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg ) and ship borne observations will focus on the transfer of variability signals between the North Atlantic and the North Sea. The grid structure of the MPI-OM allows for the combination of a global ocean model with a regional high resolution area and resolves scales of 5-15 km in the North Sea. Furthermore, the MPI-OM can be run in a regionally coupled mode using the REMO regional atmosphere model and includes a module for ocean tides. Atlantic inflow into the North Sea provides a major contribution in terms of water masses and a potential link of long term variability generated in the deep ocean onto the shallow shelf sea. Observational evidence of inflow variability is limited in space and time and for a better understanding of the underlying processes high resolved model data are needed. The model runs analyzed here comprise hindcasts using NCEP forcing and scenario runs for the 21 century. T/S diagrams from the model hindcast runs are -validated against the available in-situ observations and show generally good agreement. Hindcast data are used to study the annual evolution of water mass properties in the inflow region and the lateral spreading of the Atlantic Water. Variations in the water mass properties of the Atlantic Inflow between Scotland and the Orkneys and over the Shetland shelf are responsible for the interannual variations in deep

  1. 77 FR 62463 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South..., 2013. In the South Atlantic, SASWG means gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock hind...

  2. 77 FR 73608 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... rule and draft Amendment 5 to the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, and New... will explain the ground rules (e.g., alcohol is prohibited from the meeting room; attendees will be...

  3. EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, S.; Carranza, M.L.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredune habitats of European interest, focusing on floristic, structural and ecological features. We selected two representative sites of Atlantic (The Netherlands) and Mediterranean (Italy) coastal dunes. From a georeferenced vegetation

  4. 77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures... butterfish fishery, which is managed as part of the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery..., Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Aja Szumylo, Fishery...

  5. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Atlantic federal waters. All wells in the Atlantic Region were completed and abandoned...

  6. 50 CFR 229.36 - Atlantic Pelagic Longline Take Reduction Plan (PLTRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-finned and short-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins in the Atlantic pelagic longline fishery off the U.S. east coast, a component of the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico large pelagics...

  7. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU54 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that on February 4, 2010, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission...

  8. Mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Not Unlike Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.-S.; Nisancioglu, K. H.; Chandler, M. A.; Haywood, A. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Ramstein, G.; Stepanek, C.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Chan, W. -L.; Sohl, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), eight state-of-the-art coupled climate models have simulated the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Ma). Here, we compare the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), northward ocean heat transport and ocean stratification simulated with these models. None of the models participating in PlioMIP simulates a strong mid-Pliocene AMOC as suggested by earlier proxy studies. Rather, there is no consistent increase in AMOC maximum among the PlioMIP models. The only consistent change in AMOC is a shoaling of the overturning cell in the Atlantic, and a reduced influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) at depth in the basin. Furthermore, the simulated mid-Pliocene Atlantic northward heat transport is similar to the pre-industrial. These simulations demonstrate that the reconstructed high-latitude mid-Pliocene warming can not be explained as a direct response to an intensification of AMOC and concomitant increase in northward ocean heat transport by the Atlantic.

  9. Marine Ecosystem Response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martin; Beaugrand, Gregory; Helaouët, Pierre; Alheit, Jürgen; Coombs, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years) is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts) over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries. PMID:23460832

  10. Marine ecosystem response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Edwards

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.

  11. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  12. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Gerard D.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Smeed, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall1, European summer precipitation2, Atlantic hurricanes3 and variations in global temp...

  13. 75 FR 34643 - Atlantic Ocean Off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Atlantic Ocean Off John F. Kennedy Space Center... the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The KSC is the...: Sec. 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area. (a) The area. The...

  14. Bird Habitat Conservation at Various Scales in the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Milliken; Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture is a partnership focused on the conservation of habitats for migratory birds within the Atlantic Flyway/Atlantic Coast Region from Maine south to Puerto Rico. In order to be effective in planning and implementing conservation in this large and diverse area, the joint venture must work at multiple spatial scales, from the largest ?...

  15. On multiple equilibria of the global ocean circulation and the preference for North Atlantic sinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the ocean circulation there is the peculiar feature that heat transport is northwards throughout the entire Atlantic ocean. This means that the Atlantic heat transport in the southern hemisphere is towards the equator. Also, the heat transport in the Atlantic is much larger that in the Pacific.

  16. Report of the International Ice Patrol in the North Atlantic. 1984 Season Bulletin Number 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Italy 1 Arctic Link United Kingdom 1 1 Arctic Lynx Canada I Arctic Shiko Canada 3 Atlantic Champagne France 2 Atlantic Cinderella Sweden 1 1 Atlantic...Poland 3 Stolt Castle Liberia 3 1 Stolt Sydness Liberia 2 2 Stovetrader Sweden 1 5 String Bridge Panama 6 Studlasfoss Iceland 2 50 Appendix A (cont’d

  17. 78 FR 5720 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island... temporary safety zone established on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Oak Island, North... maintenance on the NC 133 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island...

  18. 77 FR 44466 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Oak Island, North Carolina. The... the NC 133 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island, North...

  19. 75 FR 54598 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW44 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... cancelling the Atlantic Shark Identification workshop that was scheduled for September 2, 2010, in Wilmington... South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403. DATES: The Atlantic Shark Identification Workshop scheduled...

  20. 78 FR 40317 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 5a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 5a; Final Rule #0;#0... Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 5a AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... rebuilding of sandbar sharks; end overfishing and rebuild scalloped hammerhead and Atlantic blacknose sharks...

  1. 76 FR 64074 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA670 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop scheduled for November 17, 2011, in Charleston, SC, has been changed. This.... Atlantic Shark Identification workshops are mandatory for Atlantic Shark Dealer permit holders or their...

  2. 77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 5 AGENCY... Adjustment 5 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (MSB FMP), which was... this proposed rule is consistent with the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMP, other provision...

  3. 77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures... regulatory text in the final rule for 2012 Specifications for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish... specifications and management measures for the Atlantic mackerel and squid fisheries, and the interim final rule...

  4. 77 FR 71720 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 5 AGENCY... mackerel permits under the Atlantic ] Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (MSB FMP). In... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMPs is necessary for the conservation and management of the...

  5. 75 FR 8673 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XU57 Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management... Leadership and Sustainability Forum (FLSF), the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), and the...

  6. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

    La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

  8. Interannual surface salinity on Northwest Atlantic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Reul, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

    2017-05-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the Aquarius and SMOS satellite missions displays a steady increase of ˜1 psu over the entire northwestern Atlantic shelf south of Nova Scotia during 2011-2015. Put in the context of longer ocean profile data, the results suggest that mixed layer salinity and temperature north of the Gulf Stream experience positively correlated shelf-wide interannual oscillations (1 psu/2°C). Salty and warm events occur coincident with anomalous easterly-southeasterly winds and Ekman transport counteracting the mean southwestward shelf currents. They are coincident with weakening of both branches of the Scotian Shelf Current (SSC), but only moderately correlate with shifts of the Gulf Stream North Wall. This suggests that salt advection by anomalous SSC acting on the mean salinity gradient is the primary driver regulating the transport of fresh/cold water from high latitudes. The advection mechanism imposes a connectedness of the larger-scale interannual variability in this region and its tie to atmospheric oscillations. In the second part, an analysis of 15 year-long numerical simulations is presented which show eight interannual salinity oscillations (positive and negative). Six of these are driven by horizontal advection by slow varying currents (>2 months), while two events are driven by horizontal eddy advection (<2 months). In line with observations, salt/warm model events correspond to anomalously weak SSC, correlate with southeasterly wind anomaly, and confirm that interannual horizontal salt advection drives interannual salinity. Indeed, vertical exchanges provide negative feedback, while interannual horizontal diffusion and the net surface salt flux anomalies are small.

  9. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  10. Geophysical and geodynamic studies of the North Atlantic Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The geology of the North Atlantic Realm (NAR), including the North Atlantic, Greenland, the Arctic, Iceland, Scandinavia, Northern Europe and Northeast America has been studied for more than a century and inspired some of the most fundamental theories in geoscience, such as plate tectonics......, the supercontinent-cycle and the plume theory. In general, the major elements of the geological evolution in this region during the past 450 Ma are understood. However, the crucial details of this evolution are the subject of much discussion and include the following items: a) The formation of the Caledonian...... mountain range (approx. 425 Ma), the exact series and number of collision and subduction events as well as subduction polarity. b) The formation of the North Atlantic (approx. 60 Ma) and accompanied high magmatic activity which formed distinct and conspicuous structures and features, such as the Iceland...

  11. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...... studies, mass balance calculations and extrapolation of seismic profiles to onshore geomorphological features. The integration of about 200 published results reveal a clear pattern of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic: (1) The first major phase of Cenozoic regional...... uplift occurred in the late Palaeocene-early Eocene (ca 60-50 Ma), probably related to the break-up of the North Atlantic between Europe and Greenland, as indicated by the northward propagation of uplift. It was preceded by middle Palaeocene uplift and over-deepening of some basins of the North Sea...

  12. Paleoceanography. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Molina, F Javier; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Acton, Gary; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger; Flores, José-Abel; Furota, Satoshi; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Llave, Estefania; Lofi, Johanna; Lourens, Lucas; Miller, Madeline; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Roque, Cristina; Pereira, Hélder; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Sierro, Francisco J; Singh, Arun Deo; Sloss, Craig; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Williams, Trevor; Xuan, Chuang

    2014-06-13

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a limited volume of MOW entered the Atlantic. Depositional hiatuses indicate erosion by bottom currents related to higher volumes of MOW circulating into the North Atlantic, beginning in the late Pliocene. The hiatuses coincide with regional tectonic events and changes in global thermohaline circulation (THC). This suggests that MOW influenced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), THC, and climatic shifts by contributing a component of warm, saline water to northern latitudes while in turn being influenced by plate tectonics. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Dynamics of upwelling annual cycle in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chiao; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wu, Chau-Ron; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    The annual upwelling is an important component of the equatorial Atlantic annual cycle. A simple theory is proposed using the framework of Zebiak-Cane (ZC) ocean model for insights into the dynamics of the upwelling annual cycle. It is demonstrated that in the Atlantic equatorial region this upwelling is dominated by Ekman processing in the west, whereas in the east it is primarily owing to shoaling and deepening of the thermocline resulting from equatorial mass meridional recharge/discharge and zonal redistribution processes associated with wind-driven equatorial ocean waves. This wind-driven wave upwelling plays an important role in the development of the annual cycle in the sea surface temperature of the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Atlantic.

  14. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  15. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  16. CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wanninkhof

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures so as to improve the quality and consistency of the data as much as possible. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been tentatively corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "Atlantic" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2 data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the Atlantic. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional oceanic carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.

  17. An evaluation of management strategies for Atlantic tuna stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Kell

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available International agreements for the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT convention area imply that Atlantic tuna stocks should be managed by strategies based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY; however, there is concern whether this will actually ensure sustainability with sufficiently high probability consistent with the principals of the precautionary approach. Therefore, the performance of MSY management strategies based on current assessment procedures was evaluated using a computer simulation framework. The framework includes the data collection, assessment, prediction, and management processes, as well as the implementation of management regulations. It therefore provides an integrated way to evaluate the relative importance of and the interactions between each component of the system with regard to the overall success of the management strategy. The study elucidates guidelines about assessment and management that are general enough to be applied to all tunas in the Atlantic Ocean. It does so by comparing different hypotheses about management and assessment for three stocks (North Atlantic albacore, Atlantic bigeye and East Atlantic skipjack, which are representative of the variety encountered (i.e. from data rich to poor and tropical to temperate waters in ICCAT stocks. Management performance was especially sensitive to the carrying capacity of the stock. The type of proxy used for MSY was more important to the success of the procedure than the frequency of assessment or the number of indices used in the assessment. Whilst the procedure was successful at achieving the management objectives for albacore, it was only partially successful for bigeye and was too conservative for skipjack.

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  19. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhua, T. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Steinfeldt, R. [University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Brown, P. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Perez, F.F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Kortzinger, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Velo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Schuster, U. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Van Heuven, S. [University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Stendardo, I. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Hoppema, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Olsen, Are [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Pierrot, D. [Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami; Schirnick, C. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  20. Carbon and nutrient fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This study presents underway pCO2 data of a whole seasonal cycle in the North Atlantic between 40°N and 55°N. The data are compared to a historical dataset and the CO2 fluxes between atmosphere and ocean are calculated. The driving forces of the seawater pCO2 (temperature, biology, gas exchange, advection and convection) are quantified and nutrient concentration in the mixed layer of the North Atlantic are estimated. Furthermore a combined dataset of surface measurements of CO2 and N2O are...