WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlantic marine ecosystems

  1. Marine ecosystem response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Edwards

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.

  2. Middle Atlantic Bight Marine Ecosystem: A Regional Forecast Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Coles, V. J.; Garraffo, Z. D.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in basin scale climate patterns can drive changes in mesoscale physical oceanographic processes and subsequent alterations of ecosystem states. Climatic variability can be induced in the northeastern shelfbreak large marine ecosystem by climate oscillations, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; and long-term trends, such as a warming pattern. Short term variability can be induced by changes in the water masses in the northern and southern boundaries, by Gulf Stream path and transport variations, and by local mesoscale and submesoscale features. A coupled bio-physical model (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) is being used to forecast the evolution of the frontal and current systems of the shelf and Gulf Stream, and subsequent changes in thermal conditions and ecosystem structure over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). This study aims to forecast the ocean state and nutrients in the MAB, and to investigate how cross-shelf exchanges of different water masses could affect nutrient budgets, primary and secondary production, and fish populations in coastal and shelf marine ecosystems. Preliminary results are shown for a regional MAB model nested to the global 1/12o HYCOM run at NOAA/NCEP/EMC using Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) daily initialization. Elements of this simulation are nutrient influx condition at the northern and southern boundaries through regression to ocean thermodynamic variables, and nutrient input at the river mouths.

  3. Synchronous response of marine plankton ecosystems to climate in the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberville, Eric; Beaugrand, Gregory; Edwards, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, global warming has accelerated both the rate and magnitude of changes observed in many functional units of the Earth System. In this context, plankton are sentinel organisms because they are sensitive to subtle levels of changes in temperature and might help in identifying the current effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. In this paper, we performed a comparative approach in two regions of the North Atlantic (i.e. the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea) to explore the relationships between changes in marine plankton, the regional physico-chemical environment and large-scale hydro-climatic forcing using four key indices: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern and Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) anomalies. Our analyses suggest that long-term changes in the states of the two ecosystems were synchronous and correlated to the same large-scale hydro-climatic variables: NHT anomalies, the AMO and to a lesser extent the EA pattern. No significant correlation was found between long-term ecosystem modifications and the state of the NAO. Our results suggest that the effect of climate on these ecosystems has mainly occurred in both regions through the modulation of the thermal regime.

  4. Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas

    2005-03-31

    Reorganizations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation were associated with large and abrupt climatic changes in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial period. Projections with climate models suggest that similar reorganizations may also occur in response to anthropogenic global warming. Here I use ensemble simulations with a coupled climate-ecosystem model of intermediate complexity to investigate the possible consequences of such disturbances to the marine ecosystem. In the simulations, a disruption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation leads to a collapse of the North Atlantic plankton stocks to less than half of their initial biomass, owing to rapid shoaling of winter mixed layers and their associated separation from the deep ocean nutrient reservoir. Globally integrated export production declines by more than 20 per cent owing to reduced upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water and gradual depletion of upper ocean nutrient concentrations. These model results are consistent with the available high-resolution palaeorecord, and suggest that global ocean productivity is sensitive to changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  5. Decapod crustaceans from a marine tropical mangrove ecosystem on the Southern Western Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurinete Oliveira Negromonte

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodiversity, relative abundance and frequency of decapod crustaceans in the marine mangrove ecosystem at Gaibu Beach, Pernambuco State, Brazil. A total of eight samples were taken: four in the rainy season (August 2010 and four in the dry season (February 2011, during spring low tides and according to the phases of the moon. In all, 352 decapods were sampled. These specimens belonged to 17 species, 14 genera and 13 families. Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850, P. gracilis (Saussure, 1858, Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857 and Uca (Leptuca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 were very frequent. The three latter species occurred in all samples. The most abundant species was P. americanus. The Shannon-Wiener index (H' showed that, in general, the diversity level was medium for all samples. However, the sample taken at the time of the new moon during the rainy season was classified as highly diverse. These results contribute to the knowledge of the decapod fauna inhabiting mangroves associated with fringe reefs.

  6. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...... internationalt. Denne rapport indeholder forslag til, hvordan opgørelser af økosystemers tilstand baseret på EU’s Havstrategidirektiv (EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, MSFD), samt opgørelser baseret på anvendelse af HELCOM’s indikatorer for Østersøen, kan anvendes i forbindelse med kortlægning og...... værdisætning af økosystemtjenester. Rapporten indeholder:  Definitioner og beskrivelser af centrale begreber i forhold til opgørelse af økosystemtjenester, Forslag til, hvordan marine økosystemtjenester kan opgøres.  Eksempler på, hvordan MSFD deskriptorerne og indikatorerne relateret til opgørelse af...

  7. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.;

    2014-01-01

    the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles...... to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme...

  8. Climate impact on plankton ecosystems in the Northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J; Schoeman, David S

    2004-09-10

    It is now widely accepted that global warming is occurring, yet its effects on the world's largest ecosystem, the marine pelagic realm, are largely unknown. We show that sea surface warming in the Northeast Atlantic is accompanied by increasing phytoplankton abundance in cooler regions and decreasing phytoplankton abundance in warmer regions. This impact propagates up the food web (bottom-up control) through copepod herbivores to zooplankton carnivores because of tight trophic coupling. Future warming is therefore likely to alter the spatial distribution of primary and secondary pelagic production, affecting ecosystem services and placing additional stress on already-depleted fish and mammal populations.

  9. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.C. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Richmond, R.H. [Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam). Marine Lab.; Power, E.A. [EVS Environment Consultants, Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

  10. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  11. Environmental Impacts—Marine Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, J.P.;

    2016-01-01

    the physiology, reproduction, growth, survival, behaviour and transport of individuals; the distribution, dynamics and evolution of populations; and the trophic structure and coupling of ecosystems. These complex responses can be detected because there are detailed long-term biological and environmental records...... for the North Sea; written records go back 500 years and archaeological records many thousands of years. The information presented here shows that the composition and productivity of the North Sea marine ecosystem is clearly affected by climate change and that this will have consequences for sustainable levels...... of harvesting and other ecosystem services in the future. Multi-variate ocean climate indicators that can be used to monitor and warn of changes in composition and productivity are now being developed for the North Sea...

  12. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaugrand, G.; Edwards, M.; Brander, Keith;

    2008-01-01

    and carrying capacity of ecosystems and may, combined with fishing, precipitate the reduction of some stocks of Atlantic cod already severely impacted by exploitation. These findings offer a way to anticipate major ecosystem changes and to propose adaptive strategies for marine exploited resources such as cod...

  13. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    The term ``Fishing Down Marine Food Webs'' describes the gradual transition in landing from marine ecosystems towards organisms lower in the food web. To address this issue and the need to manage the marine ecosystem in a broader perspective, Ecosystem Management is recommended. Ecosystem...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...

  14. Marine ecology: gelatinous bells may ring change in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Steve

    2006-09-05

    Gelatinous plankton are critical components of marine ecosystems. Recent studies are providing evidence of increased population outbursts of such species. Jellyfish seem to respond when an ecosystem is over-fished, and their ecology is under-researched.

  15. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jaime S; Stewart, Heather A; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse.

  16. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic: Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime S Davies

    Full Text Available In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse.

  17. [Management of large marine ecosystem based on ecosystem approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian-song

    2011-09-01

    Large marine ecosystem (LME) is a large area of ocean characterized by distinct oceanology and ecology. Its natural characteristics require management based on ecosystem approach. A series of international treaties and regulations definitely or indirectly support that it should adopt ecosystem approach to manage LME to achieve the sustainable utilization of marine resources. In practices, some countries such as Canada, Australia, and U.S.A. have adopted ecosystem-based approach to manage their oceans, and some international organizations such as global environment fund committee have carried out a number of LME programs based on ecosystem approach. Aiming at the sustainable development of their fisheries, the regional organizations such as Caribbean Community have established regional fisheries mechanism. However, the adoption of ecosystem approach to manage LME is not only a scientific and legal issue, but also a political matter largely depending on the political will and the mutual cooperation degree of related countries.

  18. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  19. Identifying marine pelagic ecosystem management objectives and indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, Verena M.; Hintzen, Niels T.; Farnsworth, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    International policy frameworks such as the Common Fisheries Policy and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive define high-level strategic goals for marine ecosystems. Strategic goals are addressed via general and operational management objectives. To add credibility and legitimacy...... to the development of objectives, for this study stakeholders explored intermediate level ecological, economic and social management objectives for Northeast Atlantic pelagic ecosystems. Stakeholder workshops were undertaken with participants being free to identify objectives based on their own insights and needs...... scale in some cases. In the evidence-based approach used in this study, the selection of species or region specific operational objectives and indicators was based on demonstrated pressure-state links. Hence observed changes in indicators can reliably inform on appropriate management measures. (C) 2015...

  20. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  1. Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A

    2013-08-02

    The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years.

  2. Natural variability of marine ecosystems inferred from a coupled climate to ecosystem simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mézo, Priscilla; Lefort, Stelly; Séférian, Roland; Aumont, Olivier; Maury, Olivier; Murtugudde, Raghu; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This modeling study analyzes the simulated natural variability of pelagic ecosystems in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Our model system includes a global Earth System Model (IPSL-CM5A-LR), the biogeochemical model PISCES and the ecosystem model APECOSM that simulates upper trophic level organisms using a size-based approach and three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, migratory and mesopelagic). Analyzing an idealized (e.g., no anthropogenic forcing) 300-yr long pre-industrial simulation, we find that low and high frequency variability is dominant for the large and small organisms, respectively. Our model shows that the size-range exhibiting the largest variability at a given frequency, defined as the resonant range, also depends on the community. At a given frequency, the resonant range of the epipelagic community includes larger organisms than that of the migratory community and similarly, the latter includes larger organisms than the resonant range of the mesopelagic community. This study shows that the simulated temporal variability of marine pelagic organisms' abundance is not only influenced by natural climate fluctuations but also by the structure of the pelagic community. As a consequence, the size- and community-dependent response of marine ecosystems to climate variability could impact the sustainability of fisheries in a warming world.

  3. Water environments: anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem changes in the Atlantic drainage basins of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marcia; da Costa, Monica F; Mayorga, Maria Irles de O; Pinheiro, Patrícia R

    2004-02-01

    Densely occupied drainage basins and coastal zones in developing countries that are facing economic growth are likely to suffer from moderate to severe environmental impacts regarding different issues. The catchment basins draining towards the Atlantic coast from northeastern to southern Brazil include a wide range of climatic zones and diverse ecosystems. Within its borders lies the Atlantic rain forest, significant extensions of semiarid thorn forests (caatinga), vast tree and scrub woodlands (cerrado) and most of the 6670 km of the Brazilian coast and its marine ecosystems. In recent decades, human activities have increasingly advanced over these natural resources. Littoralization has imposed a burden on coastal habitats and communities. Most of the native vegetation of the cerrado and caatinga was removed and only 7% of the original Atlantic rainforest still exists. Estuaries, bays and coastal lagoons have been irreversibly damaged. Land uses, damming and water diversion have become the major driving forces for habitat loss and aquatic ecosystem modification. Regardless of the contrast between the drought-affected northeastern Brazil and the much more prosperous and industrialized southeastern/southern Brazil, the impacts on habitat and communities were found equally severe in both cases. Attempts to halt environmental degradation have not been effective. Instead of focusing on natural resources separately, it is suggested that more integrated environmental policies that focus on aquatic ecosystems integrity are introduced.

  4. Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Scott C; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Duffy, J Emmett; Barry, James P; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A; Galindo, Heather M; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Hollowed, Anne B; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N; Sydeman, William J; Talley, Lynne D

    2012-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.

  5. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Regional Marine Ecosystem Services Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; ZHENG Wei; WANG Zongling; DING Dewen

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystem services are the benefits which people obtain from the marine ecosystem, including provisioning ser-vices, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. The human species, while buffered against environmental changes by culture and technology, is fundamentally dependent on the flow of ecosystem services. Marine ecosystem services be-come increasingly valuable as the terrestrial resources become scarce. The value of marine ecosystem services is the monetary flow of ecosystem services on specific temporal and spatial scales, which often changes due to the variation of the goods prices, yields and the status of marine exploitation. Sensitivity analysis is to study the relationship between the value of marine ecosystem services and the main factors which affect it. Uncertainty analysis based on varying prices, yields and status of marine exploitation was carried out. Through uncertainty analysis, a more credible value range instead of a fixed value of marine ecosystem services was obtained in this study. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the marine ecosystem services value revealed the relative importance of different factors.

  6. North Atlantic summers have warmed more than winters since 1353, and the response of marine zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and measurements show that Atlantic marine temperatures are rising; however, the low temporal resolution of models and restricted spatial resolution of measurements (i) mask regional details critical for determining the rate and extent of climate variability, and (ii) prevent robust determination of climatic impacts on marine ecosystems. To address both issues for the North East Atlantic, a fortnightly resolution marine climate record from 1353–2006 was constructed for shallow inshore waters and compared to changes in marine zooplankton abundance. For the first time summer marine temperatures are shown to have increased nearly twice as much as winter temperatures since 1353. Additional climatic instability began in 1700 characterized by ∼5–65 year climate oscillations that appear to be a recent phenomenon. Enhanced summer-specific warming reduced the abundance of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a key food item of cod, and led to significantly lower projected abundances by 2040 than at present. The faster increase of summer marine temperatures has implications for climate projections and affects abundance, and thus biomass, near the base of the marine food web with potentially significant feedback effects for marine food security. PMID:21148422

  7. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available The marine areas of South America (SA include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA: the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama. Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  8. Mapping ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats in the European North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon eGalparsoro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing the ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats are a highly valuable source of information for understanding their current and potential benefits to society. The main objective of this investigation is to assess and map the ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats of the European North Atlantic Ocean, in the context of Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES programme, the European Biodiversity Strategy and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. In total, 62 habitats have been analysed in relation to 12 ecosystem services over 1.7 million km2. Results indicated that more than 90% of the mapped area provides biodiversity maintenance and food provision services; meanwhile grounds providing reproduction and nursery services are limited to half of the mapped area. Benthic habitats generally provide more services closer to shore than offshore and in shallower waters. This gradient is likely to be explained by difficult access (i.e. distance and depth and lack of scientific knowledge for most of the services provided by distant benthic habitats. This research has provided a first assessment of the benthic ecosystem services at Atlantic European scale, with the provision of ecosystem services maps and their general spatial distribution patterns. Related to the objectives of this research, the conclusions are: (i benthic habitats provide a diverse set of ecosystem services, being the food provision and biodiversity maintenance services the ones that are more extensively represented. In addition, other regulating and cultural services are provided in a more limited area; and (ii the ecosystem services assessment categories are significantly related to the distance to the coast and with depth (higher near the coast and in shallow waters.

  9. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Martin J.; Becker, Peter H.; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W.; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. PMID:27531154

  10. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Anker; Lassen, Hans; Frost, Hans Staby

    This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context. We propose that operational fisheries...... that the concept of marine ecosystem services is not helpful for the two first mentioned types of analysis and that a cost-benefit analysis that is implied by the marine ecosystem services concept is inadequate for the third. We argue that the discussion needs to be divided into two: (1) finding the boundaries...... within which we accept impact on the marine ecosystem and (2) within these boundaries find the optimal fishing pressure, in mathematical terms replacing the unconstrained optimisation implied by the ecosystem services concept with an optimisation with constraints. The constraints are defined...

  11. Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey (Arctic Eis): Marine ecosystem dynamics in the rapidly changing Pacific Arctic Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Weems, Jared; Farley, Edward V.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Arctic Marine Ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes associated with ice loss and surface warming resulting from human activities (IPCC, 2013). The most dramatic changes include an earlier ice retreat and a longer ice-free season, particularly on Arctic inflow shelves such as the Barents Sea in the Atlantic Arctic and the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea in the Pacific Arctic, the two major gateways into the Arctic (Danielson et al., 2016; Frey et al., 2015; Serreze et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2015). The retreat of Arctic sea ice has opened access to the Arctic marine environment and its resources, particularly during summer, and among other changes has brought with it increased research activities. For the Pacific Arctic region, these activities have led to several recent compendiums examining physical, biogeochemical, and biological patterns and trends in this rapidly changing environment (Arrigo, 2015, 2016; Arrigo et al., 2014; Bluhm et al., 2010; Dunton et al., 2014; Grebmeier and Maslowski, 2014; Hopcroft and Day, 2013; Moore and Stabeno, 2015).

  12. Atlantic White Cedar Swamp Restoration : Monitoring Ecosystem Services and Self-Maintenance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes an Atlantic white cedar swamp restoration project. This project will study the restoration of the once prevalent ecosystem. Three ecosystem...

  13. Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, C.; Bluhm, B.; Gallucci, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing major changes in many of its fundamental physical constituents, from a shift from multi- to first-year ice, shorter ice-covered periods, increasing freshwater runoff and surface stratification, to warming and alteration in the distribution of water masses...... that structure ecosystem biodiversity in the Arctic Ocean. We also discuss climateassociated effects on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and discuss implications for the functioning of Arctic marine food webs. Based on the complexity and regional character of Arctic ecosystem reponses....... These changes have important impacts on the chemical and biological processes that are at the root of marine food webs, influencing their structure, function and biodiversity. Here we summarise current knowledge on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and provide an overview of fundamental factors...

  14. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Anker; Lassen, Hans; Frost, Hans Staby

    This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context. We propose that operational fisheri...

  15. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Reed, Daniel C.; Orth, Robert J.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Beck, Michael W.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J.; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; Blaeij, De Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts an

  16. Biomanipulation - a tool in marine ecosystem management and restoration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2010-01-01

    in restoring degraded lakes and coastal ecosystems. Whether biomanipulation may prove a useful restoration method in open and structurally complex marine ecosystems is however still unknown. To promote a recovery of the collapsed stock of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), large-scale biomanipulation of sprat...

  17. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  18. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  19. The Economics of Marine Ecosystem Services – the Fisheries Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravensbeck, Lars

    of five papers, but additionally five other documents have been authored or co-authored in relation to the thesis. The first document is a book chapter that surveys the state of art in some main areas related to green accounting and the links to economic value of ecosystem services particularly those......The thesis “The Economics of Marine Ecosystem Services − the Fisheries Case” focuses on some of the issues in marine resources economics that have attracted significant interest in recent years. Historically, the central issue has been fisheries economics and how to management fish stocks to obtain......-based management system which is able to take into account all benefits provided by the ecosystem. The third document, a working paper, applies an ecosystem based management perspective on the exploitation of the marine resources using a modelling approach. A general framework and bioeconomic model are developed...

  20. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  1. marine survival ecosystem indicators - Estimating the ecosystem indicators of anadromous salmonids in the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this project is to develop a simple approach for estimating the marine survival and causes of trends in survival. Data is a summary of ecosystem...

  2. Review on the Progress of Marine Ecosystem Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xuefen; Zhang Luoping

    2007-01-01

    Along with the industrial development, adverse impacts on the natural environment become more serious, and ecosystem health and ecological security have also been deteriorated.The traditional environment management focused on the shortterm and economic benefits. Such managing pattern is not accommodating to the new situation of increasingly global environment problems and large scale marine environment problems.This paper introduces the advance and definition of a new managing pattern-ecosystem management. Meanwhile, the connotation of ecosystem management was summarized as seven points: Sustainability; Human is an important aspect of ecosystem management; Cooperation is the foundation of ecosystem management; Maintain health and security of ecosystem; Ecological diversity protection characters ecosystem management; Maintain the integrity of ecosystem; Ecosystem management must be founded on scientific theories and precise information. Somebody said Ecosystem Management is "a new label of old ideas". However, there is an essential difference between ecosystem management and traditional environmental management. In the last part of this paper, the differences of the approaches between ecosystem management and traditional environmental management are compared.

  3. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.

  4. A holistic approach to marine eco-systems biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Karsenti; Acinas, Silvia G.; Peer Bork; Chris Bowler; Colomban De Vargas; Jeroen Raes; Matthew Sullivan; Detlev Arendt; Francesca Benzoni; Jean-Michel Claverie; Mick Follows; Gaby Gorsky; Pascal Hingamp; Daniele Iudicone; Olivier Jaillon

    2011-01-01

    With biology becoming quantitative, systems-level studies can now be performed at spatial scales ranging from molecules to ecosystems. Biological data generated consistently across scales can be integrated with physico-chemical contextual data for a truly holistic approach, with a profound impact on our understanding of life [1]–[5]. Marine ecosystems are crucial in the regulation of Earth's biogeochemical cycles and climate [6],[7]. Yet their organization, evolution, and dynamics remain poor...

  5. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  6. Uncertainties in projecting climate-change impacts in marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Barange, Manuel; Cheung, William W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Projections of the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems are a key prerequisite for the planning of adaptation strategies, yet they are inevitably associated with uncertainty. Identifying, quantifying, and communicating this uncertainty is key to both evaluating the risk associated with ...

  7. The Mid-Atlantic Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Ecosystem Services, Conservation Practices, and Synergistic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mid-Atlantic Region of the eastern U.S. is characterized by a diversity of coastal and freshwater wetland ecosystems that humans and other species depend upon. Ecosystem services provided by wetlands include the regulation of runoff and floodwaters, habitat for many unique organisms, pollutant r...

  8. Marine chemical ecology: chemical signals and cues structure marine populations, communities, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

  9. Merging Marine Ecosystem Models and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, V.; Hood, R. R.; Stukel, M. R.; Moran, M. A.; Paul, J. H.; Satinsky, B.; Zielinski, B.; Yager, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    oceanography. One of the grand challenges of oceanography is to develop model techniques to more effectively incorporate genomic information. As one approach, we developed an ecosystem model whose community is determined by randomly assigning functional genes to build each organism's "DNA". Microbes are assigned a size that sets their baseline environmental responses using allometric response cuves. These responses are modified by the costs and benefits conferred by each gene in an organism's genome. The microbes are embedded in a general circulation model where environmental conditions shape the emergent population. This model is used to explore whether organisms constructed from randomized combinations of metabolic capability alone can self-organize to create realistic oceanic biogeochemical gradients. Realistic community size spectra and chlorophyll-a concentrations emerge in the model. The model is run repeatedly with randomly-generated microbial communities and each time realistic gradients in community size spectra, chlorophyll-a, and forms of nitrogen develop. This supports the hypothesis that the metabolic potential of a community rather than the realized species composition is the primary factor setting vertical and horizontal environmental gradients. Vertical distributions of nitrogen and transcripts for genes involved in nitrification are broadly consistent with observations. Modeled gene and transcript abundance for nitrogen cycling and processing of land-derived organic material match observations along the extreme gradients in the Amazon River plume, and they help to explain the factors controlling observed variability.

  10. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  11. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  12. Uncertainties in projecting climate-change impacts in marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Barange, Manuel; Cheung, William W. L.;

    2016-01-01

    Projections of the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems are a key prerequisite for the planning of adaptation strategies, yet they are inevitably associated with uncertainty. Identifying, quantifying, and communicating this uncertainty is key to both evaluating the risk associated...... with a projection and building confidence in its robustness. We review how uncertainties in such projections are handled in marine science. We employ an approach developed in climate modelling by breaking uncertainty down into (i) structural (model) uncertainty, (ii) initialization and internal variability...... uncertainty is rarely treated explicitly and reducing this type of uncertainty may deliver gains on the seasonal-to-decadal time-scale.Weconclude that all parts of marine science could benefit from a greater exchange of ideas, particularly concerning such a universal problem such as the treatment...

  13. The role of a dominant predator in shaping biodiversity over space and time in a marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kari E; Anderson, Marti J; Shackell, Nancy L; Tveraa, Torkild; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Frank, Kenneth T

    2015-09-01

    1. Exploitation of living marine resources has resulted in major changes to populations of targeted species and functional groups of large-bodied species in the ocean. However, the effects of overfishing and collapse of large top predators on the broad-scale biodiversity of oceanic ecosystems remain largely unexplored. 2. Populations of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were overfished and several collapsed in the early 1990s across Atlantic Canada, providing a unique opportunity to study potential ecosystem-level effects of the reduction of a dominant predator on fish biodiversity, and to identify how such effects might interact with other environmental factors, such as changes in climate, over time. 3. We combined causal modelling with model selection and multimodel inference to analyse 41 years of fishery-independent survey data (1970-2010) and quantify ecosystem-level effects of overfishing and climate variation on the biodiversity of fishes across a broad area (172 000 km(2) ) of the Scotian Shelf. 4. We found that alpha and beta diversity increased with decreases in cod occurrence; fish communities were less homogeneous and more variable in systems where cod no longer dominated. These effects were most pronounced in the colder north-eastern parts of the Scotian Shelf. 5. Our results provide strong evidence that intensive harvesting (and collapse) of marine apex predators can have large impacts on biodiversity, with far-reaching consequences for ecological stability across an entire ecosystem.

  14. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    to locations and area travelled, the tags provide temperature , salinity , fluorescence, time spent hauled out, cruising, diving, dive parameters, and...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project...tagging bearded and spotted seals with satellite tags to measure the ocean environment and the movements of these species. Testing of animal capture and

  15. Interdependency of tropical marine ecosystems in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Megan I.; Leon, Javier X.; Callaghan, David P.; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Hamylton, Sarah; Brown, Christopher J.; Baldock, Tom; Golshani, Aliasghar; Phinn, Stuart R.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystems are linked within landscapes by the physical and biological processes they mediate. In such connected landscapes, the response of one ecosystem to climate change could have profound consequences for neighbouring systems. Here, we report the first quantitative predictions of interdependencies between ecosystems in response to climate change. In shallow tropical marine ecosystems, coral reefs shelter lagoons from incoming waves, allowing seagrass meadows to thrive. Deepening water over coral reefs from sea-level rise results in larger, more energetic waves traversing the reef into the lagoon, potentially generating hostile conditions for seagrass. However, growth of coral reef such that the relative water depth is maintained could mitigate negative effects of sea-level rise on seagrass. Parameterizing physical and biological models for Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, we find negative effects of sea-level rise on seagrass before the middle of this century given reasonable rates of reef growth. Rates of vertical carbonate accretion typical of modern reef flats (up to 3 mm yr-1) will probably be insufficient to maintain suitable conditions for reef lagoon seagrass under moderate to high greenhouse gas emissions scenarios by 2100. Accounting for interdependencies in ecosystem responses to climate change is challenging, but failure to do so results in inaccurate predictions of habitat extent in the future.

  16. Resilience and stability of a pelagic marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegren, Martin; Checkley, David M; Ohman, Mark D; Koslow, J Anthony; Goericke, Ralf

    2016-01-13

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services worldwide has accentuated a long-standing debate on the role of diversity in stabilizing ecological communities and has given rise to a field of research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). Although broad consensus has been reached regarding the positive BEF relationship, a number of important challenges remain unanswered. These primarily concern the underlying mechanisms by which diversity increases resilience and community stability, particularly the relative importance of statistical averaging and functional complementarity. Our understanding of these mechanisms relies heavily on theoretical and experimental studies, yet the degree to which theory adequately explains the dynamics and stability of natural ecosystems is largely unknown, especially in marine ecosystems. Using modelling and a unique 60-year dataset covering multiple trophic levels, we show that the pronounced multi-decadal variability of the Southern California Current System (SCCS) does not represent fundamental changes in ecosystem functioning, but a linear response to key environmental drivers channelled through bottom-up and physical control. Furthermore, we show strong temporal asynchrony between key species or functional groups within multiple trophic levels caused by opposite responses to these drivers. We argue that functional complementarity is the primary mechanism reducing community variability and promoting resilience and stability in the SCCS.

  17. Marine and terrigenous lipids in southeast atlantic sediments (leg 175) as paleoenvironmental indicators: initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schefuss, E.; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Jansen, J.H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Lipid compositions of sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 175 in the eastern South Atlantic reflect a variety of oceanographic and climatological environments. Most of the identified lipids can be ascribed to marine sources, notably haptophytes, eustigmatophytes, dinoflagellates, a

  18. Experimenting with ecosystem interaction networks in search of threshold potentials in real-world marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Parkes, Samantha; Lohrer, Andrew M; Pilditch, Conrad; Woodin, Sarah A; Wethey, David S; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Asnaghi, Valentina; De Juan, Silvia; Kraan, Casper; Rodil, Ivan; Savage, Candida; Van Colen, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Thresholds profoundly affect our understanding and management of ecosystem dynamics, but we have yet to develop practical techniques to assess the risk that thresholds will be crossed. Combining ecological knowledge of critical system interdependencies with a large-scale experiment, we tested for breaks in the ecosystem interaction network to identify threshold potential in real-world ecosystem dynamics. Our experiment with the bivalves Macomona liliana and Austrovenus stutchburyi on marine sandflats in New Zealand demonstrated that reductions in incident sunlight changed the interaction network between sediment biogeochemical fluxes, productivity, and macrofauna. By demonstrating loss of positive feedbacks and changes in the architecture of the network, we provide mechanistic evidence that stressors lead to break points in dynamics, which theory predicts predispose a system to a critical transition.

  19. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    )). References: Sinreich et al., Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(23), 11359-11371 (2010). van Pinxteren and Herrmann, Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles: Method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 11791-11802 (2013).

  20. Payments for coastal and marine ecosystem services: prospects and principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2012-05-15

    Coastal and marine resources provide millions of impoverished people across the global South with livelihoods, and provide the world with a range of critical 'ecosystem services', from biodiversity and culture to carbon storage and flood protection. Yet across the world, these resources are fast-diminishing under the weight of pollution, land clearance, coastal development, overfishing, natural disasters and climate change. Traditional approaches to halt the decline focus on regulating against destructive practices, but to little effect. A more successful strategy could be to establish payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes, or incorporate an element of PES in existing regulatory mechanisms. Examples from across the world suggest that PES can work to protect both livelihoods and environments. But to succeed, these schemes must be underpinned by robust research, clear property rights, equitable benefit sharing and sustainable finance.

  1. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance.

  2. Typology and indicators of ecosystem services for marine spatial planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Baulcomb, Corinne; Koss, Rebecca; Hussain, S Salman; de Groot, Rudolf S

    2013-11-30

    The ecosystem services concept provides both an analytical and communicative tool to identify and quantify the link between human welfare and the environment, and thus to evaluate the ramifications of management interventions. Marine spatial planning (MSP) and Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) are a form of management intervention that has become increasingly popular and important globally. The ecosystem service concept is rarely applied in marine planning and management to date which we argue is due to the lack of a well-structured, systematic classification and assessment of marine ecosystem services. In this paper we not only develop such a typology but also provide guidance to select appropriate indicators for all relevant ecosystem services. We apply this marine-specific ecosystem service typology to MSP and EBM. We thus provide not only a novel theoretical construct but also show how the ecosystem services concept can be used in marine planning and management.

  3. Impacts of marine-derived nutrients on stream ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Negishi, Junjiro N; Richardson, John S; Kolodziejczyk, Renata

    2003-10-22

    Energy and nutrient subsidies transported across ecosystem boundaries are increasingly appreciated as key drivers of consumer-resource dynamics. As purveyors of pulsed marine-derived nutrients (MDN), spawning salmon are one such cross-ecosystem subsidy to freshwaters connected to the north Pacific. We examined how salmon carcasses influenced detrital processing in an oligotrophic stream. Experimental manipulations of MDN inputs revealed that salmon carcasses indirectly reduced detrital processing in streams through temporarily decoupling the detrital resource-consumer relationship, in which detrital consumers shifted their diet to the high-nutrient resource, i.e. salmon carcasses. The average decomposition rate of alder leaves with salmon carcass addition was significantly lower than that without the carcass, which was associated with lower abundance and biomass of detritivorous Trichoptera on the carcass-treated leaves. There were generally larger in size Trichopteran detritivores on the carcasses than on leaves. These results imply that cross-boundary MDN subsidies indirectly retard the ecosystem processing of leaf litter within the short term, but may enhance those food-limited detritivorous consumers. Because unproductive freshwaters in the Pacific northwest are highly dependent upon the organic matter inputs from surrounding forests, this novel finding has implications for determining conservation and management strategies of salmon-related aquatic ecosystems, in terms of salmon habitat protection and fisheries exploitation.

  4. Damped trophic cascades driven by fishing in model marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Pedersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped...... cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show...

  5. Extinction and ecosystem function in the marine benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Martin; Cardinale, Bradley J; Downing, Amy L; Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Ruesink, Jennifer L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2004-11-12

    Rapid changes in biodiversity are occurring globally, yet the ecological impacts of diversity loss are poorly understood. Here we use data from marine invertebrate communities to parameterize models that predict how extinctions will affect sediment bioturbation, a process vital to the persistence of aquatic communities. We show that species extinction is generally expected to reduce bioturbation, but the magnitude of reduction depends on how the functional traits of individual species covary with their risk of extinction. As a result, the particular cause of extinction and the order in which species are lost ultimately govern the ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss.

  6. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  7. Marine ecosystem dynamics, ocean circulation and horizontal stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, V.; Tewkai, E.; López, C.; Sudre, J.; Hernández-García, E.; Garcon, V.

    2009-04-01

    The oceanic submeso and mesoscale circulation and its eddies, filaments, meanders play a major role in marine ecosystems dynamics from the lower trophic levels to the marine top predators. We study here the interplay between turbulence in fluid dynamics on these scales and biological activity at different trophic levels using two cases study. The first example focuses on the four eastern boundary upwelling zones, the Canary, Benguela, California and Humboldt upwelling systems which constitute the largest contribution to the world ocean productivity. These areas are spatially heterogeneous, populated with a large variety of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale structures such as filaments, plumes and eddies, which control exchange processes between the shelf and open ocean and play a major role in modulating the biomass, rates and structure of marine ecosystems. We will present here results from a lagrangian approach based on Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE) using altimetric and scatterometric data to estimate the spatial and temporal variations in the lateral stirring and mixing of tracers in the upper ocean within the four areas. When investigating links with chlorophyll a concentration as a proxy for biological activity in these upwelling systems, results show that surface horizontal stirring and mixing vary inversely with chlorophyll standing stocks. FSLEs lead to a clear clustering of the systems suggesting that one may use them as integrated and comparative indices for characterizing horizontal dynamical features in all eastern boundary upwellings. Then we investigate the role of submesoscale structures in the Mozambique Channel on the distribution of a top marine predator, the Great Frigatebird. Using similar dynamical concept, the FSLE, we have identified Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) present in the surface flow in the Channel. By comparing seabirds' satellite positions with LCSs locations, we demonstrate that frigatebirds track precisely these

  8. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  9. Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Friberg, Sara E; Gonzalez-Dorantes, Cirse A; Williams, Susan L

    2008-01-22

    Declines in biodiversity have prompted concern over the consequences of species loss for the goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. However, relatively few studies have evaluated the functional consequences of realistic, nonrandom changes in biodiversity. Instead, most designs have used randomly selected assemblages from a local species pool to construct diversity gradients. It is therefore difficult, based on current evidence, to predict the functional consequences of realistic declines in biodiversity. In this study, we used tide pool microcosms to demonstrate that the effects of real-world changes in biodiversity may be very different from those of random diversity changes. Specifically, we measured the relationship between the diversity of a seaweed assemblage and its ability to use nitrogen, a key limiting nutrient in nearshore marine systems. We quantified nitrogen uptake using both experimental and model seaweed assemblages and found that natural increases in diversity resulted in enhanced rates of nitrogen use, whereas random diversity changes had no effect on nitrogen uptake. Our results suggest that understanding the real-world consequences of declining biodiversity will require addressing changes in species performance along natural diversity gradients and understanding the relationships between species' susceptibility to loss and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.

  10. Ediacaran Marine Redox Heterogeneity and Early Animal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Planavsky, Noah J.; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Zihu; Zhou, Chuanming; Cheng, Meng; Tarhan, Lidya G.; Luo, Genming; Xie, Shucheng

    2015-11-01

    Oxygenation has widely been viewed as a major factor driving the emergence and diversification of animals. However, links between early animal evolution and shifts in surface oxygen levels have largely been limited to extrapolation of paleoredox conditions reconstructed from unfossiliferous strata to settings in which contemporaneous fossils were preserved. Herein, we present a multi-proxy paleoredox study of late Ediacaran (ca. 560-551 Ma) shales hosting the Miaohe Konservat-Lagerstätte of South China and, for comparison, equivalent non-fossil-bearing shales at adjacent sections. For the fossiliferous strata at Miaohe there is geochemical evidence for anoxic conditions, but paleontological evidence for at least episodically oxic conditions. An oxygen-stressed environment is consistent with the low diversity and simple morphology of Miaohe Biota macrofossils. However, there is no evidence for euxinic (anoxic and sulphidic) conditions for the fossiliferous strata at Miaohe, in contrast to adjacent unfossiliferous sections. Our results indicate that Ediacaran marine redox chemistry was highly heterogeneous, even at the kilometre-scale. Therefore, our study provides direct—rather than inferred—evidence that anoxia played a role in shaping a landmark Ediacaran ecosystem. If the anoxic conditions characteristic of the studied sections were widespread in the late Neoproterozoic, environmental stress would have hindered the development of complex ecosystems.

  11. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are characterized by the following physiological and ecological features. A mother AAPB cell can unusually divide into 3 daughter cells and looks like a "Y" during the division. AAPB cells sometimes adhere together forming a free-floating population. Most of the known AAPB species are obligately aerobic. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) is the only photosynthetic pigment in AAPB, and the number of BChl a molecules in an AAPB cell is much less than that in an anaerobic phototrophic bacterial cell, while the accessorial pigments carotenoids in AAPB are abundant in concentration and diverse in species. In addition to the common magnesium containing BChl a, a zinc-containing BChla was also seen in AAPB. AAPB have light harvesting complexⅠbut usually lack light harvesting complexⅡ. Although AAPB featur in photosynthesis, their growth is not necessarily light- dependent. There is a mechanism controlling the photosynthesis approach. AAPB are widely distributed in marine environments especially in oligotrophic oceans accounting for a substantial portion of the total biomass and playing a unique role in the cycle of carbon and other biogenic elements. Besides the contribution to primary production, AAPB also have great potentials in bioremediation of polluted environments. Studies on AAPB would be of great value in understanding the evolution of photosynthesis and the structure and function of marine ecosystems.

  12. Effects of Ocean Ecosystem on Marine Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Meskhidze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite data for the surface ocean, aerosol optical depth (AOD, and cloud microphysical parameters, we show that statistically significant positive correlations exist between ocean ecosystem productivity, the abundance of submicron aerosols, and cloud microphysical properties over different parts of the remote oceans. The correlation coefficient for remotely sensed surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl-a] and liquid cloud effective radii over productive areas of the oceans varies between −0.2 and −0.6. Special attention is given to identifying (and addressing problems from correlation analysis used in the previous studies that can lead to erroneous conclusions. A new approach (using the difference between retrieved AOD and predicted sea salt aerosol optical depth, AODdiff is developed to explore causal links between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the remote marine atmosphere. We have found that over multiple time periods, 550 nm AODdiff (sensitive to accumulation mode aerosol, which is the prime contributor to CCN correlates well with [Chl-a] over the productive waters of the Southern Ocean. Since [Chl-a] can be used as a proxy of ocean biological productivity, our analysis demonstrates the role of ocean ecology in contributing CCN, thus shaping the microphysical properties of low-level marine clouds.

  13. MAREDAT: towards a World Ocean Atlas of MARine Ecosystem DATa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Buitenhuis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a summary of biomass data for 11 Plankton Functional Types (PFTs plus phytoplankton pigment data, compiled as part of the MARine Ecosystem biomass DATa (MAREDAT initiative. The goal of the MAREDAT initiative is to provide global gridded data products with coverage of all biological components of the global ocean ecosystem. This special issue is the first step towards achieving this. The PFTs presented here include picophytoplankton, diazotrophs, coccolithophores, Phaeocystis, diatoms, picoheterotrophs, microzooplankton, foraminifers, mesozooplankton, pteropods and macrozooplankton. All variables have been gridded onto a World Ocean Atlas (WOA grid (1° × 1° × 33 vertical levels × monthly climatologies. The data show that (1 the global total heterotrophic biomass (2.0–6.4 Pg C is at least as high as the total autotrophic biomass (0.5–2.6 Pg C excluding nanophytoplankton and autotrophic dinoflagellates, (2 the biomass of zooplankton calcifiers (0.9–2.3 Pg C is substantially higher than that of coccolithophores (0.01–0.14 Pg C, (3 patchiness of biomass distribution increases with organism size, and (4 although zooplankton biomass measurements below 200 m are rare, the limited measurements available suggest that Bacteria and Archaea are not the only heterotrophs in the deep sea. More data will be needed to characterize ocean ecosystem functioning and associated biogeochemistry in the Southern Hemisphere and below 200 m.
    Microzooplankton database: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779970.

  14. Statistical Classification of Terrestrial and Marine Ecosystems for Environmental Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schröder

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available E nvironmental planning is an instrument for the operationalisation of the precautionary principle in environmental law and, to this end, must rely on maps depicting the spatial patterns of ecological attributes of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and of environmental change effects, respectively. In this context, different mapping techniques are presented by example of three case studies covering terrestrial, coastal and marine environments. The first case study was selected to demonstrate how to compute an ecological land classification of Germany by means of CART. The resulting ecoregions were mapped by GIS. This CARTography enables to regionalise metal bioaccumulation data in terms of 21 ecological land categories and to prove the specifity of emission control measures as being part of environmental policies. The second investigation was chosen to applyfor the first time in Germany the regionalisation approach to the research of climate change effects in terms of past, recent and potential future incidences of Anopheles sp. and malaria in Lower Saxony. To investigate whether malaria might be transmitted due to increasing air temperatures, data sets on past and future air temperatures were used to spatially model malaria risk areas. The third example demonstrates the transfer of the CARTography approach presented in the first case study from terrestrial to marine environments. We analysed the statistical relations between data on benthic communities and physical properties of their marine environments by means of CART and applied these rules to geodata which only describe physical characteristics of the benthic habitats. By this, those parts of the sea ground could be predicted where certain benthic communities might occur.

  15. Bridging the gap between policy and science in assessing the health status of marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Borja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, both established and emerging, increasingly affect the provision of marine ecosystem services that deliver societal and economic benefits. Monitoring the status of marine ecosystems and determining how human activities change their capacity to sustain benefits for society requires an evidence-based Integrated Ecosystem Assessment approach that incorporates knowledge of ecosystem functioning and services. Although there are diverse methods to assess the status of individual ecosystem components, none assesses the health of marine ecosystems holistically, integrating information from multiple ecosystem components. Similarly, while acknowledging the availability of several methods to measure single pressures and assess their impacts, evaluation of cumulative effects of multiple pressures remains scarce. Therefore, an integrative assessment requires us to first understand the response of marine ecosystems to human activities and their pressures and then develop innovative, cost-effective monitoring tools that enable collection of data to assess the health status of large marine areas. Conceptually, combining this knowledge of effective monitoring methods with cost-benefit analyses will help identify appropriate management measures to improve environmental status economically and efficiently. The European project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status specifically addressed these topics in order to support policy makers and managers in implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Here, we synthesize our main innovative findings, placing these within the context of recent wider research, and identifying gaps and the major future challenges.

  16. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Hélène Truchon; Lena Measures; Vincent L'Hérault; Jean-Claude Brêthes; Peter S Galbraith; Michel Harvey; Sylvie Lessard; Michel Starr; Nicolas Lecomte

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have i...

  17. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (the phytoplankton community, detrital particles, and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ observed and satellite derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem and optical data along a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, and the crucial feedbacks between the light field and the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is especially important at the deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum, and absorption by water molecules is relatively most important in the highly oligotrophic gyres. Sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the optical constituents was increased led to a decrease in the size of the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres: lateral nutrient supplies were enhanced as a result of decreasing high latitude productivity. Scattering does not as strongly affect the ecosystem and biogeochemistry fields within the water column but is important for setting the surface upwelling irradiance, and hence sea surface reflectance. Having a model capable of capturing bio-optical feedbacks will be important for

  18. Overview of integrative assessment of marine systems: the Ecosystem Approach in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eBorja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and emerging human activities are increasingly putting pressures on marine ecosystems and impacting their ability to sustain ecological and human communities. To evaluate the health status of marine ecosystems we need a science-based, integrated Ecosystem Approach, that incorporates knowledge of ecosystem function and services provided that can be used to track how management decisions change the health of marine ecosystems. Although many methods have been developed to assess the status of single components of the ecosystem, few exist for assessing multiple ecosystem components in a holistic way. To undertake such an integrative assessment, it is necessary to understand the response of marine systems to human pressures. Hence, innovative monitoring is needed to obtain data to determine the health of large marine areas, and in an holistic way. Here we review five existing methods that address both of these needs (monitoring and assessment: the Ecosystem Health Assessment Tool; a method for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Bay of Biscay; the Ocean Health Index; the Marine Biodiversity Assessment Tool; and the Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool. We have highlighted their main characteristics and analyzing their commonalities and differences, in terms of: use of the Ecosystem Approach; inclusion of multiple components in the assessment; use of reference conditions; use of integrative assessments; use of a range of values to capture the status; weighting ecosystem components when integrating; determine the uncertainty; ensure spatial and temporal comparability; use of robust monitoring approaches; and address pressures and impacts. Ultimately, for any ecosystem assessment to be effective it needs to be: transparent and repeatable and, in order to inform marine management, the results should be easy to communicate to wide audiences, including scientists, managers and policymakers.

  19. Longer and less overlapping food webs in anthropogenically disturbed marine ecosystems: confirmations from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Saporiti

    Full Text Available The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs.

  20. Longer and less overlapping food webs in anthropogenically disturbed marine ecosystems: confirmations from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs.

  1. 3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille Christine; Esichaikul, Ranee; Macqueen, Mark; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2010-01-01

    3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to innovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international scientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine and coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex materials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM Marine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and Malaysian Marine Parks) and construct initial biomimetic prototypes and novel designs. Thereby, new links, networks and collaborations are established between communities of thinkers in different countries. 3D tourism aims at mapping new frontiers in emerging engineering and design fields. This provides a novel way to foster and promote innovative thinking in the sciences, and considers the need for synergy and collaboration between marine sciences, engineering and design rather than segmentation and isolation. With the concept of 3D corporate tourism the potential of Malaysian marine ecosystems...

  2. Investigating fine-scale spatio-temporal predator-prey patterns in dynamic marine ecosystems: a functional data analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embling, C.B.; Illian, J.; Armstrong, E.; van der Kooij, J.; Sharples, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Scott, B.E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Spatial management of marine ecosystems requires detailed knowledge of spatio-temporal mechanisms linking physical and biological processes. Tidal currents, the main driver of ecosystem dynamics in temperate coastal ecosystems, influence predator foraging ecology by affecting prey distribution an

  3. Advection in polar and sub-polar environments: Impacts on high latitude marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, George L.; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Arrigo, Kevin; Berge, Jørgen; Daly, Kendra L.; Danielson, Seth; Daase, Malin; Hop, Haakon; Isla, Enrique; Karnovsky, Nina; Laidre, Kristin; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Renaud, Paul E.; Smith, Walker O.; Trathan, Philip; Turner, John; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    We compare and contrast the ecological impacts of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns on polar and sub-polar marine ecosystems. Circulation patterns differ strikingly between the north and south. Meridional circulation in the north provides connections between the sub-Arctic and Arctic despite the presence of encircling continental landmasses, whereas annular circulation patterns in the south tend to isolate Antarctic surface waters from those in the north. These differences influence fundamental aspects of the polar ecosystems from the amount, thickness and duration of sea ice, to the types of organisms, and the ecology of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Meridional flows in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans transport heat, nutrients, and plankton northward into the Chukchi Sea, the Barents Sea, and the seas off the west coast of Greenland. In the North Atlantic, the advected heat warms the waters of the southern Barents Sea and, with advected nutrients and plankton, supports immense biomasses of fish, seabirds and marine mammals. On the Pacific side of the Arctic, cold waters flowing northward across the northern Bering and Chukchi seas during winter and spring limit the ability of boreal fish species to take advantage of high seasonal production there. Southward flow of cold Arctic waters into sub-Arctic regions of the North Atlantic occurs mainly through Fram Strait with less through the Barents Sea and the Canadian Archipelago. In the Pacific, the transport of Arctic waters and plankton southward through Bering Strait is minimal. In the Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its associated fronts are barriers to the southward dispersal of plankton and pelagic fishes from sub-Antarctic waters, with the consequent evolution of Antarctic zooplankton and fish species largely occurring in isolation from those to the north. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current also disperses biota throughout the Southern Ocean

  4. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  5. The marine radiocarbon bomb pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scourse, J.D.; Wanamaker jr., A.D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Reimer, P.J.; Butler, P.G.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse time histories of annually resolved archives from temperate regions have been underexploited. We present here series of Delta C-14 excess from known-age annual increments of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from 4 sites across the coastal North Atlantic

  6. Implementing ecosystem-based marine management as a process of regionalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper; van Tatenhove, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the implementation of ecosystem-based marine management in the Baltic Sea. It explores and documents in particular the preliminary lessons from environmental and fisheries management with reference to the Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach...... and the Baltic Sea Fisheries Forum, both examples of regionalisation processes in order to implement ecosystem-based marine management. The Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach is a joint management body for the implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan and the European Union...

  7. Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Surficial Sediment Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Study was funded by NOAA and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The Atlas was a historical...

  8. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the ecosystem-based approach - pitfalls and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Torsten; FURHAUPTER Karin; GONCALVES TEIXEIRA HELIANA; Uusitalo, Laura; ZAMPOUKAS NIKOLAOS

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at good environmental status (GES) in marine waters, following an ecosystem-based approach, focused on 11 descriptors related to ecosystem features, human drivers and pressures. Furthermore, 29 subordinate criteria and 56 attributes are detailed in an EU Commission Decision. The analysis of the Decision and the associated operational indicators revealed ambiguity in the use of terms, such as indicator, impact and habitat and c...

  9. Archaeology meets marine ecology: the antiquity of maritime cultures and human impacts on marine fisheries and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies--the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists-provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  10. Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Rick, Torben C.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies—the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists—provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  11. Culture fishery resources of the tropical marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A

    The exploited marine living resources, through capture fisheries, have their own limitations of resource potential, marine pollution and ever increasing operational cost. A plausible way to fulfil the increasing demand of seafood is through...

  12. Coupling ecosystems exposure to nitrogen and species sensitivity to hypoxia: modelling marine eutrophication in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    ecosystems and promote planktonic growth that may lead to marine eutrophication impacts. Excessive algal biomass and dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion typify the ecosystem response to the nutrient input. The present novel method couples a mechanistic model of coastal biological processes that determines...

  13. Ecosystem-based marine spatial management: review of concepts, policies, tools and critical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsanevakis, S.; Stelzenmueller, V.; South, A.; Hoof, van L.J.W.; Hofstede, ter R.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional sectoral management and piecemeal governance are considered less and less appropriate in pursuit of sustainable development. Ecosystem based marine spatial management (EB-MSM) is an approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, including human uses, rather

  14. Ecosystem-based marine spatial management: Review of concepts, policies, tools, and critical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Stelzenmuller, Vanessa; ............, ..; Filatova, Tatiana; et al, .

    2011-01-01

    Conventional sectoral management and piecemeal governance are considered less and less appropriate in pursuit of sustainable development. Ecosystem based marine spatial management (EB-MSM) is an approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, including human uses, rather

  15. Marine mammal impacts in exploited ecosystems: would large scale culling benefit fisheries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources-whether real or perceived-has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TL(Q)) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TL(C)). Our results showed that overall TL(Q) was lower than TL(C) (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species.

  16. Archive of Geosample Information from the Geological Survey of Canada Atlantic (GSC A) Marine Geoscience Curation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geological Survey of Canada Atlantic (GSC A) Marine Geoscience Curation Facility contributed information on 40,428 cores, grabs, and dredges in their holdings to...

  17. Adjoint Assimilation in Marine Ecosystem Models and an Example of Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qing; LIU Yuguang; L(U) Xianqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at a review of the work carried out to date on the adjoint assimilation of data in marine ecosystem models since 1995. The structure and feature of the adjoint assimilation in marine ecosystem models are also introduced.To illustrate the application of the adjoint technique and its merits, a 4-variable ecosystem model coupled with a 3-D physical model is established for the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. The chlorophyll concentration data derived from the SeaWiFS ocean colour data are assimilated in the model with the technique. Some results are briefly presented.

  18. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Combustion-derived aerosols in the marine boundary layer have been poorly studied, especially in remote environments such as the open Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic has the potential to contain a high concentration of aerosols, such as black carbon, due to the African emission plume of biomass and agricultural burning products. Atmospheric particulate matter samples across the tropical Atlantic boundary layer were collected in the summer of 2010 during the southern he...

  19. 75 FR 5055 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    .... Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training... side mine hunting sonar in the AFAST Study area, which reduces use from 4474 hours annually to 0....

  20. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracino-Brown, Jocelyn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Courtney [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Gilman, Patrick [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. The workshop was planned by Federal agency, academic, and private partners to promote collaboration between ongoing offshore ecological survey efforts, and to promote the collaborative development of complementary predictive models and compatible databases. The meeting primarily focused on efforts to establish and predict marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle abundance, density, and distributions extending from the shoreline to the edge of the Exclusive Economic Zone between Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

  1. Marine biogeochemical responses to the North Atlantic Oscillation in a coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patara, Lavinia; Visbeck, Martin; Masina, Simona; Krahmann, Gerd; Vichi, Marcello

    2011-07-01

    In this study a coupled ocean-atmosphere model containing interactive marine biogeochemistry is used to analyze interannual, lagged, and decadal marine biogeochemical responses to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of North Atlantic atmospheric variability. The coupled model adequately reproduces present-day climatologies and NAO atmospheric variability. It is shown that marine biogeochemical responses to the NAO are governed by different mechanisms according to the time scale considered. On interannual time scales, local changes in vertical mixing, caused by modifications in air-sea heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes, are most relevant in influencing phytoplankton growth through light and nutrient limitation mechanisms. At subpolar latitudes, deeper mixing occurring during positive NAO winters causes a slight decrease in late winter chlorophyll concentration due to light limitation and a 10%-20% increase in spring chlorophyll concentration due to higher nutrient availability. The lagged response of physical and biogeochemical properties to a high NAO winter shows some memory in the following 2 years. In particular, subsurface nutrient anomalies generated by local changes in mixing near the American coast are advected along the North Atlantic Current, where they are suggested to affect downstream chlorophyll concentration with 1 year lag. On decadal time scales, local and remote mechanisms act contemporaneously in shaping the decadal biogeochemical response to the NAO. The slow circulation adjustment, in response to NAO wind stress curl anomalies, causes a basin redistribution of heat, freshwater, and biogeochemical properties which, in turn, modifies the spatial structure of the subpolar chlorophyll bloom.

  2. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  3. Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rocha-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was carried out from August 2007 to July 2009 in two coastal ecosystems in Ubatuba, Brazil. In order to obtain information on flower resources collected by Euglossini bees in loco, all bees observed on flowers were collected, pollinaria of Orchidaceae occasionally attached to the body of males were identified, and the pollinic analysis of 68 females was carried out. One hundred twelve bees from 14 species were associated to 105 plant species which represented pollen, nectar, resin, and fragrances sources. These data reinforce the relevance of orchid bees to the maintenance and reproductive success of many tropical plants.

  4. Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Laufkötter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean and mostly ignored the large inter-model differences. Here, we analyze model simulated changes of NPP for the 21st century under IPCC's high emission scenario RCP8.5 using a suite of nine coupled carbon–climate Earth System Models with embedded marine ecosystem models with a focus on the spread between the different models and the underlying reasons. Globally, five out of the nine models show a decrease in NPP over the course of the 21st century, while three show no significant trend and one even simulates an increase. The largest model spread occurs in the low latitudes (between 30° S and 30° N, with individual models simulating relative changes between −25 and +40%. In this region, the inter-quartile range of the differences between the 2012–2031 average and the 2081–2100 average is up to 3 mol C m-2 yr-1. These large differences in future change mirror large differences in present day NPP. Of the seven models diagnosing a net decrease in NPP in the low latitudes, only three simulate this to be a consequence of the classical interpretation, i.e., a stronger nutrient limitation due to increased stratification and reduced upwelling. In the other four, warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the stronger nutrient limitation. However, temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in phytoplankton biomass and reduces NPP despite higher growth rates. One model projects a strong increase in NPP in the low latitudes, caused by an intensification of the microbial loop, while the remaining model simulates changes of less than 0.5%. While there is more consistency in the modeled increase in NPP in the Southern Ocean, the regional inter-model range is also very substantial. In most models, this increase in NPP is driven by

  5. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  6. Climate change and marine benthos: a review of existing research and future directions in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birchenough, S.N.R.; Reiss, H.; Degraer, S.; Craeymeersch, J.A.M.; Mesel, de I.G.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change could affect marine benthic systems. This review provides information of climate change-related impacts on the marine benthos in the North Atlantic. We cover a number of related research aspects, mainly in connection to two key issues. First, is the rela

  7. Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbiao WANG; Zheng MENG; Wei LIAO; Zeting WENG; Hao YANG

    2011-01-01

    Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers,which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems,which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change

  8. A holistic approach to marine eco-systems biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Karsenti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure, robustness, and dynamics of ocean plankton ecosystems remain poorly understood due to sampling, analysis, and computational limitations. The Tara Oceans consortium organizes expeditions to help fill this gap at the global level.

  9. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  10. Comparative analysis of marine ecosystems: workshop on predator-prey interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Kevin M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Hunsicker, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Climate and human influences on marine ecosystems are largely manifested by changes in predator–prey interactions. It follows that ecosystem-based management of the world's oceans requires a better understanding of food web relationships. An international workshop on predator–prey interactions...... in marine ecosystems was held at the Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA on 16–18 March 2010. The meeting brought together scientists from diverse fields of expertise including theoretical ecology, animal behaviour, fish and seabird ecology, statistics, fisheries science and ecosystem modelling....... The goals of the workshop were to critically examine the methods of scaling-up predator–prey interactions from local observations to systems, the role of shifting ecological processes with scale changes, and the complexity and organizational structure in trophic interactions....

  11. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem component in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves the penetration of spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (different phytoplankton functional types; detrital particles; and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ-observed and satellite-derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem, and optical data along a meridional transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We find that incorporating the different optically important constituents explicitly and including spectral irradiance was crucial to capture the variability in the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, as well as the crucial feedbacks between the light field, the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at attenuating light at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is relatively more important at the subsurface Chl a maximum, and water molecules have the greatest contribution when concentrations of other constituents are low, such as in the oligotrophic gyres. Scattering had less effect on attenuation, but since it is important for the amount and type of upwelling irradiance, it is crucial for setting sea surface reflectance. Strikingly, sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the

  12. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Katye E; Fawcett, Sarah E; Peters, Andrew J; Sigman, Daniel M; Hastings, Meredith G

    2016-01-26

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean's external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20-80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud "washout") is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously.

  13. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna eTaffi; Nicola ePaoletti; Claudio eAngione; Sandra ePucciarelli; Mauro eMarini; Pietro eLio

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based o...

  14. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modeling and flux balance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taffi, Marianna; Paoletti, Nicola; Angione, Claudio; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Marini, Mauro; Liò, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on...

  15. Functional diversity of marine ecosystems after the Late Permian mass extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J.; Twitchett, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    The Late Permian mass extinction event about 252 million years ago was the most severe biotic crisis of the past 500 million years and occurred during an episode of global warming. The loss of around two-thirds of marine genera is thought to have had substantial ecological effects, but the overall impacts on the functioning of marine ecosystems and the pattern of marine recovery are uncertain. Here we analyse the fossil occurrences of all known benthic marine invertebrate genera from the Permian and Triassic periods, and assign each to a functional group based on their inferred lifestyle. We show that despite the selective extinction of 62-74% of these genera, all but one functional group persisted through the crisis, indicating that there was no significant loss of functional diversity at the global scale. In addition, only one new mode of life originated in the extinction aftermath. We suggest that Early Triassic marine ecosystems were not as ecologically depauperate as widely assumed. Functional diversity was, however, reduced in particular regions and habitats, such as tropical reefs; at these smaller scales, recovery varied spatially and temporally, probably driven by migration of surviving groups. We find that marine ecosystems did not return to their pre-extinction state, and by the Middle Triassic greater functional evenness is recorded, resulting from the radiation of previously subordinate groups such as motile, epifaunal grazers.

  16. Integration of Biogeochemistry and Marine Ecosystem Model in Mercator-Ocean Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moussaoui, Abdelali; Dombrowsky, Eric; Moulin, Cyril; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Accounting for ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem dynamic is of strong interest in the context of Earth System modelling to better represent the marine component to the global atmospheric cycle of greenhouse gazes that influence climate as CO2. Furthermore, treating the ocean as a whole is also the way to address large anthropogenic impacts on marine systems as climate change, nutrients loading, acidification, and eventually overfishing and habitat destructuring. To forecast how interactions between marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems respond to and force global change, several efforts have been promoted on biogeochemical integration into operational Mercator Ocean systems. The aim of this work is to implement a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem component at global scale into the MERCATOR operational system, using first PSY3 analysis at 1/4° then PSY4 at 1/12°. Previous works have conducted successfully the integration of a multi-nutrient and multi-plankton biogeochemical model (PISCES, N5P2Z2D2 type) into MERCATOR system. This allowed the use of MERCATOR operational analyses to drive near real time forecast of marine primary production. Results will be shown and advances on biogeochemical model integration within Mercator Systems will be discussed.

  17. Identification, definition and quantification of goods and services provided by marine biodiversity: Implications for the ecosystem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, N.J.; Austen, M.C.; Atkins, J.P.; Burdon, D.; Degraer, S.; Dentinho, T.P.; Serous, S.; Holm, P.; Horton, T.; Ierland, van E.C.; Marboe, A.H.; Starkey, D.J.; Townsend, M.; Zarzycki, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies and defines ecosystem goods and services provided by marine biodiversity. Case studies have been used to provide an insight into the practical issues associated with the assessment of marine ecosystem goods and services at specific locations. The aim of this research was to val

  18. Marine biodiversity-ecosystem functions under uncertain environmental futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Mark T; Hicks, Natalie; Murray, Leigh; Paterson, David M; Raffaelli, Dave; White, Piran C L; Solan, Martin

    2010-07-12

    Anthropogenic activity is currently leading to dramatic transformations of ecosystems and losses of biodiversity. The recognition that these ecosystems provide services that are essential for human well-being has led to a major interest in the forms of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. However, there is a lack of studies examining the impact of climate change on these relationships and it remains unclear how multiple climatic drivers may affect levels of ecosystem functioning. Here, we examine the roles of two important climate change variables, temperature and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, on the relationship between invertebrate species richness and nutrient release in a model benthic estuarine system. We found a positive relationship between invertebrate species richness and the levels of release of NH(4)-N into the water column, but no effect of species richness on the release of PO(4)-P. Higher temperatures and greater concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide had a negative impact on nutrient release. Importantly, we found significant interactions between the climate variables, indicating that reliably predicting the effects of future climate change will not be straightforward as multiple drivers are unlikely to have purely additive effects, resulting in increased levels of uncertainty.

  19. Marine biodiversity–ecosystem functions under uncertain environmental futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Mark T.; Hicks, Natalie; Murray, Leigh; Paterson, David M.; Raffaelli, Dave; White, Piran C. L.; Solan, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is currently leading to dramatic transformations of ecosystems and losses of biodiversity. The recognition that these ecosystems provide services that are essential for human well-being has led to a major interest in the forms of the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. However, there is a lack of studies examining the impact of climate change on these relationships and it remains unclear how multiple climatic drivers may affect levels of ecosystem functioning. Here, we examine the roles of two important climate change variables, temperature and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, on the relationship between invertebrate species richness and nutrient release in a model benthic estuarine system. We found a positive relationship between invertebrate species richness and the levels of release of NH4-N into the water column, but no effect of species richness on the release of PO4-P. Higher temperatures and greater concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide had a negative impact on nutrient release. Importantly, we found significant interactions between the climate variables, indicating that reliably predicting the effects of future climate change will not be straightforward as multiple drivers are unlikely to have purely additive effects, resulting in increased levels of uncertainty. PMID:20513718

  20. The importance of marine sediment biodiversity in ecosystem precesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelgrove, P.V.R.; Blackburn, T.H.; Hutchings, P.; Alongi, D.M.; Grassle, J.F.; Hummel, H.; King, G.; Koike, I.; Lambshead, P.J.D.; Ramsing, N.B.; Solis-Weiss, V.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary habitats cover most of the ocean bottom and therefore constitute the largest. single ecosystem on earth in spatial coverage, Although only a small fraction of the micro-, meio- and macroscopic benthic organisms that reside in and on sediments have been described and few estimates of tota

  1. Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin for marine geological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Gardner, James V.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Calder, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin covering almost 725,000 square kilometers of seafloor from the New England Seamounts in the north to the Blake Basin in the south is compiled from existing multibeam bathymetric data for marine geological investigations. Although other terrain models of the same area are extant, they are produced from either satellite-derived bathymetry at coarse resolution (ETOPO1), or use older bathymetric data collected by using a combination of single beam and multibeam sonars (Coastal Relief Model). The new multibeam data used to produce this terrain model have been edited by using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined 100-meter resolution grid. The final grid provides the largest high-resolution, seamless terrain model of the Atlantic margin..

  2. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.V.; Pace, M.L.; Mather, J.R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Howarth, R.W.; Folt, C.L.; Chen, C.-Y.; Hemond, Harold F.; Flebbe, P.A.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous freshwater ecosystems, dense concentrations of humans along the eastern seaboard, extensive forests and a history of intensive land use distinguish the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region. Human population densities are forecast to increase in portions of the region at the same time that climate is expected to be changing. Consequently, the effects of humans and climatic change are likely to affect freshwater ecosystems within the region interactively. The general climate, at present, is humid continental, and the region receives abundant precipitation. Climatic projections for a 2 ??CO2 atmosphere, however, suggest warmer and drier conditions for much of this region. Annual temperature increases ranging from 3-5??C are projected, with the greatest increases occurring in autumn or winter. According to a water balance model, the projected increase in temperature will result in greater rates of evaporation and evapotranspiration. This could cause a 21 and 31% reduction in annual stream flow in the southern and northern sections of the region, respectively, with greatest reductions occurring in autumn and winter. The amount and duration of snow cover is also projected to decrease across the region, and summer convective thunderstorms are likely to decrease in frequency but increase in intensity. The dual effects of climate change and direct anthropogenic stress will most likely alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes, and, hence, the floral and faunal communities of the region's freshwater ecosystems. For example, the projected increase in evapotranspiration and evaporation could eliminate most bog ecosystems, and increases in water temperature may increase bioaccumulation, and possibly biomagnification, of organic and inorganic contaminants. Not all change may be adverse. For example, a decrease in runoff may reduce the intensity of ongoing estuarine eutrophication, and acidification of aquatic habitats during the spring snowmelt period may be

  3. Regime shifts in demersal assemblages of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: a comparative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkman, Stephen P.; Yemane, Dawit; Atkinson, Lara J.

    2015-01-01

    Using long‐term survey data, changes in demersal faunal communities in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem were analysed at community and population levels to provide a comparative overview of the occurrence and timing of regime shifts. For South Africa, the timing of a community‐level sh...

  4. Mapping Colombian Caribbean and Pacific bottom seascapes and marine ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rozo Garzón, Daniel Mauricio; Vides C., Martha P.; Lozano R., Pilar; Reyes, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Colombia is recognized as a mega diverse country on the basis of the number of terrestrial animal and plant species occurring within its boundaries (Williams 1997). However, its privileged coasts position on both Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean exhibiting distinct geological, oceanographic, and climatic features could perhaps rank the country within the highest marine biological diversity in South America and among the most biodiverse in the world. An inventory of the full variety of phys...

  5. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem:effects on accumulation of ambient ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Hu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ciliated protozoa, Euplotes vannus and Uronema marinum, on accumulation of ammonia in marine waters are detected using experimental ecological method, in order to reveal the contributions and functions of ciliates to the marine ecosystem. During experiments, the concentrations of ammonia-N, and the densities of ciliates and bacteria are measured. The results reveal that ciliates can change the procedure of ammonia accumulation by their grazing activity, and maintain ambient ammonium at low levels through interrupting the stationary phase of bacteria population growth and enhancing their growth and metabolism. The present work confirms that ciliates, as bacteria-predators, play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in intensive mariculture biotopes.

  6. Editorial: Global in scope and regionally rich: an IndiSeas workshop helps shape the future of marine ecosystem indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Y.J.; Bundy, A.; Piet, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes of an IndiSeas workshop aimed at using ecosystem indicators to evaluate the status of the world’s exploited marine ecosystems in support of an ecosystem approach to fisheries, and global policy drivers such as the 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological Diver

  7. Contribution to the Themed Section: Scaling from individual plankton to marine ecosystems HORIZONS Small bugs with a big impact: linking plankton ecology with ecosystem processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menden-Deuer, Susanne; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of these microscopic organisms shape plankton population dynamics, distributions, and ecosystem functions. Key features of the marine environment place constraints on the ecology and evolution of plankton. Understanding these constraints is critical in developing a mechanistic understanding and predictive capacity......As an introduction to the following Themed Section on the significance of planktonic organisms to the functioning of marine ecosystems and global biogeochemical cycles we discuss the ramifications size imparts on the biology of plankton. We provide examples of how the characteristics...

  8. Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, R.K.; Aguirre, A.A.; Powell, J.

    2004-01-01

    The order Sirenia is represented by three species of manatees and one species of dugong distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and considered vulnerable to extinction. The sentinel species concept is useful to identify indicators of the environment and may reflect the quality of health in marine ecosystems. The single species approach to evaluate ecological health may provide a series of “snap shots” of environmental changes to determine if animal, human, or ecosystem health may be affected. Under this concept, marine vertebrates may be good integrators of changes over space and time, and excellent sentinels of ecosystem health. Based on their life history, manatees may or may not be ideal sentinels, as they are robust, long-lived species and appear remarkably resilient to natural disease and the effects of human-related injury and trauma. These characteristics might be the result of an efficient and responsive immune system compared to other marine mammals. Although relatively immune to infectious agents, manatees face other potentially serious threats, including epizootic diseases and pollution while in large aggregations. Manatees can serve as excellent sentinels of harmful algal blooms due to their high sensitivity, specifically to brevetoxicosis, which has caused at least two major die-offs in recent times. Threats to manatees worldwide, such as illegal hunting and boat collisions, are increasing. Habitat is being lost at an alarming rate and the full effects of uncontrolled human population growth on the species are unknown. The manatee may serve as a sentinel species, prognosticating the deleterious effects of unhealthy marine and aquatic ecosystems on humans. We have identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that could help advance the use of the sentinel species concept in marine ecosystem health and monitoring of disease emergence using our knowledge on these magnificent

  9. Determination of Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement...Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement 5a...methodology to estimate acoustic effects on designated marine fauna, which include marine mammals and sea turtles . This report describes the process

  10. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  11. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sá-Pinto

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area.

  12. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Pinto, Alexandra; Branco, Madalena S; Alexandrino, Paulo B; Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart J E

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area.

  13. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  14. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators.

  15. Uniform climate development between the subtropical and subpolar Northeast Atlantic across marine isotope stage 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Helmke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Proxy records from a core site off Northwest Africa were generated and compared with data from the subpolar Northeast Atlantic to unravel some main climatic features of interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS 11 (423–362 ka. The records point to an almost 25 kyr lasting full interglacial period during stage 11 that was preceded by a considerably long glacial-interglacial transition (Termination V. Off NW Africa, a strong reduction of terrestrially derived iron input is noted after 420 ka suggesting a pronounced increase in continental humidity and vegetation cover over Northwest Africa. In analogy to the Holocene climate of the region, this early wet phase of MIS 11 was likely associated with enhanced influence of the West African monsoon system on the Saharan-Sahel region which led to both a reduction in trade wind intensity off NW Africa and the formation of sapropel S11 in the Mediterranean Sea. A detailed comparison with data from the subpolar North Atlantic indicates a remarkable coherent timing for the main environmental changes in both regions giving evidence for strong interglacial climate connectivity between the low and high latitude North Atlantic. Although our records of MIS 11 compare well with the Holocene in terms of some major climate characteristics there are distinct differences in the temporal evolution of each peak warm interval. This suggests that care should be taken when using MIS 11 as analogue to forecast future interglacial conditions.

  16. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region.

  17. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Menoyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma tocopherol (gT exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption.

  18. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  19. Tropical Marginal Seas: Priority Regions for Managing Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A. David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems - coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes - and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence - from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas - but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs.

  20. Rapid emergence of climate change in environmental drivers of marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.; Beaulieu, Claudie; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Long, Matthew; Séférian, Roland; Tjiputra, Jerry; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to modify ecological responses in the ocean, with the potential for important effects on the ecosystem services provided to humankind. Here we address the question of how rapidly multiple drivers of marine ecosystem change develop in the future ocean. By analysing an ensemble of models we find that, within the next 15 years, the climate change-driven trends in multiple ecosystem drivers emerge from the background of natural variability in 55% of the ocean and propagate rapidly to encompass 86% of the ocean by 2050 under a ‘business-as-usual' scenario. However, we also demonstrate that the exposure of marine ecosystems to climate change-induced stress can be drastically reduced via climate mitigation measures; with mitigation, the proportion of ocean susceptible to multiple drivers within the next 15 years is reduced to 34%. Mitigation slows the pace at which multiple drivers emerge, allowing an additional 20 years for adaptation in marine ecological and socio-economic systems alike. PMID:28267144

  1. Bioinvasion: a paradigm shift from marine to inland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Neeshma; Malhotra, Anshu; Malhotra, Sandeep K

    2016-06-01

    Anisakidosis is one of the most fearsome zoonotic food borne disease in aquaculture. The natural infections by anisakidoids or related variety in freshwater fish are not known, though sporadic experimental reports are available abroad (Butcher and Shamsi 2011). Invasive severity of anisakidoids in fish from Gangetic riverine ecosystems, i.e., in river Ganges at Fatehpur and Allahabad, as well as in river Yamuna at Allahabad, and molecular heterogeneity among these worms have been extensively investigated. The pathways of transmission of non-native alien species due to long distance migratory habits of Rita rita, man-made alterations including dredging in long stretches of the river bed of Ganges to facilitate ballast water transfer mechanism owing to the commercial ship movements between Haldia and Allahabad; and sudden water chemistry (salinity, hardness, alkalinity) alteration (due particularly to rainy period) oriented micro-fauna interchange are identified, and remedial measures suggested.

  2. Taylor's law and body size in exploited marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Plank, Michael J; Law, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Taylor's law (TL), which states that variance in population density is related to mean density via a power law, and density-mass allometry, which states that mean density is related to body mass via a power law, are two of the most widely observed patterns in ecology. Combining these two laws predicts that the variance in density is related to body mass via a power law (variance-mass allometry). Marine size spectra are known to exhibit density-mass allometry, but variance-mass allometry has not been investigated. We show that variance and body mass in unexploited size spectrum models are related by a power law, and that this leads to TL with an exponent slightly <2. These simulated relationships are disrupted less by balanced harvesting, in which fishing effort is spread across a wide range of body sizes, than by size-at-entry fishing, in which only fish above a certain size may legally be caught.

  3. IPCC workshop on impacts of ocean acidification on marine biology and ecosystems. Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, C.B.; Barros, V.; Stocker, T.F.; Dahe, Q.; Mach, K.J.; Plattner, G.-K.; Mastrandrea, M.D.; Tignor, M.; Ebi, K.L.

    2011-09-15

    Understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ocean chemistry, commonly termed ocean acidification, as well as associated impacts on marine biology and ecosystems, is an important component of scientific knowledge about global change. The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will include comprehensive coverage of ocean acidification and its impacts, including potential feedbacks to the climate system. To support ongoing AR5 assessment efforts, Working Group II and Working Group I (WGII and WGI) of the IPCC held a joint Workshop on Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biology and Ecosystems in Okinawa, Japan, from 17 to 19 January 2011. The workshop convened experts from the scientific community, including WGII and WGI AR5 authors and review editors, to synthesise scientific understanding of changes in ocean chemistry due to increased CO{sub 2} and of impacts of this changing chemistry on marine organisms, ecosystems, and ecosystem services. This workshop report summarises the scientific content and perspectives presented and discussed during the workshop. It provides syntheses of these perspectives for the workshop's core topics: (i) the changing chemistry of the oceans, (ii) impacts of ocean acidification for individual organisms, and (iii) scaling up responses from individual organisms to ecosystems. It also presents summaries of workshop discussions of key cross-cutting themes, ranging from detection and attribution of ocean acidification and its impacts to understanding ocean acidification in the context of other stressors on marine systems. Additionally, the workshop report includes extended abstracts for keynote and poster presentations at the workshop. (Author)

  4. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  5. Restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management in Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu-Liu; Hao, Jun-Yi; Tao, Shu; Dawson, Richard W; Lam, K C; Chen, Yongqin David

    2006-04-01

    This article demonstrates why it is necessary to have the restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management in the coastal area of Tolo Harbor. The present goal of integrated catchment management (ICM) in the Tolo Harbor is based on water quality objectives. The performance of the ICM plan, the Tolo Harbor Action Plan (THAP), was evaluated using marine coastal ecosystem health indicators including both stress and response indicators. Since the implementation of THAP in 1988, some significant reductions in pollution loading have been observed: reduction of 83% of biological oxygen demand load and 82% of total nitrogen between 1988 and 1999. There has also been an improvement in the health of Tolo Harbor's marine coastal ecosystem as evidenced by trends in physical, chemical, and biological indicators, although reverse fluctuations in some periods exist. However, such improvement can only be considered as the first sign of complete ecosystem health restoration, because ecosystem health covers not only physical, chemical, and biological aspects of an ecosystem, but also ecosystem service functions. The findings support the need to take the restoration and protection of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal rather than using water quality objectives. Steps necessary to further improve Tolo Harbor's marine coastal ecosystem health are also discussed.

  6. Restorating marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goad for integrated catchment management in Tolo Harbour, HongKong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Fuliu; Lam K.C.; Chen Yongqin; Tao Shu

    2004-01-01

    The paper demonstrates why it is necessary to take the restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management, in coastal area of the Tolo Harbour. The present goal of integrated catchment management (ICM) in the Tolo Harbour is to meet with Water Quality Objectives. The performance of an ICM plan, Tolo Harbour Action Plan (THAP), is evaluated by using marine coastal ecosystem health indicators including stress indicators and responses indicators. Since the implementation of THAP in 1988,some significant reduction in pollution loading has been observed - reduction of 83 % of BOD load and 82 % of TN between 1988 and 1999. There has been an improvement in the health state of Tolo Harbour marine coastal ecosystem as evidenced in the trends of the physical, chemical and biological indicators,although some reverse fluctuations in some periods exist. However, this can only be considered as the first sign of the ecosystem health restoration, since ecosystem health covers not only physical, chemical and biological aspects of an ecosystem, but also ecosystem-service-function aspect. Tt is recommended to take the restoration and protection of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal, instead of water quality objective management, for integrated catchment management in Tolo Harbour catchment.Steps to further improve the marine coastal ecosystem health of Tolo harbour are discussed in the paper.

  7. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto: an interesting marine ecosystem for the environmental problems studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellicchio, Nicola; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Spada, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    The National Project RITMARE (la Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE-Italian Research for the sea) started from 1 January 2012. It is one of the national research programs funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research. RITMARE is coordinated by the National Research Council (CNR) and involves an integrated effort of most of the scientific community working on marine and maritime issues. Within the project, different marine study areas of strategic importance for the Mediterranean have been identified: Among these, the coastal area of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) was chosen for its different industry settlements and the relative impact on the marine environment. In particular, the research has been concentrated on the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a complex marine ecosystem model important in terms of ecological, social, and economic activities for the presence also of extensive mussel farms. The site has been selected also because the Mar Piccolo area is a characteristic "on field" laboratory suitable to investigate release and diffusion mechanisms of contaminants, evaluate chemical-ecological risks towards the marine ecosystem and human health, and suggest and test potential remediation strategies for contaminated sediments. In this context, within the project RITMARE, a task force of researchers has contributed to elaboration a functioning conceptual model with a multidisciplinary approach useful to identify anthropogenic forcings, its impacts, and solutions of environmental remediation. This paper describes in brief some of the environmental issues related to the Mar Piccolo basin.

  8. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (ed.) (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the

  9. Appendix E of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the fifth appendix to the report, the bibliography of references.

  10. High-frequency climate linkages between the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Julia; Lourens, L.J.; Raymo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution records of Mediterranean and North Atlantic deep-sea sediments indicate that rapid changes in hydrology and climate occurred during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100) (at ~2.52 Ma), which exhibits characteristics similar to late Pleistocene Dansgaard-Oeschger, Bond cycles and H

  11. Appendix C of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the third appendix to the report, the compendium of pre-workshop answers.

  12. Appendix A of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the first appendix to the report, the workshop agenda.

  13. Marine shallow-water Haplosclerida (Porifera) from the South-Eastern Part of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdt, de W.H.; Soest, van R.W.M

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen species of marine Haplosclerida were collected by the CANCAP-expeditions, among which two are new to science, viz. Petrosia canariensis and Oceanapia cancap. The Haplosclerida fauna of the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic, comprising 46 species, is reviewed, discussed and compared wi

  14. Environmental selection on transcriptome-derived SNPs in a high gene flow marine fish, the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Helyar, S.J.; de Bruyn, M.;

    2012-01-01

    High gene flow is considered the norm for most marine organisms and is expected to limit their ability to adapt to local environments. Few studies have directly compared the patterns of differentiation at neutral and selected gene loci in marine organisms. We analysed a transcriptome-derived panel...... of 281 SNPs in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a highly migratory small pelagic fish, for elucidating neutral and selected genetic variation among populations and to identify candidate genes for environmental adaptation. We analysed 607 individuals from 18 spawning locations in the northeast Atlantic......, including two temperature clines (5–12 C) and two salinity clines (5–35&). By combining genome scan and landscape genetic analyses, four genetically distinct groups of herring were identified: Baltic Sea, Baltic–North Sea transition area, North Sea ⁄ British Isles and North Atlantic; notably, samples...

  15. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L J; Botting, Joseph P; Jenks, James F; Bylund, Kevin G; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage-the Paris Biota-from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200-million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era.

  16. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-Claire; Pedel, Laura; Beuck, L.; Galgani, Francois; Hebbeln, D.; A. Freiwald

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in...

  17. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L. J.; Botting, Joseph P.; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A.; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage—the Paris Biota—from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200–million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era. PMID:28246643

  18. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-05

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  19. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (ed.) (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the

  20. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  2. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisz, Mary; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating...... to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings...

  3. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Thixton, Sofie; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA), British Columbia (Canada), and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures) associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures) including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as likely, possible or

  4. Steep spatial gradients of volcanic and marine sulfur in Hawaiian rainfall and ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R., E-mail: cbern@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060 (United States); Chadwick, Oliver A. [Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060 (United States); Kendall, Carol [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pribil, Michael J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur, a nutrient required by terrestrial ecosystems, is likely to be regulated by atmospheric processes in well-drained, upland settings because of its low concentration in most bedrock and generally poor retention by inorganic reactions within soils. Environmental controls on sulfur sources in unpolluted ecosystems have seldom been investigated in detail, even though the possibility of sulfur limiting primary production is much greater where atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic sulfur is low. Here we measure sulfur isotopic compositions of soils, vegetation and bulk atmospheric deposition from the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of tracing sources of ecosystem sulfur. Hawaiian lava has a mantle-derived sulfur isotopic composition (δ{sup 34}S VCDT) of − 0.8‰. Bulk deposition on the island of Maui had a δ{sup 34}S VCDT that varied temporally, spanned a range from + 8.2 to + 19.7‰, and reflected isotopic mixing from three sources: sea-salt (+ 21.1‰), marine biogenic emissions (+ 15.6‰), and volcanic emissions from active vents on Kilauea Volcano (+ 0.8‰). A straightforward, weathering-driven transition in ecosystem sulfur sources could be interpreted in the shift from relatively low (0.0 to + 2.7‰) to relatively high (+ 17.8 to + 19.3‰) soil δ{sup 34}S values along a 0.3 to 4100 ka soil age-gradient, and similar patterns in associated vegetation. However, sub-kilometer scale spatial variation in soil sulfur isotopic composition was found along soil transects assumed by age and mass balance to be dominated by atmospheric sulfur inputs. Soil sulfur isotopic compositions ranged from + 8.1 to + 20.3‰ and generally decreased with increasing elevation (0–2000 m), distance from the coast (0–12 km), and annual rainfall (180–5000 mm). Such trends reflect the spatial variation in marine versus volcanic inputs from atmospheric deposition. Broadly, these results illustrate how the sources and magnitude of atmospheric deposition can exert controls

  5. Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are

  6. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal cos

  7. Exploring methods for predicting multiple pressures on ecosystem recovery: A case study on marine eutrophication and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uusitalo, Laura; Korpinen, Samuli; Andersen, Jesper H.;

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to attain good environmental status in the marine realm require decisions which cannot be done without knowledge of effects of different management measures. Given the wide diversity of marine ecosystems, multitude of pressures affecting it and the still poor understanding on linkages bet...

  8. Ecosystem-based marine management in European regional seas calls for nested governance structures and coordination—A policy brief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raakjaer, J.; Leeuwen, van J.; Tatenhove, van J.; Hadjimichael, M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine governance in European seas is at a crossroad aiming towards implementation of eco-system based marine management (EBMM) through integration of different EU policies or directives to protect the environment, while at the same time expected to facilitate growth and employment in support of the

  9. Forage fish interactions: A symposium on creating the tools for ecosystem-based management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Essington, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Forage fish (FF) have a unique position within marine foodwebs and the development of sustainable harvest strategies for FF will be a critical step in advancing and implementing the broader, ecosystem-based management of marine systems. In all, 70 scientists from 16 nations gathered for a symposium...

  10. Comparative analysis of management plans of the Marine Protected Areas of four European Atlantic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Alvarez Fernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Management plans for Marine Protected Areas (MPA in four European Atlantic countries (UK, France, Portugal and Spain were analyzed comparatively. The information used in the analysis was related to the development and the content of the plans, as governance, control and enforcement. It was collected through questionnaires from a total of 125 management plans, corresponding to 234 marine protected areas. The overall priority goal in all of the management plans was biodiversity conservation and restoration, except in Spain were management of exploited natural resources was always present as an objective. In general the management plans have more objectives than described in the MPA designation, as to improve environment education and raising of public awareness or to maintain key ecological functions. However these objectives are qualitative in all of the management plans and only 15% of them have quantitative objectives, mainly in France and Portugal. Over 70% of the management plans studied provided a regular monitoring program and approximately half provided indicators to monitor each of the MPA objectives, except in the case of Portugal (15%.

  11. Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiranen, Susa; Yletyinen, Johanna; Tomczak, Maciej T; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Mackenzie, Brian R; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Meier, H E Markus

    2013-11-01

    Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and one of the world's fastest rates of warming in the last two decades of the 20th century, accelerated climate change including atmospheric warming and changes in precipitation is projected for this region during the 21st century. Here, we used a new multimodel approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. By the end of the 21st century, for example, the combination of intensive cod fishing and high nutrient loads projected a strongly eutrophicated and sprat-dominated ecosystem, whereas low cod fishing in combination with low nutrient loads resulted in a cod-dominated ecosystem with eutrophication levels close to present. Also, nonlinearities were observed in the sensitivity of different trophic groups to nutrient loads or fishing depending on the combination of the two. Finally, many climate variables and species biomasses were projected to levels unseen in the past. Hence, the risk for ecological surprises needs to be addressed, particularly when the results are discussed in the ecosystem-based management context.

  12. Features of trace metal distribution in the components of the ecosystem of the Lost City hydrothermal vent field (North Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demina, L. L.; Lein, A. Yu.; Galkin, S. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical features of the microelement distribution in the components of the ecosystem of the Lost City low-temperature field of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are determined by the processes of serpentinization in ultrabasic rocks. In the Lost City biotope water, the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As) is from n × 10 to 104 times higher than in the ocean water. The microelement content demonstrates a similar character of distribution in both types of calcite biominerals forming the carbonate matrix of the bivalve mussels Bathymodiolus and the scleractinian corals Anthozoa.

  13. Ten years after the prestige oil spill: seabird trophic ecology as indicator of long-term effects on the coastal marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Moreno

    Full Text Available Major oil spills can have long-term impacts since oil pollution does not only result in acute mortality of marine organisms, but also affects productivity levels, predator-prey dynamics, and damages habitats that support marine communities. However, despite the conservation implications of oil accidents, the monitoring and assessment of its lasting impacts still remains a difficult and daunting task. Here, we used European shags to evaluate the overall, lasting effects of the Prestige oil spill (2002 on the affected marine ecosystem. Using δ ¹⁵N and Hg analysis, we trace temporal changes in feeding ecology potentially related to alterations of the food web due to the spill. Using climatic and oceanic data, we also investigate the influence of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index, the sea surface temperature (SST and the chlorophyll a (Chl a on the observed changes. Analysis of δ ¹⁵N and Hg concentrations revealed that after the Prestige oil spill, shag chicks abruptly switched their trophic level from a diet based on a high percentage of demersal-benthic fish to a higher proportion of pelagic/semi-pelagic species. There was no evidence that Chl a, SST and NAO reflected any particular changes or severity in environmental conditions for any year or season that may explain the sudden change observed in trophic level. Thus, this study highlighted an impact on the marine food web for at least three years. Our results provide the best evidence to date of the long-term consequences of the Prestige oil spill. They also show how, regardless of wider oceanographic variability, lasting impacts on predator-prey dynamics can be assessed using biochemical markers. This is particularly useful if larger scale and longer term monitoring of all trophic levels is unfeasible due to limited funding or high ecosystem complexity.

  14. Ten years after the prestige oil spill: seabird trophic ecology as indicator of long-term effects on the coastal marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rocío; Jover, Lluís; Diez, Carmen; Sardà-Palomera, Francesc; Sardà, Francesc; Sanpera, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Major oil spills can have long-term impacts since oil pollution does not only result in acute mortality of marine organisms, but also affects productivity levels, predator-prey dynamics, and damages habitats that support marine communities. However, despite the conservation implications of oil accidents, the monitoring and assessment of its lasting impacts still remains a difficult and daunting task. Here, we used European shags to evaluate the overall, lasting effects of the Prestige oil spill (2002) on the affected marine ecosystem. Using δ ¹⁵N and Hg analysis, we trace temporal changes in feeding ecology potentially related to alterations of the food web due to the spill. Using climatic and oceanic data, we also investigate the influence of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the sea surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll a (Chl a) on the observed changes. Analysis of δ ¹⁵N and Hg concentrations revealed that after the Prestige oil spill, shag chicks abruptly switched their trophic level from a diet based on a high percentage of demersal-benthic fish to a higher proportion of pelagic/semi-pelagic species. There was no evidence that Chl a, SST and NAO reflected any particular changes or severity in environmental conditions for any year or season that may explain the sudden change observed in trophic level. Thus, this study highlighted an impact on the marine food web for at least three years. Our results provide the best evidence to date of the long-term consequences of the Prestige oil spill. They also show how, regardless of wider oceanographic variability, lasting impacts on predator-prey dynamics can be assessed using biochemical markers. This is particularly useful if larger scale and longer term monitoring of all trophic levels is unfeasible due to limited funding or high ecosystem complexity.

  15. Procedural generation and real-time rendering of a marine ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong LI; Xin DING; Jun-hao YU; Tian-yi GAO; Wen-ting ZHENG; Rui WANG; Hu-jun BAO

    2014-01-01

    Underwater scene is one of the most marvelous environments in the world. In this study, we present an efficient procedural modeling and rendering system to generate marine ecosystems for swim-through graphic applications. To produce realistic and natural underwater scenes, several techniques and algorithms have been presented and introduced. First, to distribute sealife naturally on a seabed, we employ an ecosystem simulation that considers the infl uence of the underwater environment. Second, we propose a two-level procedural modeling system to generate sealife with unique biological features. At the base level, a series of grammars are designed to roughly represent underwater sealife on a central processing unit (CPU). Then at the fi ne level, additional details of the sealife are created and rendered using graphic processing units (GPUs). Such a hybrid CPU-GPU framework best adopts sequential and parallel computation in modeling a marine ecosystem, and achieves a high level of performance. Third, the proposed system integrates dynamic simulations in the proposed procedural modeling process to support dynamic interactions between sealife and the underwater environment, where interactions and physical factors of the environment are formulated into parameters and control the geometric generation at the fi ne level. Results demonstrate that this system is capable of generating and rendering scenes with massive corals and sealife in real time.

  16. Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic marine community to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Martz, Todd R

    2011-08-30

    Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of marine organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO(2) vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef communities. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate communities in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate community shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species' responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity, biomass, and trophic complexity of benthic marine communities. These results suggest that a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function is expected under extreme acidification scenarios.

  17. Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe: the tropical North Atlantic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The NERC UK SOLAS-funded Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe programme comprised three field experiments. This manuscript presents an overview of the measurements made within the two simultaneous remote experiments conducted in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. Measurements were made from two mobile and one ground-based platforms. The heavily instrumented cruise D319 on the RRS Discovery from Lisbon, Portugal to São Vicente, Cape Verde and back to Falmouth, UK was used to characterise the spatial distribution of boundary layer components likely to play a role in reactive halogen chemistry. Measurements onboard the ARSF Dornier aircraft were used to allow the observations to be interpreted in the context of their vertical distribution and to confirm the interpretation of atmospheric structure in the vicinity of the Cape Verde islands. Long-term ground-based measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO on São Vicente were supplemented by long-term measurements of reactive halogen species and characterisation of additional trace gas and aerosol species during the intensive experimental period.

    This paper presents a summary of the measurements made within the RHaMBLe remote experiments and discusses them in their meteorological and chemical context as determined from these three platforms and from additional meteorological analyses. Air always arrived at the CVAO from the North East with a range of air mass origins (European, Atlantic and North American continental. Trace gases were present at stable and fairly low concentrations with the exception of a slight increase in some anthropogenic components in air of North American origin, though NOx mixing ratios during this period remained below 20 pptv. Consistency with these air mass classifications is observed in the time series of soluble gas and aerosol composition measurements, with additional identification of periods of

  18. Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Marine Ecosystem in the South Sea of Korea II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jong Ju

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, ocean warming and acidification are accelerating as a result of the continuous increase in atmospheric CO2. This may affect the function and structure of marine ecosystems. Recently, changes in marine environments/ecosystems have been observed (increase in SST, decrease in the pH of seawater, northward expansion of subtropical species, etc. in Korean waters. However, we still don’t understand well how climate change affects these changes and what can be expected in the future. In order to answer these questions with regard to Korean waters, the project named ‘Assessment of the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems in the South Sea of Korea’ has been supported for 5 years by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries and is scheduled to end in 2013. This project should provide valuable information on the current status of marine environments/ ecosystems in the South Sea of Korea and help establish the methodology and observation/prediction systems to better understand and predict the impact of climate/marine environment changes on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. This special issue contains 5 research and a review articles that highlight the studies carried out during 2012-2013 through this project

  19. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological University; Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological University; Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological University; Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological University; Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological University; Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological University; Helmig, Detlev [University of Colorado at Boulder

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron

  20. Getting it right for the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaenaglacialis): a last opportunity for effective marine spatial planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruny, Loren M; Wright, Andrew J; Smith, Courtney E

    2014-08-15

    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) faces increasing pressure from commercial shipping traffic and proposed marine renewable energy developments. Drawing upon the successful Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary model, we propose a multi-stakeholder marine spatial planning process that considers both appropriate positioning of offshore wind farms and redefining commercial shipping lanes relative to whale migration routes: placement of wind turbines within certain right whale habitats may prove beneficial for the species. To that end, it may be advisable to initially relocate the shipping lanes for the benefit of the whales prior to selecting wind energy areas. The optimal end-state is the commercial viability of renewable energy, as well as a safe shipping infrastructure, with minimal risk of collision and exposure to shipping noise for the whales. This opportunity to manage impacts on right whales could serve as a model for other problematic interactions between marine life and commercial activities.

  1. Open Source Software for Mapping Human Impacts on Marine Ecosystems with an Additive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Stock

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an easy-to-use open source software tool implementing a commonly used additive model (Halpern et al., 'Science', 2008 for mapping human impacts on marine ecosystems. The tool has been used to map the potential for cumulative human impacts in Arctic marine waters and can support future human impact mapping projects by 1 making the model easier to use; 2 making updates of model results straightforward when better input data become available; 3 storing input data and information about processing steps in a defined format and thus facilitating data sharing and reproduction of modeling results; 4 supporting basic visualization of model inputs and outputs without the need for advanced technical skills. The tool, called EcoImpactMapper, was implemented in Java and is thus platform-independent. A tutorial, example data, the tool and the source code are available online.

  2. Detection of environmental change in a marine ecosystem--evidence from the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephen J; Southward, Alan J; Genner, Martin J

    2003-07-01

    To separate human-induced changes from natural fluctuations in marine life requires long-term research. The western English Channel has been investigated from Plymouth for over 100 years. The abundance of marine life has been recorded and related to physical changes in the environment. By comparing different parts of the ecosystem we can demonstrate historic natural fluctuations, allowing prediction of effects of future global change. From the 1920s to the 1950s there was a period of warming of the sea, with increases in abundance of species of fish, plankton and intertidal organisms that are typically common in warmer waters to the south of Britain. After 1962 the sea cooled down and northern cold-water species became more abundant. Since the 1980s regional sea surface temperature has increased again and warm-water species are once more becoming abundant.

  3. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  4. The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica R; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2004-04-01

    Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter "disease") in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups). Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  5. The elusive baseline of marine disease: Are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter “disease”) in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups). Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  6. The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Ward

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish, invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms, and plants (seagrasses. Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter "disease" in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups. Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  7. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems.

  8. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Haigh

    Full Text Available As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA. Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC, sport (recreational fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry. Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated, little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  9. The relation between productivity and species diversity in temperate-Arctic marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Cusson, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe; Pershing, Andrew J; Mieszkowska, Nova

    2008-11-01

    Energy variables, such as evapotranspiration, temperature, and productivity explain significant variation in the diversity of many groups of terrestrial plants and animals at local to global scales. Although the ocean represents the largest continuous habitat on earth with a vast spectrum of primary productivity and species richness, little is known about how productivity influences species diversity in marine systems. To search for general relationships between productivity and species richness in the ocean, we analyzed data from three different benthic marine ecosystems (epifaunal communities on subtidal rock walls, on navigation buoys in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Canadian Arctic macrobenthos) across local to continental spatial scales (1000 km) using a standardized proxy for productivity, satellite-derived chlorophyll a. Theoretically, the form of the function between productivity and species richness is either monotonically increasing or decreasing, or curvilinear (hump- or U-shaped). We found three negative linear and three hump-shaped relationships between chlorophyll a and species richness out of 10 independent comparisons. Scale dependence was suggested by more prevalent diversity-productivity relationships at smaller (local, landscape) than larger (regional, continental) spatial scales. Differences in the form of the functions were more closely allied with community type than with scale, as negative linear functions were restricted to sessile epifauna while hump-shaped functions occurred in Arctic macrobenthos (mixed epifauna, infauna). In two of the data sets, (St. Lawrence epifauna and Arctic macrobenthos) significant effects of chlorophyll a co-varied with the effects of salinity, suggesting that environmental stress as well as productivity influences diversity in these marine systems. The co-varying effect of salinity may commonly arise in broad-scale studies of productivity and diversity in marine ecosystems when attempting to sample the largest

  10. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A; Neate, Holly E; Edwards, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  11. Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: a discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moellmann, C; Diekmann, Rabea; Muller-Karulis, B

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea are currently under strong atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure. Besides natural and human-induced changes in climate, major anthropogenic drivers such as overfishing and anthropogenic eutrophication are significantly affecting ecosystem structure...

  12. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Marine ecosystem is sensitive to environmental factors, including typhoon. Typhoon's activities have been strengthening in both intensity and spatial coverage in the past several decades, along with global changes; however, our knowledge about the impact of typhoons upon the marine ecosystem is very scarce. To understand how could typhoon/hurricane impact on marine ecosystem, we have conducted a series studies in the South China Sea, by using Satellite remote sensing and in situ observation data to investigate phytoplankton concentration, sea surface temperature (SST) and related factors before, during, and after typhoon. Results show that typhoon can induce large area of phytoplankton blooms with increases of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and decrease of sea surface temperature (SST) about 4 oC. Analysis showed that typhoon can support nutrients to surface phytoplankton by upwelling and vertical mixing, and typhoon rain can also nourish marine phytoplankton. More observations confirmed that typhoon can induce cold eddy, and cold eddy can support eddy-shape phyto-plankton bloom by upwelling. Typhoon can also induce transport of nutrient-rich water from depth and from the coast to offshore regions, nourishing phytoplankton biomass. Comparative study show that slow-moving typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of higher Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), the strong typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of a large area. Therefore, typhoons may have important contribution to the marine primary production. Those studies may help better understand the mechanism of typhoon impacts on marine ecosys-tem, and the role of typhoon in the global environmental changes. The series research were sup-ported by: NSFC (40976091, 40811140533) and GD NSF (8351030101000002); (2) CAS(kzcx2-yw-226 and LYQ200701); (3) The CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (KZCX2-YW-T001). References: Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, P Shi, W Takahashi, T Shimada, F. Sakaida, O

  13. Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M H; Miller, A Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-03-11

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours.

  14. Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Panova

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792, exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp. We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM, possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours.

  15. The use of DNA barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the French Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfonsi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the Atlantic coast of Brittany in the North West of France. All species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. Based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Phocoena phocoena and one pinniped species (Halichoerus grypus. Rare stranding events include deep-diving or exotic species, such as arctic seals. In this study, our aim was to determine the potential contribution of DNA barcoding to the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity as performed by the stranding network.We sequenced more than 500 bp of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial cox1 gene of 89 animals of 15 different species (12 cetaceans, and three pinnipeds. Except for members of the Delphininae, all species were unambiguously discriminated on the basis of their cox1 sequences. We then applied DNA barcoding to identify some “undetermined” samples. With again the exception of the Delphininae, this was successful using the BOLD identification engine. For samples of the Delphininae, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial control region (MCR, and using a non-metric multidimentional scaling plot and posterior probability calculations we were able to determine putatively each species. We then showed, in the case of the harbour porpoise, that cox1 polymorphisms, although being lower than MCR ones, could also be used to assess intraspecific variability. All these results show that the use of DNA barcoding in conjunction with a stranding network could clearly increase the accuracy of the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity.

  16. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A J Graham

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  17. Discussion of skill improvement in marine ecosystem dynamic models based on parameter optimization and skill assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Liu, Yongzhi; Li, Fen; Ding, Dewen

    2016-07-01

    Marine ecosystem dynamic models (MEDMs) are important tools for the simulation and prediction of marine ecosystems. This article summarizes the methods and strategies used for the improvement and assessment of MEDM skill, and it attempts to establish a technical framework to inspire further ideas concerning MEDM skill improvement. The skill of MEDMs can be improved by parameter optimization (PO), which is an important step in model calibration. An efficient approach to solve the problem of PO constrained by MEDMs is the global treatment of both sensitivity analysis and PO. Model validation is an essential step following PO, which validates the efficiency of model calibration by analyzing and estimating the goodness-of-fit of the optimized model. Additionally, by focusing on the degree of impact of various factors on model skill, model uncertainty analysis can supply model users with a quantitative assessment of model confidence. Research on MEDMs is ongoing; however, improvement in model skill still lacks global treatments and its assessment is not integrated. Thus, the predictive performance of MEDMs is not strong and model uncertainties lack quantitative descriptions, limiting their application. Therefore, a large number of case studies concerning model skill should be performed to promote the development of a scientific and normative technical framework for the improvement of MEDM skill.

  18. Saharan dust inputs and high UVR levels jointly alter the metabolic balance of marine oligotrophic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Marco J.; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; González-Olalla, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentación

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. We performed an observational study across the south-western (SW) Mediterranean Sea to assess the planktonic metabolic balance and a microcosm experiment in two contrasting areas, heterotrophic nearshore and autotrophic open sea, to test whether a combined UVR × dust impact could alter their metabolic balance at mid-term scales. We show that the metabolic state of oligotrophic areas geographically varies and that the joint impact of UVR and dust inputs prompted a strong change towards autotrophic metabolism. We propose that this metabolic response could be accentuated with the global change as remote-sensing evidence shows increasing intensities, frequencies and number of dust events together with variations in the surface UVR fluxes on SW Mediterranean Sea. Overall, these findings suggest that the enhancement of the net carbon budget under a combined UVR and dust inputs impact could contribute to boost the biological pump, reinforcing the role of the oligotrophic marine ecosystems as CO2 sinks.

  19. Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem.

  20. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  1. Responses in Arctic marine carbon cycle processes: conceptual scenarios and implications for ecosystem function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is one of the fastest changing oceans, plays an important role in global carbon cycling and yet is a particularly challenging ocean to study. Hence, observations tend to be relatively sparse in both space and time. How the Arctic functions, geophysically, but also ecologically, can have significant consequences for the internal cycling of carbon, and subsequently influence carbon export, atmospheric CO2 uptake and food chain productivity. Here we assess the major carbon pools and associated processes, specifically summarizing the current knowledge of each of these processes in terms of data availability and ranges of rates and values for four geophysical Arctic Ocean domains originally described by Carmack & Wassmann (2006: inflow shelves, which are Pacific-influenced and Atlantic-influenced; interior, river-influenced shelves; and central basins. We attempt to bring together knowledge of the carbon cycle with the ecosystem within each of these different geophysical settings, in order to provide specialist information in a holistic context. We assess the current state of models and how they can be improved and/or used to provide assessments of the current and future functioning when observational data are limited or sparse. In doing so, we highlight potential links in the physical oceanographic regime, primary production and the flow of carbon within the ecosystem that will change in the future. Finally, we are able to highlight priority areas for research, taking a holistic pan-Arctic approach.

  2. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic marine air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass motion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  3. Glacial marine carbon cycle sensitivities to Atlantic ocean circulation reorganization by coupled climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Chikamoto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM marine carbon cycle sensitivity experiments is conducted to test the effect of different physical processes, as simulated by two atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM experiments, on the atmospheric pCO2. One AOGCM solution exhibits an increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW formation, whereas the other mimics an increase in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW associated with a weaker NADW. Due to enhanced gas solubility associated with lower sea surface temperature, both experiments generate a reduction of atmospheric pCO2 by about 20–23 ppm. However, neither a weakening of NADW nor an increase of AABW formation causes a large atmospheric pCO2 change. A marked enhancement in AABW formation is required to represent the reconstructed vertical gradient of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC during LGM conditions. The efficiency of Southern Ocean nutrient utilization reduces in response to an enhanced AABW formation, which counteracts the circulation-induced ocean carbon uptake.

  4. Seasonal mean pressure reconstruction for the North Atlantic (1750–1850 based on early marine data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gallego

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Measures of wind strength and direction abstracted from European ships' logbooks during the recently finished CLIWOC project have been used to produce the first gridded Sea Level Pressure (SLP reconstruction for the 1750-1850 period over the North Atlantic based solely on marine data. The reconstruction is based on a spatial regression analysis calibrated by using data taken from the ICOADS database. An objective methodology has been developed to select the optimal calibration period and spatial domain of the reconstruction by testing several thousands of possible models. The finally selected area, limited by the performance of the regression equations and by the availability of data, covers the region between 28°N and 52°N close to the European coast and between 28°N and 44°N in the open Ocean. The results provide a direct measure of the strength and extension of the Azores High during the 101 years of the study period. The comparison with the recent land-based SLP reconstruction by Luterbacher et al. (2002 indicates the presence of a common signal. The interannual variability of the CLIWOC reconstructions is rather high due to the current scarcity of abstracted wind data in the areas with best response in the regression. Guidelines are proposed to optimize the efficiency of future abstraction work.

  5. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Gaydos

    Full Text Available Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA, British Columbia (Canada, and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as

  6. Analysis of reproductive patterns of fishes from three Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eTrindade-Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish reproductive biology plays an important role for fishery management, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compile all available information and analyze reproduction patterns of marine fishes in three Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs: North, East, and South Brazil Shelves. We tested the hypothesis that the onset and duration of spawning season differ among these three LMEs; compared the ratio between length at first maturity and asymptotic length with the global trend observed; analyzed sex ratios; and tested whether females allocate more energy into reproduction than males. The following data were compiled from published sources and ‘grey’ literature: sex ratio, spawning season, gonadosomatic indices (GSI, and length at first maturity (Lm. The reproductive load was estimated as Lm/L∞. The median extension of the spawning season in the North, East, and South Brazil Shelves were 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0 months, respectively, with higher frequency during austral summer in South Brazil. Marine fishes from these three LMEs can be grouped in summer and non-summer spawners. About ninety six percent of the cases the reproductive load was between 0.3 and 0.8, which is slightly shifted toward smaller values, compared with the global range of 0.4-0.9. Gonadosomatic indices for females were higher. Contrary to some expectations, there is seasonality in the reproduction of tropical fishes. However, seasonality is stronger in southern populations. Size at first maturity is not efficiently used as a tool for fisheries management in the ecosystems analyzed.

  7. Steep spatial gradients of volcanic and marine sulfur in Hawaiian rainfall and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Kendall, Carol; Pribil, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur, a nutrient required by terrestrial ecosystems, is likely to be regulated by atmospheric processes in well-drained, upland settings because of its low concentration in most bedrock and generally poor retention by inorganic reactions within soils. Environmental controls on sulfur sources in unpolluted ecosystems have seldom been investigated in detail, even though the possibility of sulfur limiting primary production is much greater where atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic sulfur is low. Here we measure sulfur isotopic compositions of soils, vegetation and bulk atmospheric deposition from the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of tracing sources of ecosystem sulfur. Hawaiian lava has a mantle-derived sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S VCDT) of − 0.8‰. Bulk deposition on the island of Maui had a δ34S VCDT that varied temporally, spanned a range from + 8.2 to + 19.7‰, and reflected isotopic mixing from three sources: sea-salt (+ 21.1‰), marine biogenic emissions (+ 15.6‰), and volcanic emissions from active vents on Kilauea Volcano (+ 0.8‰). A straightforward, weathering-driven transition in ecosystem sulfur sources could be interpreted in the shift from relatively low (0.0 to + 2.7‰) to relatively high (+ 17.8 to + 19.3‰) soil δ34S values along a 0.3 to 4100 ka soil age-gradient, and similar patterns in associated vegetation. However, sub-kilometer scale spatial variation in soil sulfur isotopic composition was found along soil transects assumed by age and mass balance to be dominated by atmospheric sulfur inputs. Soil sulfur isotopic compositions ranged from + 8.1 to + 20.3‰ and generally decreased with increasing elevation (0–2000 m), distance from the coast (0–12 km), and annual rainfall (180–5000 mm). Such trends reflect the spatial variation in marine versus volcanic inputs from atmospheric deposition. Broadly, these results illustrate how the sources and magnitude of atmospheric deposition can exert controls

  8. Characterizing driver-response relationships in marine pelagic ecosystems for improved ocean management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsicker, Mary E; Kappel, Carrie V; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Halpern, Benjamin S; Scarborough, Courtney; Mease, Lindley; Amrhein, Alisan

    2016-04-01

    Scientists and resource managers often use methods and tools that assume ecosystem components respond linearly to environmental drivers and human stressors. However, a growing body of literature demonstrates that many relationships are-non-linear, where small changes in a driver prompt a disproportionately large ecological response. We aim to provide a comprehensive assessment of the relationships between drivers and ecosystem components to identify where and when non-linearities are likely to occur. We focused our analyses on one of the best-studied marine systems, pelagic ecosystems, which allowed us to apply robust statistical techniques on a large pool of previously published studies. In this synthesis, we (1) conduct a wide literature review on single driver-response relationships in pelagic systems, (2) use statistical models to identify the degree of non-linearity in these relationships, and (3) assess whether general patterns exist in the strengths and shapes of non-linear relationships across drivers. Overall we found that non-linearities are common in pelagic ecosystems, comprising at least 52% of all driver-response relation- ships. This is likely an underestimate, as papers with higher quality data and analytical approaches reported non-linear relationships at a higher frequency (on average 11% more). Consequently, in the absence of evidence for a linear relationship, it is safer to assume a relationship is non-linear. Strong non-linearities can lead to greater ecological and socioeconomic consequences if they are unknown (and/or unanticipated), but if known they may provide clear thresholds to inform management targets. In pelagic systems, strongly non-linear relationships are often driven by climate and trophodynamic variables but are also associated with local stressors, such as overfishing and pollution, that can be more easily controlled by managers. Even when marine resource managers cannot influence ecosystem change, they can use information

  9. A new marine ecosystem model for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Keller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Earth System Climate Models (ESCMs are valuable tools that can be used to gain a better understanding of the climate system, global biogeochemical cycles and how anthropogenically-driven changes may affect them. Here we describe improvements made to the marine biogeochemical ecosystem component of the University of Victoria's ESCM (version 2.9. Major changes include corrections to the code and equations describing phytoplankton light limitation and zooplankton grazing, the implementation of a more realistic zooplankton growth and grazing model, and the implementation of an iron limitation scheme to constrain phytoplankton growth. The new model is evaluated after a 10 000-yr spin-up and compared to both the previous version and observations. For the majority of biogeochemical tracers and ecosystem processes the new model shows significant improvements when compared to the previous version and evaluated against observations. Many of the improvements are due to better simulation of seasonal changes in higher latitude ecosystems and the effect that this has on ocean biogeochemistry. This improved model is intended to provide a basic new ESCM model component, which can be used as is or expanded upon (i.e., the addition of new tracers, for climate change and biogeochemical cycling research.

  10. Porting marine ecosystem model spin-up using transport matrices to GPUs

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    E. Siewertsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have ported an implementation of the spin-up for marine ecosystem models based on transport matrices to graphics processing units (GPUs. The original implementation was designed for distributed-memory architectures and uses the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc library that is based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI standard. The spin-up computes a steady seasonal cycle of ecosystem tracers with climatological ocean circulation data as forcing. Since the transport is linear with respect to the tracers, the resulting operator is represented by matrices. Each iteration of the spin-up involves two matrix-vector multiplications and the evaluation of the used biogeochemical model. The original code was written in C and Fortran. On the GPU, we use the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA standard, a customized version of PETSc and a commercial CUDA Fortran compiler. We describe the extensions to PETSc and the modifications of the original C and Fortran codes that had to be done. Here we make use of freely available libraries for the GPU. We analyze the computational effort of the main parts of the spin-up for two exemplar ecosystem models and compare the overall computational time to those necessary on different CPUs. The results show that a consumer GPU can compete with a significant number of cluster CPUs without further code optimization.

  11. Porting marine ecosystem model spin-up using transport matrices to GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Siewertsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We have ported an implementation of the spin-up for marine ecosystem models based on the "Transport Matrix Method" to graphics processing units (GPUs. The original implementation was designed for distributed-memory architectures and uses the PETSc library that is based on the "Message Passing Interface (MPI" standard. The spin-up computes a steady seasonal cycle of the ecosystem tracers with climatological ocean circulation data as forcing. Since the transport is linear with respect to the tracers, the resulting operator is represented in so-called "transport matrices". Each iteration of the spin-up involves two matrix-vector multiplications and the evaluation of the used biogeochemical model. The original code was written in C and Fortran. On the GPU, we use the CUDA standard, a specialized version of the PETSc toolkit and a CUDA Fortran compiler. We describe the extensions to PETSc and the modifications of the original C and Fortran codes that had to be done. Here we make use of freely available libraries for the GPU. We analyze the computational effort of the main parts of the spin-up for two exemplary ecosystem models and compare the overall computational time to those necessary on different CPUs. The results show that a consumer GPU can beat a significant number of cluster CPUs without further code optimization.

  12. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, C.; Vidal, M.; Canals, M.; Kersting, D. K.; Amblas, D.; Aspillaga, E.; Cebrián, E.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Díaz, D.; Garrabou, J.; Hereu, B.; Navarro, L.; Teixidó, N.; Ballesteros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications. PMID:26511045

  13. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

  14. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a transiti

  15. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R German

    Full Text Available The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010 helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but

  16. ERSEM 15.06: a generic model for marine biogeochemistry and the ecosystem dynamics of the lower trophic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenschön, Momme; Clark, James; Aldridge, John N.; Icarus Allen, Julian; Artioli, Yuri; Blackford, Jeremy; Bruggeman, Jorn; Cazenave, Pierre; Ciavatta, Stefano; Kay, Susan; Lessin, Gennadi; van Leeuwen, Sonja; van der Molen, Johan; de Mora, Lee; Polimene, Luca; Sailley, Sevrine; Stephens, Nicholas; Torres, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is one of the most established ecosystem models for the lower trophic levels of the marine food web in the scientific literature. Since its original development in the early nineties it has evolved significantly from a coastal ecosystem model for the North Sea to a generic tool for ecosystem simulations from shelf seas to the global ocean. The current model release contains all essential elements for the pelagic and benthic parts of the marine ecosystem, including the microbial food web, the carbonate system, and calcification. Its distribution is accompanied by a testing framework enabling the analysis of individual parts of the model. Here we provide a detailed mathematical description of all ERSEM components along with case studies of mesocosm-type simulations, water column implementations, and a brief example of a full-scale application for the north-western European shelf. Validation against in situ data demonstrates the capability of the model to represent the marine ecosystem in contrasting environments.

  17. Modeling Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits; A Focus on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Bolm, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Cape- and ridge-associated marine sand deposits, which accumulate on storm-dominated continental shelves that are undergoing Holocene marine transgression, are particularly notable in a segment of the U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf that extends southward from the east tip of Long Island, N.Y., and eastward from Cape May at the south end of the New Jersey shoreline. These sand deposits commonly contain sand suitable for shore protection in the form of beach nourishment. Increasing demand for marine sand raises questions about both short- and long-term potential supply and the sustainability of beach nourishment with the prospects of accelerating sea-level rise and increasing storm activity. To address these important issues, quantitative assessments of the volume of marine sand resources are needed. Currently, the U.S. Geological Survey is undertaking these assessments through its national Marine Aggregates and Resources Program (URL http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/aggregates/). In this chapter, we present a hypothetical example of a quantitative assessment of cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in the study area, using proven tools of mineral-resource assessment. Applying these tools requires new models that summarize essential data on the quantity and quality of these deposits. Two representative types of model are descriptive models, which consist of a narrative that allows for a consistent recognition of cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits, and quantitative models, which consist of empirical statistical distributions that describe significant deposit characteristics, such as volume and grain-size distribution. Variables of the marine sand deposits considered for quantitative modeling in this study include area, thickness, mean grain size, grain sorting, volume, proportion of sand-dominated facies, and spatial density, of which spatial density is particularly helpful in estimating the number of undiscovered deposits within an

  18. Hypoxia and acidification in ocean ecosystems: coupled dynamics and effects on marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; Baumann, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that low dissolved oxygen (DO) and low pH conditions co-occur in many coastal and open ocean environments. Within temperate ecosystems, these conditions not only develop seasonally as temperatures rise and metabolic rates accelerate, but can also display strong diurnal variability, especially in shallow systems where photosynthetic rates ameliorate hypoxia and acidification by day. Despite the widespread, global co-occurrence of low pH and low DO and the likelihood that these conditions may negatively impact marine life, very few studies have actually assessed the extent to which the combination of both stressors elicits additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects in marine organisms. We review the evidence from published factorial experiments that used static and/or fluctuating pH and DO levels to examine different traits (e.g. survival, growth, metabolism), life stages and species across a broad taxonomic spectrum. Additive negative effects of combined low pH and low DO appear to be most common; however, synergistic negative effects have also been observed. Neither the occurrence nor the strength of these synergistic impacts is currently predictable, and therefore, the true threat of concurrent acidification and hypoxia to marine food webs and fisheries is still not fully understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will require an expansion of multi-stressor approaches in experimental and field studies, and the development of a predictive framework. In consideration of marine policy, we note that DO criteria in coastal waters have been developed without consideration of concurrent pH levels. Given the persistence of concurrent low pH-low DO conditions in estuaries and the increased mortality experienced by fish and bivalves under concurrent acidification and hypoxia compared with hypoxia alone, we conclude that such DO criteria may leave coastal fisheries more vulnerable to population reductions than previously anticipated.

  19. Holocene changes in the trophic ecology of an apex marine predator in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Damián G; Cardona, Luis; Zangrando, Atilio F; Borella, Florencia; Saporiti, Fabiana; Goodall, R Natalie P; de Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Crespo, Enrique A

    2017-02-01

    Predators may modify their diets as a result of both anthropogenic and natural environmental changes. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in bone collagen have been used to reconstruct the foraging ecology of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean since the Middle Holocene, a region inhabited by hunter-gatherers by millennia and modified by two centuries of whaling, sealing and fishing. Results suggest that the isotopic niche of fur seals from Patagonia has not changed over the last two millennia (average for the period: δ(13)C2200-0BP = -13.4 ± 0.5‰, δ(15)N2200-0BP = 20.6 ± 1.1‰). Conversely, Middle Holocene fur seals fed more pelagically than their modern conspecifics in the Río de la Plata region (δ(13)C7000BP = -15.9 ± 0.6‰ vs. δ(13)CPRESENT = -13.5 ± 0.8‰) and Tierra del Fuego (δ(13)C6400-4300BP = -15.4 ± 0.5‰ vs. δ(13)CPRESENT = -13.2 ± 0.7‰). In the latter region, Middle Holocene fur seals also fed at a higher trophic level than their modern counterparts (δ(15)N6400-4300BP = 20.5 ± 0.5‰ vs. δ(15)NPRESENT = 19.0 ± 1.6‰). Nevertheless, a major dietary shift was observed in fur seals from Tierra del Fuego during the nineteenth century (δ(13)C100BP = -17.2 ± 0.3‰, δ(15)N100BP = 18.6 ± 0.7‰), when marine primary productivity plummeted and the fur seal population was decimated by sealing. Disentangling the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic factors in explaining this dietary shift is difficult, but certainly the trophic position of fur seals has changed through the Holocene in some South Atlantic regions.

  20. Sources of inorganic and monomethyl mercury to high and sub Arctic marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jane Liza

    Monomethyl mercury (MMHg), a toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg, is present in some Canadian high and sub Arctic marine mammals at concentrations high enough to pose health risks to Northern peoples using these animals as food. To quantify potentially large sources of Hg to Arctic marine ecosystems, we examined several aspects of Hg cycling in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and Hudson Bay. Firstly, we quantified net Hg inputs to Hudson Bay from atmospheric Hg depletion events (AMDEs). During AMDEs, gaseous elemental Hg(0) (GEM), which is present in the Arctic atmosphere at global background concentrations, is oxidized to inorganic Hg(II) species that deposit to snowpacks. By simultaneously monitoring Hg in the atmosphere and in snowpacks of western Hudson Bay, we demonstrated that most of the Hg(II) deposited during AMDEs is rapidly (photo)reduced and emitted to the atmosphere. Secondly, we examined Hg speciation in marine waters of the CAA and Hudson Bay. We found high concentrations of MMHg and dimethyl Hg (DMHg; a toxic, gaseous form of Hg) in deep marine waters, where they are likely produced from Hg(II). Arctic marine waters were also found to be a substantial source of DMHg and GEM to the atmosphere. Thirdly, we quantified Hg exports to Hudson Bay from two major rivers, the Nelson and the Churchill, which have been altered for hydroelectric power production. When landscapes are inundated during river diversion or reservoir creation, microbial production of MMHg is stimulated in flooded soils. Newly produced MMHg can then be exported to downstream waterbodies. We found that annual inputs of total Hg (THg; includes both Hg(II) and MMHg) to Hudson Bay from combined Nelson and Churchill River discharge were comparable to inputs from AMDEs. MMHg inputs from river discharge are, however, ˜13 times greater than those from annual snowmelt of Hudson Bay snowpacks. Finally, although combined river and AMDE Hg inputs may account for a large portion of the THg

  1. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  2. The role of ecosystem function and emergent relationships in the assessment of global marine ecosystem models: a case study with ERSEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Mora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem models are often assessed using quantitative metrics of absolute ecosystem state, but these model-data comparisons are disproportionately vulnerable to discrepancies in the location of important circulation features. An alternative method is to demonstrate the models capacity to represent ecosystem function; the emergence of a coherent natural relationship in a simulation is a strong indication that the model has a appropriate representation of the ecosystem functions that lead to the emergent relationship. Furthermore, as emergent properties are large scale properties of the system, model validation with emergent properties is possible even when there is very little or no appropriate data for the region under study, or when the hydrodynamic component of the model differs significantly from that observed in nature at the same location and time. A selection of published meta-analyses are used to establish the validity of a complex marine ecosystem model and to demonstrate the power of validation with emergent properties. These relationships include the phytoplankton community structure, the ratio of carbon to chlorophyll in phytoplankton and particulate organic matter, the ratio of particulate organic carbon to particulate organic nitrogen and the stoichiometric balance of the ecosystem. These metrics can also inform aspects of the marine ecosystem model not available from traditional quantitative and qualitative methods. For instance, these emergent properties can be used to validate the design decisions of the model, such as the range of phytoplankton functional types and their behaviour, the stoichiometric flexibility with regards to each nutrient, and the choice of fixed or variable carbon to nitrogen ratios.

  3. Assessing the state of pelagic fish communities within an ecosystem approach and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, S.; Rindorf, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Hintzen, N.T.; Farnsworth, K.; Reid, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic fish are key elements in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. We develop a suite of ecological indicators that track pelagic fish community state and evaluate state of specific objectives against Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria. Indicator

  4. Assessment of Metal Toxicity in Marine Ecosystems: Comparative Toxicity Potentials for Nine Cationic Metals in Coastal Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    ecotoxicity data and take account of metal speciation and bioavailability. CTPs were developed for nine cationic metals (Cd, Cr(III), Co, Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in 64 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) covering all coastal waters in the world. The results showed that the CTP of a specific metal...

  5. Modelling marine community responses to climate-driven species redistribution to guide monitoring and adaptive ecosystem-based management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzloff, Martin Pierre; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Hamon, Katell G.; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Putten, Van Ingrid E.; Pecl, Gretta T.

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of global climate-driven changes, marine ecosystems are experiencing polewards redistributions of species – or range shifts – across taxa and throughout latitudes worldwide. Research on these range shifts largely focuses on understanding and predicting changes in the distribution of

  6. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  7. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modeling and flux balance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffi, Marianna; Paoletti, Nicola; Angione, Claudio; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Marini, Mauro; Liò, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains. In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746) with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links. The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  8. Food-web and ecosystem structure of the open-ocean and deep-sea environments of the Azores, NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Morato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive intends to adopt ecosystem-based management for resources, biodiversity and habitats that puts emphasis on maintaining the health of the ecosystem alongside appropriate human use of the marine environment, for the benefit of current and future generations. Within the overall framework of ecosystem-based management, ecosystem models are tools to evaluate and gain insights in ecosystem properties. The low data availability and complexity of modelling deep-water ecosystems has limited the application of ecosystem models to few deep-water ecosystems. Here, we aim to develop an ecosystem model for the deep-sea and open ocean in the Azores exclusive economic zone with the overarching objective of characterising the food-web and ecosystem structure of the ecosystem. An ecosystem model with 45 functional groups, including a detritus group, two primary producer groups, eight invertebrate groups, 29 fish groups, three marine mammal groups, a turtle and a seabird group was built. Overall data quality measured by the pedigree index was estimated to be higher than the mean value of all published models. Therefore, the model was built with source data of an overall reasonable quality, especially considering the normally low data availability for deep-sea ecosystems. The total biomass (excluding detritus of the modelled ecosystem for the whole area was calculated as 24.7 t km-². The mean trophic level for the total marine catch of the Azores was estimated to be 3.95, similar to the trophic level of the bathypelagic and medium-size pelagic fish. Trophic levels for the different functional groups were estimated to be similar to those obtained with stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses, with some exceptions on both ends of the trophic spectra. Omnivory indices were in general low, indicating prey speciation for the majority of the groups. Cephalopods, pelagic sharks and toothed whales were identified as groups with

  9. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation.

  10. Assessing the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems by means of food-web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Olson, Robert J.; Christensen, Villy

    2013-10-01

    We synthesized available information from ecological models at local and regional scales to obtain a global picture of the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems. First, static food-web models were used to analyze basic ecological parameters and indicators of squids: biomass, production, consumption, trophic level, omnivory index, predation mortality diet, and the ecological role. In addition, we developed various dynamic temporal simulations using two food-web models that included squids in their parameterization, and we investigated potential impacts of fishing pressure and environmental conditions for squid populations and, consequently, for marine food webs. Our results showed that squids occupy a large range of trophic levels in marine food webs and show a large trophic width, reflecting the versatility in their feeding behaviors and dietary habits. Models illustrated that squids are abundant organisms in marine ecosystems, and have high growth and consumption rates, but these parameters are highly variable because squids are adapted to a large variety of environmental conditions. Results also show that squids can have a large trophic impact on other elements of the food web, and top-down control from squids to their prey can be high. In addition, some squid species are important prey of apical predators and may be keystone species in marine food webs. In fact, we found strong interrelationships between neritic squids and the populations of their prey and predators in coastal and shelf areas, while the role of squids in open ocean and upwelling ecosystems appeared more constrained to a bottom-up impact on their predators. Therefore, large removals of squids will likely have large-scale effects on marine ecosystems. In addition, simulations confirm that squids are able to benefit from a general increase in fishing pressure, mainly due to predation release, and quickly respond to changes triggered by the environment. Squids may thus

  11. The Mid-Atlantic Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring Ecosystem Services Associated with Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands impart many important ecosystem services, including the maintenance of water quality, the stabilization of the climate through carbon sequestration, and enhancement of biodiversity through the provision of food and habitat. The conversion of natural or semi-natural lands to agriculture has ...

  12. Fishing impact and environmental status in European seas: A diagnosis from stock assessments and ecosystem indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascuel, Didier; Coll, Marta; Fox, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Stock-based and ecosystem-based indicators are used to provide a new diagnosis of the fishing impact and environmental status of European seas. In the seven European marine ecosystems covering the Baltic and the North-east Atlantic, (i) trends in landings since 1950 were examined; (ii) syntheses ...

  13. Basin-Scale nd Isotope Gradients in South Atlantic Marine Sedimentary Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, W.; Abouchami, W.; Zahn, R.; Masque, P.

    2012-12-01

    radiogenic ɛNd values, whereas variable Holocene Pa/Th are combined to less radiogenic ɛNd values. The radiogenic seawater Nd isotope signature is entirely consistent with a predominance at the site during the LGM of a water body different from present-day NADW (ɛNd=-13). Together with existing Nd isotope records [3, 4, 5] this demonstrates the existence of a basin scale North-South Nd isotope gradient consistent with the contention, previously drawn from meridional 231Pa/230Th offsets [1], of a more prominent northward advection of southern component water. The combined 231Pa/230Th - Nd isotope systematics of existing marine sedimentary records has important implication for the significance and interpretation of these proxies as tracers of the dynamics of the Atlantic MOC which will be discussed in view of existing models. [1] Negre et al., Nature, 2010, 468, 84-88. [2] Galer et al., Mineral. Mag., 2011, 75, 883. [3] Rutberg et al., Nature, 2000, 405, 935-938. [4] Piotrowski et al., 2005, Science, 307: 1933-1938. [5] Roberts et al., 2010, Science, 327: 75-77.

  14. Parasites of Urophycis brasiliensis (Gadiformes: Phycidae) as indicators of marine ecoregions in coastal areas of the South American Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aldenice N; Pantoja, Camila; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-11-01

    The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations in terms of presence, prevalence, and abundance, and their multivariate analyses resulted in clear similarity patterns. No differences were observed between two locations of the same ecoregion, whereas an evident separation of samples was observed across ecoregions in support of the existing hypotheses regarding the ecoregional division of the southwestern Atlantic. We proposed that parasite assemblages, which are composed of several metazoan phyla, are potentially useful as ecosystem indicators. This suggestion is derived from the combined evidence of the evolutionary history and biogeography of multiple lineages, which is expected to be more efficient in capturing recurrent patterns in overall biodiversity than individual lineages. Furthermore, as many parasites have complex life cycles, their distribution patterns are dependent not only on environmental conditions but also on the distribution and population density of all hosts involved in their life cycles, adding further sources of distributional variability that act synergistically to define robust geographical patterns. The selection of long-lived parasites and their comparative analysis provided evidence supporting the existence of three different stocks in the four sampled areas. The best parasite tags were those with low specificity in fish hosts, constituting promising biological tags for the stock discrimination of other fish species in the region.

  15. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  16. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  17. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  18. The effect of widespread early aerobic marine ecosystems on methane cycling and the Great Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Stuart J.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    The balance of evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved by 3.0-2.7 Ga, several hundred million years prior to the Great Oxidation ≈2.4 Ga. Previous work has shown that if oxygenic photosynthesis spread globally prior to the Great Oxidation, this could have supported widespread aerobic ecosystems in the surface ocean, without oxidising the atmosphere. Here we use a suite of models to explore the implications for carbon cycling and the Great Oxidation. We find that recycling of oxygen and carbon within early aerobic marine ecosystems would have restricted the balanced fluxes of methane and oxygen escaping from the ocean, lowering the atmospheric concentration of methane in the Great Oxidation transition and its aftermath. This in turn would have minimised any bi-stability of atmospheric oxygen, by weakening a stabilising feedback on oxygen from hydrogen escape to space. The result would have been a more reversible and probably episodic rise of oxygen at the Great Oxidation transition, consistent with existing geochemical evidence. The resulting drop in methane levels to ≈10 ppm is consistent with climate cooling at the time but adds to the puzzle of what kept the rest of the Proterozoic warm. A key test of the scenario of abundant methanotrophy in oxygen oases before the Great Oxidation is its predicted effects on the organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) record. Our open ocean general circulation model predicts δC13org ≈ - 30 to -45‰ consistent with most data from 2.65 to 2.45 Ga. However, values of δC13org ≈ - 50 ‰ require an extreme scenario such as concentrated methanotroph production where shelf-slope upwelling of methane-rich water met oxic shelf water.

  19. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction

  20. Is economic valuation of ecosystem services useful to decision-makers? Lessons learned from Australian coastal and marine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Thébaud, Olivier; Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa

    2016-08-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to coastal and marine ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of coastal and marine management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts.

  1. New Typical Vector of Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine (BMAA in the Marine Benthic Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been identified as an environmental factor triggering neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We investigated the possible vectors of BMAA and its isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB and N-2(aminoethylglycine (AEG in marine mollusks collected from the Chinese coast. Sixty-eight samples of marine mollusks were collected along the Chinese coast in 2016, and were analyzed by an HILIC-MS/MS (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer method without derivatization. BMAA was detected in a total of five samples from three species: Neverita didyma, Solen strictus, and Mytilus coruscus. The top three concentrations of free-form BMAA (0.99~3.97 μg·g−1 wet weight were detected in N. didyma. DAB was universally detected in most of the mollusk samples (53/68 with no species-specific or regional differences (0.051~2.65 μg·g−1 wet weight. No AEG was detected in any mollusk samples tested here. The results indicate that the gastropod N. didyma might be an important vector of the neurotoxin BMAA in the Chinese marine ecosystem. The neurotoxin DAB was universally present in marine bivalve and gastropod mollusks. Since N. didyma is consumed by humans, we suggest that the origin and risk of BMAA and DAB toxins in the marine ecosystem should be further investigated in the future.

  2. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Joshua S.; Stock, Charles A.; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    ecosystem models to include a virus component, specifically parameterized for processes taking place in the ocean euphotic zone. Crucially, we are able to solve this model analytically, facilitating evaluation of model behavior under many alternative parameterizations. Analyses reveal that the addition...... that viruses can have significant stimulatory effects across whole-ecosystem scales. We suggest that existing efforts to predict carbon and nutrient cycling without considering virus effects are likely to miss essential features of marine food webs that regulate global biogeochemical cycles.The ISME Journal...

  3. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September...

  4. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelholzer Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  5. [Effects of artificial reef construction to marine ecosystem services value: a case of Yang-Meikeng artificial reef region in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan-xin; Chem, Pi-mao; Jia, Xiao-ping

    2011-08-01

    Based on the researches and statistic data of Yangmeikeng artificial reef region in Shenzhen in 2008 and by the method of ecosystem services value, this paper analyzed the effects of artificial reef construction in the region on the marine ecosystem services. After the artificial reef construction, the tourism service value in the region decreased from 87% to 42%, food supply service value increased from 7% to 27%, and the services value of raw material supply, climatic regulation, air quality regulation, water quality regulation, harmful organism and disease regulation, and knowledge expansion had a slight increase, as compared to the surrounding coastal areas. The total services value per unit area of Yangmeikeng artificial reef region in 2008 was 1714.7 x 10(4) yuan x km(-2), far higher than the mean services value of coastal marine ecosystem in the surrounding areas of Shenzhen and in the world. Artificial reef construction affected and altered the structure of regional marine ecosystem services value, and improved the regional ecosystem services value, being of significance for the rational exploitation and utilization of marine resources and the successful recovery of damaged marine eco-environment and fish resources. Utilizing the method of ecosystem services value to evaluate artificial reef construction region could better elucidate the benefits of artificial reef construction, effectively promote the development of our artificial reef construction, and improve the management of marine ecosystem.

  6. Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Crow; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kappel, Carrie V

    2012-03-20

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an emerging responsibility of resource managers around the United States and elsewhere. A key proposed advantage of MSP is that it makes tradeoffs in resource use and sector (stakeholder group) values explicit, but doing so requires tools to assess tradeoffs. We extended tradeoff analyses from economics to simultaneously assess multiple ecosystem services and the values they provide to sectors using a robust, quantitative, and transparent framework. We used the framework to assess potential conflicts among offshore wind energy, commercial fishing, and whale-watching sectors in Massachusetts and identify and quantify the value from choosing optimal wind farm designs that minimize conflicts among these sectors. Most notably, we show that using MSP over conventional planning could prevent >$1 million dollars in losses to the incumbent fishery and whale-watching sectors and could generate >$10 billion in extra value to the energy sector. The value of MSP increased with the greater the number of sectors considered and the larger the area under management. Importantly, the framework can be applied even when sectors are not measured in dollars (e.g., conservation). Making tradeoffs explicit improves transparency in decision-making, helps avoid unnecessary conflicts attributable to perceived but weak tradeoffs, and focuses debate on finding the most efficient solutions to mitigate real tradeoffs and maximize sector values. Our analysis demonstrates the utility, feasibility, and value of MSP and provides timely support for the management transitions needed for society to address the challenges of an increasingly crowded ocean environment.

  7. Methods for Marine Ecosystems Research through the Use of PDAs with Preservice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Bruciati

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Science teachers are charged with the task of providing students in grades K-12 with opportunities that will enable them to make sense of science and develop habits of mind. One goal of science education is to prepare well-rounded citizens who are scientifically literate. Through inquiry-based learning, students formulate questions, perform investigations, and construct new understandings. It is important for preservice science teachers to be introduced to current techniques, discoveries, and debates in the field of science. The use of personal digital assistants (PDAs can provide K-12 students with increased opportunities for exploring and learning through scientific investigations. In order for these devices to be successfully integrated into classroom instruction, changes in teaching methodologies must be adopted. This paper presents a model lesson that can be used to guide preservice teachers in the use of PDAs for studying a marine ecosystem. The field experience takes place on the shoreline of Long Island Sound at Stratford Point, in Stratford Connecticut.

  8. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2017-01-01

    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  9. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  10. Complexity in benthic-pelagic marine ecosystems in the late Ordovician (central New York)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cisne and Chandlee (1982) outlined a paleogeographic model for marine invertebrates collected from Middle Ordovician strata in central New York. Subsequent interpretations of their stratigraphic and geographic distributions were based on control by levels of oxygen. Especially critical were the presumed distribution of the trilobite Triarthus and three graptolites, Orthograptus, Climacograptus, and Corynoides, which were supposed to have occupied vertically stratified habitats in the water column. In order to test this general thesis 42 stratigraphically discrete samples were collected from continuously exposed Late Ordovician mudstones in central New York, which contained taxa virtually identically to those employed by Cisne. The sampling interval spanned about 1.5 million years and over 1/4 of the samples contained relatively large numbers of graptolites. Over 3000 graptolite rhabdosomes were identified. The later Ordovician Orthograptus are preserved both with and without Climacograptus and with various benthic taxa. However neither Orthograptus nor Climacograptus display a consistent stratigraphic pattern, and Triarthus co-occurred with both graptolites, introducing a discordant note into any attempt at a simple modeling of early Paleozoic benthic/pelagic ecosystems.

  11. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Holon

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m. It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures

  12. Interplay of multiple goods, ecosystem services, and property rights in large social-ecological marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a cornerstone of biodiversity conservation, and increasingly, conservation science is integrating ecological and social considerations in park management. Indeed, both social and ecological factors need to be considered to understand processes that lead to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we use a social-ecological systems lens to examine changes in governance through time in an extensive regional protected area network, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. We studied the peer-reviewed and nonpeer-reviewed literature to develop an understanding of governance of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and its management changes through time. In particular, we examined how interacting and changing property rights, as designated by the evolving marine protected area network and other institutional changes (e.g., fisheries management, defined multiple goods and ecosystem services and altered who could benefit from them. The rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 2004 substantially altered the types and distribution of property rights and associated benefits from ecosystem goods and services. Initially, common-pool resources were enjoyed as common and private benefits at the expense of public goods (overexploited fisheries and reduced biodiversity and ecosystem health. The rezoning redefined the available goods and benefits and who could benefit, prioritizing public goods and benefits (i.e., biodiversity conservation, and inducing private costs (through reduced fishing. We also found that the original conceptualization of the step-wise progression of property rights from user to owner oversimplifies property rights based on its division into operational and collective-choice rule-making levels. Instead, we suggest that a diversity of available management tools implemented simultaneously can result in interactions that are seldom fully captured by the original conceptualization of the bundling of property rights

  13. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas: A generic framework for implementation of ecosystem based marine management and its application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Breen, Patricia; Stamford, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    , such as the lack of operational objectives within SMAs, particularly for transnational cases, data access, and stakeholder involvement. Furthermore, the emerging challenges of integrating the framework assessment using scientific information with a structured governance research analysis based mainly...... on qualitative information are addressed. The lessons learned will provide a better insight into the full range of methods and approaches required to support the implementation of the ecosystem approach to marine spatial management in Europe and elsewhere....

  15. Appendix D of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data. Workshop to Establish Coordination and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the fourth appendix to the report, the presentations from the workshop.

  16. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and turbot Scophthalmus maximus to European freshwater and marine isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, J.A.; Snow, M.; Skall, Helle Frank;

    2001-01-01

    A number of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus isolates of European marine origin were shown to be of low pathogenicity or non-pathogenic to Atlantic salmon parr by waterborne infection. A reference freshwater VHS virus isolate known to be highly pathogenic to rainbow trout was also of lo...

  17. Appendix B of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data. Workshop to Establish Coordination and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the second appendix to the report, the workshop participants.

  18. Assessing the main threats to marine ecosystem components of the Adriatic - Ionian Region for the implementation of Maritime Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipizer, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems and the related benefits they provide for humans are threatened by increasing pressures and competing usages. To address these issues, in the last decade, several EU legislations have been formulated to guarantee and promote sustainable use of the sea (e.g. Common Fishery Policy, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Maritime Spatial Planning). As a first step to implement cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Adriatic - Ionian Seas, a review of the main anthropogenic pressures due to maritime activities involving the Adriatic - Ionian Region (AIR) as well as of the most relevant environmental components has been carried out. The main objective of the analysis is to better identify the spatial distribution of human uses of the sea and of the key environmental components and the ecosystem services provided. The analysis of the existing conditions includes a description of the human activities per economic sector, considering type, location, dimension and magnitude of the activity in the AIR and the spatial extent of the main environmental and ecological values present in the AIR. The environmental status has been characterized according to the descriptors proposed by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD Directive 2008/56/EC) and the most sensitive ecosystem components in the AIR have been pointed out. A qualitative analysis of the relationships between good environmental status descriptors sensu MSFD and ecosystem services in the AIR has been carried out to provide useful information for the implementation of MSP. Cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning is particularly needed in a semi-enclosed basin such as the Adriatic Sea, hosting very diverse human activities, ranging from fishery to tourism, sand extraction, commercial and passenger transport, oil and gas exploration and exploitation, which may partially overlap and severely threaten ecosystem functioning and the associated services.

  19. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.

  20. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    , phenotypic studies have suggested adaptation through divergence of life-history traits among natural populations, but the distribution of adaptive genetic variation in these species is still relatively poorly known. In this study, we extract information about the geographical distribution of genetic...... variation for 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with life-history trait candidate genes, and compare this to variation in 70 putatively neutral SNPs in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). We analyse samples covering the major population complexes in the eastern Atlantic and find strong evidence...

  1. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) as marine ecosystem sentinels: ecotoxicology and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lemos, Leila; Emin-Lima, Renata; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) are small cetaceans that inhabit coastal regions down to a 50 m depth. As a coastally distributed species, they are exposed to a variety of human-induced risks that include passive fishing nets, persistent environmental pollution, and emerging diseases. As a top predatorS. guianensis occupies an important ecological niche in marine ecosystems. However, this niche also exposes this dolphin to extensive biomagnification of marine contaminants that may accumulate and be stored throughout their life of about 30 years.In this paper, we have compiled available data on the Guiana dolphin as regards its exposure to chemical pollutants, pathogenic microbes, infectious diseases, and injuries caused by interactions with passive fishing gears. Our analysis of the data shows that Guiana dolphins are particularly sensitive to environmental changes.Although the major mortal threat to dolphins results from contact with fishing other human-related activities in coastal zones also pose risks and need more attention.Such human-related risks include the presence of persistent toxicants in the marine environment, such as PCBs and PBDEs. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in Guiana dolphin's tissues at similar or higher levels that exist in cetaceans from other known polluted areas. Another risk encountered by this species is the non lethal injuries caused by fishing gear. Several incidents of this sort have occurred along the Brazilian coast with this species. When injuries are produced by interaction with fishing gear, the dorsal fin is the part of the dolphin anatomy that is more affected, commonly causing severe laceration or even total loss.The Guiana dolphins also face risks from infectious diseases. The major ones thus far identified include giardiasis, lobomycosis, toxoplasmosis, skin and skeletal lesions. Many bacterial pathogens from the family Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae have been isolated from Guiana dolphins. Several

  2. Management of large marine ecosystem based on ecosystem approach%基于生态系统方法的大海洋生态系管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初建松

    2011-01-01

    Large marine ecosystem (LME) is a large area of ocean characterized by distinct ocean-ology and ecology. Its natural characteristics require management based on ecosystem approach. A series of international treaties and regulations definitely or indirectly support that it should adopt ecosystem approach to manage LME to achieve the sustainable utilization of marine resources. In practices, some countries such as Canada, Australia, and USA have adopted ecosystem-based ap-proach to manage their oceans, and some international organizations such as global environment fund committee have carried out a number of LME programs based on ecosystem approach. Aiming at the sustainable development of their fisheries, the regional organizations such as Caribbean Com-munity have established regional fisheries mechanism. However, the adoption of ecosystem ap-proach to manage LME is not only a scientific and legal issue, but also a political matter largely de-pending on the political will and the mutual cooperation degree of related countries.%大海洋生态系是指海洋中具有独特海洋学和生态学特征的一个较大的区域,其自然特性要求采用基于生态系统的方法对其进行管理.一系列的国际条约和章程均明确或间接支持采用基于生态系统方法管理大海洋生态系,实现海洋资源的可持续利用.实践方面,加拿大、澳大利亚、美国等采用了基于生态系统方法对其海洋进行管理,全球环境基金会等国际组织实施了一些基于生态系统方法的大海洋生态系项目,加勒比共同体等区域组织建立了旨在实现其渔业可持续发展的区域渔业机制.而基于生态系统方法的大海洋生态系管理能否最终成功实施,不仅是一个科学和法律问题,而且在很大程度上也是一个政治问题,依赖于相关国 家的政治意愿与相互合作的程度.

  3. Change in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Diverging trends in body condition and/or production in five marine vertebrate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, L. A.; Smith, T. G.; George, J. C.; Sandstrom, S. J.; Walkusz, W.; Divoky, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the body condition of five marine vertebrate predators in the Beaufort Sea, conducted independently during the past 2-4 decades, suggest each has been affected by biophysical changes in the marine ecosystem. We summarize a temporal trend of increasing body condition in two species (bowhead whale subadults, Arctic char), in both cases influenced by the extent and persistence of annual sea ice. Three other species (ringed seal, beluga, black guillemot chicks), consumers with a dietary preference for Arctic cod, experienced declines in condition, growth and/or production during the same time period. The proximate causes of these observed changes remain unknown, but may reflect an upward trend in secondary productivity, and a concurrent downward trend in the availability of forage fishes, such as the preferred Arctic cod. To further our understanding of these apparent ecosystem shifts, we urge the use of multiple marine vertebrate species in the design of biophysical sampling studies to identify causes of these changes. Continued long-term, standardized monitoring of vertebrate body condition should be paired with concurrent direct (stomach contents) or indirect (isotopes, fatty acids) monitoring of diet, detailed study of movements and seasonal ranges to establish and refine baselines, and identification of critical habitats of the marine vertebrates being monitored. This would be coordinated with biophysical and oceanographic sampling, at spatial and temporal scales, and geographic locations, that are relevant to the home range, critical habitats and prey of the vertebrate indicator species showing changes in condition and related parameters.

  4. Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions.

  5. Privately managed marine reserves as a mechanism for the conservation of coral reef ecosystems: a case study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik; Rodwell, Lynda D; Attrill, Martin J

    2009-03-01

    Coral reef ecosystems have been declining at an alarming rate during recent decades, despite increasing numbers of marine protected areas (MPAs) encompassing coral reefs. However, many MPAs have not met reserve objectives, inhibiting effective protection. This study focuses on the potential effectiveness of a Hotel Managed Marine Reserve (HMMR) at enhancing reef fish stocks. Biannual visual fish census surveys were conducted at two marine reserves adjacent to Whale Island Resort, Vietnam, October 2005 to April 2007. The 6-year protected Whale Island Bay Reserve (11 ha) showed significantly higher fish densities, richness, average size, and number of fish >15 cm compared with two unprotected control sites. Fish stocks at a second newer reserve, Whale Island Bay Peninsula (5 ha), quickly increased after protection. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of HMMRs, suggesting a global network of such privately managed reserves could play a part in the conservation of the world's coastal resources, while alleviating financial pressure on governments.

  6. Long-term variations of the Black Sea dynamics and their impact on the marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, Arseny A.; Stanichny, Sergey V.; Zatsepin, Andrey G.; Kremenetskiy, Viacheslav V.

    2016-11-01

    Satellite altimetry data are used to study the long-term dynamics variability of the Black Sea from 1993 to 2013, its dependence on wind forcing and its impact on the marine ecosystem. Basin-scale dynamics have significant interseasonal and interannual variability. The most distinctly observed feature of the interannual dynamics variability is an almost twofold increase of the current kinetic energy from 2002 to 2012, based on anomaly weak values from 1998 to 2001. The amplitudes of a seasonal cycle of current velocity variability from 2002 to 2102 were two times higher than the amplitudes from 1998 to 2001. The seasonal variability of the current Mean Kinetic Energy (MKE) significantly varies among the years. Although usually maximal values of MKE are observed in winter and minimal values are observed in summer, the seasonal variability may exhibit two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, or even can be opposite with maximum values observed in warm period of a year. The variability of wind stress curl (or the Ekman pumping velocity) averaged over the basin is the main factor for the observed changes in the Black Sea dynamics. The analysis shows that the integral effect of the cyclonic wind curl causes water divergence in the centre of the basin, rising sea level gradients and Rim current intensification. The mean kinetic energy of the Black Sea currents follows the variability of Ekman pumping on seasonal and interannual time scales with a time delay of approximately two weeks. This lag is consistent with the estimated time that is required for water particles to drift from the central part to the basin periphery due to rising Ekman divergence. We employ an eddy-identification method to show that the interannual variability of the number of mesoscale eddies in the basin and their energy are opposite to the variability of the mean kinetic energy of the Black Sea currents and Ekman pumping over the basin. The number of eddies and their total energy decreased after

  7. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene...... selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread...... archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found...

  8. Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Findings and diagnostic difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, Norbert; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leopold, Mardik; Begeman, Lineke; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; IJzer, Jooske; Brownlow, Andrew; Davison, Nicholas; Haelters, Jan; Jauniaux, Thierry; Siebert, Ursula; Dorny, Pierre; De Craeye, Stéphane

    2016-10-30

    The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Out of 193 animals tested by PCR, only two harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) cerebrum samples, obtained from animals stranded on the Dutch coast, tested positive. The serological results showed a wide variation depending on the test used. Using a cut-off value of 1/40 dilution in MAT, 141 out of 292 animals (41%) were positive. Using IFA, 30 out of 244 tested samples (12%) were positive at a 1/50 dilution. The commercial ELISA yielded 7% positives with a cut-off of the sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio≥50; and 12% when the cut-off was set at S/P ratio≥20. The high number of positives in MAT may be an overestimation due to the high degree of haemolysis of the samples and/or the presence of lipids. The ELISA results could be an underestimation due to the use of a multispecies conjugate. Our results confirm the presence of T. gondii in marine mammals in The Netherlands and show exposure to the parasite in both the North Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We also highlight the limitations of the tests used to diagnose T. gondii in stranded marine mammals.

  9. Stable isotopes in the atmospheric marine boundary layer water vapour over the Atlantic Ocean, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Marion; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Reverdin, Gilles; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný Erla; Aloisi, Giovanni; Berkelhammer, Max B.; Bourlès, Bernard; Bourras, Denis; de Coetlogon, Gaëlle; Cosgrove, Ann; Faber, Anne-Katrine; Grelet, Jacques; Hansen, Steffen Bo; Johnson, Rod; Legoff, Hervé; Martin, Nicolas; Peters, Andrew J.; Popp, Trevor James; Reynaud, Thierry; Winther, Malte

    2017-01-01

    The water vapour isotopic composition (1H216O, H218O and 1H2H16O) of the Atlantic marine boundary layer has been measured from 5 research vessels between 2012 and 2015. Using laser spectroscopy analysers, measurements have been carried out continuously on samples collected 10–20 meter above sea level. All the datasets have been carefully calibrated against the international VSMOW-SLAP scale following the same protocol to build a homogeneous dataset covering the Atlantic Ocean between 4°S to 63°N. In addition, standard meteorological variables have been measured continuously, including sea surface temperatures using calibrated Thermo-Salinograph for most cruises. All calibrated observations are provided with 15-minute resolution. We also provide 6-hourly data to allow easier comparisons with simulations from the isotope-enabled Global Circulation Models. In addition, backwards trajectories from the HYSPLIT model are supplied every 6-hours for the position of our measurements. PMID:28094798

  10. Stable isotopes in the atmospheric marine boundary layer water vapour over the Atlantic Ocean, 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Marion; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Reverdin, Gilles; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný Erla; Aloisi, Giovanni; Berkelhammer, Max B.; Bourlès, Bernard; Bourras, Denis; de Coetlogon, Gaëlle; Cosgrove, Ann; Faber, Anne-Katrine; Grelet, Jacques; Hansen, Steffen Bo; Johnson, Rod; Legoff, Hervé; Martin, Nicolas; Peters, Andrew J.; Popp, Trevor James; Reynaud, Thierry; Winther, Malte

    2017-01-01

    The water vapour isotopic composition (1H216O, H218O and 1H2H16O) of the Atlantic marine boundary layer has been measured from 5 research vessels between 2012 and 2015. Using laser spectroscopy analysers, measurements have been carried out continuously on samples collected 10-20 meter above sea level. All the datasets have been carefully calibrated against the international VSMOW-SLAP scale following the same protocol to build a homogeneous dataset covering the Atlantic Ocean between 4°S to 63°N. In addition, standard meteorological variables have been measured continuously, including sea surface temperatures using calibrated Thermo-Salinograph for most cruises. All calibrated observations are provided with 15-minute resolution. We also provide 6-hourly data to allow easier comparisons with simulations from the isotope-enabled Global Circulation Models. In addition, backwards trajectories from the HYSPLIT model are supplied every 6-hours for the position of our measurements.

  11. Declining abundance of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) in the California Current large marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey E; Barlow, Jay P

    2013-01-01

    Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA) conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species) on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) during 1991-2008 was 0.84, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 10771 (CV = 0.51) and ≈7550 (CV = 0.55), respectively. The probability of decline for Mesoplodon spp. (pooled across species) was 0.96, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 2206 (CV = 0.46) and 811 (CV = 0.65). The mean posterior estimates for average rate of decline were 2.9% and 7.0% per year. There was no evidence of abundance trend for Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), for which annual abundance estimates in the survey area ranged from ≈900 to 1300 (CV≈1.3). Stranding data were consistent with the survey results. Causes of apparent declines are unknown. Direct impacts of fisheries (bycatch) can be ruled out, but impacts of anthropogenic sound (e.g., naval active sonar) and ecosystem change are plausible hypotheses that merit investigation.

  12. Declining abundance of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae in the California Current large marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Moore

    Full Text Available Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris during 1991-2008 was 0.84, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 10771 (CV = 0.51 and ≈7550 (CV = 0.55, respectively. The probability of decline for Mesoplodon spp. (pooled across species was 0.96, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 2206 (CV = 0.46 and 811 (CV = 0.65. The mean posterior estimates for average rate of decline were 2.9% and 7.0% per year. There was no evidence of abundance trend for Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii, for which annual abundance estimates in the survey area ranged from ≈900 to 1300 (CV≈1.3. Stranding data were consistent with the survey results. Causes of apparent declines are unknown. Direct impacts of fisheries (bycatch can be ruled out, but impacts of anthropogenic sound (e.g., naval active sonar and ecosystem change are plausible hypotheses that merit investigation.

  13. Studies of Np and Pu in the marine environment of Swedish-Danish waters and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Patric [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden) and Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan P.O. Box 29, Seoul 425-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: patriclindahl@yahoo.com; Roos, Per [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Holm, Elis [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dahlgaard, Henning [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu were determined in marine environmental samples (seaweed and seawater) collected from Swedish-Danish waters and the North Atlantic Ocean at various locations on different occasions during the period 1991-2001. The measurements were performed with sector field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and conventional alpha spectrometry. The {sup 237}Np activity concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus and surface seawater from the Swedish west coast and Danish waters ranged from 0.16 {+-} 0.02 to 1.02 {+-} 0.09 mBq kg{sup -1} (dry weight) and 0.65 {+-} 0.02 to 1.69 {+-} 0.02 mBq m{sup -3}, respectively, depending on the location and sampling year. Most of the {sup 237}Np in these waters is believed to originate from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, with some contribution from global fallout. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios in F. vesiculosus samples are reported in this study with an overall average of 0.17 {+-} 0.03. The {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu activity concentrations observed in surface seawater collected in North Atlantic waters ranged from 0.16 {+-} 0.01 to 0.62 {+-} 0.08 mBq m{sup -3} and from 0.64 {+-} 0.05 to 4.27 {+-} 0.08 mBq m{sup -3}, respectively, and the {sup 237}Np/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios were a good indicator of conservative behaviour of Np in marine waters.

  14. Enabling the Integrated Assessment of Large Marine Ecosystems: Informatics to the Forefront of Science-Based Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; West, P.; Hare, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessments of large marine ecosystems require the understanding of interactions between environmental, ecological, and socio-economic factors that affect production and utilization of marine natural resources. Assessing the functioning of complex coupled natural-human systems calls for collaboration between natural and social scientists across disciplinary and national boundaries. We are developing a platform to implement and sustain informatics solutions for these applications, providing interoperability among very diverse and heterogeneous data and information sources, as well as multi-disciplinary organizations and people. We have partnered with NOAA NMFS scientists to facilitate the deployment of an integrated ecosystem approach to management in the Northeast U.S. (NES) and California Current Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Our platform will facilitate the collaboration and knowledge sharing among NMFS natural and social scientists, promoting community participation in integrating data, models, and knowledge. Here, we present collaborative software tools developed to aid the production of the Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the NES LME. The ESR addresses the D-P-S portion of the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) management framework: reporting data, indicators, and information products for climate drivers, physical and human (fisheries) pressures, and ecosystem state (primary and secondary production and higher trophic levels). We are developing our tools in open-source software, with the main tool based on a web application capable of providing the ability to work on multiple data types from a variety of sources, providing an effective way to share the source code used to generate data products and associated metadata as well as track workflow provenance to allow in the reproducibility of a data product. Our platform retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, reports data quality and other standardized metadata, provides iterative

  15. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  16. A single bio-energetics growth and reproduction model for the oyster Crassostrea gigas in six Atlantic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Bourlès, Yves; Maurer, Danièle; Robert, Stéphane; Mazurié, Joseph; Gangnery, Aline; Goulletquer, Philippe; Pouvreau, Stéphane

    2011-11-01

    different Atlantic ecosystems.

  17. The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of marine reserves on coastal ecosystems: a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives.

  18. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  19. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape – studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Hofmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME, a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. Aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future, with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium – the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS – has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1 the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2 initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, (3 an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

  20. Assessment of goods and services, vulnerability, and conservation status of European seabed biotopes: a stepping stone towards ecosystem-based marine spatial management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALOMIDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of ecosystem-based marine spatial management is to maintain marine ecosystems in a healthy, productive and resilient condition; hence, they can sustainably provide the needed goods and services for human welfare. However, the increasing pressures upon the marine realm threaten marine ecosystems, especially seabed biotopes, and thus a well-planned approach of managing use of marine space is essential to achieve sustainability. The relative value of seabed biotopes, evaluated on the basis of goods and services, is an important starting point for the spatial management of marine areas. Herein, 56 types of European seabed biotopes and their related goods, services, sensitivity issues, and conservation status were compiled, the latter referring to management and protection tools which currently apply for these biotopes at European or international level. Fishing activities, especially by benthic trawls, and marine pollution are the main threats to European seabed biotopes. Increased seawater turbidity, dredged sediment disposal, coastal constructions, biological invasions, mining, extraction of raw materials, shipping-related activities, tourism, hydrocarbon exploration, and even some practices of scientific research, also exert substantial pressure. Although some first steps have been taken to protect the European sea beds through international agreements and European and national legislation, a finer scale of classification and assessment of marine biotopes is considered crucial in shaping sound priorities and management guidelines towards the effective conservation and sustainability of European marine resources.

  1. Sensitivity of secondary production and export flux to choice of trophic transfer formulation in marine ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Hessen, Dag O.; Mitra, Aditee; Mayor, Daniel J.; Yool, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The performance of four contemporary formulations describing trophic transfer, which have strongly contrasting assumptions as regards the way that consumer growth is calculated as a function of food C:N ratio and in the fate of non-limiting substrates, was compared in two settings: a simple steady-state ecosystem model and a 3D biogeochemical general circulation model. Considerable variation was seen in predictions for primary production, transfer to higher trophic levels and export to the ocean interior. The physiological basis of the various assumptions underpinning the chosen formulations is open to question. Assumptions include Liebig-style limitation of growth, strict homeostasis in zooplankton biomass, and whether excess C and N are released by voiding in faecal pellets or via respiration/excretion post-absorption by the gut. Deciding upon the most appropriate means of formulating trophic transfer is not straightforward because, despite advances in ecological stoichiometry, the physiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain incompletely understood. Nevertheless, worrying inconsistencies are evident in the way in which fundamental transfer processes are justified and parameterised in the current generation of marine ecosystem models, manifested in the resulting simulations of ocean biogeochemistry. Our work highlights the need for modellers to revisit and appraise the equations and parameter values used to describe trophic transfer in marine ecosystem models.

  2. Integrating the provision of ecosystem services and trawl fisheries for the management of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntadas, Alba; de Juan, Silvia; Demestre, Montserrat

    2015-02-15

    The species interaction and their biological traits (BT) determine the function of benthic communities and, hence, the delivery of ecosystem services. Therefore, disturbance of benthic communities by trawling may compromise ecosystem service delivery, including fisheries' catches. In this work, we explore 1) the impact of trawling activities on benthic functional components (after the BTA approach) and 2) how trawling impact may affect the ecosystem services delivered by benthic communities. To this aim, we assessed the provision of ecosystem services by adopting the concept of Ecosystem Service Providers (ESP), i.e. ecological units that perform ecosystem functions that will ultimately deliver ecosystem services. We studied thirteen sites subjected to different levels of fishing effort in the Mediterranean. From a range of environmental variables included in the study, we found ESPs to be mainly affected by fishing effort and grain size. Our results suggested that habitat type has significant effects on the distribution of ESPs and this natural variability influences ESP response to trawling at a specific site. In order to summarize the complex relationships between human uses, ecosystem components and the demand for ecosystem services in trawling grounds, we adapted a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response) framework to the study area, emphasizing the role of society as Drivers of change and actors demanding management Responses. This integrative framework aims to inform managers about the interactions between all the elements involved in the management of trawling grounds, highlighting the need for an integrated approach in order to ensure ecosystem service provision.

  3. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clokie, Martha R J; Millard, Andrew D; Mann, Nicholas H

    2010-10-28

    From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  4. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Andrew D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  5. Importance of spatial factors and temporal scales in environmental risk assessment in marine ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebenkov, A.; Linkov, I.; Andrizhievski, A.; Lukashevich, A.; Trifonov, A. [Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, IPEP, 220109, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Coastal areas adjacent to the Black Sea, particularly in Crimea, have suffered from inappropriate human activities, poorly regulated industry and former naval bases. Industrial and municipal wastewater pollutants draining into the three major European rivers (the Danube, Dniestr, and Dnieper) and dumping in the open sea result in an enormous increase in contamination level of ecosystems of the Black Sea. In spite of this, Crimea and its adjacent waters is still a globally important center of biological diversity, with an enormous and exciting range of habitats within a comparatively small area. The problem now is to evaluate economically feasible remediation and ecologically sustainable cleanup/reuse alternatives for the most contaminated sites of this area. One of the principal methodological components of such evaluation is a risk-based decision protocol that provides support in analysis of ecological value and reuse options for a chosen site. This paper presents the results of development of a spatially explicit risk assessment technique to be implemented as a part of the decision-making process and gives an example of its application to contaminated marine ecosystems. The model is suggested that takes into account several principal assumptions: (i) spatial heterogeneity of contamination of forage is known and mapped within known location of receptor's habitat, and (ii) the receptor movement and timescale are determined by location, volume and attractiveness of local habitat and forage resources. This implies two models: Spatially Explicit Exposure Assessment Model that calculates internal exposure resulting from ingestion of contaminated feeds, and Probabilistic Receptor Migration Model that generates motivation of behaviour of a receptor while feeding. In the first model, time-dependent accumulation of contamination in receptor tissue is defined by the differential balance equation that takes into account forage consumption rate and excretion rate. In the

  6. IMBER (Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research: Support of Ocean Carbon Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimetz-Planchon, J.; Gattuso, J.; Maddison, L.; Bakker, D. C.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    IMBER (Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research), co-sponsored by SCOR (Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research) and IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme), coordinates research that focuses on understanding and predicting changes in oceanic food webs and biogeochemical cycles that arise from global change. An integral part of this overall goal is to understand the marine carbon cycle, with emphasis on changes that may occur as a result of a changing climate, increased atmospheric CO2 levels and/or reduced oceanic pH. To address these key ocean carbon issues, IMBER and SOLAS (Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study), formed the joint SOLAS-IMBER Carbon, or SIC Working Group. The SIC Working Group activities are organised into three sub-groups. Sub-group 1 (Surface Ocean Systems) focuses on synthesis, instrumentation and technology development, VOS (Voluntary Observing Ships) and mixed layer sampling strategies. The group contributed to the development of SOCAT (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas, www.socat.info), a global compilation of underway surface water fCO2 (fugacity of CO2) data in common format. It includes 6.3 million measurements from 1767 cruises from 1968 and 2008 by more than 10 countries. SOCAT will be publically available and will serve a wide range of user communities. Its public release is planned for September 2011. SOCAT is strongly supported by IOCCP and CARBOOCEAN. Sub-group 2 (Interior Ocean Carbon Storage) covers inventory and observations, natural variability, transformation and interaction with modelling. It coordinated a review of vulnerabilities of the decadal variations of the interior ocean carbon and oxygen cycle. It has also developed a plan to add dissolved oxygen sensors to the ARGO float program in order to address the expected loss of oxygen as a result of ocean warming. The group also focuses on the global synthesis of ocean interior carbon observations to determine the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 since

  7. The Idea and Concept of Metos3D: A Marine Ecosystem Toolkit for Optimization and Simulation in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Piwonski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The simulation and parameter optimization of coupled ocean circulation and ecosystem models in three space dimensions is one of the most challenging tasks in numerical climate research. Here we present a scientific toolkit that aims at supporting researchers by defining clear coupling interfaces, providing state-of-the-art numerical methods for simulation, parallelization and optimization while using only freely available and (to a great extend) platform-independent software. Besides defining a user-friendly coupling interface (API) for marine ecosystem or biogeochemical models, we heavily rely on the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific computation (PETSc) developed at Argonne Nat. Lab. for a wide variety of parallel linear and non-linear solvers and optimizers. We specifically focus on the usage of matrix-free Newton-Krylov methods for the fast computation of steady periodic solutions, and make use of the Transport Matrix Method (TMM) introduced by Khatiwala et al.

  8. Concepts and tools for exploiting sessile bio-filters as early warning elements: introductory applications for marine ecosystem preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Scalici

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that integrating diverse warning systems at different biological levels may not only increase the probability of detecting threats but also mitigate their impact. Here, we propose the use of both molecular and morphological descriptors at different biological levels in sessile bivalves (a suitable biological model in monitoring programs to collect information on the ecosystem health of coastal marine habitats. In this context, studies may be implemented on biomarkers to exploit some population features, with the aim to propose an actual monitoring program that predictively would provide possible scenarios on the species fitness and ecosystem changes. Thus, the use of quality biotic elements may provide an objective environmental monitoring method and facilitate the development of sanitary, economic, and social strategies related to sustainable exploitation.

  9. Nutrient reduction and climate change cause a potential shift from pelagic to benthic pathways in a eutrophic marine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, T.; Stenseth, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    for the occurrence of regime shifts and the relative importance of multiple drivers, e.g., climate change, eutrophication and commercial fishing on ecosystem dynamics and trophic pathways. Using multivariate statistics and nonlinear regression on a comprehensive data set, covering abiotic factors and biotic...... large and abrupt changes, i.e., trophic cascades and ecological regime shifts, which once having occurred may prove potentially irreversible. In this study, we investigate the state and regulatory pathways of the Kattegat; a eutrophied and heavily exploited marine ecosystem, specifically testing...... variables across all trophic levels, we here propose a potential regime shift from pelagic to benthic regulatory pathways; a possible first sign of recovery from eutrophication likely triggered by drastic nutrient reductions (involving both nitrogen and phosphorus), in combination with climate...

  10. The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Diego J.; Wolff, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem (BCE) is among the most productive zones in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). It is exposed to relatively cool, nutrient-rich waters of the Cromwell current, which are brought to the photic zone through topographic upwelling. The BCE is characterized by a heterogeneous rocky reef habitat covered by dense algae beds and inhabited by numerous invertebrate and fish species, which represent the food for higher predators including seals and sharks and exploited fish species. In addition, plankton and detritus based food chains channel large amounts of energy through the complex food web. Important emblematic species of the Galapagos archipelagos reside in this area such as the flightless cormorant, the Galapagos penguin and the marine iguanas. A trophic model of BCE was constructed for the habitats barracudas should be emphasized for their great contribution to the trophic flows and biomass of the system.

  11. Going with the flow: the role of ocean circulation in global marine ecosystems under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Simon J; Popova, Ekaterina E; Yool, Andrew; Pecl, Gretta T; Hobday, Alistair J; Sorte, Cascade J B

    2016-12-09

    Ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced productivity are widely considered to be the major stressors to ocean ecosystems induced by emissions of CO2 . However, an overlooked stressor is the change in ocean circulation in response to climate change. Strong changes in the intensity and position of the western boundary currents have already been observed, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems are beginning to emerge. In this study, we address climatically induced changes in ocean circulation on a global scale but relevant to propagule dispersal for species inhabiting global shelf ecosystems, using a high-resolution global ocean model run under the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenario. The ¼ degree model resolution allows improved regional realism of the ocean circulation beyond that of available CMIP5-class models. We use a Lagrangian approach forced by modelled ocean circulation to simulate the circulation pathways that disperse planktonic life stages. Based on trajectory backtracking, we identify present-day coastal retention, dominant flow and dispersal range for coastal regions at the global scale. Projecting into the future, we identify areas of the strongest projected circulation change and present regional examples with the most significant modifications in their dominant pathways. Climatically induced changes in ocean circulation should be considered as an additional stressor of marine ecosystems in a similar way to ocean warming or acidification.

  12. What are the effects of macroalgal blooms on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems? A systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Devin A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic activities are believed to have caused an increase in the magnitude, frequency, and extent of macroalgal blooms in marine and estuarine environments. These blooms may contribute to declines in seagrasses and non-blooming macroalgal beds, increasing hypoxia, and reductions in the diversity of benthic invertebrates. However, they may also provide other marine organisms with food and habitat, increase secondary production, and reduce eutrophication. The objective of this systematic review will be to quantify the positive and negative impacts of anthropogenically induced macroalgal blooms in order to determine their effects on ecosystem structure and functioning, and to identify factors that cause their effects to vary. Methods We will search a number of online databases to gather empirical evidence from the literature on the impacts of macroalgal blooms on: (1 species richness and other univariate measures of biodiversity; (2 productivity and abundance of algae, plants, and animals; and (3 biogeochemical cycling and other flows of energy and materials, including trophic interactions and cross-ecosystem subsidies. Data from relevant studies will be extracted and used in a random effects meta-analysis in order to estimate the average effect of macroalgal blooms on each response of interest. Where possible, sub-group analyses will be conducted in order to evaluate how the effects of macroalgal blooms vary according to: (1 which part of the ecosystem is being studied (e.g. which habitat type, taxonomic group, or trophic level; (2 the size of blooms; (3 the region in which blooms occurred; (4 background levels of ecosystem productivity; (5 physical and chemical conditions; (6 aspects of study design and quality (e.g. lab vs. field, experimental vs. observational, degree of replication; and (7 whether the blooms are believed to be anthropogenically induced or not.

  13. Projected decreases in future marine export production: the role of the carbon flux through the upper ocean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Hauck, Judith; John, Jasmin G.; Lima, Ivan D.; Seferian, Roland; Völker, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Accurate projections of marine particle export production (EP) are crucial for predicting the response of the marine carbon cycle to climate change, yet models show a wide range in both global EP and their responses to climate change. This is, in part, due to EP being the net result of a series of processes, starting with net primary production (NPP) in the sunlit upper ocean, followed by the formation of particulate organic matter and the subsequent sinking and remineralisation of these particles, with each of these processes responding differently to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we compare future projections in EP over the 21st century, generated by four marine ecosystem models under the high emission scenario Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and determine the processes driving these changes. The models simulate small to modest decreases in global EP between -1 and -12 %. Models differ greatly with regard to the drivers causing these changes. Among them, the formation of particles is the most uncertain process with models not agreeing on either magnitude or the direction of change. The removal of the sinking particles by remineralisation is simulated to increase in the low and intermediate latitudes in three models, driven by either warming-induced increases in remineralisation or slower particle sinking, and show insignificant changes in the remaining model. Changes in ecosystem structure, particularly the relative role of diatoms matters as well, as diatoms produce larger and denser particles that sink faster and are partly protected from remineralisation. Also this controlling factor is afflicted with high uncertainties, particularly since the models differ already substantially with regard to both the initial (present-day) distribution of diatoms (between 11-94 % in the Southern Ocean) and the diatom contribution to particle formation (0.6-3.8 times higher than their

  14. Top-down control as important as nutrient enrichment for eutrophication effects in North Atlantic coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, Orjan; Eklof, Johan; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Olsson, Jens; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Bergstrom, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass and seaweed habitats constitute hotspots for diversity and ecosystem services in coastal ecosystems. These habitats are subject to anthropogenic pressures, of which eutrophication is one major stressor. Eutrophication favours fast-growing ephemeral algae over perennial macroalgae and seagra

  15. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of ground and satellite column measurements of NO2 and O3 over the Atlantic Ocean during the Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen to Coastal Ecosystems Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Douglas K.; Najjar, Raymond G.; Tzortziou, Maria; Abuhassan, Nader; Thompson, Anne M.; Kollonige, Debra E.

    2016-12-01

    In situ measurements of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 ≡ NOx) and remote sensing measurements of total column NO2 and O3 were collected on a ship in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen to Coastal Ecosystems (DANCE) campaign in July-August 2014, 100 km east of the mid-Atlantic United States. Relatively clean conditions for both surface in situ mixing ratio and total column O3 and NO2 measurements were observed throughout the campaign. Increased surface and column NO2 and O3 amounts were observed when a terrestrial air mass was advected over the study region. Relative to ship-based total column measurements using a Pandora over the entire study, satellite measurements overestimated total column NO2 under these relatively clean atmospheric conditions over offshore waters by an average of 16%. Differences are most likely due to proximity, or lack thereof, to surface emissions; spatial averaging due to the field of view of the satellite instrument; and the lack of sensitivity of satellite measurements to the surface concentrations of pollutants. Total column O3 measurements from the shipboard Pandora showed good correlation with the satellite measurements (r = 0.96), but satellite measurements were 3% systematically higher than the ship measurements, in agreement with previous studies. Derived values of boundary layer height using the surface in situ and total column measurements of NO2 are much lower than modeled and satellite-retrieved boundary layer heights, which highlight the differences in the vertical distribution between terrestrial and marine environments.

  17. The North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX. Overview of the campaign held at Mace Head, Ireland, in summer 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Heard

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX, involving over 50 scientists from 12 institutions, took place at Mace Head, Ireland (53.32° N, 9.90° W, between 23 July and 4 September 2002. A wide range of state-of-the-art instrumentation enabled detailed measurements of the boundary layer structure and atmospheric composition in the gas and aerosol phase to be made, providing one of the most comprehensive in situ studies of the marine boundary layer to date. This overview paper describes the aims of the NAMBLEX project in the context of previous field campaigns in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL, the overall layout of the site, a summary of the instrumentation deployed, the temporal coverage of the measurement data, and the numerical models used to interpret the field data. Measurements of some trace species were made for the first time during the campaign, which was characterised by predominantly clean air of marine origin, but more polluted air with higher levels of NOx originating from continental regions was also experienced. This paper provides a summary of the meteorological measurements and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL structure measurements, presents time series of some of the longer-lived trace species (O3, CO, H2, DMS, CH4, NMHC, NOx, NOy, PAN and summarises measurements of other species that are described in more detail in other papers within this special issue, namely oxygenated VOCs, HCHO, peroxides, organo-halogenated species, a range of shorter lived halogen species (I2, OIO, IO, BrO, NO3 radicals, photolysis frequencies, the free radicals OH, HO2 and (HO2+ΣRO2, as well as a summary of the aerosol measurements. NAMBLEX was supported by measurements made in the vicinity of Mace Head using the NERC Dornier-228 aircraft. Using ECMWF wind-fields, calculations were made of the air-mass trajectories

  18. Preferences for Management of Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: A Choice Experiment in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophal Chhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in New Zealand in establishing “Customary Management Areas” (taiāpure and mātaitai and Marine Reserves to support Māori cultural practices and restore declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Allocation of near-shore marine areas for these management systems potentially benefits the larger public, but it has often been vigorously opposed by recreational and commercial fishers. This paper reports estimates of the relative values held by the public toward four potentially conflicting uses of near-shore marine areas. These estimates come from a web-based choice survey completed by 1055 respondents recruited from throughout New Zealand. The response rate was especially high at 60%. We present results weighted to the characteristics of the population and test the results against a variety of well-known sources of survey bias. Scenario development suggests that some reallocation of near-shore marine areas to any of the management systems under discussion alternative to the status quo is likely to yield a welfare gain. A combination of marine reserves and taiāpure is most preferred. The exercise supports the use of discrete choice experiments to provide crucial information about difficult-to-quantify public values for aspects of management of near-shore marine areas, such as proposed taiāpure, mātaitai, or marine reserves.

  19. Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-12-01

    An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification.

  20. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  1. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  2. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  3. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  4. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  5. Information Needs Assessment for Coastal and Marine Management and Policy: Ecosystem Services Under Changing Climatic, Land Use, and Demographic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlin A; Granek, Elise F; Lubitow, Amy

    2015-12-01

    Changing climatic, demographic, and land use conditions are projected to alter the provisioning of ecosystem services in estuarine, coastal, and nearshore marine ecosystems, necessitating mitigation and adaptation policies and management. The current paradigm of research efforts occurring in parallel to, rather than in collaboration with, decision makers will be insufficient for the rapid responses required to adapt to and mitigate for projected changing conditions. Here, we suggest a different paradigm: one where research begins by engaging decision makers in the identification of priority data needs (biophysical, economic, and social). This paper uses synthesized interview data to provide insight into the varied demands for scientific research as described by decision makers working on coastal issues in Oregon, USA. The findings highlight the need to recognize (1) the differing framing of ecosystem services by decision makers versus scientists; and (2) the differing data priorities relevant to inland versus coastal decision makers. The findings further serve to highlight the need for decision makers, scientists, and funders to engage in increased communication. This research is an important first step in advancing efforts toward evidence-based decision making in Oregon and provides a template for further research across the US.

  6. Investigation of XoxF methanol dehydrogenases reveals new methylotrophic bacteria in pelagic marine and freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Arthi; Walsh, David A

    2015-10-01

    The diversity and distribution of methylotrophic bacteria have been investigated in the oceans and lakes using the methanol dehydrogenase mxaF gene as a functional marker. However, pelagic marine (OM43) and freshwater (LD28 and PRD01a001B) methylotrophs within the Betaproteobacteria lack mxaF, instead possessing a related xoxF4-encoded methanol dehydrogenase. Here, we developed and employed xoxF4 as a complementary functional gene marker to mxaF for studying methylotrophs in aquatic environment. Using xoxF4, we detected OM43-related and LD28-related methylotrophs in the ocean and freshwaters of North America, respectively, and showed the coexistence of these two lineages in a large estuarine system (St Lawrence Estuary). Gene expression patterns of xoxF4 supported a positive relationship between xoxF4-containing methylotroph activity and spring time productivity, suggesting phytoplankton blooms are a source of methylotrophic substrates. Further investigation of methanol dehydrogenase diversity in pelagic ecosystems using comparative metagenomics provided strong support for a widespread distribution of xoxF4 (as well as several distinct xoxF5) containing methylotrophs in marine and freshwater surface waters. In total, these results demonstrate a geographical distribution of OM43/LD28-related methylotrophs that includes marine and freshwaters and suggest that methylotrophy occurring in the water column is an important component of lake and estuary carbon cycling and biogeochemistry.

  7. Climate change and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems and countermeasures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO; Nian-Zhi; CHEN; Da-Ke; LUO; Yong-Ming; HUANG; Xiao-Ping; ZHANG; Rui; ZHANG; Hai-Bo; JIANG; Zhi-Jian; ZHANG; Fei

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystems of China seas and coasts are undergoing rapid changes under the strong influences of both global climate change and anthropogenic activities.To understand the scope of these changes and the mechanisms behind them is of paramount importance for the sustainable development of China,and for the establishment of national policies on environment protection and climate change mitigation.Here we provide a brief review of the impacts of global climate change and human activities on the oceans in general,and on the ecosystems of China seas and coasts in particular.More importantly,we discuss the challenges we are facing and propose several research foci for China seas/coasts ecosystem studies,including long-term time series observations on multiple scales,facilities for simulation study,blue carbon,coastal ecological security,prediction of ecosystem evolution and ecosystem-based management.We also establish a link to the Future Earth program from the perspectives of two newly formed national alliances,the China Future Ocean Alliance and the Pan-China Ocean Carbon Alliance.

  8. Climate change and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems and countermeasures in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Zhi Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of China seas and coasts are undergoing rapid changes under the strong influences of both global climate change and anthropogenic activities. To understand the scope of these changes and the mechanisms behind them is of paramount importance for the sustainable development of China, and for the establishment of national policies on environment protection and climate change mitigation. Here we provide a brief review of the impacts of global climate change and human activities on the oceans in general, and on the ecosystems of China seas and coasts in particular. More importantly, we discuss the challenges we are facing and propose several research foci for China seas/coasts ecosystem studies, including long-term time series observations on multiple scales, facilities for simulation study, blue carbon, coastal ecological security, prediction of ecosystem evolution and ecosystem-based management. We also establish a link to the Future Earth program from the perspectives of two newly formed national alliances, the China Future Ocean Alliance and the Pan-China Ocean Carbon Alliance.

  9. Biogeochemical studies of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research dealing with the biogeochemical behavior of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Studies were planned to elaborate the biokinetic behavior of Tc as TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in selected marine and estuarine organisms and to determine the affinity of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ for different marine sediments under oxygenated conditions. It is concluded that concentration factors for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in bivalve molluscs (oysters and mussels) do not exceed 2 when calculated for whole animals and when uptake is directly from water. Direct uptake from water by limpets (archeogastropod) are very much lower than have been reported for red abalone (archeogastropod). Whole body concentration factors for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, where uptake is directly from labeled seawater, do not exceed 10 at equilibrium. Both the lobster, Homarus gammaris and the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor appear to concentrate Tc efficiently from water labelled intially with TcO/sub 4//sup -/. Both plaice and rays (Raja clavata) fed /sup 95m/Tc labeled Nereis show an initial rapid loss of the isotope for approximately five days. Thereafter, loss is much reduced. Shrimp (Palaemon elegans), Cragnon sp.) and Crab (Cancer pagurus) show concentration factors similar to plaice (C.F. is less than 10). Isopods, however, have concentration factors of only 3 following four weeks exposure to labeled seawater. Uptake of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ by phytoplankton is extremely low, which precludes experiments in which TcO/sub 4//sup -/ labeled phytoplankton can be fed to either bivalve molluscs or microzooplankton. Sediment distribution coefficients for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ are essentially zero and are independent of sediment type in well oxygenated seawater. Experiments to date have shown that it is not possible to make generalizations concerning the bioavailability of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ to marine organisms.

  10. Antioxidant, hemolytic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of the tropical Atlantic marine zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL B. ALENCAR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates are capable of synthesizing bioactive compounds, which may be beneficial to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, hemolytic, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of crude extract (70% EtOH, and dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and aqueous (Aq fractions of the marine zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum. The phenolic compound contents of the crude extract, DCM, EtOAc and Aq fractions were 12.33, 18.17, 10.53, and 3.18 mg GAE per gram, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed slight variation. IC50 of crude extract, DCM, EtOAc and Aq fractions were 11.13, 11.25, 11.74, and 11.28 µg mL-1, respectively. Among the sample, ferrous ion chelating was the highest in crude extract (IC50 302.90 µg mL-1, followed by EtOAc, Aq, and DCM fractions with 457.77, 547.91, and 641.82 µg mL-1, respectively. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power showed optical density at about 0.5. The samples tested exhibited low hemolytic activity under 10% up to a concentration of 50 μg mL-1. No antimicrobial activity was observed against any of the tested bacterial strains. For the cytotoxic activity, LC50 of DCM, crude extract, EtOAc, and Aq were 52.10, 83.06, 86.34, and 117.45 μg mL-1, showing high toxicity.

  11. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (800) 445-8667 or (843) 308- 9330. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council,...

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-04-01

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

  13. Assimilation of remotely-sensed diffuse attenuation data to improve the simulation of a marine ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Torres, Ricardo; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Smyth, Timothy; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Polimene, Luca; Allen, Icarus

    2014-05-01

    Biogeochemical processes in shelf seas and coastal areas can determine the health and productivity of local systems and are important terms of the global carbon budget. The quantitative characterization of the spatial-temporal evolution of biogeochemical variables in shelf-seas is thus relevant in the framework of marine system management and climate change studies In this work we evaluate, for the first time, whether the assimilation of remotely-sensed diffuse attenuation coefficient data into a marine ecosystem model can improve the simulation of key biogeochemical variables and processes in a shelf sea. A localized Ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate weekly SeaWiFS data of diffuse light attenuation coefficient, i.e. Kd(443), into an ecosystem model of the western English Channel, for the simulation of year 2006. The spatial distributions of (unassimilated) surface chlorophyll from SeaWiFS, and eighteen time series of biogeochemical and optical data measured weekly at the monitoring station L4 were used to evaluate the system performance. A comparative assimilation experiment was run by using SeaWiFS chlorophyll data. We found that Kd(443) assimilation reduced the root mean square error and improved the correlation with the assimilated satellite observations in the largest part area of the WEC. The error for the (unassimilated) chlorophyll tended to decrease as well, but the estimates deteriorated in some parts of the study area. Assimilation of Kd(443) provided better estimates of the (unassimilated) in situ data when compared with both the reference simulation and chlorophyll assimilation. Indeed, model RMSE and bias of the estimates decreased for more than a half of the variables, and the skill metrics resulted in general better for the assimilation of the optical data. Importantly, assimilation of Kd(443) impacted the simulation of biogeochemical fluxes and ecosystem processes (e.g. shifted the simulated food web towards the microbial loop), and in

  14. Marine Governance in a European context: Regionalization, integration and cooperation for ecosystem-based management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Leeuwen, van J.

    2015-01-01

    New EU policy initiatives within the Maritime Strategy Framework Directive, the Integrated Maritime Policy, the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, the offshore Energy policy and the Blue Growth Strategy, are in different manners aiming at implementing Ecosystem Based Management (EBM). EBM focuse

  15. ICES and PICES strategies for coordinating research on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The social, economic, and ecological consequences of projected climate change on fish and fisheries are issues of global concern. In 2012, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) established a Strategic Initiative...

  16. Increasing evidence for the important role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Damare, V.S.

    of marine phycomycetes. In: (E.B. Gareth Jones, ed.). Recent advances in aquatic mycology. Elek Science, London, pp. 261-278. Jones, G. M. and R. K. O’Dor. 1983. Ultrastructural observations on a thraustochytrid fungus parasitic in the gills of squid...

  17. Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem production in societies dependent on fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barange, M.; Merino, G.; Blanchard, J.L.; Scholtens, J.; Harle, J.; Allison, E.H.; Allen, J.I.; Holt, J.; Jennings, S.

    2014-01-01

    Growing human populations and changing dietary preferences are increasing global demands for fish1, adding pressure to concerns over fisheries sustainability2. Here we develop and link models of physical, biological and human responses to climate change in 67 marine national exclusive economic zones

  18. Reaction kinetics and validity of BOD test for domestic wastewater released in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, Shivani S; Dalvi, Amita A; Prabhu, Damodar V

    2012-09-01

    With urbanization of coastal cities, marine pollution is becoming a severe problem. The rates of biodegradation, decomposition, and ratification of pollutants get slowed down due to salinity. The higher temperatures prevalent in tropical regions significantly affect reaction rates. Multiple factors influence the rate of biodegradation, making the process complex. Hence, prediction and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the marine environment due to wastewater discharges is becoming a difficult task. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a wet oxidation process, which follows first-order kinetics. The values of kinetic rate constants are expected to differ with varying salinities and temperatures. Research is carried out using glucose-glutamic acid and domestic wastewater to evaluate the impact of salinity on biodegradation of carbonaceous waste at 20°C and 27°C. The findings confirm the hypothesis of slow biodegradation of carbonaceous organic matter in marine waters. An inverse relationship between rate of biodegradation and salinity was observed. BOD exertion at 20°C (5 days) and 27°C (3 days) for the marine environment is comparable at selected salinities thereby confirming the validity of BOD test of shorter duration at elevated temperature.

  19. Validation and application of fossil DNA as a recorder of past marine ecosystems and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of planktonic species, including those that are informative in the reconstructions of past marine environmental conditions, do not produce diagnostic features (e.g., cysts, spores, or lipid biomarkers) and would therefore escape identification from the fossil record using traditional pa

  20. Conservation program and practice effects on ecosystem services in the mid atlantic region of the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Mid-Atlantic Regional (MIAR) Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP-Wetland) study area covers approximately ~58,000 km2 in the eastern United States, including areas of within five states (North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New...

  1. Large clean mesocosms and simulated dust deposition: a new methodology to investigate responses of marine oligotrophic ecosystems to atmospheric inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guieu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Intense Saharan dust deposition occurs over large oligotrophic areas in the Mediterranean Sea and the Tropical Atlantic and its impact on the biogeochemical functioning of such oligotrophic ecosystems needs to be understood. However, due to the logistical difficulties to investigate in-situ natural dust events and due to the inherent limitations of microcosm laboratory experiments, new experimental approaches need to be developed. In this paper, we present a new experimental set up based on large clean mesocoms deployed in the frame of the DUNE (a DUst experiment in a low-Nutrient, low-chlorophyll Ecosystem project. We demonstrate that these tools are highly relevant and provide a powerful new strategy to in situ study the response of an oligotrophic ecosystem to chemical forcing by atmospheric deposition of African dust. First, we describe how to cope with the large amount of dust aerosol needed to conduct the seeding experiments, by producing an analogue from soil collection in a source area and performing subsequent appropriate physico-chemical treatment in the laboratory including an eventual processing by simulated cloud water. The comparison of physico-chemical characteristics of produced dust analogues with the literature confirms that our experimental simulations are representative of dust, ageing during atmospheric transport, and subsequent deposition to the Mediterranean. Second, we demonstrate the feasibility in coastal area to installing in situ, a series of large (6×52 m3 mesocosms without perturbing the local ecosystem. All the setup, containing no metallic part and with as less as possible induced perturbation during the sampling sequence, allows working with the required conditions for biogeochemical studies in oligotrophic environments where nutrient and micronutrients are at nano- or subnano-molar levels. Two distinct "seeding experiments" were conducted by deploying mesocosms in triplicates: three mesocosms serving

  2. Large clean mesocosms and simulated dust deposition: a new methodology to investigate responses of marine oligotrophic ecosystems to atmospheric inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guieu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intense Saharan dust deposition occurs over large oligotrophic areas in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Tropical Atlantic, and its impact on the biogeochemical functioning of such oligotrophic ecosystems needs to be understood. However, due to the logistical difficulties of investigating in situ natural dust events, and due to the inherent limitations of microcosm laboratory experiments, new experimental approaches need to be developed. In this paper, we present a new experimental setup based on large, clean mesocoms deployed in the frame of the DUNE (a DUst experiment in a low-Nutrient, low-chlorophyll Ecosystem project. We demonstrate that these tools are highly relevant and provide a powerful new strategy to in situ studies of the response of an oligotrophic ecosystem to chemical forcing by atmospheric deposition of African dust. First, we describe how to cope with the large amount of dust aerosol needed to conduct the seeding experiments by producing an analogue from soil collected in a source area and by performing subsequent appropriate physico-chemical treatments in the laboratory, including an eventual processing by simulated cloud water. The comparison of the physico-chemical characteristics of produced dust analogues with the literature confirms that our experimental simulations are representative of dust, aging during atmospheric transport, and subsequent deposition to the Mediterranean. Second, we demonstrate the feasibility in coastal areas to installing, in situ, a series of large (6 × 52 m3 mesocosms without perturbing the local ecosystem. The setup, containing no metallic parts and with the least possible induced perturbation during the sampling sequence, provides an approach for working with the required conditions for biogeochemical studies in oligotrophic environments, where nutrient and micronutrients are at nano- or subnano-molar levels. Two, distinct "seeding experiments" were conducted by deploying three

  3. Inferring time-variable effects of nutrient enrichment on marine ecosystems using inverse modelling and ecological network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Anh D; De Laender, Frederik; Olsen, Yngvar; Vadstein, Olav; Dewulf, Jo; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-09-15

    We combined data from an outdoor mesocosm experiment with carbon budget modelling and an ecological network analysis to assess the effects of continuous nutrient additions on the structural and functional dynamics of a marine planktonic ecosystem. The food web receiving no nutrient additions was fuelled by detritus, as zooplankton consumed 7.2 times more detritus than they consumed algae. Nutrient supply instantly promoted herbivory so that it was comparable to detritivory at the highest nutrient addition rate. Nutrient-induced food web restructuring reduced carbon cycling and decreased the average number of compartments a unit flow of carbon crosses before dissipation. Also, the efficiency of copepod production, the link to higher trophic levels harvestable by man, was lowered up to 35 times by nutrient addition, but showed signs of recovery after 9 to 11 days. The dependency of the food web on exogenous input was not changed by the nutrient additions.

  4. An index based on the biodiversity of cetacean species to assess the environmental status of marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gaspari, Stefania; Lanfredi, Caterina; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Marsili, Letizia; Panigada, Simone; Podestà, Michela

    2014-09-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the assessment of the environmental status in relation to human pressures. In this study the biodiversity of the cetacean community is proposed as MSFD descriptor of the environmental status and its link with anthropogenic pressures is investigated. Functional groups are generally favoured over indicator species since they are thought to better reflect to anthropogenic stressors. Cetaceans are in many situations the most well known component of pelagic ecosystems. Their habitat requirements are known and can be used to evaluate the theoretical biodiversity that should be expected in a certain area. The deviations between the theoretical biodiversity and the actual biodiversity may be used to detect the impacts of human activities. Based on this analysis fishery resulted to be by far the most significant of the existing pressures. Among all the species, bottlenose dolphin was found the most correlated with the fishery sector dynamics.

  5. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  6. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    for them. In addition, future changes of temperature, storm patterns and sea-currents may also change shipping routes and ballast water management practices. Based on methods like stock taking, trend tracking and scenario modeling the paper aims to evaluate possible ecological and economic impacts......The shipping ballast water is defined as water taken on board a ship to control trim, cargo, draught, stability and stress of the ship. Alien bio-organisms in ballast water have a range of ecological impacts, for instance reducing native bio-diversity, altering habitat and potentially the overall...... in marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable...

  7. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Erik R; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias

    2014-06-15

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders - and their metabolic capabilities - may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  8. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-02

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  9. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Johnson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO. Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO, synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3–4 days after emission from the source regions of northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble

  10. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Johnson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO. Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of Northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO, synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3–4 days after emission from the source regions of Northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble

  11. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Güimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (≈ 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  12. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    contribution of particulate emissions to the total impact on the marine water column is of minor importance. We conclude that particles are an important stressor in marine ecosystems, particularly for marine sediment, and particulate emissions should therefore be included in a (life cycle) impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production.

  13. Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and ecosystems, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to ecosystem functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with California Current productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to ecosystem structure and functioning.

  14. Climate change is projected to reduce carrying capacity and redistribute species richness in North Pacific pelagic marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Drazen, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is expected to impact all aspects of marine ecosystems, including fisheries. Here, we use output from a suite of 11 earth system models to examine projected changes in two ecosystem-defining variables: temperature and food availability. In particular, we examine projected changes in epipelagic temperature and, as a proxy for food availability, zooplankton density. We find that under RCP8.5, a high business-as-usual greenhouse gas scenario, increasing temperatures may alter the spatial distribution of tuna and billfish species richness across the North Pacific basin. Furthermore, warmer waters and declining zooplankton densities may act together to lower carrying capacity for commercially valuable fish by 2-5% per decade over the 21st century. These changes have the potential to significantly impact the magnitude, composition, and distribution of commercial fish catch across the pelagic North Pacific. Such changes will in turn ultimately impact commercial fisheries' economic value. Fishery managers should anticipate these climate impacts to ensure sustainable fishery yields and livelihoods.

  15. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W-H; Shi, G R; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K-X; Song, H-J; Yue, M-L; Wu, S-B; Wu, H-T; Yang, T-L; Xiao, Y-F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Permian-Triassic brachiopod diversity and body size changes from different water depths spanning the continental shelf to basinal facies in South China provides insights into the process of environmental deterioration. Comparison of the temporal changes of brachiopod diversity between deepwater and shallow-water facies demonstrates that deepwater brachiopods disappeared earlier than shallow-water brachiopods. This indicates that high environmental stress commenced first in deepwater settings and later extended to shallow waters. This environmental stress is attributed to major volcanic eruptions, which first led to formation of a stratified ocean and a chemocline in the outer shelf and deeper water environments, causing the disappearance of deep marine benthos including brachiopods. The chemocline then rapidly migrated upward and extended to shallow waters, causing widespread mass extinction of shallow marine benthos. We predict that the spatial and temporal patterns of earlier onset of disappearance/extinction and ecological crisis in deeper water ecosystems will be recorded during other episodes of rapid global warming.

  16. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem: effects of ammonium on the population growth of Euplotes vannus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Xu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ammonium on the population growth of the marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus, were examined using ecotoxicological method. It is showed that ammonium exerts inhibitory effects on the growth of the ciliate populations in a concentration-dependent way. Statistical analysis reveals that the population growth dynamics exposed to ammonium-N concentration over 100mg/L are significantly different from that in the control at P<0.05 level. Linear regression determined that the 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h and 84h IC50 values of ammonium-N are 19.68, 201.51, 167.49, 47.86, 50.43 and 43.11 concentration over 100mg/L, respectively (P<0.05; pH 8.2; salinity 28 ppt; temperature, 25℃). The results indicate that the tolerance to ammonium in E. vannus is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, such as cultured prawns and oysters. Therefore, it is believed that the high tolerance to ammonium is necessary for ciliated protozoa to play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in the intensive aquaculture waters with high-level ammonium. In addition, the correlation between IC50 values and exposure time was discussed.

  17. Top-down control as important as nutrient enrichment for eutrophication effects in North Atlantic coastal ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass and seaweed habitats constitute hotspots for diversity and ecosystem services in coastal ecosystems. These habitats are subject to anthropogenic pressures, of which eutrophication is one major stressor. Eutrophication favours fast-growing ephemeral algae over perennial macroalgae and seagrasses, causing habitat degradation. However, changes in top-down control, caused by, for example, overfishing, may also have negative impacts on such habitats by decreasing grazer control of ephemer...

  18. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  19. Public preferences for ecosystem services on exurban landscapes: A case study from the Mid-Atlantic, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joshua M; Bruck, Jules; Barton, Susan; Murray, Megan; Inamdar, Shreeram; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports data from a residential landscape preference study conducted in Delaware, USA. The researchers constructed an ecologically designed exurban residential landscape, which delivered 20 new environmental and human-related impacts, including 7 that delivered ecosystem services. Ecosystem services included impacts such as improved flood control and enhanced plant diversity. Using pictures before and after the intervention, an intercept survey of 105 non-neighboring residents estimated whether the 20 impacts positively, negatively, or did not affect the respondents' household wellbeing. The public found that most landscape-intervention impacts had a positive effect on their quality of life, especially those impacts involving ecosystem services. All but one ecosystem service were found to be strong amenities and the other (moving indoor activities outside) was an amenity. However, the landscape intervention delivered one clear disamenity: increased undesirable wildlife. Respondents also identified what impacts were the most important in affecting their welfare: undesirable wildlife (negative); flood control (positive); and water quality (positive). Ecosystem services accounted for 41.6% of the public's importance rating, while undesirable wildlife was 12.9%. A planning process seeking more ecosystem services from residential landscapes should focus on all the most important drivers of preference, if it is to be accepted by residents.

  20. Public preferences for ecosystem services on exurban landscapes: A case study from the Mid-Atlantic, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Duke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports data from a residential landscape preference study conducted in Delaware, USA. The researchers constructed an ecologically designed exurban residential landscape, which delivered 20 new environmental and human-related impacts, including 7 that delivered ecosystem services. Ecosystem services included impacts such as improved flood control and enhanced plant diversity. Using pictures before and after the intervention, an intercept survey of 105 non-neighboring residents estimated whether the 20 impacts positively, negatively, or did not affect the respondents’ household wellbeing. The public found that most landscape-intervention impacts had a positive effect on their quality of life, especially those impacts involving ecosystem services. All but one ecosystem service were found to be strong amenities and the other (moving indoor activities outside was an amenity. However, the landscape intervention delivered one clear disamenity: increased undesirable wildlife. Respondents also identified what impacts were the most important in affecting their welfare: undesirable wildlife (negative; flood control (positive; and water quality (positive. Ecosystem services accounted for 41.6% of the public’s importance rating, while undesirable wildlife was 12.9%. A planning process seeking more ecosystem services from residential landscapes should focus on all the most important drivers of preference, if it is to be accepted by residents.

  1. Controls on the ratio of mesozooplankton production to primary production in marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Charles; Dunne, John

    2010-01-01

    An ecosystem model was used to (1) determine the extent to which global trends in the ratio of mesozooplankton production to primary production (referred to herein as the " z-ratio") can be explained by nutrient enrichment, temperature, and euphotic zone depth, and (2) quantitatively diagnose the mechanisms driving these trends. Equilibrium model solutions were calibrated to observed and empirically derived patterns in phytoplankton biomass and growth rates, mesozooplankton biomass and growth rates, and the fraction of phytoplankton that are large (>5 μm ESD). This constrained several otherwise highly uncertain model parameters. Most notably, half-saturation constants for zooplankton feeding were constrained by the biomass and growth rates of their prey populations, and low zooplankton basal metabolic rates were required to match observations from oligotrophic ecosystems. Calibrated model solutions had no major biases and produced median z-ratios and ranges consistent with estimates. However, much of the variability around the median values in the calibration dataset (72 points) could not be explained. Model results were then compared with an extended global compilation of z-ratio estimates (>10 000 points). This revealed a modest yet significant ( r=0.40) increasing trend in z-ratios from values ˜0.01-0.04 to ˜0.1-0.2 with increasing primary productivity, with the transition from low to high z-ratios occurring at lower primary productivity in cold-water ecosystems. Two mechanisms, both linked to increasing phytoplankton biomass, were responsible: (1) zooplankton gross growth efficiencies increased as their ingestion rates became much greater than basal metabolic rates and (2) the trophic distance between primary producers and mesozooplankton shortened as primary production shifted toward large phytoplankton. Mechanism (1) was most important during the transition from low to moderate productivity ecosystems and mechanism (2) was responsible for a relatively

  2. Study on marine ecosystem service and the value assessment%海洋生态系统服务价值化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁晖; 刘欣

    2013-01-01

    归纳了海洋生态系统及其服务功能的概念内涵,针对近海生态系统提供的功能进行了讨论.总结了关于海洋生态系统服务的价值评价方法并对其进行分类汇总,按照千年生态系统评估报告的分类标准,将生态系统功能分成四大类,分别为:供给功能、调节功能、文化功能和支持功能,在此基础上得出海洋生态系统综合评价的指标并将各类生态系统价值化,为以后的海洋生态价值评估工作提供科学依据和数据支持.%Based on the existing concepts of marine ecosystem service,functional services of marine ecosystem and its valuation were discussed in this paper.According to its characteristics,functions and value assessment methed,marine ecosystem service can be further classified into four types.They are provision service,regulation service,cultural service and supporting service.The comprehensive evaluating indicator of valued marine ecosystem aims to provide scientific evidences for exploration and sufficient exploration of ocean resources,and provide scientific basis and data support for marine ecosystem value assessment.

  3. The impact of Indonesian peatland degradation on downstream marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jesse F; Hohn, Sönke; Rixen, Tim; Baum, Antje; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Tropical peatlands are among the most space-efficient stores of carbon on Earth containing approximately 89 Gt C. Of this, 57 Gt (65%) are stored in Indonesian peatlands. Large-scale exploitation of land, including deforestation and drainage for the establishment of oil palm plantations, is changing the carbon balance of Indonesian peatlands, turning them from a natural sink to a source via outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere and leakage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the coastal ocean. The impacts of this perturbation to the coastal environment and at the global scale are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the downstream effects of released Indonesian peat carbon on coastal ecosystems and on the global carbon cycle. We use a biogeochemical box model in combination with novel and literature observations to investigate the impact of different carbon emission scenarios on the combined ocean-atmosphere system. The release of all carbon stored in the Indonesian peat pool, considered as a worst-case scenario, will increase atmospheric pCO2 by 8 ppm to 15 ppm within the next 200 years. The expected impact on the Java Sea ecosystems is most significant on the short term (over a few hundred years) and is characterized by an increase of 3.3% in phytoplankton, 32% in seagrass biomass, and 5% decrease in coral biomass. On the long term, however, the coastal ecosystems will recover to reach near pre-excursion conditions. Our results suggest that the ultimate fate of the peat carbon is in the deep ocean with 69% of it landing in the deep DIC pool after 1000 years, but the effects on the global ocean carbonate chemistry will be marginal.

  4. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, N. A. J.; Mcclanahan, T.R.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Wilson, Shaun K.; Polunin, Nicholas; Jennings, Simon; Chabanet, Pascale; Clark, Susan; Spalding, Mark; Letourneur, Yves; Bigot, Lionel; Galzin, René; Öhman, Marcus C; Garpe, Kajsa C.; Edwards, Alasdair J.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution\\ud of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the\\ud associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local\\ud management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef\\ud...

  5. A review of marine ecosystem dynamics model%海洋生态系统动力学模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任湘湘; 李海; 吴辉碇

    2012-01-01

    With increasing pressure for a profound understanding of marine ecosystems, numerical modeling becomes a powerful tool for the research. The development of marine ecosystem dynamics model in the last decades is reviewed. In general, marine ecosystem dynamics model could be classified into several different categories according to various features. Typical model COHERENS (Coupled Hydrodynamical Ecological model for REgioNal Shelf seas) is introduced in this article. The latest study focussed on marine ecosystem dynamics model are summarized, for example, interaction between marine ecosystem and global climate change, biological approach models including higher trophic levels, application of ecosystem models in forecasting and public policy. Finally, issues and challenges in the marine ecosystem model in the near future are also discussed.%海洋生态系统动力学模型作为定量地认识和分析海洋生态系统现象的有力工具,近年来得到了长足发展.本文首先回顾了海洋生态动力学模型的发展历史,着重介绍了21世纪以来生态系统动力学模型的三大发展趋势:一是进一步探索海洋生态系统复杂性,二是全球气候变化与海洋生态系统的相互作用;三是不再局限于理论研究,而进入于灾害预报与评估、公共决策等应用领域.其次介绍了海洋生态动力学模型的分类及典型海洋生态动力学数值模型COHERENS的特点、功能和最新的应用情况.最后总结归纳了目前海洋生态动力学模型研究领域的几大问题与挑战,展望了该研究领域未来的发展趋势和方向.

  6. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways.

  7. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vannier

    Full Text Available Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5 Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways.

  8. Avoiding whales and wellheads: technology lightens impact of marine seismic on fragile Arctic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2001-09-01

    To minimize environmental impact, Anderson Exploration Ltd and WesternGeco are using new technologies that include state-of-the-art satellite systems for tracking whales, icebergs, ships and aircraft, and a pollutant-free means of keeping the streamers, or marine recording cables, from sinking. Using WesternGeco's satellite-based vehicle tracking system (VTS), ground personnel at a base camp can instantaneously determine the whereabouts of the icebreaker {sup G}eco Snapper' and the company's two vessels surveying the ocean floor. In the air, the VTS tracks the flight paths and altitudes of WesternGeco's Bell 212 helicopter and Twin Otter planes used to monitor whales and icebergs. From the bridge of the Geco Snapper, using GPS units located on the six air gun arrays and the three marine streamers which extend four kms behind the vessel, data are recorded in real time on the positions of the data acquisition equipment relative to the vessel and relative to water depth or proximity to the sea floor. The Geco Snapper has been retrofitted with the VTS equipment in preparation for its participation in a project for acquiring what may be the first-ever seismic survey in the frigid waters of the Beaufort Sea. Instead of being filled with gasoline, the streamers trailing the vessel are foam-filled, consequently, they are extremely safe and environmentally friendly.

  9. Implications of Climate Change for Northern Canada: Freshwater, Marine, and Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Wrona, Fred J. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Reist, James D. (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 Univ. Crescent, Winnipeg, MB (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Climate variability and change is projected to have significant effects on the physical, chemical, and biological components of northern Canadian marine, terrestrial, and freshwater systems. As the climate continues to change, there will be consequences for biodiversity shifts and for the ranges and distribution of many species with resulting effects on availability, accessibility, and quality of resources upon which human populations rely. This will have implications for the protection and management of wildlife, fish, and fisheries resources; protected areas; and forests. The northward migration of species and the disruption and competition from invading species are already occurring and will continue to affect marine, terrestrial, and freshwater communities. Shifting environmental conditions will likely introduce new animal-transmitted diseases and redistribute some existing diseases, affecting key economic resources and some human populations. Stress on populations of iconic wildlife species, such as the polar bear, ringed seals, and whales, will continue as a result of changes in critical sea-ice habitat interactions. Where these stresses affect economically and culturally important species, they will have significant effects on people and regional economies. Further integrated, field-based monitoring and research programs, and the development of predictive models are required to allow for more detailed and comprehensive projections of change to be made, and to inform the development and implementation of appropriate adaptation, wildlife, and habitat conservation and protection strategies

  10. Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem production in societies dependent on fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barange, M.; Merino, G.; Blanchard, J. L.; Scholtens, J.; Harle, J.; Allison, E. H.; Allen, J. I.; Holt, J.; Jennings, S.

    2014-03-01

    Growing human populations and changing dietary preferences are increasing global demands for fish, adding pressure to concerns over fisheries sustainability. Here we develop and link models of physical, biological and human responses to climate change in 67 marine national exclusive economic zones, which yield approximately 60% of global fish catches, to project climate change yield impacts in countries with different dependencies on marine fisheries. Predicted changes in fish production indicate increased productivity at high latitudes and decreased productivity at low/mid latitudes, with considerable regional variations. With few exceptions, increases and decreases in fish production potential by 2050 are estimated to be change is predicted to increase productive potential in West Africa and decrease it in South and Southeast Asia. Despite projected human population increases and assuming that per capita fish consumption rates will be maintained, ongoing technological development in the aquaculture industry suggests that projected global fish demands in 2050 could be met, thus challenging existing predictions of inevitable shortfalls in fish supply by the mid-twenty-first century. This conclusion, however, is contingent on successful implementation of strategies for sustainable harvesting and effective distribution of wild fish products from nations and regions with a surplus to those with a deficit. Changes in management effectiveness and trade practices will remain the main influence on realized gains or losses in global fish production.

  11. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

    2014-07-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  12. Up-scaling Stream Ecosystem Processes to Predict the Effects of Land Cover Change at a Watershed Scale in the Atlantic Tropical Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromboni, F.; Feijó de Lima, R.; Silva-Júnior, E. F.; Lourenço-Amorim, C.; Zandoná, E.; Moulton, T. P.; Da Silva, B. S.; Silva-Araújo, M.; Thomas, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian land-cover change (LCC) causes a cascade of subsequent hierarchical effects that propagate through abiotic compartments until reaching the biota, altering stream ecosystem functioning. Due to the movement of water downstream, these lateral effects co-occur with longitudinal influences. We investigated both the lateral and longitudinal effects of deforestation in four streams in the Atlantic tropical rainforest of Brazil. We collected physical-chemical, geomorphic, hydrological data and samples of macroinvertebrates assemblages. We then categorized land cover at different scales (from different riparian and reach buffer sizes to sub and total watershed) using a SPOT-5 satellite image and ArcGIS. We also carried out a series of experiments along the streams to understand: 1) the mechanisms by which LCC affects periphyton and how these changes alter metabolism and nutrient uptake rates; 2) the downstream distance at which periphyton and the associated variables change in the transitions from one riparian category to the other. We used (i) a path analysis to test if our hypothesized land-cover cascade model described our data and (ii) non-linear models to describe the longitudinal effect on each variable. Our results showed that deforestation produced a range of physical changes at different spatial scale, longitudinally altering periphyton taxonomic composition (taxa depending on light), stoichiometry (nutritionally richer with increasing deforestation) and growth rates (greater in deforested). Macroinvertebrate assemblages behaved similarly to chlorophyll a in response to forest loss. Respiration rate increased with deforestation probably due to higher nutrient concentrations but primary production did not increase. Models were used to upscale LCC impacts on ecosystem processes from local scale experiments to landscape and our work has important implications for socio-economic decisions concerning ecosystem management and conservation.

  13. Biodegradation of HDPE by Aspergillus spp. from marine ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha Devi, Rajendran; Rajesh Kannan, Velu; Nivas, Duraisamy; Kannan, Kanthaiah; Chandru, Sekar; Robert Antony, Arokiaswamy

    2015-07-15

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) is the most commonly found non-degradable solid waste among the polyethylene. In this present study, HDPE degrading various fungal strains were isolated from the polyethylene waste dumped marine coastal area and screened under in vitro condition. Based on weight loss and FT-IR Spectrophotometric analysis, two fungal strains designated as VRKPT1 and VRKPT2 were found to be efficient in HDPE degradation. Through the sequence analysis of ITS region homology, the isolated fungi were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis VRKPT1 and Aspergillus flavus VRKPT2. The biofilm formation observed under epifluorescent microscope had shown the viability of fungal strains even after one month of incubation. The biodegradation of HDPE film nature was further investigated through SEM analysis. HDPE poses severe environmental threats and hence the ability of fungal isolates was proved to utilize virgin polyethylene as the carbon source without any pre-treatment and pro-oxidant additives.

  14. Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A general scheme for approaching the objective of Ecological Quality Status (EcoQ classification of zoobenthic marine ecosystems is presented. A system based on soft bottom benthic indicator species and related habitat types is suggested to be used for testing the typological definition of a given water body in the Mediterranean. Benthic indices including the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species richness are re-evaluated for use in classification. Ranges of values and of ecological quality categories are given for the diversity and species richness in different habitat types. A new biotic index (BENTIX is proposed based on the relative percentages of three ecological groups of species grouped according to their sensitivity or tolerance to disturbance factors and weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a five step numerical scale of ecological quality classification. Its advantage against former biotic indices lies in the fact that it reduces the number of the ecological groups involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The Bentix index proposed is tested and validated with data from Greek and western Mediterranean ecosystems and examples are presented. Indicator species associated with specific habitat types and pollution indicator species, scored according to their degree of tolerance to pollution, are listed in a table. The Bentix index is compared and evaluated against the indices of diversity and species richness for use in classification. The advantages of the BENTIX index as a classification tool for ECoQ include independence from habitat type, sample size and taxonomic effort, high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Oceanographic Time Series Data: Northeast Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank Marine Sanctuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Time-series oceanographic data for the Northeast Atlantic outer continental shelf, Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or...

  16. Trophic flows, kelp culture and fisheries in the marine ecosystem of an artificial reef zone in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongxin; Zhang, Xiumei; Lozano-Montes, Hector M.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the ecosystem structure and function of the nearshore reefs in the Lidao coastal ecosystem of northern China, a region of intensive kelp aquaculture, and fisheries enhancements, including the deployment of artificial reefs and release of cultured marine species. An Ecopath model, with 20 functional groups representing 81 species, was developed for a representative area in the region and Ecosim was used to explore two scenarios for alternative fishing practices and surrounding aquaculture activities. The mean trophic levels (TLs) of the functional groups ranged from 1.0 for the primary producers (phytoplankton, benthic algae and seagrass) and detritus to 4.14 for Type III fishes (fishes found in the water column above the artificial reefs, e.g., Scomberomorus niphonius). The mean transfer efficiency through the whole system was 11.7%, and the ecosystem had a relative low maturity, stability and disturbance resistance, indicating that it was at a developing stage. Nearly half of the total system biomass (48.9% of 620.20 t km-2 year-1), excluding detritus, was comprised of benthic finfish and invertebrates. The total yield from all fisheries (86.82 t/km2/year) was dominated by low trophic level herbivorous and detritivorous species, such as the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (TL = 2.1, 46.07%), other echinoderms (sea urchins Asterias amurensis and Strongylocentrotus nudus, TL = 2.1, 34.6%) and abalone Haliotis discus hannai (TL = 2.0, 18.4%), and as a consequence, the mean TL of the catch was low (2.1). The results from the Ecosim simulation of closing all fisheries for 20 years predicted an increase of about 100% in the relative biomass of the main exploited species, A. japonicus and H. discus hannai. The simulated removal of all kelp farms over 10 years resulted in a two fold increase in the relative biomass of Type III fishes and a 120% increase in their main prey (i.e. Small pelagic fish), while the relative biomass of A. japonicus and

  17. Assessing the magnitude of recent compositional changes in marine ecosystems: a conservation paleobiology case study from the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Nearly every modern marine ecosystem has experienced major changes due to anthropogenic stressors such as habitat modification, pollution, overexploitation and climate change. However, our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics in a historical time-frame (decades to few centuries) is restricted by the lack of direct, recorded human observations: properly designed ecological surveys have been conducted for comparatively short durations in the last few decades only, and in merely a few localities, poorly representative of large-scale phenomena. A unique but under-exploited source of information is hidden in death assemblages (DAs), the taxonomically identifiable, dead or discarded organic remains in a seabed. Due to the slow degradation of hard skeletal parts such as shells in the sea, DAs represent archives that accumulate information on species composition and community states over time and are inert to recent changes. Assessing the degree in compositional and ecological similarity between living (LAs) and death assemblages can be used to reconstruct the degree of recent community disturbances. Previous studies have shown that live-dead (LD) agreement tends to be poorer in anthropogenically disturbed settings, because LAs respond faster than DAs to pressures, thus increasing the LD disagreement in composition. As a complementary approach, age dating of shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization) allows identifying the timing of ecosystem change. These approaches help recognize community shifts in time, overcoming the lack of direct observation. As a case study, we present the results of applying these techniques to the impacts of oil platforms on the benthic assemblages in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. This semi-enclosed basin originated 12,500 years ago and currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, it has been affected by major oil spills. Contaminants show a weak gradient within each

  18. RNA-TGGE, a Tool for Assessing the Potential for Bioremediation in Impacted Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K. Kadali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation-independent genomic approaches have greatly advanced our understanding of the ecology and diversity of microbial communities involved in biodegradation processes. However, much still needs to be resolved in terms of the structure, composition and dynamics of the microbial community in impacted ecosystems. Here we report on the RNA activity of the microbial community during the bioremediation process using RNA Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (RNA-TGGE. Dendrograms constructed from similarity matching data produced from the TGGE profiles separated a community exhibiting high remediation potential. Overall, increased Shannon Weaver Diversity indices (1–2.4 were observed in the high potential remediation treatment samples. The functionality of the microbial community was compared, with the microbial community showing the greatest organisation also showing the highest levels of hydrocarbon degradation. Subsequent sequencing of excised bands from the microbial community identified the presence of Gammaproteobacteria together with a number of uncultured bacteria. The data shows that RNA TGGE represents a simple, reproducible and effective tool for use in the assessment of a commercial bioremediation event, in terms of monitoring either the natural or augmented hydrocarbon-degrading microbial community.

  19. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (biomass and production estimates, which have yet to be achieved with complex models, and will therefore help to highlight priorities for future research and data collection. However, the focus on simple model structures and global processes means that non-phytoplankton primary production and several groups, structures and processes of ecological and conservation interest are not represented

  20. Simulations of the impact of high pulse atmospheric deposition events on a low nutrient low chlorophyll (LNLC) marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulaki, Sylvia; Petihakis, George; Tsiaras, Konstantinos; Triantafyllou, George; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Nutrient availability controls ocean productivity and partitioning of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere, mediated by the limiting potential of macro and micronutrients such as N, P, Fe and Si. Atmospheric deposition is a major pathway for nutrient delivery with potential to alter the role of the ocean from a sink to a source of CO2 and vice versa. Mediterranean region is of interest for both its marine and atmospheric environments. Its Sea is one of the world's most oligotrophic regions in terms of both primary productivity and chlorophyll-a concentration. Its atmosphere is a cross road of air masses of distinct origin highly affected by both natural and anthropogenic emissions. These emissions strongly interact in the atmosphere, due to the high photochemical activity in the area, leading to the formation of nutrients such as nitrogen compounds. Dust aerosols from the African continent are also affecting the area and act as carriers of nutrients such as iron and phosphorus. In the Eastern Basin, where nutrient riverine inputs are very low, wet and dry atmospheric inputs of N and P are the main source of new nutrients in the euphotic zone of the open sea, particularly during the stratification period. In the present study, the impact of an intense atmospheric nitrogen and phosphorus deposition pulse event on the marine ecosystem in the East Mediterranean Sea is investigated. This is achieved by coupling atmospheric and sea water observations with a 1-D ocean physical-biogeochemical model, set up for the Cretan Sea as a representative E. Mediterranean open sea area (Christodoulaki et al., 2012, Journal of Marine Systems, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.07.007). Atmospheric deposition measurements of Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorous and Nitrogen are obtained from the station of Finokalia, shown to be a representative background station for atmospheric observations in the area, whereas, oceanographic data are obtained from the M3A station. Analysis of this high pulse

  1. Progress in marine ecosystem modelling and the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R.

    2010-04-01

    Modelling methodology, it is argued, is primarily about providing explanations of data which, if sufficiently convincing, provide a basis for prediction and forecasting. Models allow us to synthesise our knowledge and explore its ramifications, leading to insight and discovery. As such, modelling is invaluable to the progress of marine science, the development and implementation of ever more complex models moving in tandem with our expanding knowledge base. It is possible to argue, however, that mathematics can be "unreasonably effective" at describing phenomena, particularly for complex models where there are often many free parameters to tune against limited data. Errors become difficult to pinpoint and correct, and creativity may be stifled as models become entrenched within the prevailing paradigm. Indiscriminately adding layer upon layer of complexity in models may therefore be counter productive, particularly if prediction of future scenarios such as changing climate is the ultimate goal. The inclusion of additional complexity in models is nevertheless desirable, where relevant and practicable. New modelling approaches that are coming to the fore likely hold the key to future progress such as targeting complexity in key species and trophic levels, adaptive parameterisations and the representation of physiological trade-offs, providing the potential to simulate emergent community structure.

  2. Endocrine disrupting compounds and echinoderms: new ecotoxicological sentinels for the marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugni, Michela; Mozzi, Daniela; Barbaglio, Alice; Bonasoro, Francesco; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela

    2007-02-01

    Echinoderms are valuable test species in marine ecotoxicology and offer a wide range of biological processes appropriate for this approach. In spite of this potential, available data in literature are still rather limited, particularly with regard to the possible effects of endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs). This review presents echinoderms as useful models for ecotoxicological tests and gives a brief overview of the most significant results obtained in recent years, particularly in the context of the COMPRENDO EU project. In this research project two different aspects of echinoderm physiology, plausibly regulated by humoral mechanisms, were investigated: reproductive biology and regenerative development. Selected EDCs suspected for their androgenic or antiandrogenic action were tested at low concentrations. The results obtained so far showed that different parameters such as regenerative growth, histological pattern, egg diameter and gonad maturation were affected by the exposure to the selected compounds. These results substantiate that reproductive and regenerative phenomena of echinoderms can be considered valuable alternative models for studies on EDCs and confirm that these compounds interfere with fundamental physiological processes, including growth, development and reproductive competence.

  3. Influence of small-scale North Atlantic sea surface temperature patterns on the marine boundary layer and free troposphere: a study using the atmospheric ARPEGE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Marie; Terray, Laurent; Boé, Julien; Maisonnave, Eric; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia

    2016-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric model is used to investigate the influence of the representation of small-scale North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) patterns on the atmosphere during boreal winter. Two ensembles of forced simulations are performed and compared. In the first ensemble (HRES), the full spatial resolution of the SST is maintained while small-scale features are smoothed out in the Gulf Stream region for the second ensemble (SMTH). The model shows a reasonable climatology in term of large-scale circulation and air-sea interaction coefficient when compared to reanalyses and satellite observations, respectively. The impact of small-scale SST patterns as depicted by differences between HRES and SMTH shows a strong meso-scale local mean response in terms of surface heat fluxes, convective precipitation, and to a lesser extent cloudiness. The main mechanism behind these statistical differences is that of a simple hydrostatic pressure adjustment related to increased SST and marine atmospheric boundary layer temperature gradient along the North Atlantic SST front. The model response to small-scale SST patterns also includes remote large-scale effects: upper tropospheric winds show a decrease downstream of the eddy-driven jet maxima over the central North Atlantic, while the subtropical jet exhibits a significant northward shift in particular over the eastern Mediterranean region. Significant changes are simulated in regard to the North Atlantic storm track, such as a southward shift of the storm density off the coast of North America towards the maximum SST gradient. A storm density decrease is also depicted over Greenland and the Nordic seas while a significant increase is seen over the northern part of the Mediterranean basin. Changes in Rossby wave breaking frequencies and weather regimes spatial patterns are shown to be associated to the jets and storm track changes.

  4. Deep-sea ecosystem response to the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO) in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Dorothea; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Friedrich, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the benthic foraminiferal diversity and species composition from North Atlantic IODP Site U1408 in order to document changes in deep-water circulation and organic matter fluxes across the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO). Site U1408 was drilled at a present water depth of 3022 m southeast of the coast of Newfoundland. The benthic foraminiferal faunas are characterized by generally high species diversity suggesting favorable environmental conditions throughout the studied interval. Among a total of 193 benthic foraminiferal taxa the most dominant genera include Nuttallides, Oridorsalis, Cibicidoides, Pullenia, Anomalinoides, Globocassidulina and Gyroidinoides. Increased abundances of elongate-cylindrical infaunal species suggest approximately 460 ka duration of the MECO (from around 40.19 to 39.73 Ma) and the presence of slightly less ventilated bottom waters and elevated food availability during this time interval. The duration of the MECO also coincides with the presence of the planktonic foraminifer Orbulinoides beckmanni, which therefore is used as an Eocene biostratigraphy marker defining the end of the warm interval with its Last Appearance Datum. Changes in the benthic foraminiferal fauna probably reflect the onset of deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean as response to the long-term climatic cooling trend of the middle Eocene. The intensification of deep-water currents and increased influence of cold and well-ventilated deep-water masses is reflected by increased importance of the Nuttallides truempyi-fauna. Superimposed on this long-term faunal trend are changes in the distribution of Globocassidulina subglobosa at a period of approximately 200 ka suggesting an eccentricity forcing of deep-water formation and associated food quality at the sea floor.

  5. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the Census of Marine Life decade and beyond: A proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    German, C.R.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Baker, M.C.; Tyler, P.A.; Baco-Taylor, A.; Boetius, A.; Bright, M.; de Siqueira, L.C.; Cordes, E.E.; Desbruyeres, D.; Dubilier, N.; Fisher, C.R.; Fujiwara, Y.; Gaill, F.; Gebruk, A.; Juniper, K.; Levin, L.A.; Lokabharathi, P.A.; Metaxas, A.; Rowden, A.A.; Santos, R.S.; Shank, T.M.; Smith, C.R.; Van Dover, C.L.; Young, C.M.; Waren, A.

    West Africa, encompassing a very large region around the Equator, from 15uS to 30uN. The key sites include the Costa Rica cold seeps, the Gulf of Mexico cold seeps, the ultra-slow spreading Mid Cayman Rise, the Barbados Accretionary Prism, hydrothermal... and those present in the Americas – along the Atlantic margin, the Barbados Accretionary Prism, the Gulf of Mexico and, in the extreme, along the Pacific margin of Costa Rica which would also have Census Chemosynthetic Ecosystem Research & Beyond PLoS ONE...

  6. Linking climate to population variability in marine ecosystems characterized by non-simple dynamics: Conceptual templates and schematic constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The ability to abstract and symbolize ideas and knowledge as simplified schematic constructs is an important element of scientific creativity and communication. Availability of such generalized symbolic constructs may be particularly important when addressing a complex adaptive system such as a marine ecosystem. Various examples have appeared in the climate-fisheries literature, each more or less effectively integrating hypothesized effects of several interacting environmental and/or biological processes in controlling population dynamics of exploited fish species. A selection of these are herein presented and reviewed, including match-mismatch, connectivity, school trap, loopholes, ocean triads, stable ocean hypothesis, several classes of nonlinear feedback loops (e.g., ' P2P', school-mix feedback, predator pit), as well as several prominent large-scale integrative climatic index series ( SOI, NAO, PDO). The importance of considering the potential for adaptation and/or rapid evolution is stressed. An argument is offered for the potential utility of such widely recognizable schematic concepts in offering relatively well-understood, fairly well-defined frameworks for comparative identification and elaboration of important mechanistic linkages between climate variability and fishery dynamics, as well as in easing effective communication among scientists from different regions and disciplinary backgrounds. Certain difficulties in the application of the comparative method are discussed. It is suggested that alleviation of such difficulties may be one of the major benefits of international collaborative programs such as GLOBEC and IMBER.

  7. The Mental Demands of Marine Ecosystem-Based Management: A Constructive Developmental Lens (by V. G. DeLauer, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jordan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed by Thomas Jordan Our societies face a number of challenging issues that are both important, because of their impact on the wellbeing of people and nature, and complex, because many causal and conditioning factors and diverse stakeholders are involved. We find such issues in many areas, such as climate change, biodiversity, environmental pollution, intractable conflicts, crime, unhealthy lifestyles, drug abuse, mobbing, etc. Arguably, building capacities to skillfully manage complex societal issues should be a central concern for many of us. I believe most readers of this journal share a belief that the field of adult development sits on a treasure of insight that could contribute very significantly to our understanding of how we could build such capacities. However, the number of solid empirical studies using a developmental perspective on meaning-making among people with crucial roles in organizations and initiatives working on issues of great societal significance is still small. I was therefore very satisfied, not to say thrilled, when I stumbled upon Verna DeLauer’s doctoral dissertation The Mental Demands of Marine Ecosystem-Based Management: A Constructive Developmental Lens. DeLauer has, in my view, written a doctoral dissertation

  8. Climate-induced changes in bottom-up and top-down processes independently alter a marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Schneider, Florian D; Crowe, Tasman P; Brose, Ulrich; O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2012-11-05

    Climate change has complex structural impacts on coastal ecosystems. Global warming is linked to a widespread decline in body size, whereas increased flood frequency can amplify nutrient enrichment through enhanced run-off. Altered population body-size structure represents a disruption in top-down control, whereas eutrophication embodies a change in bottom-up forcing. These processes are typically studied in isolation and little is known about their potential interactive effects. Here, we present the results of an in situ experiment examining the combined effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on the structure of a coastal marine community. Reduced average body mass of the top predator (the shore crab, Carcinus maenas) and nutrient enrichment combined additively to alter mean community body mass. Nutrient enrichment increased species richness and overall density of organisms. Reduced top-predator body mass increased community biomass. Additionally, we found evidence for an allometrically induced trophic cascade. Here, the reduction in top-predator body mass enabled greater biomass of intermediate fish predators within the mesocosms. This, in turn, suppressed key micrograzers, which led to an overall increase in microalgal biomass. This response highlights the possibility for climate-induced trophic cascades, driven by altered size structure of populations, rather than species extinction.

  9. Relationship between bacteria and phytoplankton during the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai bloom in an oligotrophic temperate marine ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yang; HUANG Xuguang; HUANG Bangqin; MI Tiezhu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial abundance, phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters were investigated to study the relationships between bacteria and phytoplankton during giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai blooms in the central Yellow Sea during 2013. N. nomurai appeared in June, increased in August, reached a peak and began to degrade in September 2013. Results showed that phosphate was possible a key nutrient for both phytoplankton and bacteria in June, but it changed to nitrate in August and September. Phytoplankton composition significantly changed that pico-phytoplankton relative biomass significantly increased, whereas other size phytoplankton significantly decreased during jellyfish bloom. In June, a significantly positive correlation was observed between chlorophyll a concentration and bacterial abundance (r=0.67, P0.05, n=25), but the relationship (r=0.71, P<0.001, n=31) was rebuilt with jellyfish degradation in September. In August, small size phytoplankton occupied the mixed layer in offshore stations, while bacteria almost distributed evenly in vertical. Chlorophyll a concentration significantly increased from (0.42±0.056) μg/L in June to (0.74±0.174) μg/L in August , while bacterial abundance just slightly increased. Additionally, the negative net community production indicated that community respiration was not entirely determined by the local primary productivity in August. These results indicated that jellyfish blooms potentially affect coupling of phytoplankton and bacteria in marine ecosystems.

  10. Global trends in world fisheries: impacts on marine ecosystems and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Daniel; Watson, Reg; Alder, Jackie

    2005-01-29

    This contribution, which reviews some broad trends in human history and in the history of fishing, argues that sustainability, however defined, rarely if ever occurred as a result of an explicit policy, but as result of our inability to access a major part of exploited stocks. With the development of industrial fishing, and the resulting invasion of the refuges previously provided by distance and depth, our interactions with fisheries resources have come to resemble the wars of extermination that newly arrived hunters conducted 40,000-50,000 years ago in Australia, and 11,000-13,000 years ago against large terrestrial mammals arrived in North America. These broad trends are documented here through a map of change in fish sizes, which displays characteristic declines, first in the nearshore waters of industrialized countries of the Northern Hemisphere, then spread offshore and to the Southern Hemisphere. This geographical extension met its natural limit in the late 1980s, when the catches from newly accessed stocks ceased to compensate for the collapse in areas accessed earlier, hence leading to a gradual decline of global landing. These trends affect developing countries more than the developed world, which have been able to meet the shortfall by increasing imports from developing countries. These trends, however, together with the rapid growth of farming of carnivorous fishes, which consumes other fishes suited for human consumption, have led to serious food security issues. This promotes urgency to the implementation of the remedies traditionally proposed to alleviate overfishing (reduction of overcapacity, enforcement of conservative total allowable catches, etc.), and to the implementation of non-conventional approaches, notably the re-establishment of the refuges (also known as marine reserves), which made possible the apparent sustainability of pre-industrial fisheries.

  11. Likelihood of a marine vessel accident from wind energy development in the Atlantic: Likelihood of shipping accident from wind energy in the Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Breithaupt, Stephen [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Whiting, Jonathan [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Grear, Molly [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Tagestad, Jerry [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Shelton, Gregory [Shelton International, Seattle Washington USA

    2015-11-02

    Offshore wind energy development is planned for areas off the Atlantic coast. Many of the planned wind development areas fall within traditional commercial vessel routes. In order to mitigate possible hazards to ships and to wind turbines, it is important to understand the potential for increased risk to commercial shipping from the presence of wind farms. Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, historical shipping routes between ports in the Atlantic were identified, from Maine to the Florida Straits. The AIS data were also used as inputs to a numerical model that can simulate cargo, tanker and tug/towing vessel movement along typical routes. The model was used to recreate present day vessel movement, as well as to simulate future routing that may be required to avoid wind farms. By comparing the present and future routing of vessels, a risk analysis was carried out to determine the increased marginal risk of vessel collisions, groundings, and allisions with stationary objects, due to the presence of wind farms. The outcome of the analysis showed little increase in vessel collisions or allisions, and a decrease in groundings as more vessels were forced seaward by the wind farms.

  12. Response of proto-North Atlantic carbonate-platform ecosystems to OAE1a-related stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Stefan; Stein, Melody; Immenhauser, Adrian; Skelton, Peter W.; Christ, Nicolas; Föllmi, Karl B.; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Integrated biostratigraphic-chemostratigraphic studies provide evidence that the proto-North Atlantic realm witnessed major changes in carbonate platform production in the run-up of the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a. Whereas pervasive growth of Lithocodium microencrusters represents an early harbinger of OAE1a-related environmental perturbation, the subsequent replacement of oligotrophic rudist-coral-nerineid by mesotrophic orbitolinid-oyster communities was clearly associated with the event itself. In order to test the supra-regional relevance of this major community replacement, two shallow-water sections in the southern Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) are investigated by means of geochemistry (carbon and oxygen isotopes), cement petrography and detailed sedimentological analysis. The focus is on a regional, prominent discontinuity surface (S4) at the transition between oligotrophic and mesotrophic carbonate platform production, which might indicate that the major biotic change could have been associated with a phase of non-sedimentation and possibly erosion. The studied sections (São Julião, Crismina) provide evidence that the major Early Aptian biotic turnover was preceded by numerous subordinate but significant changes in platform ecology, which mirrored a series of progressive short-term environmental changes in the course of OAE1. Several transient mass occurrences of orbitolinids indicate repeated phases of ecological stress arguably due to enhanced nutrient input and deepening. Small-scale sea-level changes at parasequence level below the major discontinuity surface are revealed by alternations of rudist assemblages dominated by clinger or recumbent forms as well as intercalated hardground and subaerial exposure stages. Expanded phases of subaerial exposure, however, can be largely ruled out following the geochemical and cement-petrographic data presented here. Enhanced continent-derived siliciclastic input characterising the lower orbitolinid

  13. Distribution of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in wild marine fish from Scottish waters with respect to clinically infected aquaculture sites producing Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, I S; Gregory, A; Murray, A G; Munro, E S; Raynard, R S

    2008-03-01

    This study represents the first large-scale investigation of IPNV in Scottish wild marine fish. Kidney samples were taken from 30 627 fish comprising 37 species and 45 isolations were made from nine different species, illustrating these as reservoirs of IPNV in Scottish waters. The estimated prevalence of IPNV in the Scottish marine environment was low at 0.15% (90% confidence intervals, (CI) of 0.11-0.19%). This was significantly greater in fish caught less than 5.0 km from IPN-positive fish farms in Shetland, at 0.58% (90% CI of 0.45-0.77%). This prevalence persisted and did not significantly decrease over the 16-month period of study. The estimated prevalence of IPNV for each positive species was less than 1% with the statistically non-significant exceptions of flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), at 12.5% (90% CI of 0.64-47.06%) and saithe, Pollachius virens (L.), at 1.11% (90% CI of 0.49-2.19%). The 45 isolates were titrated and all but two were below the detection limit of the test (<55 PFU g(-1)). Titres of 3.8 x 10(2) PFU g(-1) and 2.8 x 10(1) PFU g(-1) were calculated from common dab, Limanda limanda (L.), and saithe, respectively. This study provides evidence that clinical outbreaks of IPN in farmed Atlantic salmon may cause a localized small increase in the prevalence of IPNV in wild marine fish.

  14. The rise of ocean giants: maximum body size in Cenozoic marine mammals as an indicator for productivity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2016-01-01

    Large consumers have ecological influence disproportionate to their abundance, although this influence in food webs depends directly on productivity. Evolutionary patterns at geologic timescales inform expectations about the relationship between consumers and productivity, but it is very difficult to track productivity through time with direct, quantitative measures. Based on previous work that used the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine invertebrate assemblages as a proxy for benthic productivity, we investigated how the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine mammals, in two feeding guilds, evolved over comparable temporal and geographical scales. First, maximal size in marine herbivores remains mostly stable and occupied by two different groups (desmostylians and sirenians) over separate timeframes in the North Pacific Ocean, while sirenians exclusively dominated this ecological mode in the North Atlantic. Second, mysticete whales, which are the largest Cenozoic consumers in the filter-feeding guild, remained in the same size range until a Mio-Pliocene onset of cetacean gigantism. Both vertebrate guilds achieved very large size only recently, suggesting that different trophic mechanisms promoting gigantism in the oceans have operated in the Cenozoic than in previous eras. PMID:27381883

  15. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  16. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Erwin, R. Michael; Prosser, Diann J.; Taylor, Janith D.

    2012-01-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) of salt marshes modifies grid-ditched marshes by creating permanent ponds and radial ditches in the high marsh that reduce mosquito production and enhance fish predation on mosquitoes. It is preferable to using pesticides to control salt marsh mosquito production and is commonly presented as a restoration or habitat enhancement tool for grid-ditched salt marshes. Monitoring of nekton, vegetation, groundwater level, soil salinity, and bird communities before and after OMWM at 11 (six treatment and five reference sites) Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.) salt marshes revealed high variability within and among differing OMWM techniques (ditch-plugging, reengineering of sill ditches, and the creation of ponds and radial ditches). At three marshes, the dominant nekton shifted from fish (primarily Fundulidae species) to shrimp (Palaemonidae species) after manipulations and shrimp density increased at other treatment sites. Vegetation changed at only two sites, one with construction equipment impacts (not desired) and one with a decrease in woody vegetation along existing ditches (desired). One marsh had lower groundwater level and soil salinity, and bird use, although variable, was often unrelated to OMWM manipulations. The potential effects of OMWM manipulations on non-target salt marsh resources need to be carefully considered by resource planners when managing marshes for mosquito control.

  17. Coastal Lagoons and Climate Change: Ecological and Social Ramifications in U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are highly productive coastal features that provide a range of natural services that society values. Their setting within the coastal landscape leaves them especially vulnerable to profound physical, ecological, and associated societal disturbance from global climate change. Expected shifts in physical and ecological characteristics range from changes in flushing regime, freshwater inputs, and water chemistry to complete inundation and loss and the concomitant loss of natural and human communities. Therefore, managing coastal lagoons in the context of global climate change is critical. Although management approaches will vary depending on local conditions and cultural norms, all management scenarios will need to be nimble and to make full use of the spectrum of values through which society views these unique ecosystems. We propose that this spectrum includes pragmatic, scholarly, aesthetic, and tacit categories of value. Pragmatic values such as fishery or tourism revenue are most easily quantified and are therefore more likely to be considered in management strategies. In contrast, tacit values such as a sense of place are more difficult to quantify and therefore more likely to be left out of explicit management justifications. However, tacit values are the most influential to stakeholder involvement because they both derive from and shape individual experiences and beliefs. Tacit values underpin all categories of social values that we describe and can be expected to have a strong influence over human behavior. The articulation and inclusion of the full spectrum of values, especially tacit values, will facilitate and support nimble adaptive management of coastal lagoon ecosystems in the context of global climate change.

  18. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  19. Les écosystèmes marins de la Caraïbe : identification, diffusion et modes de gestion Marine ecosystems of the Caribbean : identification, dissemination and management methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Augier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le milieu marin de la Mer des Caraïbes est composé de trois écosystèmes principaux : les récifs coralliens, les mangroves et les herbiers, qui abritent une faune et une flore exceptionnelles. Mais l’équilibre fragile de ces espaces est menacé par les nombreuses activités humaines qui les dégradent progressivement. Face aux enjeux socio-économiques qu’ils représentent pour les pays caribéens, ces derniers ont établi un cadre juridique à l’échelle régionale pour la protection et la gestion de leur ressource marine, la Convention de Carthagène.  Après avoir dresser un tableau de la situation environnementale des principaux écosystèmes marins caribéens, il convient de faire un point sur les mode de gestion mis en œuvre pour les préserver.The marine environment of the Caribbean Sea is composed primarily of three main ecosystems: coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, home to fauna and flora. But the delicate balance of these areas is threatened by many human activities that deteriorate gradually deteriorated them. Deal with socio-economic issues around these resources, Caribbean countries have established a legal framework at the regional level to ensure the protection and management of marine resources (the Cartagena Convention. After drawing up an overview of the environmental situation of the main Caribbean marine ecosystems, it should present the management mode adopted to preserve them.

  20. Sustainable Development Ability of China's Marine Ecosystem in the Perspective of Entropy%熵视角下的中国海洋生态系统可持续发展能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄乾斌; 韩雨汐

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evaluation of Marine ecosystem sustainable development ability is an important basic to grasp accurately whether healthy development of Marine ecosystem or not.In the Marine economy sustainable development concept,the sustainable development of Marine ecosystem is a foundation,and of great significance for human development.However,as the global population increases and an increase in the demand for resources,the Marine resources excessive consumption,and water eutrophication and serious consequences such as ecological variation,Marine ecosystems are under great pressure.Therefore,how to determine scientifically whether Marine ecosystem health development or not,has become an important problem under Marine economy sustainable development target.Large Marine ecosystem is an open system,which has the general characteristics of complex systems,such as open,dynamic,metabolic and adaptive.Marine ecosystem exchanges energy with the outside world,whose structure changes with the external disturbances and internal fluctuation change,and is a dynamic and stable ordered structure with a strong vitality.It has not only different pattern in the space and function,also shows a succession stage on time.Marine ecological system conforms to the characteristics of dissipative structure,and the change process shows the dissipative structure system characterized by the entropy change.The evaluation index system of sustainable development ability of Marine ecosystem was founded based on the characteristics of Marine ecosystem and understanding of Marine ecosystem sustainable development connotation.The sustainable development ability assessment model for Marine ecosystem was built up based on information entropy.The information entropy theory is based on probability and numerical statistics.Entropy in this article is a quantitative description of Marine ecosystem state,to evaluate Marine ecosystem sustainable development ability and the trend.Thus it analyzed various

  1. Habitat suitability models for predicting the occurrence of vulnerable marine ecosystems in the seas around New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Owen F.; Guinotte, John M.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Tracey, Dianne M.; Mackay, Kevin A.; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial management planning for vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) across broad areas of un-sampled seafloor requires detailed predictions of species distribution. We utilised two habitat suitability modelling techniques, boosted regression trees (BRT) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), to create potential distribution maps for 11 VME indicator taxa in the New Zealand area and adjacent seas. New bathymetry data were combined with existing environmental, chemical and physical data to produce a set of 45 predictor variables describing conditions at the seafloor. Nine of these variables were selected for use in the models based on low covariance and high explanatory power. Historical biological survey data were used to provide models with absence data (BRT) or target-group background data (MaxEnt). Model agreement was high, with each model predicting similar areas of suitable habitat both in the vicinity of known VME indicator taxa presence locations as well as across broad regions of un-sampled seafloor. Model performance measures, including cross-validation testing against sets of spatially independent data, did not clearly indicate a preferred modelling method across all taxa. Previous habitat suitability modelling efforts have rarely accounted for model precision, and in this study we used a bootstrap re-sampling technique to produce model uncertainty maps to accompany each habitat suitability map. Because of the similar performance of BRT and MaxEnt methods in this study, we conclude that the best approach to incorporating the results into decision-support tools for spatial conservation planning is to average predictions and uncertainty from both.

  2. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetical...

  3. Comparison of marine gravity from shipboard and high-density satellite altimetry along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30.5-35.5 deg S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Sandwell, David

    1993-01-01

    We compare new marine gravity fields derived from satellite altimetry with shipboard measurements over a region of more than 120,000 sq km in the central South Atlantic. Newly declassified satellite data were employed to construct free-air anomaly maps on 0.05 degree grids. An extensive gravity and bathymetry data set from four cruises along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 30.5-35.5 deg S provides a benchmark for testing the 2D resolution and accuracy of the satellite measurements where their crosstrack spacing is near their widest. The satellite gravity signal is coherent with bathymetry in this region down to wavelengths of 26 km, compared to 12.5 km for shipboard gravity. Residuals between the shipboard and satellite data sets have a roughly normal distribution. The standard deviation of satellite gravity with respect to shipboard measurements is nearly 7 mGal in a region of 140 mGal total variation, whereas the internal standard deviation at crossovers for GPS-navigated shipboard data is 1.8 mGal. The differences between shipboard and satellite data are too large to use satellite gravity to determine crustal thickness variations within a typical ridge segment.

  4. Dietary soybean protein concentrate-induced intestinal disorder in marine farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar is associated with alterations in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Smullen, Richard; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-09-27

    The aquaculture industry has made substantial progress in reducing the fishmeal content of feeds for carnivorous species, driven by demand for improved sustainability and reduced cost. Soybean protein concentrate (SPC) is an attractive replacement for fishmeal, but intestinal disorders have been reported in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed these diets at high seawater temperatures, with preliminary evidence suggesting SPC induces these disorders by altering the intestinal microbiota. We compared the intestinal microbiota of marine-farmed S. salar fed experimental diets with varying levels of SPC in mid- and late-summer. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA clone library analysis revealed the microbiota adherent to the intestinal tract of salmon is complex at the population level, but simple and highly variable at the individual level. Temporal changes were observed with the bacterial diversity increasing in the intestinal tract in late summer. A Verrucomicrobia was the most frequently observed ribotype in early summer, whilst an Aliivibrio was the most frequently observed ribotype in late summer. Feeding SPC to salmon increased the bacterial diversity of the intestinal tract and resulted in the presence of bacteria not normally associated with marine fish (Escherichia and Propionibacterium). These diet-induced changes to the intestinal-microbiome could be ameliorated by inclusion of a prebiotic (mannan-oligosaccharide or MOS) to the diet. None of the experimental diets induced inflammation of the intestine as assessed by histopathology and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Our results support the "dysbiosis" hypothesis that SPC adversely affects the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon.

  5. Value Assessment of Marine Ecosystem Services in Shenzhen City%深圳市海洋生态系统服务价值的估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪钟; 周连宁; 郝文龙; 余麟; 刘晓东

    2016-01-01

    [目的]科学评估深圳市海洋生态系统服务及其价值。[方法]将深圳市海洋生态系统服务划分为4个大类12个亚类,利用成果参照法、市场价值法、替代成本法等方法,对深圳市海洋生态系统服务价值进行评估。[结果]深圳市海洋生态系统服务价值为260130.61万元,单位面积海洋生态系统服务价值为2.27万元/hm2。其中,文化服务价值最大,占总服务价值的60.33%;其次是供给服务,占比为20.30%;第三是调节服务,占比为14.79%;最小是支持服务,占比为4.59%。各项服务价值的占比由高到低依次为旅游娱乐、食品供给、物质循环、气候调节、水质净化、干扰调节、知识拓展、空气质量调节、基因资源供给、生物控制、原材料供给、提供生境。[结论]该研究对合理开发和保护海洋资源、促进深圳市海洋生态系统的可持续发展具有重要的战略意义。%Objective] To scientifically evaluate the marine ecosystem services in Shenzhen City and its value.[Method] The marine ecosystem services of Shenzhen City were divided into 4 major categories and 12 subcategories.Market price method, replace cost method and the results re-fer method were used to evaluate the economic values of marine ecosystem in Shenzhen City.[ Result] The total value of the marine ecosystem services in Shenzhen City was 2 601.306 1 million yuan in 2013, with average value of marine ecosystem services per unit sea area of 2.27 million yuan/hm2 .The cultural services value was the largest, the proportion of the total services value was 60.33%.The second was the supply services, and the proportion was 20.30%.The third was adjust services, the proportion was 14.79%;support services was minimum, the proportion was 4.59%.The order of each service value was tourism and entertainment services >food provision services >nutrient cycle serv-ices >climate regulation services >water

  6. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Benthic Data from Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0000881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  7. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0052882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  8. Sensitive coastal marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  10. Refugia of marine fish in the Northeast Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kettle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We show how an ecological niche model (ENM based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species that are now in Northwestern Europe were almost completely displaced southward from the modern distribution. Significantly, there is strong evidence that there was an invasion of fish of current economic importance into the Western Mediterranean through the Straits of Gibraltar, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations. There has been much recent interest in the marine glacial refugia to understand how the ranges of the economically important fish species will be displaced with the future climate warming. Recent ENM studies have suggested that species ranges may not have been displaced far southward during the coldest conditions of the LGM. However, archaeozoological evidence and LGM ocean temperature reconstructions indicate that there were large range changes, and certain marine species were able invade the Western Mediterranean. These findings are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions and delimit the glacial refugia.

  11. Ecological meltdown in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland: two centuries of change in a coastal marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth H Thurstan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Firth of Clyde is a large inlet of the sea that extends over 100 km into Scotland's west coast. METHODS: We compiled detailed fisheries landings data for this area and combined them with historical accounts to build a picture of change due to fishing activity over the last 200 years. FINDINGS: In the early 19th century, prior to the onset of industrial fishing, the Firth of Clyde supported diverse and productive fisheries for species such as herring (Clupea harengus, Clupeidae, cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Gadidae, turbot (Psetta maxima, Scophthalmidae and flounder (Platichthys flesus, Pleuronectidae. The 19th century saw increased demand for fish, which encouraged more indiscriminate methods of fishing such as bottom trawling. During the 1880s, fish landings began to decline, and upon the recommendation of local fishers and scientists, the Firth of Clyde was closed to large trawling vessels in 1889. This closure remained in place until 1962 when bottom trawling for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus, Nephropidae was approved in areas more than three nautical miles from the coast. During the 1960s and 1970s, landings of bottomfish increased as trawling intensified. The trawl closure within three nautical miles of the coast was repealed in 1984 under pressure from the industry. Thereafter, bottomfish landings went into terminal decline, with all species collapsing to zero or near zero landings by the early 21st century. Herring fisheries collapsed in the 1970s as more efficient mid-water trawls and fish finders were introduced, while a fishery for mid-water saithe (Pollachius virens, Gadidae underwent a boom and bust shortly after discovery in the late 1960s. The only commercial fisheries that remain today are for Nephrops and scallops (Pecten maximus, Pectinidae. SIGNIFICANCE: The Firth of Clyde is a marine ecosystem nearing the endpoint of overfishing, a time when no species remain that are

  12. 78 FR 48653 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). SUMMARY: The SAFMC will... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-07-18 to 2013-01-22 (NODC Accession 0109904)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109904 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and North Atlantic Ocean...

  14. Connectivity of tropical marine ecosystems--An overview of interdisciplinary research to understand biodiversity and trophic relationships in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico contain marine reserves and protected areas that encompass a variety of tropical ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Reserves and protected areas are established for a variety of reasons, such as preserving nursery habitats and biodiversity, or reducing anthropogenic effects associated with pollution and land use. Questions remain regarding the effectiveness of these designated areas in preserving and protecting spatially connected habitats and associated fishes and invertebrates. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Florida, and Arkansas State University are collaborating on interdisciplinary research in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico to examine the biodiversity and trophic dynamics of fishes and invertebrates residing in connected mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs to discern the effectiveness of current marine reserves and protected areas for conserving reef resources.

  15. Fukushima Daiichi - delivery of contaminated water into the Pacific ocean and possible consequences for the marine ecosystem; Fukushima Daiichi. Ableitungen und deren moegliche Auswirkungen in der Meeresumwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, Hartmut [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH), Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Meereskunde

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi is sited at the coast of the Japanese island Honshu. Most of the cooling water for the three destroyed reactors units 1-3 and the nuclear fuel in the spent fuel pool of unit-4 were uncontrolled delivered into the groundwater and the Pacific Ocean. As a consequence high concentrations of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in the coastal waters have to be assumed. The contribution analyzed the possible consequences for the marine ecosystem. A drift time of 5 to 7 years toward the coast of North America is expected. The planning of the marine monitoring program MEXT is described. Radiation measurements in the coastal water up to 200 km distance from Daiichi were performed. The highest radionuclide concentrations of Cs-137 and Cs-134 were found in the fine grained sediments. No increased radioactivity in seafood is expected.

  16. CCN in the marine environment: Results from two intensive measurement campaigns - The Eastern North Atlantic (Mace Head) and The Southern Ocean (PEGASO cruise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Fossum, Kirsten; Ceburnis, Darius; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Simo, Rafel; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Marine aerosol occurring in cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) sizes suggest that it may contribute notably to the CCN population [1, 2], but further cloud droplet number concentration would strongly depend on the ambient (cloud) conditions, such as available water content, supersaturation and competition between the CCN of different composition [3]. Since the global importance of marine aerosol particles to the cloud formation was postulated several decades ago [4], it has progressed from the evaluation of the nss-sulphate and sea salt effects to an acknowledgement of the significant role of organic aerosol [5]. It was demonstrated that primary marine organics, despite its hydrophobic nature, can possess the high CCN activation efficiency, resulting in the efficient cloud formation [6]. Results from two intensive measurement campaigns in The Eastern North Atlantic (Mace Head) and The Southern Ocean (PEGASO cruise) is presented here with the main focus on ssCCN dependence on aerosol chemical composition and, especially, origin and sources of marine organic. We investigate the activation of sea spray composed of the sea salt and externally mixed with nss-sulphate as well as the sea spray highly enriched in organics, stressing the importance of the latter to the formation of the cloud droplets. We also explore the suitability of existing theories to explain the marine aerosol activation to CCN. Acknowledgments The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project BACCHUS under grant agreement n° 603445; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) as part of the PEGASO (Ref.: CTM2012-37615) and BIO-NUC (Ref.: CGL2013-49020-R); HEA-PRTLI4;EC ACTRIS. [1] Meskhidze & Nenes (2006) Science 314, 1419-1423. [2] Sorooshian et al. (2009) Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, GB4007. [3] O'Dowd et al. (1999) Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 125, 1295-1313. [4] Charlson

  17. Spawning patterns of shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) and deep-water hake (M. paradoxus) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem inferred from gonadosomatic indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Singh, Larvika;

    2015-01-01

    We use gonad- and body-weight data from 54,000 samples of Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus collected in all months of the years between 1991 and 2013 to infer peak spawning periods and areas in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We develop and apply a new gonadosomatic index...... African coast, with increased intensity around March and August-October. The finding of multiple spawning seasons and areas of both M. capensis and M. paradoxus strongly suggest multiple stocks (reproductive units)....

  18. Contrasting effects of ecosystem engineering by the cordgrass Spartina maritima and the sandprawn Callianassa kraussi in a marine-dominated lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, D.; Branch, G. M.; Dawson, J.; Henry, D.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by plants and animals significantly influences community structure and the physico-chemical characteristics of marine habitats. In this paper we document the contrasting effects of ecosystem engineering by the cordgrass Spartina maritima and the burrowing sandprawn Callianassa kraussi on physico-chemical characteristics, microflora, macrofaunal community structure and morphological attributes in the high shore intertidal sandflats of Langebaan Lagoon, a marine-dominated system on the west coast of South Africa. Comparisons were made at six sites in the lagoon within Spartina and Callianassa beds, and in a "bare zone" of sandflat between these two habitats that lacks both sandprawns and cordgrass. Sediments in Spartina habitats were consolidated by the root-shoot systems of the cordgrass, leading to low sediment penetrability, while sediments in beds of C. kraussi were more penetrable, primarily due to the destabilising effects of sandprawn bioturbation. Sediments in the "bare zone" had intermediate to low values of penetrability. Sediment organic content was lowest in bare zones and greatest in Spartina beds, while sediment chl- a levels were greatest on bare sand, but were progressively reduced in the Spartina and Callianassa beds. These differences among habitats induced by ecosystem engineering in turn affected the macrofauna. Community structure was different between all three habitats sampled, with species richness being surprisingly greater in Callianassa beds than either the bare zone or Spartina beds. In general, the binding of surface sediments by the root systems of Spartina favoured rigid-bodied, surface-dwelling and tube-building species, while the destabilising effect of bioturbation by C. kraussi favoured burrowing species. The contrasting effects of these ecosystem engineers suggest that they play important roles in increasing habitat heterogeneity. Importantly, the role of bioturbation by C. kraussi in enhancing macrofaunal

  19. Conodont body size and diversity trends after the end-Permian extinction: implications for the recovery of pelagic vs. benthic marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, E. K.; Morgan, D. J.; Clapham, M.; Rego, B. L.; Wang, S. C.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many marine clades decreased in size across the end-Permian extinction horizon, but the pattern and timing of subsequent size increase during recovery is poorly constrained. The tempo of recovery from the end-Permian extinction is key to understanding the role of evolutionary and environmental constraints in the recovery of ecosystems. However, not all marine organisms share the same recovery pattern. In this study, we document Late Permian to Late Triassic trends in size distribution of conodonts, pelagic chordates that exhibit much more rapid diversification in the Early Triassic compared to benthic clades. Because tooth size correlates with body weight in chordates over many orders of magnitude and is commonly used to predict body size in fossils, conodont elements can serve as a proxy for the size of the conodont animal. Our dataset includes both specimens from high-resolution samples through an exceptionally exposed carbonate platform in south China and size measurements from the published literature for conodonts and seven other marine clades. In platform slope sections of south China, we observe a size decrease across the P/Tr boundary, but in platform interior sections, large conodonts are prolific in the earliest Triassic. Comparison with global data shows that while there is decrease in median conodont size across the P/Tr boundary, there is little change in maximum conodont size, and pre-extinction size distributions return by the Smithian. While benthic clades show Early Triassic size reduction and slow recovery, pelagic clades such as conodonts and ammonoids show large size and rapid diversification after the extinction event. This decoupling of recovery between benthic and pelagic marine ecosystems could reflect a depth gradient in environmental parameters such as oxygen availability or intrinsic differences in the evolutionary dynamics of these clades.

  20. High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Grill, P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non target high resolution organic structural spectroscopy of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated on 27 November 2008 by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) from four different depths in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3.1° E; -17.7° S; Angola basin) provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage and resolution. The sampling was intended to represent major characteristic oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (FISH; near surface photic zone), 48 m (FMAX; fluorescence maximum), 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone) and 5446 m (30 m above ground). 800 MHz proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1H NMR, spectra were least affected by fast and differential transverse NMR relaxation and produced at first similar looking, rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap. Visibly resolved NMR signatures were most abundant in surface DOM but contributed at most a few percent to the total 1H NMR integral and were mainly limited to unsaturated and singly oxygenated carbon chemical environments. The relative abundance and variance of resolved signatures between samples was maximal in the aromatic region; in particular, the aromatic resolved NMR signature of the deep ocean sample at 5446 m was considerably different from that of all other samples. When scaled to equal total NMR integral, 1H NMR spectra of the four marine DOM samples revealed considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments across the entire range of chemical shift. Abundance of singly oxygenated CH units and acetate derivatives declined from surface to depth whereas aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) derived molecules increased in abundance. Surface DOM contained a remarkably lesser abundance of methyl esters than all other marine DOM, likely a consequence of photodegradation from direct exposure to sunlight. All DOM showed similar overall 13C NMR

  1. Endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) experience repeated, concurrent exposure to multiple environmental neurotoxins produced by marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Gregory J; Mikulski, Christina M; King, Kristen L; Roth, Patricia B; Wang, Zhihong; Leandro, Luis F; DeGrasse, Stacey L; White, Kevin D; De Biase, Daniela; Gillett, Roxanne M; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-01-01

    The western North Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the most critically endangered of any whale population in the world. Among the factors considered to have potentially adverse effects on the health and reproduction of E. glacialis are biotoxins produced by certain microalgae responsible for causing harmful algal blooms. The worldwide incidence of these events has continued to increase dramatically over the past several decades and is expected to remain problematic under predicted climate change scenarios. Previous investigations have demonstrated that N. Atlantic right whales are being exposed to at least two classes of algal-produced environmental neurotoxins-paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and domoic acid (DA). Our primary aims during this six-year study (2001-2006) were to assess whether the whales' exposure to these algal biotoxins occurred annually over multiple years, and to what extent individual whales were exposed repeatedly and/or concurrently to one or both toxin classes. Approximately 140 right whale fecal samples obtained across multiple habitats in the western N. Atlantic were analyzed for PSTs and DA. About 40% of these samples were attributed to individual whales in the North Atlantic Right Whale Catalog, permitting analysis of biotoxin exposure according to sex, age class, and reproductive status/history. Our findings demonstrate clearly that right whales are being exposed to both of these algal biotoxins on virtually an annual basis in multiple habitats for periods of up to six months (April through September), with similar exposure rates for females and males (PSTs: ∼70-80%; DA: ∼25-30%). Notably, only one of 14 lactating females sampled did not contain either PSTs or DA, suggesting the potential for maternal toxin transfer and possible effects on neonatal animals. Moreover, 22% of the fecal samples tested for PSTs and DA showed concurrent exposure to both neurotoxins, leading to questions of interactive

  2. Antimicrobial activity of untenospongin B, a metabolic from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rifai, S.; Kijjoa, A.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    (-)-Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was furt

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Untenospongin B, a Metabolite from the Marine Sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Fassouane Fassouane; Rob van Soest; Anake Kijjoa; Saida Rifai

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: (-)-Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was further characterized by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five fungal species using broth microdilution method.

  4. H2O2 in time marine troposphere and seawater of the Atlantic Ocean (48 deg N - 63 deg S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Rolf; Schrems, Otto

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O2 in gas phase and seawater have been measured in pristine regions of the Atlantic Ocean during the RV Polarstern expedition ANT X-1 from 11/15/91 to 01/02/02. A broad maximum of gaseous H2O2 mixing ratio in the troposphere was found between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricornus with peak values around 1.8 ppbv. The observed ratio of organic peroxides/total amount of peroxides was 0.2-0.35, in contrast to the remarkably lower ratio of 0.05-0.10 measured in the continental troposphere by other groups. In the Atlantic surface seawater the H2O2 concentrations were determined to be around 0.1 micromol/L, decreasing with increasing water depth to a value below the detection limit at approximately 100 m. We observed low H2O2 concentrations (about 0.03 micromol/L) in surface water in coastal shelf regions and in the partly ice covered Weddell Sea.

  5. Serum IgM levels against select marine bacteria in the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) from three estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, A H; Rice, C D

    2006-07-01

    The Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) is abundant and easily captured throughout the southeastern United States. Therefore this species serves as an ideal model for generating basic immunological reagents to establish baseline information regarding the immunophysiology of sharks in the wild, and for attempting to correlate shark immune responses to potential pathogens with the quality of the habitat in which they reside. Sharpnose shark serum IgM was purified over a protein-A column and used to generate mouse polyclonal anti-sera to develop indirect ELISAs for quantifying bacteria-specific IgM antibody titers against Vibrio anguillarium, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio charchariae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium marinum. Serum samples from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected in Charleston, SC, Beaufort, SC, and New Brunswick, GA estuaries during the early summer, and again from Charleston, SC in the fall of the same year. Relative antibody titers against E. coli, V. anguillarium, and V. parahaemolyticus differed among the three sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial abundance or immunological responses in sharks from three locations. Overall, antibody titers in Charleston, SC sharks increased between summer and fall. A combination of chronic exposure to specific bacteria and increased antibody responses due to elevated water temperatures are likely responsible for elevated specific IgM in these sharks sampled in the fall. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine IgM responses in elasmobranchs collected directly from their habitat.

  6. Molecular distributions and isotopic compositions of marine aerosols over the western North Atlantic: Dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), fatty acids, sugars, and SOA tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K.; Ono, K.; Tachibana, E.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Marine aerosols were collected over the western North Atlantic from off the coast of Boston to Bermuda during the WACS (Western Atlantic Climate Study) cruise of R/V Ronald H. Brown in August 2012 using a high volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz fiber filters. Aerosol filter samples (n=5) were analyzed for OC/EC, major inorganic ions, low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and various secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers using carbon analyzer, ion chromatograph, GC/FID and GC/MS, respectively. Homologous series (C2-C12) of dicarboxylic acids (31-335 ng m-3) were detected with a predominance of oxalic acid. Total carbon and nitrogen and their stable isotope ratios were determined as well as stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual diacids using IRMS. Diacids were found to be the most abundant compound class followed by monoterpene-SOA tracers > isoprene-SOA tracers > sugar compounds > ketoacids > fatty alcohols > fatty acids > α-dicarbonyls > aromatic acids > n-alkanes. The concentrations of these compounds were higher in the coastal site and decreased in the open ocean. However, diacids stayed relatively high even in the remote ocean. Interestingly, contributions of oxalic acid to total aerosol carbon increased from the coast (2.3%) to the remote ocean (5.6%) during long-range atmospheric transport. Stable carbon isotopic composition of oxalic acid increased from the coast (-17.5‰) to open ocean (-12.4‰), suggesting that photochemical aging of organic aerosols occurred during the atmospheric transport over the ocean. Stable carbon isotope ratios of bulk aerosol carbon also increased from the coast near Boston to the open ocean near Bermuda.

  7. Macroalgal composition and its association with local hydrodynamics in the Laje de Santos Marine State Park, southwestern Atlantic, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Laje de Santos Marine State Park (LSMSP, located in southeastern Brazil, is the only marine park in São Paulo State. This conservation unit has been established as a protected area of high biological diversity. Despite its importance for the conservation of the marine biota, little is known about the park's seaweed flora. The objectives of this study were as follows: to furnish increased knowledge of the composition of the macroalgae in the Park area; to relate the area's macroalgal composition to the presence of an important water mass in the region, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW; and to investigate the possible influence of the Port of Santos on the composition of the macroalgae of the LSMSP. This study registered 31 new records for the LSMSP, 11 for São Paulo State, four for Brazil, one for the western Atlantic and one for the South Atlantic Ocean, in addition to the possible occurrence of one new species of Osmundea (Rhodomelaceae and one new genus belonging to Ceramiaceae. The taxonomic composition of the macroalgae had a direct correlation with the arrival of the SACW in the summer-fall season. The SACW generated a strong thermocline and increased the supply of nutrients in the water column. Hydrodynamic and dispersion modeling analyses suggested that the Port of Santos influenced the composition of the LSMSP phycoflora.O Parque Estadual Marinho da Laje de Santos (PEMLS, localizado no sudeste do Brasil, é o único parque marinho do litoral paulista. Essa unidade de conservação foi classificada como de "alta diversidade biológica". Apesar da sua importância para a preservação da biota marinha, pouco é conhecido sobre a flora de macroalgas do Parque. Os obejtivos deste estudo foram: aumentar o conhecimento da composição de macroalgas na região do PEMLS; relacionar tal composição com a presença de uma importante massa d'água na região, a Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS; e verificar uma possivel influ

  8. Assessing the contribution of marine protected areas to the trophic functioning of ecosystems: a model for the Banc d'Arguin and the Mauritanian shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Guénette

    Full Text Available Most modelling studies addressed the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA for fisheries sustainability through single species approach. Only a few models analysed the potential benefits of MPAs at the ecosystem level, estimating the potential export of fish biomass from the reserve or analysing the trophic relationships between organisms inside and outside the MPA. Here, we propose to use food web models to assess the contribution of a MPA to the trophic functioning of a larger ecosystem. This approach is applied to the Banc d'Arguin National Park, a large MPA located on the Mauritanian shelf. The ecosystem was modeled using Ecopath with Ecosim, a model that accounts for fisheries, food web structure, and some aspects of the spatial distribution of species, for the period 1991-2006. Gaps in knowledge and uncertainty were taken into account by building three different models. Results showed that the Banc d'Arguin contributes about 9 to 13% to the total consumption, is supporting about 23% of the total production and 18% of the total catch of the Mauritanian shelf ecosystem, and up to 50% for coastal fish. Of the 29 exploited groups, 15 depend on the Banc for more than 30% of their direct or indirect consumptions. Between 1991 and 2006, the fishing pressure increased leading to a decrease in biomass and the catch of high trophic levels, confirming their overall overexploitation. Ecosim simulations showed that adding a new fleet in the Banc d'Arguin would have large impacts on the species with a high reliance on the Banc for food, resulting in a 23% decrease in the current outside MPA catches. We conclude on the usefulness of food web models to assess MPAs contribution to larger ecosystem functioning.

  9. The North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment(NAMBLEX. Overview of the campaign held at Mace Head, Ireland, in summer 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Heard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX, involving over 50 scientists from 12 institutions, took place at Mace Head, Ireland (53.32° N, 9.90° W, between 23 July and 4 September 2002. A wide range of state-of-the-art instrumentation enabled detailed measurements of the boundary layer structure and atmospheric composition in the gas and aerosol phase to be made, providing one of the most comprehensive in situ studies of the marine boundary layer to date. This overview paper describes the aims of the NAMBLEX project in the context of previous field campaigns in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL, the overall layout of the site, a summary of the instrumentation deployed, the temporal coverage of the measurement data, and the numerical models used to interpret the field data. Measurements of some trace species were made for the first time during the campaign, which was characterised by predominantly clean air of marine origin, but more polluted air with higher levels of NOx originating from continental regions was also experienced. This paper provides a summary of the meteorological measurements and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL structure measurements, presents time series of some of the longer-lived trace species (O3, CO, H2, DMS, CH4, NMHC, NOx, NOy, PAN and summarises measurements of other species that are described in more detail in other papers within this special issue, namely oxygenated VOCs, HCHO, peroxides, organo-halogenated species, a range of shorter lived halogen species (I2, OIO, IO, BrO, NO3 radicals, photolysis frequencies, the free radicals OH, HO2 and (HO2+Σ RO2, as well as a summary of the aerosol measurements. NAMBLEX was supported by measurements made in the vicinity of Mace Head using the NERC Dornier-228 aircraft. Using ECMWF wind-fields, calculations were made of the air-mass trajectories arriving at Mace Head during NAMBLEX, and were analysed together with both meteorological and trace-gas measurements. In

  10. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  11. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bailleul

    Full Text Available The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project. Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  12. 湛江湾生态系统服务功能与价值评估%Value assessment of marine ecosystem service in Zhanjiang Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇; 徐颂军; 徐红宇; 蔡霞

    2012-01-01

    In order to build a marine ecosystem service type system in Zhanjiang Bay, including4 major categories and 12 subcatego-ries, the assessment on the marine ecosystem service value of Zhanjiang Bay was made using some ecological economic evaluation methods such as market price method, replace cost method, results refer method and so on. The results showed that the total value of the marine ecosystem service in Zhanjiang Bay was roughly 12.62 ?108 yuan in 2009, with average value of marine ecosystem services per unit sea area of 467.49 x 104yuan/km2, which is 1.31 times that of marine economy total production value per unit sea area in Zhanjiang offshore. The supply service of Zhanjiang Bay has the greatest value, accounting for 80.11%. Followed, the cultural service value is 15.67%. The adjustment service has the least value, accounting for4.22%. The food provision is prominent, and the proportion of the total value of 79. 63% , high lighting importance as an aquaculture bases in Zhanjiang. Compared with Fujian Luoyuan Bay and Shandong Sanggou Bay, the aquaculture pollution threat on bay ecosystem health is more serious in Zhanjiang Bay. The assessment results also showed that the pollutant treatment capacity in Zhanjiang Bay is very limited. To reduce land-based pollutants into the bay is the key problem in the process of building ecological bay-city in Zhanjiang.%构建了包括4个大类、13个亚类的湛江湾生态系统服务类型体系,采用市场价格法、替代成本法、成果参考法等生态经济评估方法,对湛江湾生态系统服务价值进行了初步定量估算.结果表明,2009年湛江湾生态系统服务总价值约为12.62×108元,平均单位海域生态系统服务价值为467.49×104元/km2,是湛江近海单位海域面积海洋经济总产值的1.31倍.湛江湾生态系统服务的供给服务价值最大,占80.11%;其次为文化服务价值,占15.67%;调节服务价值最小,仅占4.22%.食品供给服务是当前

  13. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  14. Aircraft Regional-Scale Flux Measurements over Complex Landscapes of Mangroves, Desert, and Marine Ecosystems of Magdalena Bay, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally simple or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal region of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, where the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert were studied. The Sky Arrow 650TCN environmental research aircraft proved to be an effective tool in characterizing land–atmosphere fluxes of energy, CO2, and water vapor across a heterogeneous landscape a...

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Untenospongin B, a Metabolite from the Marine Sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fassouane Fassouane

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: (--Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was further characterized by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against five fungal species using broth microdilution method.

  16. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2010-01-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters o...

  17. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2011-01-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the S...

  18. 乐清湾海洋生态系统服务价值评估%Value assessment of marine ecosystem services in Yueqing Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解雪峰; 吴涛; 蒋国俊; 边华菁; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    参照千年生态系统评估的分类体系,将乐清湾海洋生态系统服务划分为供给服务、调节服务、文化服务及支持服务4大类.采用市场价格法、成本替代法和成果参照法等评估方法,定量评估乐清湾生态系统的服务价值.研究结果表明,2013年乐清湾生态系统服务总价值为30.53×108 CNY,区域平均价值为658.4×104 CNY /(km2·a).乐清湾生态系统的供给服务价值、调节服务价值和文化服务价值分别占52.1%、6.1%和41.8%.乐清湾生态系统的直接使用价值为28.3×108 CNY,占总价值的92.7%,间接使用价值为2.22×108 CNY,占总价值的7.3%,直接使用价值成为乐清湾生态系统提供的主要服务价值.%According to the millennium ecosystem assessment classification system,the marine ecosystem services of Yueqing Bay can be divided into supply services,regulating services,cultural services and support services.The market price method,replace cost method and the results refer method are used to evaluate the economic values of marine ecosystem in Yueqing Bay.As a result,the total value of the marine ecosystem services in Yueqing Bay is estimated about 30.53 ×108 CNY in 2013,with average value of marine ecosystem services per unit sea area of 658.4 ×104 CNY /(km2 ·a).The value of supply service,regulating service and cultural service in Yueqing Bay is accounted for 52.1%,6.1% and 41.8%,respectively.The direct value is 28.3 ×108 CNY,92.7% of the to-tal value,and the indirect value is 2.22 ×108 CNY,7.3% of the total.The direct use value contributes the main service by the Yueqing Bay ecosystem.

  19. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Green

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  20. Distribution of marine boundary layer ammonia over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the Aerosols99 cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Michael; Leck, Caroline

    2005-08-01

    Over the Atlantic Ocean and southern Indian Ocean an overall large variation in gas phase ammonia was encountered with peak values occurring in regions heavily influenced by the smoke plume from biomass combustion and continental sources on the African continent. Concentrations were typically in the range 7 to 22 nmol m-3. Over the remote clean South Atlantic and Indian Oceans, median gas phase ammonia concentrations ranged between 1.1 and 3.2 nmol m-3, but were occasionally as high as 8.1 nmol m-3 or as low as 0.3 nmol m-3. It was reasonable to assume that the ocean was a net emitter of ammonia to the atmosphere and thus responsible for the ammonia levels measured. An average residence time of the order of a few hours was estimated. One implication of such a rapid removal of ammonia is that it prevented attainment of equilibrium between the gas phase and particulate phase ammonium. In areas under the influence of African biomass burning or dust, however, the particulate phase ammonium was concluded to be in equilibrium with the gas phase ammonia. The removal of atmospheric ammonia during the time of travel from the African continent to the position of the ship was estimated using a simplified Lagrangian approach. A response or residence time of 20 to 130 hours resulted. Thus, in order to explain the observed atmospheric ammonia levels at the ship, it seemed necessary to allow for an ammonia residence time of the order of several days within the plume which differs widely from previous reported estimates.

  1. Environmental contamination and marine mammals in coastal waters from Argentina: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S; Bastida, R O; Rodríguez, D H; Morón, S G

    1994-09-16

    Environmental contamination become an increasing global problem. Different scientific strategies have been developed in order to assess the impact of pollutants on marine ecosystems. The distribution of toxic contaminants in tissues of different marine mammal species--both cetaceans and pinnipeds--has been studied in many ecosystems, as well as several related ecological processes, like pollutant accumulation or transfer through the food web. A research program directed towards evaluating the occurrence of pollutants in marine mammals from the coastal waters of Argentina (southwestern Atlantic Ocean) has been developed since 1985, and includes the study of heavy metal contents in stranded or incidentally caught animals. The marine mammal species studied during this period were: the seals Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis, and small cetaceans Tursiops gephyreus, Pontoporia blainvillei, Kogia breviceps and Ziphius cavirostris. In most of the cases, high contents of heavy metals (total mercury, cadmium, zinc, and copper) have been recorded. Moreover, liver showed the maximum capability for accumulation of heavy metals in all studied species. The biological and ecological characteristics of each species of the above-mentioned marine mammals (feeding habits, age, migratory pathways, or sex) contributed to the understanding of the metal sources. Considering the results as obtained during the study period it can be assumed that: (1) The global distribution of toxic contaminants also affects the southwestern Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, and (2) Marine mammals could be appropriate bioindicator species in order to assess this kind of environmental problem.

  2. Impacts of biological parameterization, initial conditions, and environmental forcing on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in a marine ecosystem model for the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G. A.; Spitz, Y. H.

    2011-11-01

    We use a series of Monte Carlo experiments to explore simultaneously the sensitivity of the BEST marine ecosystem model to environmental forcing, initial conditions, and biological parameterizations. Twenty model output variables were examined for sensitivity. The true sensitivity of biological and environmental parameters becomes apparent only when each parameter is allowed to vary within its realistic range. Many biological parameters were important only to their corresponding variable, but several biological parameters, e.g., microzooplankton grazing and small phytoplankton doubling rate, were consistently very important to several output variables. Assuming realistic biological and environmental variability, the standard deviation about simulated mean mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 1 to 14 mg C m - 3 during the year. Annual primary productivity was not strongly correlated with temperature but was positively correlated with initial nitrate and light. Secondary productivity was positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively correlated with spring bloom timing. Mesozooplankton productivity was not correlated with water temperature, but a shift towards a system in which smaller zooplankton undertake a greater proportion of the secondary production as the water temperature increases appears likely. This approach to incorporating environmental variability within a sensitivity analysis could be extended to any ecosystem model to gain confidence in climate-driven ecosystem predictions.

  3. Coupled marine productivity and salinity and West African monsoon variability over the last 30,000 years in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, F.; Kim, S.-Y.; Scourse, J.; Kennedy, H.

    2009-04-01

    around 20 cal ka BP, and the second from 15.2 to 13.2 cal ka BP, during the deglaciation period, when strengthening of the monsoon occurred in a context of open vegetation, allowing an increased erosion of soil. Evidence of decrease salinity due to strengthening of the monsoon dynamics is also observed from the Sanaga core, with the increased abundance of a marine taxon linked to low saline context from 12.5 cal ka BP onwards (2). The study of these integrated records of marine and terrestrial proxies illustrates the complexity of interactions between land-ocean and atmospheric systems and emphasizes the need for high-resolution records to fully understand the coupled equatorial climate system. References 1- Marret, F., Scourse, J., Kennedy, H. Ufkes, E., and Jansen, J.H.F., 2008. Marine production in the Congo-influenced SE Atlantic over the past 30,000 years: A novel dinoflagellate-cyst based transfer function approach. Marine Micropaleontology 68, 198-222. 2- Kim, S.Y., 2007, Dinoflagellate cyst and pollen stratigraphy of Niger and Ogouée fan sediments covering the last glacial cycle. PhD thesis, Bangor University.

  4. High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hertkorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non target high resolution organic structural spectroscopy of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM isolated on 27 November 2008 by means of solid phase extraction (SPE from four different depths in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3.1° E; −17.7° S; Angola basin provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage and resolution. The sampling was intended to represent major characteristic oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (FISH; near surface photic zone, 48 m (FMAX; fluorescence maximum, 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone and 5446 m (30 m above ground.

    800 MHz proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H NMR, spectra were least affected by fast and differential transverse NMR relaxation and produced at first similar looking, rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap. Visibly resolved NMR signatures were most abundant in surface DOM but contributed at most a few percent to the total 1H NMR integral and were mainly limited to unsaturated and singly oxygenated carbon chemical environments. The relative abundance and variance of resolved signatures between samples was maximal in the aromatic region; in particular, the aromatic resolved NMR signature of the deep ocean sample at 5446 m was considerably different from that of all other samples. When scaled to equal total NMR integral, 1H NMR spectra of the four marine DOM samples revealed considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments across the entire range of chemical shift. Abundance of singly oxygenated CH units and acetate derivatives declined from surface to depth whereas aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM derived molecules increased in abundance. Surface DOM contained a remarkably lesser abundance of methyl esters than all other marine DOM, likely a consequence of photodegradation from direct

  5. Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Kinlan, Brian P.; Sussman, Allison; Rypkema, Diana; Wimer, Mark; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating patterns of habitat use is challenging for marine avian species because seabirds tend to aggregate in large groups and it can be difficult to locate both individuals and groups in vast marine environments. We developed an approach to estimate the statistical power of discrete survey events to identify species-specific hotspots and coldspots of long-term seabird abundance in marine environments. We illustrate our approach using historical seabird data from survey transects in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), an area that has been divided into “lease blocks” for proposed offshore wind energy development. For our power analysis, we examined whether discrete lease blocks within the region could be defined as hotspots (3 × mean abundance in the OCS) or coldspots (1/3 ×) for individual species within a given season. For each of 74 species/season combinations, we determined which of eight candidate statistical distributions (ranging in their degree of skewedness) best fit the count data. We then used the selected distribution and estimates of regional prevalence to calculate and map statistical power to detect hotspots and coldspots, and estimate the p-value from Monte Carlo significance tests that specific lease blocks are in fact hotspots or coldspots relative to regional average abundance. The power to detect species-specific hotspots was higher than that of coldspots for most species because species-specific prevalence was relatively low (mean: 0.111; SD: 0.110). The number of surveys required for adequate power (> 0.6) was large for most species (tens to hundreds) using this hotspot definition. Regulators may need to accept higher proportional effect sizes, combine species into groups, and/or broaden the spatial scale by combining lease blocks in order to determine optimal placement of wind farms. Our power analysis approach provides a general framework for both retrospective analyses and future avian survey design and is

  6. From global to regional and back again: common climate stressors of marine ecosystems relevant for adaptation across five ocean warming hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Byfield, Valborg; Cochrane, Kevern; Coward, Andrew C; Salim, Shyam S; Gasalla, Maria A; Henson, Stephanie A; Hobday, Alistair J; Pecl, Gretta T; Sauer, Warwick H; Roberts, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    climate change impacting marine ecosystems in these areas.

  7. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, K.; Cantwell, M.; Herckes, P.; Lohmann, R.

    2013-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the highly carbonaceous byproduct of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion with a composition ranging from thermally stable soot to less recalcitrant charcoal. Atmospheric particulate matter samples across the tropical Atlantic Ocean were quantified for BC using four different methods: chemothermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375), pyrene fluorescence loss, thermal optical transmittance, and optical transmission attenuation. The highest BC concentrations were detected in the Caribbean Sea and off the African coast, with a regional average of 0.6 μg m-3 for both. The lowest average concentrations were measured off the coast of South America at 0.2 to 0.3 μg m-3. The thermally-based CTO-375 method generally detected lower BC concentrations than the other three methods. The ratio of soot-like BC, as defined by the CTO-375 method, relative to the broader BC combustion continuum, as defined by the pyrene fluorescence loss, was <1 for all regions except for the Caribbean, supporting that charcoal was an important fraction of the aerosol BC. Regions impacted by biomass burning emissions should utilize multiple methods to better apportion the BC concentrations and sources.

  8. Change of Marine Ecosystem Service and Its Value in Shenzhen Surrounding Sea Areas%深圳市周边海域海洋生态系统服务功能及价值的变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦传新; 陈丕茂; 贾晓平; 贾春斌

    2012-01-01

    基于1990~2009年深圳周边海域初级生产力、底栖生物量、渔业产量及旅游收入等数据,分析了近20年来深圳市周边海域海洋生态系统服务功能与价值的变化.结果表明:深圳市海洋生态系统服务价值总体呈明显上升趋势,但其供给价值呈显著下降趋势;滨海旅游经济的快速发展是深圳市海洋生态系统文化服务功能增加的内在驱动力;经济的快速发展促进了其海洋生态系统服务功能的价值结构的变迁.%Based on the change of marine ecosystem services from 1990 to 2009 in Shenzhen,the variation of marine ecosystem services with economic development was analyzed.The values of ecosystem services in Shenzhen are arising clearly,however,its supply function is dropping obviously;the rapid growth of coastal tourism is the driving force of culture services raising;and the value structure of marine ecosystem has been changing with the rapid developing economy;rationally utilizing marine resources is the important component of protecting marine environment and guarantying the sustainable development of marine ecosystem.

  9. Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Pagès, Jordi F.; Arthur, Rohan; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    While large herbivores can have strong impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, much less is known of their role in aquatic systems. We reviewed the literature to determine: (1) which large herbivores (>10 kg) have a (semi-)aquatic lifestyle and are important consumers of submerged vascular plants, (2) th

  10. Impacts of exotic mangrove forests and mangrove deforestation on carbon remineralization and ecosystem functioning in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweetman, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Berle, A.M.; Bernardino, A.F.; Schander, C.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Smith, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate how mangrove invasion and removal can modify short-term benthic carbon cycling and ecosystem functioning, we used stable-isotopically labeled algae as a deliberate tracer to quantify benthic respiration and C-flow over 48 h through macrofauna and bacteria in sediments collected from (1)

  11. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  12. In Situ Activity and Functional Diversity of Microbes Linking Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in Marine Ecosystems: BI-OMP Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, Robert E. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    We developed methods to simultaneously detect genes or gene expression involved with carbon and nitrogen cycling in individual marine bacterial cells in their natural matrices. The technique focuses on in situ polymerase chain reaction which we were the first lab to successfully obtain with intact prokaryotic cells. We listed the papers published to date from this project and summarize highlights of our results.

  13. Assessing the state of pelagic fish communities within an ecosystem approach and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, Samuel; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    time-series are calculated for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive “Celtic Seas” (CS) and “Greater North Sea” subregions. Precautionary reference points are proposed for each indicator and a simple decision process is then used to aggregate indicators into a GES assessment for each subregion...

  14. Value Assessment of Offshore Marine Ecosystem Service in Leizhou Peninsula%雷州半岛近海海洋生态系统服务功能价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇; 徐颂军; 徐红宇; 蔡霞

    2012-01-01

    构建了包括4个大类、13个亚类的雷州半岛近海海洋生态系统服务体系,对雷州半岛近海海洋生态系统服务价值进行了定量评估.结果表明,2008年雷州半岛近海海洋生态系统服务总价值约为295.15亿元,平均单位海域生态系统服务价值为147.58万元/km2.其中调节服务价值最大;其次为供给服务价值;文化服务价值最小.评估结果同时揭示出雷州半岛近海污染物处理能力非常有限;海洋生态资源开发水平偏低;以海洋生物医药为代表的海洋高新技术产业和滨海旅游业应成为未来雷州半岛近海生态资源开发的重点领域.%On the base of building an Offshore Marine Ecosystem Service type system of Leizhou Peninsula, which includes 4 major categories and 13 subcategories, this paper quantitatively assessed the offshore marine ecosystem service value of Leizhou Peninsula through using some ecological economic evaluation methods such as market price method, replace cost method, results refer method and so on. Results indicated that the total value of the offshore marine ecosystem service of Leizhou Peninsula was roughly 295. 15 × 108 yuan in 2008, with an average value of marine ecosystem services per unit sea area of 147. 58 × 104 yuan/km2. The adjustment service has the greatest value, accounting for 47. 65% , followed by supply service value, 36. 93%. The cultural service has the least value, accounting for 15. 41%. Assessment results also reveal that the pollutant treatment capacity of offshore marine ecosystem in Leizhou Peninsula is very limited. Marine ecological resources development level is low. Marine tourism and marine high - tech industry in which marine biological medicine industry is representative should become the focus areas in the process of marine ecological resources development.

  15. MoMar-Demo at Lucky Strike. A near-real time multidisciplinary observatory of hydrothermal processes and ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

    2011-12-01

    The MoMAR "Monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge" project was initiated by InterRidge in 1998 to study the environmental instability resulting from active mid-ocean-ridge processes at hydrothermal vent fields south of the Azores. It then developped into a component of the ESONET (European Seafloor Observatory Network) and EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Subsea Observatory) programs, which coordinate eulerian observatory initiatives in the seas around Europe. MoMAR experiments have started in 2006 and address two main questions : What are the feedbacks between volcanism, deformation, seismicity, and hydrothermalism at a slow spreading mid-ocean ridge? and How does the hydrothermal ecosystem couple with these sub-seabed processes? The MoMAR-Demo project started in 2010 with partial support from ESONET. It has been implemented so far by 2 cruises of the RV Pourquoi Pas ? during which we successfully deployed (in 2010), and upgraded (in 2011) a near-realtime buoyed observatory system. The system comprises two Sea Monitoring Nodes (SeaMoN) at the seafloor, which are acoustically linked to a surface relay buoy (BoRel), ensuring satellite communication to a land base station in Brest (France). One SeaMoN node connects to a 3-components seismometer and an hydrophone for seismic event detection, and two pressure probes for geodetic measurements, and the other SeaMoN node connects to a video camera, a dissolved-iron analyzer, and an optode (oxygen and temperature probe) for ecological time studies. The BOREL transmission buoy is equiped with GPS (geodetic experiment and buoy location) and meteo station. Data and/or status signals from these sensors are transmitted every 6 hours, and put on line in compliance with the ESONET-EMSO data policy (temporary access through http://www.ifremer.fr/WC2en/allEulerianNetworks). The MoMAR-Demo system also allows for interactive connections and changes of data transmission rates on demand. It is nested in arrays of autonomous sensors (OBSs

  16. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...; fax: (843) 744- 4472. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber...

  17. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  18. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark...

  19. 77 FR 3393 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas were adjusted based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  20. Inventory of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in marine sediments cores of Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alice M.R.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: alice.costa@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    {sup 210}Pb (22.3 y) is a radioactive isotope successfully applied as tracer of sediment dating of the last 100-150 years. The application of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra as paleoceanographic tracers (half-lives of 1,600 y and 5.7 y, respectively) also gives some information of ocean's role in past climate change. In this work, it was analyzed 2 sediment cores collect at Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The sediments samples were freeze-dried and acid digested in microwave. It was carried out a radiochemical separation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb and performed a gross alpha and gross beta measurement of both precipitates Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4} in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 45 Bq kg{sup -1} to 70 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 57 Bq kg{sup -1} to 82 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra varied between 37 Bq kg{sup -1} and 150 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and between 23 Bq kg{sup -1} and 111 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of total {sup 210}Pb ranged from 126 Bq kg{sup -1} to 256 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 945 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. Results of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} varied from 68 Bq kg{sup -1} to 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for NAP-62, while varied from <4.9 Bq kg{sup -1} to 870 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 profile. Increased values of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} were found on the top of both NAP-62 and NAP- 63 sediment profile. (author)

  1. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  2. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Diesch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W. As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2 and a weather station provided meteorological parameters.

    Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m−3 and 1000 cm−3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54% was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of

  3. Topographic effect in marine magnetotelluric data and implications to the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle beneath the Tristan da Cunha hotspot area in southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.; Chen, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Utada, H.; Kammann, J.; Geissler, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Kiyoshi Baba1,2, Jin Chen2, Marion Jegen2, Hisashi Utada1, Janina Kammann3, and Wolfram H. Geissler4 1. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo2. GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel3. University of Hamburg4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchTristan da Cunha Island is one of the hot spots in the Atlantic Ocean. The discussion about its source have not reached consensus yet whether it is in shallow asthenosphere or deeper mantle, because of lack of the geophysical observations in the area. A marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted together with seismological observations in the area in 2012-2013 by collaboration between Germany and Japan, in order to give further constraints on the physical state of the mantle beneath the area. A total of 26 seafloor stations were deployed around the Tristan da Cunha islands and available data were retrieved from 23 stations. The MT responses were estimated for those available sites. The detailed data processing will be presented by Chen et al. in this meeting. In this study, we report on the topographic effect on the observed MT responses. During the cruises for seafloor instruments deployment and recovery, detailed bathymetry data were collected around the stations by onboard multi-narrow beam echo sounding (MBES) system. We compiled the MBES data and ETOPO1 data to incorporate the local and regional topography. Then, we applied iterative topographic effect correction and one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity structure inversion. The MT responses of each station were simulated by three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling. Preliminary results show the overall feature of the observed MT responses at some stations were qualitatively well explained by the seafloor topography included in the conductivity structure model over the 1-D mantle structure. An extreme example is the station near the Tristan da Cunha Island. The impedance phases varies ~300 degrees in

  4. Estimating the direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols overlying marine boundary layer clouds in the southeast Atlantic using MODIS and CALIOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2013-05-01

    aerosols such as smoke strongly absorb solar radiation, particularly at ultraviolet and visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) wavelengths, and their presence above clouds can have considerable implications. It has been previously shown that they have a positive (i.e., warming) direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) when overlying bright clouds. Additionally, they can cause biased passive instrument satellite retrievals in techniques that rely on VIS/NIR wavelengths for inferring the cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (re) of underlying clouds, which can in turn yield biased above-cloud DARE estimates. Here we investigate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical property retrieval biases due to overlying absorbing aerosols observed by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and examine the impact of these biases on above-cloud DARE estimates. The investigation focuses on a region in the southeast Atlantic Ocean during August and September (2006-2011), where smoke from biomass burning in southern Africa overlies persistent marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds. Adjusting for above-cloud aerosol attenuation yields increases in the regional mean liquid COT (averaged over all ocean-only liquid clouds) by roughly 6%; mean re increases by roughly 2.6%, almost exclusively due to the COT adjustment in the non-orthogonal retrieval space. It is found that these two biases lead to an underestimate of DARE. For liquid cloud Aqua MODIS pixels with CALIOP-observed above-cloud smoke, the regional mean above-cloud radiative forcing efficiency (DARE per unit aerosol optical depth (AOD)) at time of observation (near local noon for Aqua overpass) increases from 50.9Wm-2AOD-1 to 65.1Wm-2AOD-1 when using bias-adjusted instead of nonadjusted MODIS cloud retrievals.

  5. A marine eutrophication impacts assessment method in LCIA coupling coastal ecosystems exposure to nitrogen and species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Characterisation modelling in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) aims at quantifying potential impacts of anthropogenic emissions. It delivers substance-specific Characterisation Factors (CF) expressing ecosystem responses to marginal increments in emitted quantities. Nitrogen (N) emissions from e...... biological processes of ecosystem’s N exposure (Exposure Factor, XF) with the sensitivity of select species to hypoxia (Effect Factor, EF). The XF converts N-inputs into a sinking carbon flux from planktonic primary production and DO consumed by bacterial respiration in bottom waters, whereas EF builds...... producing comparative environmental sustainability indicators of human activities as applied in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of product systems....

  6. Climatic change and the effects on the marine ecosystem around the island of Sylt. Final report; Das marine Oekosystem um Sylt unter veraenderten Klimabedingungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackschewitz, D.; Menn, I.; Reise, K.

    2000-05-01

    Climatic warming of 1.5 to 2.5 C with a higher water temperature may only slightly change the species spectrum of the intertidal zone of the island of Sylt (North Sea). This is shown by a comparison with tidal flats of the French Atlantic coast. Stronger effects are expected from a sea level rise and an increase in hydrodynamic forces. This may result in a decrease of eelgrass and mussel beds. On the high intertidal zone muddy flats will be replaced by sandy flats due to wave action. Enhanced erosion at the Wadden Sea shoreline will probably entail its continued petrification to prevent further losses. This will cause a decrease of natural habitats with their specific assemblages, and the esthetic appeal of the Wadden Sea will decrease too. It is proposed that sand replenishment on the Wadden Sea shoreline will better preserve the natural sequence of biotopes on the tidal flats. The erosive beach on the seaward side of the island of Sylt is both focal place for tourist recreation, and the site of a highly diverse interstitial fauna. This fauna will be able to re-establish itself three months after a campaign of sand replenishment. Sand replenishment was found to be an effective way to compensate beach erosion and, due to the quick re-establishment of the fauna, it may be regarded as an acceptable method of coastal defense from an ecological perspective. (orig.) [German] Bei einer Klimaerwaermung um 1,5 bis 2,5 C wird der direkte Einfluss hoeherer Wassertemperatur das biologische Artenspektrum im Sylter Gezeitenbereich nicht wesentlich veraendern. Dies ergibt ein Vergleich mit Watten der franzoesischen Atlantikkueste. Bedeutender sind voraussichtlich Auswirkungen hoeherer Wasserstaende und einer zunehmenden Hydrodynamik. Seegraswiesen und Muschelbaenke werden dadurch im Wattbereich abnehmen. In Ufernaehe werden schlickige von sandigen Watten verdraengt. Einer verstaerkten Erosion an ungeschuetzten Wattufern wird voraussichtlich mit weiteren Befestigungen begegnet

  7. Compostos orgânicos em sedimentos marinhos: uma viagem ao fundo do Oceano Atlântico Norte Organic compounds in marine sediments: a journey to the bottom of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto dos Santos Madureira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the origin and distribution of several classes of organic compounds present in recently deposited abyssal sediments in the North East Atlantic Ocean. Six cores were sampled (multicorer along 20ºW longitude as part of the UK's Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS. The sediments underlie diverse water columns, ranging from the Iceland Basin, an area of high primary productivity but presumed low aeolian inputs, to an area off West Africa characterized by oligotrophic and upwelling waters and high aeolian input. Concentration of predominantly marine (e.g. sterols and alkenones and terrestrial (n-alkanes compounds showed remarkable changes along the transect.

  8. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic carbon and nutrient biogeochemical responses were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III study. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem production perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  9. The whole is more than the sum of its parts: Modeling community-level effects of UVR in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Fernando; Ferrero, Emma; Eöry, Matías; Esusy, Marisol; Iribarren, Julia; Ferreyra, Gustavo; Schloss, Irene; Mostajir, Behzad; Demers, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The effect of UVB radiation (UVBR, 290-320 nm) on the dynamics of the lower levels of the marine plankton community was modeled. The model was built using differential equations and shows a good fit to experimental data collected in mesocosms (defined as large enclosures of 1500 L filled with natural marine waters). Some unexpected results appear to be possible by indirect effects in prey (bacteria, phytoplankton and heterotrophic flagellates). In particular, apparent competition appears between small phytoplankton and bacteria. This effect is caused by a shared predator (ciliates). Another remarkable effect is an increase in bacteria and flagellates populations due to enhanced UVBR. This effect is similar to that observed under mesocosm experimental conditions and is related to the decrease of predation due to the direct damage to predators (ciliates) by UVBR. The effect of UVBR changing interaction coefficients may be dramatic on the community structure, producing big changes in equilibrium populations, as demonstrated by sensitivity analysis of the model. In order to generalize these results to field conditions it will be necessary to increase model complexity and include extra organic mater sources, mixing and sinking effects and predation by large zooplankton. This work shows that UVBR may produce community global responses that are consequence of both direct and indirect effects among populations.

  10. Improved enrichment culture technique for methane-oxidizing bacteria from marine ecosystems: the effect of adhesion material and gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekeman, Bram; Dumolin, Charles; De Vos, Paul; Heylen, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation. This positive effect was attributed to bacterial adhesion on the particles via extracellular compounds, with a minimum amount of particles required for effect. As a result, the particles were immobilized, thus creating a stratified environment in which a limited diffusive gas gradients could build up and various microniches were formed. Such diffusive gas gradient might necessitate high headspace concentrations of CH4 and CO2 for sufficient concentrations to reach the methane-oxidizing bacteria in the enrichment culture technique. Therefore, high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide, in addition to the addition of adhesion material, were tested and indeed further stimulated methane oxidation. Use of adhesion material in combination with high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide might thus facilitate the cultivation and subsequent enrichment of environmentally important members of this functional guild. The exact mechanism of the observed positive effects on methane oxidation and the differential effect on methanotrophic diversity still needs to be explored.

  11. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  12. Life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, John; Haedrich, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Popular articles about the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) usually state that ‘the Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species’, e.g. publications by the Atlantic Salmon Federation (North America), Atlantic Salmon Trust (UK), and WWF (World Wildlife Fund), and the life history is depicted as migration of juveniles from fresh water to the marine environment, with a return to where the fish were born as spawning adults. This article reviews the life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland...

  13. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands. A potential commercial species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escanez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera. These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem.

  14. The Western South Atlantic Ocean in a High-CO2 World: Current Measurement Capabilities and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Letícia C.; Kikuchi, Ruy K. P.; Horta, Paulo A.; Ito, Rosane G.; Müller, Marius N.; Orselli, Iole B. M.; Lencina-Avila, Jannine M.; de Orte, Manoela R.; Sordo, Laura; Pinheiro, Bárbara R.; Bonou, Frédéric K.; Schubert, Nadine; Bergstrom, Ellie; Copertino, Margareth S.

    2016-03-01

    An international multi-disciplinary group of 24 researchers met to discuss ocean acidification (OA) during the Brazilian OA Network/Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (BrOA/SOLAS) Workshop. Fifteen members of the BrOA Network (www.broa.furg.br) authored this review. The group concluded that identifying and evaluating the regional effects of OA is impossible without understanding the natural variability of seawater carbonate systems in marine ecosystems through a series of long-term observations. Here, we show that the western South Atlantic Ocean (WSAO) lacks appropriate observations for determining regional OA effects, including the effects of OA on key sensitive Brazilian ecosystems in this area. The impacts of OA likely affect marine life in coastal and oceanic ecosystems, with further social and economic consequences for Brazil and neighboring countries. Thus, we present (i) the diversity of coastal and open ocean ecosystems in the WSAO and emphasize their roles in the marine carbon cycle and biodiversity and their vulnerabilities to OA effects; (ii) ongoing observational, experimental, and modeling efforts that investigate OA in the WSAO; and (iii) highlights of the knowledge gaps, infrastructure deficiencies, and OA-related issues in the WSAO. Finally, this review outlines long-term actions that should be taken to manage marine ecosystems in this vast and unexplored ocean region.

  15. The Western South Atlantic Ocean in a High-CO2 World: Current Measurement Capabilities and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Letícia C; Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Horta, Paulo A; Ito, Rosane G; Müller, Marius N; Orselli, Iole B M; Lencina-Avila, Jannine M; de Orte, Manoela R; Sordo, Laura; Pinheiro, Bárbara R; Bonou, Frédéric K; Schubert, Nadine; Bergstrom, Ellie; Copertino, Margareth S

    2016-03-01

    An international multi-disciplinary group of 24 researchers met to discuss ocean acidification (OA) during the Brazilian OA Network/Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (BrOA/SOLAS) Workshop. Fifteen members of the BrOA Network (www.broa.furg.br) authored this review. The group concluded that identifying and evaluating the regional effects of OA is impossible without understanding the natural variability of seawater carbonate systems in marine ecosystems through a series of long-term observations. Here, we show that the western South Atlantic Ocean (WSAO) lacks appropriate observations for determining regional OA effects, including the effects of OA on key sensitive Brazilian ecosystems in this area. The impacts of OA likely affect marine life in coastal and oceanic ecosystems, with further social and economic consequences for Brazil and neighboring countries. Thus, we present (i) the diversity of coastal and open ocean ecosystems in the WSAO and emphasize their roles in the marine carbon cycle and biodiversity and their vulnerabilities to OA effects; (ii) ongoing observational, experimental, and modeling efforts that investigate OA in the WSAO; and (iii) highlights of the knowledge gaps, infrastructure deficiencies, and OA-related issues in the WSAO. Finally, this review outlines long-term actions that should be taken to manage marine ecosystems in this vast and unexplored ocean region.

  16. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...... evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics....

  17. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem.

  18. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  19. Impacts of exotic mangrove forests and mangrove deforestation on carbon remineralization and ecosystem functioning in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, A.K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Berle, A.M.; Bernardino, A.F.; Schander, C.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Smith, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate how mangrove invasion and removal can modify benthic carbon cycling processes and ecosystem functioning, we used stable-isotopically labelled algae as a deliberate tracer to quantify benthic respiration and C-flow through macrofauna and bacteria in sediments collected from (1) an invasive mangrove forest, (2) deforested mangrove sites 2 and 6 years after removal of above-sediment mangrove biomass, and (3) two mangrove-free, control sites in the Hawaiian coastal zone. Sediment oxygen consumption (SOC) rates were significantly greater in the mangrove and mangrove removal site experiments than in controls and were significantly correlated with total benthic (macrofauna and bacteria) biomass and sedimentary mangrove biomass (SMB). Bacteria dominated short-term C-processing of added microalgal-C and benthic biomass in sediments from the invasive mangrove forest habitat. In contrast, macrofauna were the most important agents in the short-term processing of microalgal-C in sediments from the mangrove removal and control sites. Mean faunal abundance and short term C-uptake rates in sediments from both removal sites were significantly higher than in control cores, which collectively suggest that community structure and short-term C-cycling dynamics in habitats where mangroves have been cleared can remain fundamentally different from un-invaded mudflat sediments for at least 6-yrs following above-sediment mangrove removal. In summary, invasion by mangroves can lead to large shifts in benthic ecosystem function, with sediment metabolism, benthic community structure and short-term C-remineralization dynamics being affected for years following invader removal. ?? 2010 Author(s).

  20. Autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism of microbial planktonic communities in an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: seasonal dynamics and episodic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bonilla-Findji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A 18 month study was performed in the Bay of Villefranche to assess the episodic and seasonal variation of autotrophic and heterotrophic ecosystem processes. A typical spring bloom was encountered, where maximum of gross primary production (GPP was followed by maxima of bacterial respiration (BR and production (BP. The trophic balance (heterotrophy vs. autotrophy of the system did not exhibit any seasonal trend although a strong intra-annual variability was observed. On average, the community tended to be net heterotrophic with a GPP threshold for a balanced metabolism of 1.1 μmol O2 l−1 d−1. Extended forest fires in summer 2003 and a local episodic upwelling in July 2003 likely supplied orthophosphate and nitrate into the system. These events were associated with an enhanced bacterioplankton production (up to 2.4-fold, respiration (up to 4.5-fold and growth efficiency (up to 2.9-fold but had no effect on GPP. A Sahara dust wet deposition event in February 2004 stimulated bacterial abundance, production and growth efficiency but not GPP. Our study suggests that short-term disturbances such as wind-driven upwelling, forest fires and Sahara dust depositions can have a significant but previously not sufficiently considered influence on phytoplankton- and bacterioplankton-mediated ecosystem functions and can modify or even mask the seasonal dynamics. The study also indicates that atmospheric deposition of nutrients and particles not only impacts phytoplankton but also bacterioplankton and could, at times, also shift systems stronger towards net heterotrophy.

  1. Challenges of achieving Good Environmental Status in the Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystem services is dependent on achieving and maintaining an adequate ecosystem state to prevent undue deterioration. Within the European Union, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires member states to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS, specified in terms of 11 descriptors. We analyzed the complexity of social-ecological factors to identify common critical issues that are likely to influence the achievement of GEnS in the Northeast Atlantic (NEA more broadly, using three case studies. A conceptual model developed using a soft systems approach highlights the complexity of social and ecological phenomena that influence, and are likely to continue to influence, the state of ecosystems in the NEA. The development of the conceptual model raised four issues that complicate the implementation of the MSFD, the majority of which arose in the Pressures and State sections of the model: variability in the system, cumulative effects, ecosystem resilience, and conflicting policy targets. The achievement of GEnS targets for the marine environment requires the recognition and negotiation of trade-offs across a broad policy landscape involving a wide variety of stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Furthermore, potential cumulative effects may introduce uncertainty, particularly in selecting appropriate management measures. There also are endogenous pressures that society cannot control. This uncertainty is even more obvious when variability within the system, e.g., climate change, is accounted for. Also, questions related to the resilience of the affected ecosystem to specific pressures must be raised, despite a lack of current knowledge. Achieving good management and reaching GEnS require multidisciplinary assessments. The soft systems approach provides one mechanism for bringing multidisciplinary information together to look at the problems in a different light.

  2. Studies on marine ecosystem in particular emphasis on phytoplankton (lecture by the member awarded the oceanographic society of Japan prize for 1992). Shokubutsu plankton wo chushintoshita kaiyo seitaikei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1993-06-25

    This paper, while introducing major study results of the author, summarizes his studies on ecosystems in lakes and oceans with respect mainly to phytoplanktons. The studies include the following subjects: A proposal on mathematical model equations to estimate growth of photosynthetic bacterial populations in deep lake beds; evaluation of stimulative effects for photosynthetic production provided by fertilizer application in lakes, and influences of phytoplanktons on population structures; evaluation on effects imposed on ecosystems from dumping chemical substances, as observed in experimental ecosystems that incorporate part of marine ecosystems; correlation between red-tide life absorbing proliferation stimulating substances and red tide generation; growth of high-concentration phytoplankton populations containing algae as a dominant species in local upwelling environments in oceans; and verification on establishment of specific phytoplankton populations containing pico-phytoplankton as a dominant species in oligotrophic environments in open seas. The paper mentions influences of the author's book, Biological Oceanographic Processes under joint authorship with Parsons on marine ecosystem researchers. 66 refs., 8 figs.

  3. 海洋溢油污染的生态与健康危害%Adverse Effect of Marine Oil Spills on Human Health and Ecosystem:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳梅; 曾文炉; 余强; 周启星

    2011-01-01

    As oil spills occur frequently throughout the world, marine oil pollution has received increasing attention recently. In this paper, the current situation of global marine oil pollution was summarized and synthesized. On this basis, the effects of exposure to spilled oil on human health were reviewed to give a preliminary estimation. The environmental behaviors of oil in marine environment as well as its toxicities on marine ecosystem, coastal beach ecosystem were also reviewed. Finally, the prospect of the study on oil spill pollution in marine was discussed.%随着溢油事故的频繁发生,海洋溢油污染备受关注.本文在阐述国内外海洋溢油污染现状的基础上,针对溢油污染对人类健康的影响进行了初步分析,并针对海洋环境中溢油的环境行为以及对海洋生态系统、沿岸滩涂生态系统的毒性效应进行了概述.最后,对海洋溢油污染研究的发展趋势进行了展望.

  4. Effectiveness of a deep-sea cold-water coral Marine Protected Area, following eight years of fisheries closure

    OpenAIRE

    Huvenne, V.A.I; B. J. Bett; Masson, D.G.; Le Bas, T.P; A. J. Wheeler

    2016-01-01

    Pressure on deep-sea ecosystems continues to increase as anthropogenic activities move into ever deeper waters. To mitigate impacts on vulnerable habitats, various conservation measures exist, such as the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). So far, however, little evidence is available about their effectiveness. This paper presents a unique follow-up study assessing the status and recovery of a deep-sea fisheries closure and MPA at ~1000 m water depth in the NE Atlantic, eight years...

  5. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Sigwart, Julia; Jiang, Shan; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms and ecosystem services provided by sedimentary habitats are largely unknown. An outdoor mesocosm experiment was done to realistically assess the effects of three different types of microplastic pollution (one biodegradable type; polylactic acid and two conventional types; polyethylene and polyvinylchloride) at increasing concentrations (0.02, 0.2 and 2% of wet sediment weight) on the health and biological activity of lugworms, Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758), and on nitrogen cycling and primary productivity of the sediment they inhabit. After 31 days, A. marina produced less casts in sediments containing microplastics. Metabolic rates of A. marina increased, while microalgal biomass decreased at high concentrations, compared to sediments with low concentrations or without microplastics. Responses were strongest to polyvinylchloride, emphasising that different materials may have differential effects. Each material needs to be carefully evaluated in order to assess their risks as microplastic pollution. Overall, both conventional and biodegradable microplastics in sandy sediments can affect the health and behaviour of lugworms and directly or indirectly reduce primary productivity of these habitats.

  6. The Effects of Temperature, Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on the Metabolism of Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgård, Bjørn

    suggested that cod make excursions into sever hypoxic water layers likely to search for benthic fauna (Neuenfeldt et al., 2009). The aim of paper IV was therefore to simulate a 40 min excursion into severe hypoxic water below Scrit and determine a possible additional energy cost. The study showed......The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. 1758) is an important species both as a major top predator in the ecosystem and economical marine resource in the fishing industry of Northern Europe (Andersen, 2012). As an ectothermic water breather the Atlantic cod is continuously exposed to annual changes...... in the water conditions affecting their performance, growth and reproduction. Variations in the water conditions between years and due to climatic changes, affects the survival rate, population dynamic and bio-energetic distribution of the Atlantic cod (Hansson et al., 1996; Essington et al., 2001...

  7. Metos3D: the Marine Ecosystem Toolkit for Optimization and Simulation in 3-D - Part 1: Simulation Package v0.3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwonski, Jaroslaw; Slawig, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    We designed and implemented a modular software framework for the offline simulation of steady cycles of 3-D marine ecosystem models based on the transport matrix approach. It is intended for parameter optimization and model assessment experiments. We defined a software interface for the coupling of a general class of water column-based biogeochemical models, with six models being part of the package. The framework offers both spin-up/fixed-point iteration and a Jacobian-free Newton method for the computation of steady states. The simulation package has been tested with all six models. The Newton method converged for four models when using standard settings, and for two more complex models after alteration of a solver parameter or the initial guess. Both methods delivered the same steady states (within a reasonable precision) on convergence for all models employed, with the Newton iteration generally operating 6 times faster. The effects on performance of both the biogeochemical and the Newton solver parameters were investigated for one model. A profiling analysis was performed for all models used in this work, demonstrating that the number of tracers had a dominant impact on overall performance. We also implemented a geometry-adapted load balancing procedure which showed close to optimal scalability up to a high number of parallel processors.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation of an ice-adapted predator's feeding ecology in a changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkowski, David J; Ferguson, Steven H; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Brown, Tanya M; Muir, Derek C G; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variation can confound interpretations of relationships within and between species in terms of diet composition, niche size, and trophic position (TP). The cause of dietary variation within species is commonly an ontogenetic niche shift, which is a key dynamic influencing community structure. We quantified spatial and temporal variations in ringed seal (Pusa hispida) diet, niche size, and TP during ontogeny across the Arctic-a rapidly changing ecosystem. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was performed on 558 liver and 630 muscle samples from ringed seals and on likely prey species from five locations ranging from the High to the Low Arctic. A modest ontogenetic diet shift occurred, with adult ringed seals consuming more forage fish (approximately 80 versus 60 %) and having a higher TP than subadults, which generally decreased with latitude. However, the degree of shift varied spatially, with adults in the High Arctic presenting a more restricted niche size and consuming more Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) than subadults (87 versus 44 %) and adults at the lowest latitude (29 %). The TPs of adult and subadult ringed seals generally decreased with latitude (4.7-3.3), which was mainly driven by greater complexity in trophic structure within the zooplankton communities. Adult isotopic niche size increased over time, likely due to the recent circumpolar increases in subarctic forage fish distribution and abundance. Given the spatial and temporal variability in ringed seal foraging ecology, ringed seals exhibit dietary plasticity as a species, suggesting adaptability in terms of their diet to climate change.

  9. 海洋生态系统内在价值评估方法初探--以厦门湾为例%Evaluation of marine ecosystem intrinsic value--- a case study of Xiamen Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虹霓; 盛华夏; 张珞平

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evaluation on the ecosystems of marine and coastal zones plays an important role in supporting the strategic decision-making in marine and coastal zone management.So far the most popular methods for ecosys-tem valuation are ecosystem services valuation which base on the utility of ecosystems to human being.And there are no any approaches and methods that focus on the evaluation based on ecosystems themselves.In this paper,the definition of ecosystem intrinsic value was identified.The approach and methods for the objective evaluation of ma-rine ecosystem intrinsic value were developed based on emergy and eco-exergy analysis,and then applied to Xia-men Bay.Emergy valuation was applied to intrinsic valuation of components and species diversity of marine ecosys-tems.Then eco-exergy analysis was used to measure the structures and functions of ecosystems.The results showed that,in 2010,marine ecosystem intrinsic value in Xiamen Bay was 2.09 ×1011 CNY,including 1.16 ×1011 of emergy and 9.24 ×1010 of eco-exergy,which is much higher than 7.27 ×109 CNY of the value of ecosystem service and 2.47 ×1010 CNY of GDP of Xiamen Marine Industry in 2010.%海洋和海岸带生态系统价值的科学评估对海洋与海岸带开发决策起着重要的支撑作用.目前盛行的生态系统服务价值评估是从生态系统对人类的效用的角度衡量生态系统的价值,而缺乏从生态系统自身的角度进行客观评估.首先分析了生态系统内在价值的内涵,提出基于能值和eco-exergy两种系统生态学方法的价值评估框架,建立了一套海洋生态系统内在价值较为有效的评估方法.该框架先通过能值计算将生态系统的生物成分、非生物成分及物种多样性转换为能值货币价值,再通过eco-exergy来体现生态系统的结构与功能过程,并转换为eco-exergy货币价值.最后将该评估框架应用于厦门湾海洋生态系统内在价

  10. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Part 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... shark stock assessments that were completed from 2009 to 2012. The assessments for Atlantic...

  11. Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae

  12. Global patterns in ecological indicators of marine food webs: a modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jacomina Heymans

    <