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Sample records for atlantic killifish fundulus

  1. Expression of aquaporin 3 in gills of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Effects of seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Sato, J. Denry; Shaw, Joseph R.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine fish, such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), are constantly and rapidly exposed to changes in salinity. Although ion transport in killifish gills during acclimation to increased salinity has been studied extensively, no studies have examined the role of aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3), a water, glycerol, urea, and ammonia transporter, during acclimation to increased salinity in this sentinel environmental model organism. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that transfer from freshwater to seawater decreases AQP3 gene and protein expression in the gill of killifish. Transfer from freshwater to seawater decreased AQP3 mRNA in the gill after 1 day, but had no effect on total gill AQP3 protein abundance as determined by western blot. Quantitative confocal immunocytochemistry confirmed western blot studies that transfer from freshwater to seawater did not change total AQP3 abundance in the gill; however, immunocytochemistry revealed that the amount of AQP3 in pillar cells of secondary lamellae decreased in seawater fish, whereas the amount of AQP3 in mitochondrion rich cells (MRC) in primary filaments of the gill increased in seawater fish. This response of AQP3 expression is unique to killifish compared to other teleosts. Although the role of AQP3 in the gill of killifish has not been completely elucidated, these results suggest that AQP3 may play an important role in the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity. PMID:22193757

  2. Later life swimming performance and persistent heart damage following subteratogenic PAH mixture exposure in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel R; Thompson, Jasmine; Chernick, Melissa; Hinton, David E; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2017-12-01

    High-level, acute exposures to individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures result in cardiac abnormalities in developing fish embryos. Whereas acute PAH exposures can be developmentally lethal, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower level PAH exposures in survivors. A population of PAH-adapted Fundulus heteroclitus from the PAH-contaminated Superfund site, Atlantic Wood Industries, Elizabeth River, Portsmouth, Virginia, United States, is highly resistant to acute PAH cardiac teratogenicity. We sought to determine and characterize long-term swimming performance and cardiac histological alterations of a subteratogenic PAH mixture exposure in both reference killifish and PAH-adapted Atlantic Wood killifish embryos. Killifish from a relatively uncontaminated reference site, King's Creek, Virginia, United States, and Atlantic Wood killifish were treated with dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract at 24 h post fertilization (hpf). Two proven subteratogenic dilutions, 0.1 and 1.0% Elizabeth River sediment extract (total PAH 5.04 and 50.4 µg/L, respectively), were used for embryo exposures. Then, at 5-mo post hatching, killifish were subjected to a swim performance test. A separate subset of these individuals was processed for cardiac histological analysis. Unexposed King's Creek killifish significantly outperformed the unexposed Atlantic Wood killifish in swimming performance as measured by Ucrit (i.e., critical swimming speed). However, King's Creek killifish exposed to Elizabeth River sediment extract (both 0.1 and 1.0%) showed significant declines in Ucrit. Histological analysis revealed the presence of blood in the pericardium of King's Creek killifish. Although Atlantic Wood killifish showed baseline performance deficits relative to King's Creek killifish, their pericardial cavities were nearly free of blood and atrial and ventricular alterations. These findings may explain, in part, the

  3. Genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis for the estuarine Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools in evolutionary biology; however, their availability for wild populations is extremely limited. Fundulus heteroclitus...

  4. Evolution of tolerance to PCBs and susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio harveyi) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacci, Diane; Huber, Marina; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Cohen, Sarah; Gauger, Eric; Fong, Allison; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

    2009-01-01

    A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) resident to New Bedford (NB), Massachusetts, USA, an urban harbor highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), demonstrates recently evolved tolerance to some aspects of PCB toxicity. PCB toxicology, ecological theory, and some precedence supported expectations of increased susceptibility to pathogens in NB killifish. However, laboratory bacterial challenges of the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi to wild fish throughout the reproductive season and to their mature laboratory-raised progeny demonstrated comparable survival by NB and reference killifish, and improved survival by NB males. These results are inconsistent with hypothesized trade-offs of adaptation, and suggest that evolved tolerance in NB killifish may include mechanisms that minimize the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs. Compensatory strategies of populations persisting in highly contaminated environments provide a unique perspective for understanding the long-term ecological effects of toxic chemicals. - Killifish resident to a highly PCB-contaminated estuary survive pathogenic bacterial challenges well, suggesting their tolerance to PCB immunosuppression

  5. Investigating the mechanisms of Ni uptake and sub-lethal toxicity in the Atlantic killifish Fundulus heteroclitus in relation to salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, Tamzin A.; Ransberry, Victoria E.; McClelland, Grant B.; Wood, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is a resilient estuarine species that may be subjected to anthropogenic contamination of its natural habitat, by toxicants such as nickel (Ni). We investigated Ni accumulation and potential modes of Ni toxicity, in killifish, as a function of environmental salinity. Killifish were acclimated to 4 different salinities [0 freshwater (FW), 10, 30 and 100% seawater (SW)] and exposed to 5 mg/L of Ni for 96 h. Tissue Ni accumulation, whole body ions, critical swim speed and oxidative stress parameters were examined. SW was protective against Ni accumulation in the gills and kidney. Addition of Mg and Ca to FW protected against gill Ni accumulation, suggesting competition with Ni for uptake. Concentration-dependent Ni accumulation in the gill exhibited saturable relationships in both FW- and SW-acclimated fish. However SW fish displayed a lower B_m_a_x (i.e. lower number of Ni binding sites) and a lower K_m (i.e. higher affinity for Ni binding). No effect of Ni exposure was observed on critical swim speed (U_c_r_i_t) or maximum rate of oxygen consumption (MO_2_m_a_x). Markers of oxidative stress showed either no effect (e.g. protein carbonyl formation), or variable effects that appeared to depend more on salinity than on Ni exposure. These data indicate that the killifish is very tolerant to Ni toxicity, a characteristic that may facilitate the use of this species as a site-specific biomonitor of contaminated estuaries. - Highlights: • SW was protective against Ni accumulation in the gills and kidney only. • Mg and Ca in FW protected against Ni accumulation, suggesting competition with Ni. • No effect of Ni exposure was observed on critical swim speed or oxygen consumption. - Marine vertebrates do not have the same response to Ni toxicity as freshwater vertebrates and as such. Euryhaline killifish may be very useful as site-specific biomonitors.

  6. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdylo, Josephine V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vogelbein, Wolfgang [The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Bain, Lisa J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AHR-related activities in creosote-adapted adult killifish were examined. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated intestine CYP1A. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated liver COX2 mRNA expression. • Most creosote-adapted adult killifish have lesions varying in severity. • Liver lesions in creosote-adapted adult killifish express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins. - Abstract: Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a

  7. Transcriptomic assessment of resistance to effects of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist in embryos of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus from a marine Superfund site

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    Franks Diana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus have evolved resistance to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and other halogenated and nonhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that act through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR-dependent signaling pathway. The resistance is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A, a widely used biomarker of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and effect, but whether the reduced sensitivity is specific to CYP1A or reflects a genome-wide reduction in responsiveness to all AHR-mediated changes in gene expression is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles and the response to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126 exposure in embryos (5 and 10 dpf and larvae (15 dpf from F. heteroclitus populations inhabiting the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts (NBH Superfund site (PCB-resistant and a reference site, Scorton Creek, Massachusetts (SC; PCB-sensitive. Results Analysis using a 7,000-gene cDNA array revealed striking differences in responsiveness to PCB-126 between the populations; the differences occur at all three stages examined. There was a sizeable set of PCB-responsive genes in the sensitive SC population, a much smaller set of PCB-responsive genes in NBH fish, and few similarities in PCB-responsive genes between the two populations. Most of the array results were confirmed, and additional PCB-regulated genes identified, by RNA-Seq (deep pyrosequencing. Conclusions The results suggest that NBH fish possess a gene regulatory defect that is not specific to one target gene such as CYP1A but rather lies in a regulatory pathway that controls the transcriptional response of multiple genes to PCB exposure. The results are consistent with genome-wide disruption of AHR-dependent signaling in NBH fish.

  8. Genetic basis for evolved tolerance to dioxin-like pollutants in wild Atlantic killifish: more than the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) resident to some US urban and industrialized estuaries demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locu...

  9. The Genetic Basis for Evolved Tolerance to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Wild Atlantic Killifish: More Than the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) resident to some US urban estuaries have independently evolved extreme and inherited tolerance to toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). To further understand the genetic basis for this trait, we densely genotyped families o...

  10. Salinity-dependent nickel accumulation and oxidative stress responses in the euryhaline killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of nickel (Ni) toxicity in marine fish remain unclear, although evidence from freshwater (FW) fish suggests that Ni can act as a pro-oxidant. This study investigated the oxidative stress effects of Ni on the euryhaline killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) as a function of salinity. Killifish were exposed to sublethal levels (5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) of waterborne Ni for 96 h in FW (0 ppt) and 100 % saltwater (SW) (35 ppt). In general, SW was protective against both Ni accumulation and indicators of oxidative stress [protein carbonyl formation and catalase (CAT) activity]. This effect was most pronounced at the highest Ni exposure level. For example, FW intestine showed increased Ni accumulation relative to SW intestine at 20 mg Ni L(-1), and this was accompanied by significantly greater protein carbonylation and CAT activity in this tissue. There were exceptions, however, in that although liver of FW killifish at the highest exposure concentration showed greater Ni accumulation relative to SW liver, levels of CAT activity were greatly decreased. This may relate to tissue- and salinity-specific differences in oxidative stress responses. The results of the present study suggest (1) that there was Ni-induced oxidative stress in killifish, (2) that the effects of salinity depend on differences in the physiology of the fish in FW versus SW, and (3) that increased levels of cations (sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) and anions (SO4 and Cl) in SW are likely protective against Ni accumulation in tissues exposed to the aquatic environment.

  11. Parasite manipulation of brain monoamines in California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) by the trematode Euhaplorchis californiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.C.; Korzan, W.J.; Carpenter, R.E.; Kuris, A.M.; Lafferty, K.D.; Summers, C.H.; Overli, O.

    2009-01-01

    California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) infected with the brain-encysting trematode Euhaplorchis californiensis display conspicuous swimming behaviours rendering them more susceptible to predation by avian final hosts. Heavily infected killifish grow and reproduce normally, despite having thousands of cysts inside their braincases. This suggests that E. californiensis affects only specific locomotory behaviours. We hypothesised that changes in the serotonin and dopamine metabolism, essential for controlling locomotion and arousal may underlie this behaviour modification. We employed micropunch dissection and HPLC to analyse monoamine and monoamine metabolite concentrations in the brain regions of uninfected and experimentally infected fish. The parasites exerted density-dependent changes in monoaminergic activity distinct from those exhibited by fish subjected to stress. Specifically, E. californiensis inhibited a normally occurring, stress-induced elevation of serotonergic metabolism in the raphae nuclei. This effect was particularly evident in the experimentally infected fish, whose low-density infections were concentrated on the brainstem. Furthermore, high E. californiensis density was associated with increased dopaminergic activity in the hypothalamus and decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus. In conclusion, the altered monoaminergic metabolism may explain behavioural differences leading to increased predation of the infected killifish by their final host predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  12. Reciprocal osmotic challenges reveal mechanisms of divergence in phenotypic plasticity in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Reid S; Galvez, Fernando; Whitehead, Andrew

    2015-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is an estuarine species with broad physiological plasticity, enabling acclimation to diverse stressors. Previous work suggests that freshwater populations expanded their physiology to accommodate low salinity environments; however, it is unknown whether this compromises their tolerance to high salinity. We used a comparative approach to investigate the mechanisms of a derived freshwater phenotype and the fate of an ancestral euryhaline phenotype after invasion of a freshwater environment. We compared physiological and transcriptomic responses to high- and low-salinity stress in fresh and brackish water populations and found an enhanced plasticity to low salinity in the freshwater population coupled with a reduced ability to acclimate to high salinity. Transcriptomic data identified genes with a conserved common response, a conserved salinity-dependent response and responses associated with population divergence. Conserved common acclimation responses revealed stress responses and alterations in cell-cycle regulation as important mechanisms in the general osmotic response. Salinity-specific responses included the regulation of genes involved in ion transport, intracellular calcium, energetic processes and cellular remodeling. Genes diverged between populations were primarily those showing salinity-specific expression and included those regulating polyamine homeostasis and the cell cycle. Additionally, when populations were matched with their native salinity, expression patterns were consistent with the concept of 'transcriptomic resilience', suggesting local adaptation. These findings provide insight into the fate of a plastic phenotype after a shift in environmental salinity and help to reveal mechanisms allowing for euryhalinity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  14. Relative contributions of copper oxide nanoparticles and dissolved copper to Cu uptake kinetics of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos

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    Jiang, Chuanjia; Castellon, Benjamin T.; Matson, Cole W.; Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2017-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal-based nanomaterials may be due to the uptake of metals in both dissolved and nanoparticulate forms, but the relative contributions of these different forms to overall metal uptake rates under environmental conditions are not quantitatively defined. Here, we investigated the linkage between the dissolution rates of copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their bioavailability to Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos, with the aim of quantitatively delineating the relative contributions of nanoparticulate and dissolved species for Cu uptake. Gulf killifish embryos were exposed to dissolved Cu and CuO NP mixtures comprising a range of pH values (6.3–7.5) and three types of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates at various concentrations (0.1–10 mg-C L–1), resulting in a wide range of CuO NP dissolution rates that subsequently influenced Cu uptake. First-order dissolution rate constants of CuO NPs increased with increasing NOM concentration and for NOM isolates with higher aromaticity, as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), while Cu uptake rate constants of both dissolved Cu and CuO NP decreased with NOM concentration and aromaticity. As a result, the relative contribution of dissolved Cu and nanoparticulate CuO species for the overall Cu uptake rate was insensitive to NOM type or concentration but largely determined by the percentage of CuO that dissolved. These findings highlight SUVA and aromaticity as key NOM properties affecting the dissolution kinetics and bioavailability of soluble metal-based nanomaterials in organic-rich waters. These properties could be used in the incorporation of dissolution kinetics into predictive models for environmental risks of nanomaterials.

  15. Salinity- and population-dependent genome regulatory response during osmotic acclimation in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew; Roach, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shujun; Galvez, Fernando

    2012-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is abundant in osmotically dynamic estuaries and it can quickly adjust to extremes in environmental salinity. We performed a comparative osmotic challenge experiment to track the transcriptomic and physiological responses to two salinities throughout a time course of acclimation, and to explore the genome regulatory mechanisms that enable extreme osmotic acclimation. One southern and one northern coastal population, known to differ in their tolerance to hypo-osmotic exposure, were used as our comparative model. Both populations could maintain osmotic homeostasis when transferred from 32 to 0.4 p.p.t., but diverged in their compensatory abilities when challenged down to 0.1 p.p.t., in parallel with divergent transformation of gill morphology. Genes involved in cell volume regulation, nucleosome maintenance, ion transport, energetics, mitochondrion function, transcriptional regulation and apoptosis showed population- and salinity-dependent patterns of expression during acclimation. Network analysis confirmed the role of cytokine and kinase signaling pathways in coordinating the genome regulatory response to osmotic challenge, and also posited the importance of signaling coordinated through the transcription factor HNF-4α. These genome responses support hypotheses of which regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for enabling extreme physiological flexibility.

  16. Hypoxial death inferred from thermally induced injuries at upper lethal temperatures, in the banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus (LeSueur)

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    Rombough, P J; Garside, E T

    1977-10-01

    Banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus (LeSueur), acclimated to 25/sup 0/C were subjected to upper lethal temperatures using a 10,000 min bioassay procedure. The incipient upper lethal temperature (LT/sub 50/) was about 34.5/sup 0/C. Histologic examination of heat-treated fish revealed no obvious injury to the heart, spleen, trunk musculature, eye, naris, integument, or digestive tract. Thermal stress induced progressive injury to the gills characterized by subepithelial edema, congestion of lamellar capillaries, and delamination of the respiratory epithelium from the pillar cell system. Areas of necrosis were observed in the lobus inferior of the hypothalamus and in the medulla oblongata. The pseudobranch epithelium was necrotic. Fatty change occurred in the liver. Acinar cells of the pancreas appeared autolytic and adjacent blood vessels damaged. Degenerative tubular changes and contracted glomerular tufts were noted in the kidney. The ovary was extremely temperature sensitive and displayed severe injury to oocytes and follicular cells after relatively short exposure to temperatures near the LT/sub 50/. It is proposed that primary thermally induced injury is to the gills. This results in abnormal gas exchange and osmoregulation and leads to pathologic changes in other tissues. Hypoxia of the central nervous system appears to be the ultimate cause of death.

  17. Community Structure of Skin Microbiome of Gulf Killifish, Fundulus grandis, Is Driven by Seasonality and Not Exposure to Oiled Sediments in a Louisiana Salt Marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Andrea M; Bullard, Stephen A; Womble, Matthew; Arias, Covadonga R

    2015-08-01

    Mucus of fish skin harbors complex bacterial communities that likely contribute to fish homeostasis. When the equilibrium between the host and its external bacterial symbionts is disrupted, bacterial diversity decreases while opportunistic pathogen prevalence increases, making the onset of pathogenic bacterial infection more likely. Because of that relationship, documenting temporal and spatial microbial community changes may be predictive of fish health status. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill was a potential stressor to the Gulf of Mexico's coastal ecosystem. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze the bacterial communities (microbiome) associated with the skin and mucus of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) that were collected from oiled and non-oiled salt marsh sites in Barataria Bay, LA. Water samples and fin clips were collected to examine microbiome structure. The microbiome of Gulf killifish was significantly different from that of the surrounding water, mainly attributable to shifts in abundances of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. The Gulf killifish's microbiome was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, specifically members of Pseudomonas. No significant difference was found between microbiomes of fish collected from oiled and non-oiled sites suggesting little impact of oil contamination on fish bacterial assemblages. Conversely, seasonality significantly influenced microbiome structure. Overall, the high similarity observed between the microbiomes of individual fish observed during this study posits that skin and mucus of Gulf killifish have a resilient core microbiome.

  18. Influence of euthanasia method on blood and gill variables in normoxic and hypoxic Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, K F; Rees, B B

    2017-06-01

    In many experiments, euthanasia, or humane killing, of animals is necessary. Some methods of euthanasia cause death through cessation of respiratory or cardiovascular systems, causing oxygen levels of blood and tissues to drop. For experiments where the goal is to measure the effects of environmental low oxygen (hypoxia), the choice of euthanasia technique, therefore, may confound the results. This study examined the effects of four euthanasia methods commonly used in fish biology (overdose of MS-222, overdose of clove oil, rapid cooling and blunt trauma to the head) on variables known to be altered during hypoxia (haematocrit, plasma cortisol, blood lactate and blood glucose) or reflecting gill damage (trypan blue exclusion) and energetic status (ATP, ADP and ATP:ADP) in Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis after 24 h exposure to well-aerated conditions (normoxia, 7·93 mg O 2  l -1 , c. 150 mm Hg or c. 20 kPa) or reduced oxygen levels (0·86 mg O 2  l -1 , c. 17 mm Hg or c. 2·2 kPa). Regardless of oxygen treatment, fish euthanized by an overdose of MS-222 had higher haematocrit and lower gill ATP:ADP than fish euthanized by other methods. The effects of 24 h hypoxic exposure on these and other variables, however, were equivalent among methods of euthanasia (i.e. there were no significant interactions between euthanasia method and oxygen treatment). The choice of an appropriate euthanasia method, therefore, will depend upon the magnitude of the treatment effects (e.g. hypoxia) relative to potential artefacts caused by euthanasia on the variables of interest. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Effects of heavy metals on development of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

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    Weis, J S; Weis, P

    1977-07-01

    When Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to inorganic mercury at concentrations of 0.03 or 0.1 mg/l at the early blastula stage, the percentage of successful axis formation was reduced and a significant proportion of embryos developed cyclopia or intermediate conditions leading to cyclopia. Treatment at the late blastula stage reduced the severity of the defects. Embryos which developed in lead at concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/l were normal in appearance until hatching, at which time they exhibited lordosis or were unable to uncurl from the position they had while still inside the chorion. No significant effects of cadmium at concentrations up to 10 mg/l were noted.

  20. Biomarkers of Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Activity in Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis) From Northern Gulf of Mexico Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Rice, Charles D; Barrois, Lester F; Galvez, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, shorelines throughout the Barataria Basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico in Louisiana were heavily oiled for months with Macondo-252 oil, potentially impacting estuarine species. The Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) has been identified as a sentinel species for the study of site-specific effects of crude oil contamination on biological function. In November and December 2010, 4-5 months after the Macondo well was plugged and new oil was no longer spilling into the Gulf waters, Gulf killifish were collected across the Barataria Basin from 14 sites with varying degrees of oiling. Fish collected from oiled sites exhibited biological indications of exposure to oil, including increase in cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA transcript and protein abundances in liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed increases in gill, head kidney, and intestinal CYP1A protein at heavily oiled sites. Intestinal CYP1A protein was a sensitive indicator of exposure, indicating that intestinal tissue plays a key role in biotransformation of AHR ligands and that ingestion is a probable route of exposure, warranting additional consideration in future studies.

  1. Acid-base responses to feeding and intestinal Cl- uptake in freshwater- and seawater-acclimated killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, an agastric euryhaline teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Bucking, Carol; Grosell, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Marine teleosts generally secrete basic equivalents (HCO(3)(-)) and take up Na(+) and Cl(-) in the intestine so as to promote absorption of H(2)O. However, neither the integration of these functions with feeding nor the potential role of the gut in ionoregulation and acid-base balance in freshwater have been well studied. The euryhaline killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is unusual in lacking both an acid-secreting stomach and a mechanism for Cl(-) uptake at the gills in freshwater. Responses to a satiation meal were evaluated in both freshwater- and seawater-acclimated killifish. In intact animals, there was no change in acid or base flux to the external water after the meal, in accord with the absence of any post-prandial alkaline tide in the blood. Indeed, freshwater animals exhibited a post-prandial metabolic acidosis ('acidic tide'), whereas seawater animals showed no change in blood acid-base status. In vitro gut sac experiments revealed a substantially higher rate of Cl(-) absorption by the intestine in freshwater killifish, which was greatest at 1-3 h after feeding. The Cl(-) concentration of the absorbate was higher in preparations from freshwater animals than from seawater killifish and increased with fasting. Surprisingly, net basic equivalent secretion rates were also much higher in preparations from freshwater animals, in accord with the 'acidic tide'; in seawater preparations, they were lowest after feeding and increased with fasting. Bafilomycin (1 micromol l(-1)) promoted an 80% increase in net base secretion rates, as well as in Cl(-) and fluid absorption, at 1-3 h post-feeding in seawater preparations only, explaining the difference between freshwater and seawater fish. Preparations from seawater animals at 1-3 h post-feeding also acidified the mucosal saline, and this effect was associated with a marked rise in P(CO(2)), which was attenuated by bafilomycin. Measurements of chyme pH from intact animals confirmed that intestinal fluid (chyme) pH and

  2. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and MeHg in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from amphipod and worm prey

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    Dutton, Jessica, E-mail: dutton.jess@gmail.com; Fisher, Nicholas S., E-mail: nfisher@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

    2011-08-15

    Elevated metal levels in fish are a concern for the fish themselves, their predators, and possibly humans who consume contaminated seafood. Metal bioaccumulation models often rely on assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals and loss rate constants after dietary exposure (k{sub ef}s). These models can be used to better understand processes regulating metal accumulation and can be used to make site-specific predictions of metal concentrations in animal tissues. Fish often consume a varied diet, and prey choice can influence these two parameters. We investigated the trophic transfer of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and methylmercury (MeHg) from a benthic amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) and an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) using gamma-emitting radioisotopes. Except for MeHg, AEs varied between prey type. AEs were highest for MeHg (92%) and lowest for Cd (2.9-4.5%) and Cr (0.2-4%). Hg(II) showed the largest AE difference between prey type (14% amphipods, 24% worms). For Cd and Hg(II) k{sub ef}s were higher after consuming amphipods than consuming worms. Tissue distribution data shows that Cd and Hg(II) were mainly associated with the intestine, whereas As and MeHg were transported throughout the body. Calculated trophic transfer factors (TTFs) suggest that MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step at all ingestion rates, whereas As, Cd, Cr, and Hg(II) will not. Data collected in this study and others indicate that using one prey item to calculate AE and k{sub ef} could lead to an over- or underestimation of these parameters. - Highlights: {yields} We investigated the trophic transfer of metals to killifish from amphipod and worm prey. {yields} Prey choice influences metal accumulation from the diet. {yields} Only MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step.

  3. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.; Celander, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  5. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro [Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Celander, Malin C., E-mail: malin.celander@gu.se [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  6. 17 beta-estradiol affects osmoregulation in Fundulus heteroclitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancera, J.M.; Smolenaars, M.; Laiz-Carrion, R.; Rio, M. del; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 17beta-estradiol (ED on osmoregulatory performance was examined in the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Fish were injected once with 1, 2 and 5 mug g(-1) E-2 and, 6 h after injection, transferred from I ppt seawater (SW) to full strength SW (40 ppt) or from SW to I ppt SW.

  7. Morpholino Gene Knockdown in Adult Fundulus heteroclitus: Role of SGK1 in Seawater Acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notch, Emily G.; Shaw, Joseph R.; Coutermarsh, Bonita A.; Dzioba, Marisa; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an environmental sentinel organism used extensively for studies on environmental toxicants and salt (NaCl) homeostasis. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that rapid acclimation of killifish to seawater is mediated by trafficking of CFTR chloride channels from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in the opercular membrane within the first hour in seawater, which enhances chloride secretion into seawater, thereby contributing to salt homeostasis. Acute transition to seawater is also marked by an increase in both mRNA and protein levels of serum glucocorticoid kinase 1 (SGK1) within 15 minutes of transfer. Although the rise in SGK1 in gill and its functional analog, the opercular membrane, after seawater transfer precedes the increase in membrane CFTR, a direct role of SGK1 in elevating membrane CFTR has not been established in vivo. To test the hypothesis that SGK1 mediates the increase in plasma membrane CFTR we designed two functionally different vivo-morpholinos to knock down SGK1 in gill, and developed and validated a vivo-morpholino knock down technique for adult killifish. Injection (intraperitoneal, IP) of the splice blocking SGK1 vivo-morpholino reduced SGK1 mRNA in the gill after transition from fresh to seawater by 66%. The IP injection of the translational blocking and splice blocking vivo-morpholinos reduced gill SGK1 protein abundance in fish transferred from fresh to seawater by 64% and 53%, respectively. Moreover, knock down of SGK1 completely eliminated the seawater induced rise in plasma membrane CFTR, demonstrating that the increase in SGK1 protein is required for the trafficking of CFTR from intracellular vesicles in mitochondrion rich cells to the plasma membrane in the gill during acclimation to seawater. This is the first report of the use of vivo-morpholinos in adult killifish and demonstrates that vivo-morpholinos are a valuable genetic tool for this environmentally

  8. Inferring Evolution of Habitat Usage and Body Size in Endangered, Seasonal Cynopoeciline Killifishes from the South American Atlantic Forest through an Integrative Approach (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J E M Costa

    Full Text Available Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho, provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms

  9. Inferring Evolution of Habitat Usage and Body Size in Endangered, Seasonal Cynopoeciline Killifishes from the South American Atlantic Forest through an Integrative Approach (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Wilson J E M

    2016-01-01

    Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho), provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms under intense

  10. Annotation of the Nuclear Receptors in an Estuarine Fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Baldwin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear receptors (NRs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that respond to various internal as well as external cues such as nutrients, pheromones, and steroid hormones that play crucial roles in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis and orchestrating the physiological and stress responses of an organism. We annotated the Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog; Atlantic killifish nuclear receptors. Mummichog are a non-migratory, estuarine fish with a limited home range often used in environmental research as a field model for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to variable environmental conditions such as salinity, oxygen, temperature, pH, and toxic compounds because of their hardiness. F. heteroclitus have at least 74 NRs spanning all seven gene subfamilies. F. heteroclitus is unique in that no RXRα member was found within the genome. Interestingly, some of the NRs are highly conserved between species, while others show a higher degree of divergence such as PXR, SF1, and ARα. Fundulus like other fish species show expansion of the RAR (NR1B, Rev-erb (NR1D, ROR (NR1F, COUPTF (NR2F, ERR (NR3B, RXR (NR2B, and to a lesser extent the NGF (NR4A, and NR3C steroid receptors (GR/AR. Of particular interest is the co-expansion of opposing NRs, Reverb-ROR, and RAR/RXR-COUPTF.

  11. Genetic architecture of evolved tolerance to PCBs in the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Atlantic killifish (F. heteroclitus) resident to coastal estuarine habitats contaminated with halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) exhibit heritable resistance to the early life-stage toxicity associated with these compounds. Beyond our knowledge of the aryl hy...

  12. Functional genomics of physiological plasticity and local adaptation in killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew; Galvez, Fernando; Zhang, Shujun; Williams, Larissa M; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation.

  13. Chronic exposure of killifish to a highly polluted environment desensitizes estrogen-responsive reproductive and biomarker genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugel, Sean M.; Bonventre, Josephine A.; White, Lori A.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reproductive biomarker genes in Newark Bay killifish are desensitized to estrogen. • Gene desensitization indicates pre-transcriptional effects on estrogen signaling. • Desensitization does not have a metabolic or epigenetic basis (gene methylation). • Modulation of vitellogenin and choriogenin genes correlates with reproductive impacts. • Choriogenin L appears less prone to false negatives and may be a sensitive biomarker. - Abstract: Reproductive and endocrine disruption is commonly reported in aquatic species exposed to complex contaminant mixtures. We previously reported that Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the chronically contaminated Newark Bay, NJ, exhibit multiple endocrine disrupting effects, including inhibition of vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis) in females and false negative vitellogenin biomarker responses in males. Here, we characterized the effects on estrogen signaling and the transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes in this model population. First, a dose–response study tested the hypothesis that reproductive biomarkers (vtg1, vtg2, chg H, chg Hm, chg L) in Newark Bay killifish are relatively less sensitive to 17β-estradiol at the transcriptional level, relative to a reference (Tuckerton, NJ) population. The second study assessed expression for various metabolism (cyp1a, cyp3a30, mdr) and estrogen receptor (ER α, ER βa, ER βb) genes under basal and estrogen treatment conditions in both populations. Hepatic metabolism of 17β-estradiol was also evaluated in vitro as an integrated endpoint for adverse effects on metabolism. In the third study, gene methylation was evaluated for promoters of vtg1 (8 CpGs) and vtg2 (10 CpGs) in both populations, and vtg1 promoter sequences were examined for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Overall, these studies show that multi-chemical exposures at Newark Bay have desensitized all reproductive biomarkers tested to estrogen. For example, at 10 ng

  14. Chronic exposure of killifish to a highly polluted environment desensitizes estrogen-responsive reproductive and biomarker genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugel, Sean M., E-mail: Sean.Bugel@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bonventre, Josephine A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); White, Lori A. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Tanguay, Robert L. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Cooper, Keith R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Reproductive biomarker genes in Newark Bay killifish are desensitized to estrogen. • Gene desensitization indicates pre-transcriptional effects on estrogen signaling. • Desensitization does not have a metabolic or epigenetic basis (gene methylation). • Modulation of vitellogenin and choriogenin genes correlates with reproductive impacts. • Choriogenin L appears less prone to false negatives and may be a sensitive biomarker. - Abstract: Reproductive and endocrine disruption is commonly reported in aquatic species exposed to complex contaminant mixtures. We previously reported that Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the chronically contaminated Newark Bay, NJ, exhibit multiple endocrine disrupting effects, including inhibition of vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis) in females and false negative vitellogenin biomarker responses in males. Here, we characterized the effects on estrogen signaling and the transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes in this model population. First, a dose–response study tested the hypothesis that reproductive biomarkers (vtg1, vtg2, chg H, chg Hm, chg L) in Newark Bay killifish are relatively less sensitive to 17β-estradiol at the transcriptional level, relative to a reference (Tuckerton, NJ) population. The second study assessed expression for various metabolism (cyp1a, cyp3a30, mdr) and estrogen receptor (ER α, ER βa, ER βb) genes under basal and estrogen treatment conditions in both populations. Hepatic metabolism of 17β-estradiol was also evaluated in vitro as an integrated endpoint for adverse effects on metabolism. In the third study, gene methylation was evaluated for promoters of vtg1 (8 CpGs) and vtg2 (10 CpGs) in both populations, and vtg1 promoter sequences were examined for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Overall, these studies show that multi-chemical exposures at Newark Bay have desensitized all reproductive biomarkers tested to estrogen. For example, at 10 ng

  15. Turquoise killifish: quick guide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Cellerino, A.; Valenzano, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 17 (2015), R741-R742 ISSN 0960-9822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : killifish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 8.983, year: 2015

  16. Coordinated Speed Oscillations in Schooling Killifish Enrich Social Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel T.; Couzin, Iain D.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2015-10-01

    We examine the spatial dynamics of individuals in small schools of banded killifish ( Fundulus diaphanus) that exhibit rhythmic, oscillating speed, typically with sustained, coordinated, out-of-phase speed oscillations as they move around a shallow water tank. We show that the relative motion among the fish yields a periodically time-varying network of social interactions that enriches visually driven social communication. The oscillations lead to the regular making and breaking of occlusions, which we term "switching." We show that the rate of convergence to consensus (biologically, the capacity for individuals in groups to achieve effective coordinated motion) governed by the switching outperforms static alternatives, and performs as well as the less practical case of every fish sensing every other fish. We show further that the oscillations in speed yield oscillations in relative bearing between fish over a range that includes the angles previously predicted to be optimal for a fish to detect changes in heading and speed of its neighbors. To investigate systematically, we derive and analyze a dynamic model of interacting agents that move with oscillatory speed. We show that coordinated circular motion of the school leads to systematic cycling of spatial ordering of agents and possibilities for enriched spatial density of measurements of the external environment. Our results highlight the potential benefits of dynamic communication topologies in collective animal behavior, and suggest new, useful control laws for the distributed coordination of mobile robotic networks.

  17. Mitochondrial Fitness, Gene Expression, and Hypoxic Stress in a Hybrid Population of the Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological link between oxygen availability and mitochondrial function is well established. However, whether or not fitness variation is associated with mitochondrial genotypes in the field remains a contested topic in evolutionary biology. In this study we draw on a popul...

  18. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Nacci, Diane E.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  19. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao, E-mail: xdu@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Crawford, Douglas L. [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Nacci, Diane E. [Population Ecology Branch, Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  20. Atriopeptin II stimulates chloride secretion in the isolated operculum epithelium of Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadunaisky, J.A.; Scheide, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    Whole killifish efflux of 36 Cl was increased more than 2x with the addition of 1.4 x 10 -7 M atriopeptin (ANF) to the seawater bath. Atriopeptin II (10 -7 M) added serosally to the isolated Fundulus heteroclitus opercular epithelium resulted in a consistent stimulation of the short-circuit current, from 129.5 +/- 12.3 to 153.5 +/- 13.4 μA/cm 2 . Tissue resistance was decreased 10% from 114.9 +/- 14.2 to 103.9 +/- 11.8 Omega x cm 2 indicating a change in chloride conductance. The effect of ANF was maximal at 10 -7 M and mucosal addition of ANF was ineffective in stimulating the opercular current. The ANF current stimulation did not interfere with the isoproterenol (10 -6 M) response but ANF did not stimulate the current if added after isoproterenol. Serosal addition of propranolol (10 -5 M), sufficient to inhibit 10 -6 M isoproterenol, had no effect on the ANF response. The serosal addition of 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin or 10 -4 M diltiazem did not inhibit the ANF response. The stimulatory effect observed by ANF did not involve the isoproterenol receptor or nerve activation; however, it was a distinct stimulatory response on the isolated opercular epithelium

  1. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  2. Seasonal diet composition of Fundulus lima (Cyprinodontiformes: Fundulidae in two oasis systems of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinora Acosta Zamorano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundulus lima inhabits river drainage systems and is threatened after the introduction of cichlids in the area. To support conservation programs, the spatial and temporal variation of the diet composition of this endangered killifish, was determined in two oasis systems of Baja California Sur, Mexico (San Ignacio and La Purisima river drainages, during rainy and dry seasons. F. lima was captured by using passive and active capture techniques. A total of 192 stomach contents of F. lima was analyzed. The contribution of each prey item in the diet composition was quantified by means of the indices of occurrence frequency (% OF, numerical (%N and volume (%V percentages. The relative importance of each prey item was determined according to the percentage of the Relative Importance Index (%RII. The similarity of the diet was calculated between hydrological basins (populations combined by basin, seasons (rainy versus dry months, sexes and size classes, by using Schoener’s resource overlap index. We used two ecological indices to determine the type of feeding strategy exhibited by the fish: (1 niche breadth of Levins and (2 proportional similarity of Feisinger. Sand was the most abundant item in the stomach content of killifishes from both drainages (39% and 47%, respectively. Diet composition was similar for both drainages (74% as well as among their respective size classes; however, it was different between sexes. In both drainages, F. lima predated mainly on diatom algae, dipterous and trichopteran larvae, and fish scales during the dry season; while it preferred dipterous larvae, filamentous algae and ostracods in the rainy season. A feeding strategy of opportunist type was exhibited by F. lima during the rainy season, changing to specialist type during the dry season. This information will be the basis for future investigations related to the conservation of this endangered species and its habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1669-1678. Epub 2011

  3. Plasticity of osmoregulatory function in the killifish intestine: drinking rates, salt and water transport, and gene expression after freshwater transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Schulte, Patricia M; Wood, Chris M

    2006-10-01

    We have explored intestinal function in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus after transfer from brackish water (10% seawater) to fresh water. Plasma Na+ and Cl- concentrations fell at 12 h post-transfer, but recovered by 7 days. Drinking rate decreased substantially at 12 h (32% of control value) and remained suppressed after 3 and 7 days in fresh water (34 and 43%). By contrast, there was a transient increase in the capacity for water absorption measured across isolated intestines in vitro (3.3- and 2.6-fold at 12 h and 3 days), which returned to baseline after 7 days. These changes in water absorption could be entirely accounted for by changes in net ion flux: there was an extremely strong correlation (R2=0.960) between water absorption and the sum of net Na+ and net Cl- fluxes (3.42+/-0.10 microl water micromol(-1) ion). However, enhanced ion transport across the intestine in fresh water would probably not increase water uptake in vivo, because the drinking rate was far less than the capacity for water absorption across the intestine. The increased intestinal ion absorption after freshwater transfer may instead serve to facilitate ion absorption from food when it is present in the gut. Modulation of net ion flux occurred without changes in mRNA levels of many ion transporters (Na+/K+-ATPase alpha(1a), carbonic anhydrase 2, CFTR Cl- channel, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 2, and the signalling protein 14-3-3a), and before a measured increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity at 3 days, suggesting that there is some other mechanism responsible for increasing ion transport. Interestingly, net Cl- flux always exceeded net Na+ flux, possibly to help maintain Cl- balance and/or facilitate bicarbonate excretion. Our results suggest that intestinal NaCl absorption from food is important during the period of greatest ionic disturbance after transfer to fresh water, and provide further insight into the mechanisms of euryhalinity in killifish.

  4. Diet of four annual killifishes: an intra and interspecific comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laufer

    Full Text Available We examined the diet of 4 annual fishes, Austrolebias viarius, Austrolebias cheradophilus, Austrolebias luteoflammulatus and Cynopoecilus melanotaenia inhabiting temporal ponds of southeastern Uruguay, by analysis of stomach contents. Fishes were captured from fifty ephemeral ponds of Castillos Lagoon basin, in the region of the Humedales del Este. We identified 13099 individual prey items extracted from 669 stomachs of the four captured species. In the studied system, annual killifishes represents the most abundant and conspicuous top predators. Killifishes are generalist key predators at the ephemeral ponds of the studied system, consuming mostly aquatic items. Zooplancton represented the bulk of the diet in the four analyzed species, followed by eggs, algae and diatoms. Insects are the next group in prey number, as follows: Diptera larvae (especially Chironomidae and Cullicidae, Ephemeroptera (especially Betidae, and coleopteran larvae (especially Dytiscidae. Acari are also important prey in number. The four fish species differ in diet composition and in diet richness. A general pattern of differences in diet richness among killifish species and demographic groups could be related to variations in body sizes. As top predators annual killifishes are an important component of the temporal pond ecosystems. Understanding the natural history of this species and their communities is necessary in order to conserve them.

  5. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review attempts to give an account on the recent advances on the killifish Aphanius dispar dispar as a biological control agent for mosquito larvae. Thirty six (36) articles of literature (scientific papers, technical and workshop reports) on this subject covering the period between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed.

  6. Microanatomical diversification of the zona pellucida in aplochelioid killifishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A W; Furness, A I; Stone, C; Rade, C M; Ortí, G

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates zona pellucida (ZP) ultrastructure in fertilized eggs of annual killifishes (suborder Aplocheiloidei), a group of highly specialized fishes that are able to survive desiccation for several weeks to months before they hatch. Little is known about ZP or chorionic ultrastructure sustaining these life-history modes, so scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe this trait in a large number of aplocheiloids with a focus on the family Rivulidae and the genus Hypsolebias. New images of ZP ultrastructure for 52 aplocheiloid species are provided, more than doubling the number characterized thus far. The evolution of chorionic structure within this group is studied using these new data. Characters were coded into a morphological matrix and optimized onto a consensus phylogeny to assess phylogenetic signal and reconstruct ancestral character states. Although ZP characters seem highly homoplastic and exhibit a large amount of structural convergence among lineages, aplocheiloid killifishes have evolved a number of unique structures associated with the chorion. Some annual species seem to have lost long filaments because eggs are deposited in the soil instead of being adhered to aquatic plants. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. TIMED DAILY ADMINISTRATION OF HORMONES AND ANTAGONISTS OF NEUROENDOCRINE RECEPTORS ALTER DAY-NIGHT RHYTHMS OF ALLOGRAFT REJECTION IN THE GULF KILLIFISH, FUNDULUS GRANDIS. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Nitric oxide inhibition of NaCl secretion in the opercular epithelium of seawater-acclimated killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerber, Lucie; Jensen, Frank B; Madsen, Steffen S

    2016-01-01

    to explore the mechanism(s) triggering NO action. A modified Biotin-switch technique was used to investigate S-nitrosation of proteins. Stimulation of endogenous NO production via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate L-arginine (2.0 mmol l-1), and addition of exogenous NO via the NO donor SNAP (10-6 mol...... l-1 to 10-4 mol l-1), decreased the epithelial short-circuit current (Isc). Inhibition of endogenous NO production by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME (10-4 mol l-1) increased Isc and revealed a tonic control of ion transport by NO in unstimulated opercular epithelia. The NO scavenger PTIO (10-5 mol l-1...

  9. The comparative phylogeography of east coast estuarine fishes in formerly glaciated sites: Persistence versus recolonization in Cyprinodon variegatus ovinus and Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Robert A; Dionne, Michelle; Puritz, Jon; Rand, David M

    2009-01-01

    Species distributions may be dramatically affected by climatic variability, such as occurred during Pleistocene glaciation. Populations of coastal organisms could have been affected directly by ice movement or through sea level change. Response could involve shifts in distribution southwards or persistence through the full range or in limited high-latitude refugia. Comparative studies of the response of ecologically similar species can provide a useful complement to those examining response across disparate species in defining what parameters influence persistence. Patterns of mitochondrial genetic variation in 2 estuarine fish subspecies from the Northwest Atlantic, Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus and Cyprinodon variegatus ovinus, indicate that ecological similarity does not necessarily predict propensity for glacial persistence. Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus is highly diverse in glaciated regions, with isolated populations whose origins predate the last glacial maximum and may have recently expanded it's range to the south from New England. However, within glaciated regions, signals of population growth and distributional shifts indicate a dynamic Pleistocene history for F. h. macrolepidotus, in contrast with recent studies involving microsatellites. A different pattern is found in C. v. ovinus, which is depauperate in formerly glaciated sites, with a clear signal of recent recolonization of glaciated regions from the south. Genetic differentiation in glaciated areas is consistent with isolation after glacial withdrawal. In C. v. ovinus, rapidly evolving microsatellite loci show a similar pattern to mitochondrial DNA but may be reaching equilibrium on small spatial scales. These contrasting patterns of variation illustrate how ecologically similar species can respond to large-scale environmental change in distinct ways.

  10. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1997-07-01

    Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish`s (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the killifish`s raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish`s control raw meat mixed with {sup 137}Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to {sup 137}CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD{sub 280nm} in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that {sup 137}Cs accumulated in the killifish`s meat was shown not to be binding to protein`s composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with {sup 137}Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, {sup 137}Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish`s meat was not almost different from those of each control and {sup 137}CsCl solution. (author)

  11. Asymmetric reproductive isolation between two sympatric annual killifish with extremely short lifespans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 8 (2011), e22684 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0815 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : African annual killifish * hybridization * Mozambique * barriers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  12. PAH-induced sublethal narcosis alters the bioenergetics and bioaccumulation of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, A. [NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, Hazardous Materials and Response, Seattle (United States); Beard, E.; Baker, B. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Accumulation of non-polar narcotic chemicals in organisms alters their metabolic rates and, therefore their energetic demands. Since exposure of these hydrophobic chemicals is primarily through the diet, we hypothesize that decreasing metabolic rates caused by accumulation of narcotics reduces feeding which, in turn, decreases further exposure to the narcotic. Thus, dietary exposure to and accumulation of narcotics may cause a negative feedback, reducing net bioaccumulation. The purpose of this short paper is to discuss the results of a long-term fish contaminant exposure study and to describe a fish bioenergetics model coupled to a PCBbioaccumulation model. The laboratory component consisted of exposing the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus to environmentally-relevant levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) through their diet. We developed the model to further examine and understand the consequences of sublethal narcosis at both the individual and population levels of Fundulus heteroclitus.

  13. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  15. Evidence of lactate dehydrogenase-B allozyme effects in the teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, L; Paynter, K T; Powers, D A

    1991-08-23

    The evolutionary significance of protein polymorphisms has long been debated. Exponents of the balanced theory advocate that selection operates to maintain polymorphisms, whereas the neoclassical school argues that most genetic variation is neutral. Some studies have suggested that protein polymorphisms are not neutral, but their significance has been questioned because one cannot eliminate the possibility that linked loci were responsible for the observed differences. Evidence is presented that an enzymatic phenotype can affect carbon flow through a metabolic pathway. Glucose flux differences between lactate dehydrogenase-B phenotypes of Fundulus heteroclitus were reversed by substituting the Ldh-B gene product of one homozygous genotype with that of another.

  16. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of 137Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio.

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical states of 137 Cs accumulated in killifish's (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of 137 Cs radioactivity in the killifish's raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish's control raw meat mixed with 137 Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to 137 CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD 280nm in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that 137 Cs accumulated in the killifish's meat was shown not to be binding to protein's composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with 137 Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, 137 Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish's meat was not almost different from those of each control and 137 CsCl solution. (author)

  17. Control of Cl-transport in the operculum epithelium of Fundulus heteroclitus : long- and short-term salinity adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E.K.; Hoffmann, Erik; Lang, F.

    2002-01-01

    The eurohaline fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, adapts rapidly to enhanced salinity by increasing the ion secretion by gill chloride cells. An increase of similar to 70 mOsm in plasma osmolarity was previously found during the transition. To mimic this in vitro, isolated opercular epithelia of seawat...

  18. Convergent evolution of alternative developmental trajectories associated with diapause in African and South American killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I; Reznick, David N; Springer, Mark S; Meredith, Robert W

    2015-03-07

    Annual killifish adapted to life in seasonally ephemeral water-bodies exhibit desiccation resistant eggs that can undergo diapause, a period of developmental arrest, enabling them to traverse the otherwise inhospitable dry season. Environmental cues that potentially indicate the season can govern whether eggs enter a stage of diapause mid-way through development or skip this diapause and instead undergo direct development. We report, based on construction of a supermatrix phylogenetic tree of the order Cyprinodontiformes and a battery of comparative analyses, that the ability to produce diapause eggs evolved independently at least six times within African and South American killifish. We then show in species representative of these lineages that embryos entering diapause display significant reduction in development of the cranial region and circulatory system relative to direct-developing embryos. This divergence along alternative developmental pathways begins mid-way through development, well before diapause is entered, during a period of purported maximum developmental constraint (the phylotypic period). Finally, we show that entering diapause is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in metabolic rate and concomitant increase in long-term embryo survival. Morphological divergence during the phylotypic period thus allows embryos undergoing diapause to conserve energy by shunting resources away from energetically costly organs thereby increasing survival chances in an environment that necessitates remaining dormant, buried in the soil and surrounded by an eggshell for much of the year. Our results indicate that adaptation to seasonal aquatic environments in annual killifish imposes strong selection during the embryo stage leading to marked diversification during this otherwise conserved period of vertebrate development. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of morphological variation among populations of the widespread annual killifish Nothobranchius orthonotus are independent of genetic divergence and biogeography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2016), s. 289-298 ISSN 0947-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : geometric morphometry * body shape * species delimitation * annual killifish * Nothobranchius Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2016

  20. Otoliths of Five Extant Species of the Annual Killifish Nothobranchius from the East African Savannah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Reichard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents, for the first time, a comprehensive dataset that documents the range of inter- and intraspecific otolith variation in aplocheiloid killifish, based on a total of 86 individuals representing five extant species of Nothobranchius PETERS, 1868, from East Africa: the sympatric pairs N. rubripinnis SEEGERS, 1986 and N. ruudwildekampi COSTA, 2009 (Eastern Tanzania), and N. orthonotus (PETERS, 1844) and N. furzeri JUBB, 1971 (Southern Mozambique), and two isolated populations of N. korthausae MEINKEN, 1973 (Eastern Tanzania). Otolith characters were analysed based on SEM images, and otolith morphometry was conducted using uni- and multivariate statistics. Two ancient clades of probably Early to Middle Miocene age in eastern Tanzania and southern Mozambique can be recognized based on otolith morphologies, which is consistent with previous work based on molecular data. The distinctive sulcus morphologies in the otoliths of sympatric species may be linked to species-specific hearing capabilities, perhaps constituting a case of character displacement in an area of secondary sympatry. The otoliths of the studied species of Nothobranchius are diagnostic at the species level, even in the case of closely related species diagnosable otherwise only by minor differences in coloration. The two populations of N. korthausae also displayed some differences in their otolith characters. The new data may facilitate future recognition of fossil species of Nothobranchius. As no fossil remains of extant aplocheiloid killifishes have yet been described, the discovery of fossil otoliths of Nothobranchius would significantly advance understanding of the evolutionary history of this interesting group of fishes. PMID:25383789

  1. Annual killifish adaptations to ephemeral environments: Diapause i in two austrolebias species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezo, María José; Papa, Nicolás G; Berois, Nibia; Clivio, Graciela; Montagne, Jimena; De la Piedra, Soledad

    2017-11-01

    Many organisms are able to survive in extreme environments by entering a state of dormancy. In dormancy, vital activities are reduced until environmental conditions are compatible with active life. Annual killifishes show a special developmental pattern characterized by a phase of dispersion-reaggregation of the blastomeres that separates epiboly from organogenesis, and the capability to enter dormancy in diapause. High tolerance to environmental stress confers annual killifish embryos the condition of extremophiles. At present, the questions of our research group are focused on the understanding of the mechanisms involved in diapause regulation through an interdisciplinary approach. As a first step, it is necessary to characterize diapauses at morphological and physiological levels and to evaluate induction cues under laboratory conditions. In this context, we characterized diapause I in two Austrolebias species. Our experimental approach to induce diapause I was successful and revealed the co-existence of two diapause I phenotypes named A and B instead of one. These phenotypes showed a tendency for lower total extractable RNA content compared with active developmental stages (80-100% epiboly and early reaggregate). These phenotypes are alternative diapause I stages and may have ecological relevance because both were found in embryos in natural ponds. Developmental Dynamics 246:848-857, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  3. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently

  4. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  5. Functional and structural characterization of a eurytolerant calsequestrin from the intertidal teleost Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Carl Whittington

    Full Text Available Calsequestrins (CSQ are high capacity, medium affinity, calcium-binding proteins present in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR of cardiac and skeletal muscles. CSQ sequesters Ca²⁺ during muscle relaxation and increases the Ca²⁺-storage capacity of the SR. Mammalian CSQ has been well studied as a model of human disease, but little is known about the environmental adaptation of CSQ isoforms from poikilothermic organisms. The mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, is an intertidal fish that experiences significant daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations and is an interesting study system for investigations of adaptation at the protein level. We determined the full-length coding sequence of a CSQ isoform from skeletal muscle of F. heteroclitus (FCSQ and characterized the function and structure of this CSQ. The dissociation constant (K(d of FCSQ is relatively insensitive to changes in temperature and pH, thus indicating that FCSQ is a eurytolerant protein. We identified and characterized a highly conserved salt bridge network in FCSQ that stabilizes the formation of front-to-front dimers, a process critical to CSQ function. The functional profile of FCSQ correlates with the natural history of F. heteroclitus suggesting that the eurytolerant function of FCSQ may be adaptive.

  6. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation.

  7. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Porfiri, M; Fuller, R C

    2014-01-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. (paper)

  8. Development and application of a density dependent matrix ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranging along the Atlantic coast from US Florida to the Maritime Provinces of Canada, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an important and well-studied model organism for understanding the effects of pollutants and other stressors in estuarine and marine ecosystems. Matrix population models are useful tools for ecological risk assessment because they integrate effects across the life cycle, provide a linkage between endpoints observed in the individual and ecological risk to the population as a whole, and project outcomes for many generations in the future. We developed a density dependent matrix population model for Atlantic killifish by modifying a model developed for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) that has proved to be extremely useful, e.g. to incorporate data from laboratory studies and project effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We developed a size-structured model (as opposed to one that is based upon developmental stages or age class structure) so that we could readily incorporate output from a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, currently under development. Due to a lack of sufficient data to accurately define killifish responses to density dependence, we tested a number of scenarios realistic for other fish species in order to demonstrate the outcome of including this ecologically important factor. We applied the model using published data for killifish exposed to dioxin-like compounds, and compared our results to those using

  9. Combined Effects of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil and Environmental Stressors on Fundulus grandis Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Maria L; Jones, Elizabeth R; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Serafin, Jennifer; Bosker, Thijs; Perkins, Christopher; Griffitt, Robert J; De Guise, Sylvain; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we examined how sensitivity to oil changes in combination with environmental stressors in Fundulus grandis embryos. We exposed embryos (< 24 hours post fertilization) to a range of High Energy Water Accommodated Fraction (HEWAF) concentrations (0-50 ppb total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) made from Macondo oil in conjunction with various environmental conditions (temperature: 20, 30°C; salinity: 3, 7, 30 practical salinity units (PSU); DO: 2, 6 mg/L). Endpoints included mortality, hatching rates, and expression of cytochrome p450 1a and 1c (cyp1a, cyp1c) in hatched larvae. There was 100% mortality for all fish under the 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes. For the 6 mg/L DO treatments, mortality and mean lethal time were generally higher in the 30°C treatments versus the 20°C treatments. Oil increased mortality in fish exposed to the highest concentration in the 20-3-6 (°C-PSU-mg/L), 25-7-6, and 30-30-6 conditions. Hatching was driven by environmental conditions, with oil exposure only having a significant impact on hatching in the 25-7-6 and 30-30-6 groups at the highest HEWAF exposure. Expression of cyp1a was upregulated in most treatment groups versus the controls, with cyp1c expression exhibiting a similar pattern. These data suggest interactive effects among temperature, salinity, and PAHs, highlighting a need to further assess the effects of oil exposure under various environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of fish aryl hydrocarbon receptor paralogs (AHR1 and AHR2) with the retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, Rebeka R., E-mail: rmerson@ric.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Biology Department, Rhode Island College, 500 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Providence, RI 02908 (United States); Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2009-08-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. In some mammalian cell lines, TCDD induces G1 cell cycle arrest, which depends on an interaction between the AHR and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB). Mammals possess one AHR, whereas fishes possess two or more AHR paralogs that differ in the domains important for AHR-RB interactions in mammals. To test the hypothesis that fish AHR paralogs differ in their ability to interact with RB, we cloned RB cDNA from Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, and studied the interactions of killifish RB protein with killifish AHR1 and AHR2. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, in vitro-expressed killifish RB coprecipitated with both AHR1 and AHR2. Consistent with these results, both killifish AHR1 and AHR2 interacted with RB in mammalian two-hybrid assays. These results suggest that both fish AHR1 and AHR2 paralogs may have the potential to influence cell proliferation through interactions with RB.

  11. The African Turquoise Killifish: A Model for Exploring Vertebrate Aging and Diseases in the Fast Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Itamar; Brunet, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Why and how organisms age remains a mystery, and it defines one of the biggest challenges in biology. Aging is also the primary risk factor for many human pathologies, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, manipulating the aging rate and potentially postponing the onset of these devastating diseases could have a tremendous impact on human health. Recent studies, relying primarily on nonvertebrate short-lived model systems, have shown the importance of both genetic and environmental factors in modulating the aging rate. However, relatively little is known about aging in vertebrates or what processes may be unique and specific to these complex organisms. Here we discuss how advances in genomics and genome editing have significantly expanded our ability to probe the aging process in a vertebrate system. We highlight recent findings from a naturally short-lived vertebrate, the African turquoise killifish, which provides an attractive platform for exploring mechanisms underlying vertebrate aging and age-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Morphology-diet relationships in four killifishes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from Lake Titicaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, E; Hubert, N; Sagnes, P; De Mérona, B

    2009-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between morphology and diet in four Andean killifishes (Orestias) from Lake Titicaca that are known to differ in habitat use. Species that fed preferentially on amphipods (Orestias albus) or molluscs (Orestias luteus) separated in multivariate space from other species that feed on cladocera and algae (Orestias agassii and Orestias jussiei). Generally, specimens feeding on cladocera were characterized by a short, blunt nose with a small mouth; whereas, specimens feeding on amphipods exhibited a long snout with a large mouth. Specimens including molluscs in their diet tended to have a larger posterior part of the head and the larger opercles than others; while the occurrence of substratum in gut content was generally related to a short but deep head. The present analysis suggests that the littoral O. jussiei has an intermediate phenotype and diet between the pelagic (O. agassii) and benthic (O. albus and O. luteus) species. Results suggest that resource partitioning was occurring and that several morphological traits relate to characteristics of the diet, and it is inferred that the benthic, the pelagic and the littoral zones in the lake host different prey communities constituting distinct adaptive landscapes.

  13. Bmp suppression in mangrove killifish embryos causes a split in the body axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayman Mourabit

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp are major players in the formation of the vertebrate body plan due to their crucial role in patterning of the dorsal-ventral (DV axis. Despite the highly conserved nature of Bmp signalling in vertebrates, the consequences of changing this pathway can be species-specific. Here, we report that Bmp plays an important role in epiboly, yolk syncytial layer (YSL movements, and anterior-posterior (AP axis formation in embryos of the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus. Stage and dose specific exposures of embryos to the Bmp inhibitor dorsomorphin (DM produced three distinctive morphologies, with the most extreme condition creating the splitbody phenotype, characterised by an extremely short AP axis where the neural tube, somites, and notochord were bilaterally split. In addition, parts of caudal neural tissues were separated from the main body and formed cell islands in the posterior region of the embryo. This splitbody phenotype, which has not been reported in other animals, shows that modification of Bmp may lead to significantly different consequences during development in other vertebrate species.

  14. Predator-driven brain size evolution in natural populations of Trinidadian killifish (Rivulus hartii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Broyles, Whitnee; Beston, Shannon M.; Munch, Stephan B.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates exhibit extensive variation in relative brain size. It has long been assumed that this variation is the product of ecologically driven natural selection. Yet, despite more than 100 years of research, the ecological conditions that select for changes in brain size are unclear. Recent laboratory selection experiments showed that selection for larger brains is associated with increased survival in risky environments. Such results lead to the prediction that increased predation should favour increased brain size. Work on natural populations, however, foreshadows the opposite trajectory of evolution; increased predation favours increased boldness, slower learning, and may thereby select for a smaller brain. We tested the influence of predator-induced mortality on brain size evolution by quantifying brain size variation in a Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii, from communities that differ in predation intensity. We observed strong genetic differences in male (but not female) brain size between fish communities; second generation laboratory-reared males from sites with predators exhibited smaller brains than Rivulus from sites in which they are the only fish present. Such trends oppose the results of recent laboratory selection experiments and are not explained by trade-offs with other components of fitness. Our results suggest that increased male brain size is favoured in less risky environments because of the fitness benefits associated with faster rates of learning and problem-solving behaviour. PMID:27412278

  15. Discovery of the Critically Endangered annual killifish Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl, 1924 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae in Lagoa do Peixe National Park, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.K. Lanés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the discovery of the rare and Critically Endangered annual killifish Austrolebias wolterstorffi in temporary wetland of Lagoa do Peixe National Park, an important conservation unit of southern Brazil protected under the Ramsar Convention and recognized Biosphere Reserve.

  16. Local adaptation to altitude underlies divergent thermal physiology in tropical killifishes of the genus Aphyosemion.

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    David J McKenzie

    Full Text Available In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ∼350 m or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m. We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ∼350 mg were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ∼14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ∼7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another.

  17. Asymmetric reproductive isolation between two sympatric annual killifish with extremely short lifespans.

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    Matej Polačik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interspecific reproductive isolation is typically achieved by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers. Behavioural isolating barriers between sympatric, closely related species are often of primary importance and frequently aided by extrinsic factors causing spatial and temporal interspecific separation. Study systems with a severely limited role of extrinsic factors on reproductive isolation may provide valuable insights into how reproductive isolation between sympatric species is maintained. We used no-choice experimental set-up to study reproductive barriers between two closely related sympatric African killifish species, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus. These fish live in small temporary savannah pools and have complete spatial and temporal overlap in reproductive activities and share a similar ecology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the two species display largely incomplete and asymmetric reproductive isolation. Mating between N. furzeri males and N. orthonotus females was absent under standard experimental conditions and eggs were not viable when fish were forced to mate in a modified experimental setup. In contrast, male N. orthonotus indiscriminately mated with N. furzeri females, the eggs were viable, and offspring successfully hatched. Most spawnings, however, were achieved by male coercion and egg production and embryo survival were low. Behavioural asymmetry was likely facilitated by mating coercion from larger males of N. orthonotus and at relatively low cost to females. Interestingly, the direction of asymmetry was positively associated with asymmetry in post-mating reproductive barriers. SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that, in fish species with a promiscuous mating system and multiple matings each day, selection for strong mate preferences was relaxed. This effect was likely due to the small proportion of resources allocated to each single mating and the high potential cost to females from

  18. Plio-Pleistocene phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Blue Panchax killifish, Aplocheilus panchax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gary R.; Barlow, Axel; Rüber, Lukas; Hui Tan, Heok; Nugroho, Estu; Wowor, Daisy; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; Herder, Fabian; Muchlisin, Zainal A.; de Bruyn, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region’s high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have shaped the distribution of biota within this region, and whether such patterns show evidence of isolation within palaeodrainage basins. Our analyses revealed three major mitochondrial clades within A. panchax. The basal divergence of A. panchax mitochondrial lineages was approximately 3.5 Ma, whilst the subsequent divergence timings of these clades occurred early Pleistocene (~2.6 Ma), proceeding through the Pleistocene. Continuous phylogeographic analysis showed a clear west-east dispersal followed by rapid radiation across Southeast Asia. Individuals from Krabi, just north of the Isthmus of Kra, were more closely related to the Indian lineages, providing further evidence for a freshwater faunal disjunction at the Isthmus of Kra biogeographic barrier. Our results suggest that Sulawesi, across the Wallace Line, was colonised relatively recently (~30 ka). Nuclear DNA is less geographically structured, although Mantel tests indicated that nuclear genetic distances were correlated with geographic proximity. Overall, these results imply that recent gene flow, as opposed to historical isolation, has been the key factor determining patterns of nuclear genetic variation in A. panchax, however, some evidence of historical isolation is retained within the mitochondrial genome. Our study further validates the existence of a major biogeographic boundary at the Kra Isthmus, and also demonstrates the use of widely distributed

  19. Linking habitat structure to life history strategy: Insights from a Mediterranean killifish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavraro, Francesco; Daouti, Irini; Leonardos, Ioannis; Torricelli, Patrizia; Malavasi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Modern theories of life history evolution deal with finding links between environmental factors, demographic structure of animal populations and the optimal life history strategy. Small-sized teleost fish, occurring in fragmented populations under contrasting environments, have been widely used as study models to investigate these issues. In the present study, the Mediterranean killifish Aphanius fasciatus was used to investigate the relationships between some habitat features and life history strategy. We selected four sites in the Venice lagoon inhabited by this species, exhibiting different combinations of two factors: overall adult mortality, related to intertidal water coverage and a consequent higher level of predator exposure, and the level of sediment organic matter, as indicator of habitat trophic richness. Results showed that these were the two most important factors influencing demography and life history traits in the four sites. Fish from salt marshes with high predator pressure were smaller and produced a higher number of eggs, whereas bigger fish and a lower reproductive investment were found in the two closed, not tidally influenced habitats. Habitat richness was positively related with population density, but negatively related with growth rate. In particular the synergy between high resources and low predation level was found to be important in shaping peculiar life history traits. Results were discussed in the light of the interactions between selective demographic forces acting differentially on age/size classes, such as predation, and habitat trophic richness that may represent an important energetic constraint on life history traits. The importance to link habitat productivity and morphology to demographic factors for a better understanding of the evolution of life history strategy under contrasting environments was finally suggested.

  20. Synchronic historical patterns of species diversification in seasonal aplocheiloid killifishes of the semi-arid Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Wilson J E M; Amorim, Pedro F; Mattos, José Leonardo O

    2018-01-01

    The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography. We performed independent time-calibrated phylogenetic molecular analyses for two clades of sympatric and geographically widespread seasonal killifishes endemic to the Caatinga, the Hypsolebias antenori group and the Cynolebias alpha-clade. Our results consistently indicate that species diversification took place synchronically in both groups, as well as it is contemporary to diversification of other organisms adapted to life in the semi-arid Caatinga, including lizards and small mammals. Both groups originated during the Miocene, but species diversification started between the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, when global cooling probably favoured the expansion of semi-arid areas. Synchronic diversification patterns found are chronologically related to Tertiary palaeogeographical reorganizations associated to continental drift and to Quaternary climatic changes, corroborating the recent proposal that South American biodiversity has been continuously shaped between the Late Paleogene and Pleistocene.

  1. Synchronic historical patterns of species diversification in seasonal aplocheiloid killifishes of the semi-arid Brazilian Caatinga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J E M Costa

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography. We performed independent time-calibrated phylogenetic molecular analyses for two clades of sympatric and geographically widespread seasonal killifishes endemic to the Caatinga, the Hypsolebias antenori group and the Cynolebias alpha-clade. Our results consistently indicate that species diversification took place synchronically in both groups, as well as it is contemporary to diversification of other organisms adapted to life in the semi-arid Caatinga, including lizards and small mammals. Both groups originated during the Miocene, but species diversification started between the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, when global cooling probably favoured the expansion of semi-arid areas. Synchronic diversification patterns found are chronologically related to Tertiary palaeogeographical reorganizations associated to continental drift and to Quaternary climatic changes, corroborating the recent proposal that South American biodiversity has been continuously shaped between the Late Paleogene and Pleistocene.

  2. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.

  3. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  4. Effects of a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls on reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); McElroy, A.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

    1998-07-01

    To assess the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction, female Fundulus heteroclitus were exposed to a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs, mimicking the mixture found in fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, a PCB-contaminated estuary. Exposure was by intraperitoneal injection of the mixture dissolved in corn oil. Doses of 0.76, 3.8, and 19 {micro}g PCB mixture per gram of wet weight produced liver concentrations of 2.99, 12.2, and 32.8 {micro}g non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs per gram of dry liver, with dioxin toxic equivalency concentrations (TEQs) of 0.0963, 0.409, and 0.720 ng/g, respectively. Female mortality was 58%, and egg production was reduced by 77% at the highest dose, compared to controls. Food consumption declined with increasing PCB concentration, suggesting that PCBs act indirectly to reduce fecundity through an energetic effect. Pituitary gonadotropin content appeared to be suppressed at the highest dose, but the ability of ovarian follicles to produce estradiol and testosterone in vitro was not impaired. Significant residue-effects linkages were found, with TEQ emerging as a potential indicator of adverse effects. Mortality was directly related, and egg production was inversely related to log{sub 10}TEQ. Multiple regression analysis indicated that egg production was directly related to pituitary gonadotropin content and food consumption.

  5. Early Life-Stage Responses of a Eurythemal Estuarine Fish, Mummichog (Fundulus hetereoclitus) to Fixed and Fluctuating Thermal Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaifer, J.

    2016-02-01

    The mummichog (Fundulus hetereoclitus) is an intertidal spawning fish that ranges from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to northeastern Florida. A notoriously hardy species, adults can tolerate a wide range of temperature typical of inshore, estuarine waters. This experiment assessed how a wide range of constant and fluctuating temperatures affect the survival, development, and condition of embryos and young larvae. Captive adults were provided nightly with spawning substrates that were inspected each morning for fertilized eggs. Young ( 8 hr post-fertilization) embryos (N = 25 per population) were assigned to either one of a wide range of constant temperatures (8 to 34 °C) generated by a thermal gradient block (TGB), or to one of 10 daily oscillating temperature regimes that spanned the TGB's mid temperature (21 °C). Water was changed and populations inspected for mortalities and hatching at 12-hr intervals. Hatch dates and mortalities were recorded, and larvae were either anesthetized and measured for size by analyzing digital images, or evaluated for persistence in a food-free environment. Mummichog embryos withstood all but the coldest constant regimes and the entire range of fluctuating ones although age at hatching varied substantially within and among experimental populations. Embryos incubated at warmer temperatures hatched out earlier and at somewhat smaller sizes than those experiencing cooler temperatures. Temperatures experienced by embryos had an inverse effect on persistence of larvae relying on yolk nutrition alone. Mummichog exhibited an especially plastic response to thermal challenges which reflects the highly variable nursery habitat used by this species.

  6. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  7. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  8. Stable genetic structure and connectivity in pollution-adapted and nearby pollution-sensitive populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, Leann M.; Flight, Patrick A.; Nacci, Diane E.; Rand, David M.; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabiting the heavily polluted New Bedford Harbour (NBH) estuary have shown inherited tolerance to local pollutants introduced to their habitats in the past 100 years. Here we examine two questions: (i) Is there pollution-driven selection on the mitochondrial genome across a fine geographical scale? and (ii) What is the pattern of migration among sites spanning a strong pollution gradient? Whole mitochondrial genomes were analysed for 133 F. heteroclitus from seven nearby collection sites: four sites along the NBH pollution cline (approx. 5 km distance), which had pollution-adapted fish, as well as one site adjacent to the pollution cline and two relatively unpolluted sites about 30 km away, which had pollution-sensitive fish. Additionally, we used microsatellite analyses to quantify genetic variation over three F. heteroclitus generations in both pollution-adapted and sensitive individuals collected from two sites at two different time points (1999/2000 and 2007/2008). Our results show no evidence for a selective sweep of mtDNA in the polluted sites. Moreover, mtDNA analyses revealed that both pollution-adapted and sensitive populations harbour similar levels of genetic diversity. We observed a high level of non-synonymous mutations in the most polluted site. This is probably associated with a reduction in Ne and concomitant weakening of purifying selection, a demographic expansion following a pollution-related bottleneck or increased mutation rates. Our demographic analyses suggest that isolation by distance influences the distribution of mtDNA genetic variation between the pollution cline and the clean populations at broad spatial scales. At finer scales, population structure is patchy, and neither spatial distance, pollution concentration or pollution tolerance is a good predictor of mtDNA variation. Lastly, microsatellite analyses revealed stable population structure over the last

  9. Molecular and histological evaluation of tributyltin toxicity on spermatogenesis in a marine fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, Kazuhiko [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Maruishi 2-17-5, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan)]. E-mail: kmochida@fra.affrc.go.jp; Ito, Katsutoshi [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Maruishi 2-17-5, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan); Kono, Kumiko [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Maruishi 2-17-5, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan); Onduka, Toshimitsu [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Maruishi 2-17-5, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan); Kakuno, Akira [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Maruishi 2-17-5, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan); Fujii, Kazunori [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Maruishi 2-17-5, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan)

    2007-06-05

    There is still concern about the effects of organotin compounds (OTs) on marine organisms, and especially on their reproductive systems. We investigated the toxicity of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) on spermatogenesis in a marine fish, mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. TBTO exposure caused serious histological damage to the testis, including reduction in counts of spermatids and spermatozoa and malformation of somatic cells around the seminal duct. Analysis of the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into spermatogenic cells revealed inhibition of the proliferation of germ cells. To find a biomarker for evaluation of the effects of TBTO on fish spermatogenesis, we cloned genes downregulated by TBTO exposure in the mummichog testis, and identified mummichog creatine kinase (mCK). The cDNA sequence of mCK contained an open reading frame encoding 387 amino acid residues (M {sub r} = 43,344). The derived amino acid sequence of mCK was very similar to that of the testicular-type CK of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis revealed that mCK was produced specifically in the testis. We therefore identified mCK in the mummichog as a testicular-type CK. Real-time PCR revealed that exposure of the fish to TBTO significantly reduced mCK expression in the testis. To some extent, this reduction was coincident with that of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into spermatogenic cells. The mCK gene can therefore be used as a biomarker for evaluating the effects of TBTO on fish spermatogenesis. In addition, levels of expression of the mCK gene in control fish were well correlated with increments in the gonad somatic index (GSI) below 4%. Individuals that were thought to have testicular damage caused by TBTO could be discriminated from those considered normal. The results suggest that TBTO is involved in the suppression of fish spermatogenesis and that analysis of both GSI values and mCK gene expression is useful for evaluating the levels of xenobiotic

  10. Expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1A in Fundulus heteroclitus during PAH-induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Camus, Alvin C. [Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Dong, Wu; Thornton, Cammi [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Willett, Kristine L., E-mail: kwillett@olemiss.edu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    2010-09-15

    CYP1C1 is a relatively newly identified member of the cytochrome P450 family 1 in teleost fish. However, CYP1C1's expression and physiological roles relative to the more recognized CYP1A in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced toxicities are unclear. Fundulus heteroclitus fry were exposed at 6-8 days post-hatch (dph) and again at 13-15 dph for 6 h to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, 5 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 5 mg/L dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Fry were euthanized at 0, 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after the second exposure. In these groups, both CYP1A and CYP1C1 protein expression were induced within 6 h after the second exposure. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from fry revealed strongest CYP1C1 expression in renal tubular and intestinal epithelial cells. Additional fish were examined for liver lesions 8 months after initial exposure. Gross lesions were observed in 20% of the BaP and 35% of the DMBA-treated fish livers. Histopathologic findings included foci of cellular alteration and neoplasms, including hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangioma. Strong CYP1A immunostaining was detected diffusely in altered cell foci and on the invading margin of hepatocelluar carcinomas. Lower CYP1A expression was seen in central regions of the neoplasms. In contrast, CYP1C1 was only detectable and highly expressed in proliferated bile duct epithelial cells. Our CYP1C1 results suggest the potential for tissue specific CYP1C1-mediated PAH metabolism but not a more chronic role in progression to liver hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Molecular and histological evaluation of tributyltin toxicity on spermatogenesis in a marine fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Kakuno, Akira; Fujii, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    There is still concern about the effects of organotin compounds (OTs) on marine organisms, and especially on their reproductive systems. We investigated the toxicity of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) on spermatogenesis in a marine fish, mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. TBTO exposure caused serious histological damage to the testis, including reduction in counts of spermatids and spermatozoa and malformation of somatic cells around the seminal duct. Analysis of the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into spermatogenic cells revealed inhibition of the proliferation of germ cells. To find a biomarker for evaluation of the effects of TBTO on fish spermatogenesis, we cloned genes downregulated by TBTO exposure in the mummichog testis, and identified mummichog creatine kinase (mCK). The cDNA sequence of mCK contained an open reading frame encoding 387 amino acid residues (M r = 43,344). The derived amino acid sequence of mCK was very similar to that of the testicular-type CK of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis revealed that mCK was produced specifically in the testis. We therefore identified mCK in the mummichog as a testicular-type CK. Real-time PCR revealed that exposure of the fish to TBTO significantly reduced mCK expression in the testis. To some extent, this reduction was coincident with that of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into spermatogenic cells. The mCK gene can therefore be used as a biomarker for evaluating the effects of TBTO on fish spermatogenesis. In addition, levels of expression of the mCK gene in control fish were well correlated with increments in the gonad somatic index (GSI) below 4%. Individuals that were thought to have testicular damage caused by TBTO could be discriminated from those considered normal. The results suggest that TBTO is involved in the suppression of fish spermatogenesis and that analysis of both GSI values and mCK gene expression is useful for evaluating the levels of xenobiotic pollution

  12. The chronic toxicity of mineral oil-wet and synthetic liquid-wet cuttings on an estuarine fish, Fundulus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, F.V.; Rushing, J.H.; Churan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major factors concerning oil-wet cuttings discharges in the long-term effect on the aquatic environment. This paper investigates the survival and growth of the mud minnow, Fundulus grandis, when exposed to different concentrations of mineral oil-wet and synthetic liquid-wet cuttings in flow-through bioassay chambers. The test fluids were a low aromatic mineral oil-based mud (MOBM) and a synthetic liquid-based mud (SBM). Each test fluid was added to a container of dried water-based cuttings which contained minimum hydrocarbons. The fluid and cuttings were mixed to obtain the desired test concentrations. The study tested three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 8.4% by dry weight) of each fluid on the cuttings. Growth rates during the 3-day period were modest with fish in 1% MOBM losing weight. The highest percent growth rates were obtained with fish cultured in 5% SBM and the controls. However, overall growth was not significantly different between treatments. Mean growth did show a significant difference between controls and 5% SBM, and other treatments. The cuttings of the 5% and 8.4% concentrations of both treatments looked like paste. These pastes may have slowed the movement of organics off of the cuttings beds and affected biodegradability and growth rates. Cuttings in the controls and 1% concentrations stayed suspended in the water column longer when disturbed and looked more like loose gravel. Uptake of the MOBM occurred in the internal organs and tissue of fish. No such uptake was observed in the fish tissue with the SBM; a very low level of synthetic liquid was detected in one gut sample only. This may be the major reason for the variations noted in growth rates. Fish mortality during the study was related to the buildup of anaerobic conditions and insufficient aeration. Fish survival for the entire study was 94%

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A expression in developing Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, B.H.; Bello, S.; Hahn, M.E.; Cantrell, S.; Wright, P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early development using nanoinjection or water bath exposure. TCDD caused developmental abnormalities that included hemorrhaging, loss of vascular integrity, edema, stunted development and death. The LC50 and LD50 of TCDD for Fundulus embryos were ???19.7??9.5 pg TCDD/??l (water bath) and 0.25??0.09 ng TCDD/g embryo (nanoinjection). To identify a possible cause for these developmental abnormalities we analyzed the effects of TCDD on apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the embryos. TCDD exposure increased apoptotic cell death in several tissues including brain, eye, gill, kidney, tail, intestine, heart, and vascular tissue. CYP1A expression was also increased in the TCDD-exposed embryos predominantly in liver, kidney, gill, heart, intestine, and in vascular tissues throughout the embryo. There was co-occurrence of TCDD-induced apoptosis and CYP1A expression in some, but not all, cell types. In addition the dose response relationships for apoptosis and mortality were similar, while CYP1A expression appeared more sensitive to TCDD induction. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. The evolution of vertebrate eye size across an environmental gradient: phenotype does not predict genotype in a Trinidadian killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Shannon M; Wostl, Elijah; Walsh, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit substantial variation in eye size. Eye size correlates positively with visual capacity and behaviors that enhance fitness, such as predator avoidance. This foreshadows a connection between predation and eye size evolution. Yet, the conditions that favor evolutionary shifts in eye size, besides the well-known role for light availability, are unclear. We tested the influence of predation on the evolution of eye size in Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii. Rivulus are located across a series of communities where they coexist with visually oriented piscivores ("high predation" sites), and no predators ("Rivulus-only" sites). Wild-caught Rivulus from high predation sites generally exhibited a smaller relative eye size than communities that lack predators. Yet, such differences were inconsistent across rivers. Second-generation common garden reared fish revealed repeatable decreases in eye size in Rivulus from high predation sites. We performed additional experiments that tested the importance of light and resources on eye size evolution. Sites that differ in light or resource availability did not differ in eye size. Our results argue that differences in predator-induced mortality underlie genetically-based shifts in vertebrate eye size. We discuss the drivers of eye size evolution in light of the nonparallel trends between the phenotypic and common garden results. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Next-generation sequencing detects repetitive elements expansion in giant genomes of annual killifish genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G; Ríos, N; Gutiérrez, V

    2015-06-01

    Among Neotropical fish fauna, the South American killifish genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) constitutes an excellent model to study the genomic evolutionary processes underlying speciation events. Recently, unusually large genome size has been described in 16 species of this genus, with an average DNA content of about 5.95 ± 0.45 pg per diploid cell (mean C-value of about 2.98 pg). In the present paper we explore the possible origin of this unparallel genomic increase by means of comparative analysis of the repetitive components using NGS (454-Roche) technology in the lowest and highest Rivulidae genomes. Here, we provide the first annotated Rivulidae-repeated sequences composition and their relative repetitive fraction in both genomes. Remarkably, the genomic proportion of the moderately repetitive DNA in Austrolebias charrua genome represents approximately twice (45%) of the repetitive components of the highly related rivulinae taxon Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (25%). Present work provides evidence about the impact of the repeat families that could be distinctly proliferated among sublineages within Rivulidae fish group, explaining the great genome size differences encompassing the differentiation and speciation events in this family.

  16. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  17. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  18. Discovery of endangered annual killifish Austrolebias cheradophilus (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in Brazil, with comments on habitat, population structure and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Esteban Krause Lanés

    Full Text Available Austrolebias genus comprises about 40 small annual killifishes endemic to South America and their highest diversity occurs in southern Brazil and Uruguay, especially in drainages of Patos-Mirim system. Austrolebiasspecies are severely threatened with extinction because their life cycle and restricted ranges. Low dispersal ability and the extensive loss and fragmentation of freshwater wetlands contribute to this threat. Accurate information on the geographic distribution and ecology of the species, vital to plan conservation and management strategies, are scarce. In order to provide basic knowledge for annual fish conservation this paper reports the presence of Austrolebias cheradophilus and present data about its population structure (CPUA, size, sex ratio, length-weight relationships and condition factor and conservation status in southern Brazil. The estimated CPUA of populations was 0.86 fish/m2. Standard length (SL of males ranged between 32.14 and 49.17 mm and for females between 25.11 and 41.6 mm. There were no differences in SL between the sexes (t-test = - 1.678; P = 0.105, and Chi-squared test demonstrated marginal differences in proportions of sexes (2.25:1; χ2 = 3.846; P= 0.07. Allometric coefficient of the LWR was slightly hyperallometric (b = 3.08 and K of the specimens ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 (mean ± S.E. = 2.12 ± 0.04. Populations have low density and their biotopes are under critical threat, mainly due to suppression by agriculture, pastures for livestock and increase housing. The species is considered "Critically Endangered" in Brazil, furthermore is strongly recommended its inclusion on lists of endangered fauna and ensures the protection of their remaining habitats.

  19. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  20. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  1. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  2. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  3. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  4. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  5. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  6. Rethinking Atlantic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Walvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Shaping the Stuart World 1603-1714: The Atlantic Connection. Allan I. Macinnes & Arthur H. Williamson (eds.. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006. xiv + 389 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America. Kenneth Morgan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. x + 221 pp. (Paper US$ 32.00 Although an important debate continues about the concept itself, the use of “the Atlantic” has embedded itself in scholarly vernacular. The scholarly output directly spawned by an engagement with the concept continues apace. That ocean, and the peoples who lived and traded along its edges, and who finally moved across it, have provided an important geographical focus for some major reconsiderations of modern history. Prompted by the Macinnes/Williamson volume, I returned to my own undergraduate and graduate notes and essays from courses on Stuart Britain: the Atlantic was totally absent – not even present as a distant speck on our intellectual map. We studied, and debated, the formal histories of migrations to the Americas (i.e. European migrations but there was no mention of Africa or Africans. And no sense was conveyed that the European engagement with the Americas (in their totality – as opposed to North America was a two-way, mutual force: that the European world was influenced, indeed shaped in many critical regards, by the Americas: by the land, the products, the peoples, and by the markets of that hemisphere. At its most obvious in the ebb and flow of peoples, even that eluded the historians I encountered as a student. It was as if we were talking about a different cosmos; few moved beyond the conventions of European migrations westwards and little attention was paid to that most dominant of migrations – the enforced African migrations to the Americas.

  7. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  8. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  9. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. ProAtlantic - The Atlantic Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F.

    2017-12-01

    DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the Atlantic basin. DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint service will be delivered by the ProAtlantic project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the Atlantic basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the Atlantic basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the Atlantic basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the Atlantic Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill

  11. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... and 635 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule... and 635 [Docket No. 080519678-0217-02] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark... available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin mako sharks, consistent...

  12. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    .... 120706221-2481-01] RIN 0648-XC106 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2013 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. We propose to keep the porbeagle shark...

  13. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... closing the commercial management groups for aggregated LCS and hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region...

  14. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine... plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. The comment... potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS is extending the comment...

  15. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... 110831548-3536-02] RIN 0648-XC836 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries...) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) quota from the Atlantic region to the Gulf... Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is effective from September 2, 2013 until...

  16. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    .... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...

  17. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  18. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  19. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  20. 76 FR 13583 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... address concerns raised in a recent decision by a NOAA Administrative Law Judge (see Atlantic Tunas Transfer at Sea section for case reference). NMFS has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA... subtraction of these allocations directly from the TAC, the recommendation allocates the remainder to the UK...

  1. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XW79 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine..., recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter/headboat BFT landings constitute...

  2. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... The Council will consider input from the workgroup and workshops during its June meeting in Orlando... Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... public meeting and public workshop. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will...

  3. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... 130402317-3707-01] RIN 0648-XC611 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing opportunities for commercial shark...

  4. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  5. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    .... 100825390-0431-01] RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals...

  6. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic... are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  7. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Management Councils, the 18 states in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, both the U.S. Virgin Islands and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC935 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  8. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and each of the constituent interstate commissions: the Atlantic States... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  9. 78 FR 26523 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... final specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including annual catch limits...

  10. 77 FR 25100 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual catch limit, total allowable landings...

  11. 77 FR 8776 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    .... 120201086-2085-01] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual...

  12. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... 130104009-3099-01] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including...

  13. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... AP will also review Amendment 19 to the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP regarding alternatives for bag...

  14. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  15. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  16. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  17. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, T. [Atlantica Centre for Energy, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.curry@atlanticaenergy.org

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging.

  18. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  19. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging

  20. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  1. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  2. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  3. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  4. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoello, Solfrid Saetre

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  5. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... meeting of its Law Enforcement AP in Orlando, FL. DATES: The meeting will take place July 20, 2011. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Marriott Renaissance Orlando Hotel, 5445... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine...

  6. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    .... 110120049-1144-01] RIN 0648-BA69 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... retention, transshipping, landing, storing, or selling of hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) caught in association with...

  7. 75 FR 50715 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... [Docket No. 080519678-0313-03] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management... for adjusting annual shark quotas based on over- and underharvests. This correction makes a change to...), instruction 12a revised 50 CFR 635.27 (b)(1)(i) through (v), relating to, among other things, pelagic shark...

  8. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date... commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform... large coastal shark fishery will open on July 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karyl Brewster...

  9. The role of Atlantic-Arctic exchange in North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multidecadal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature occurs with two dominant periods. In this paper we investigate the origin of these two time scales in a 500 year control run of the GFDL CM2.1 model. We focus on the exchange between the Atlantic

  10. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XB116 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2011 Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate...

  11. 78 FR 20258 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 120306154-2241-02] RIN 0648-XC593 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... retention limit is vital to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2012 Large Pelagics Survey...

  12. 76 FR 18416 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 100317152-0176-01] RIN 0648-XA327 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... ability to attract customers. In addition, recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter...

  13. Paleoclimatic modeling and phylogeography of least killifish, Heterandria formosa: insights into Pleistocene expansion-contraction dynamics and evolutionary history of North American Coastal Plain freshwater biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin C; Sandel, Michael; Travis, Joseph; Lozano-Vilano, María de Lourdes; Johnson, Jerald B

    2013-10-09

    Climatic and sea-level fluctuations throughout the last Pleistocene glacial cycle (~130-0 ka) profoundly influenced present-day distributions and genetic diversity of Northern Hemisphere biotas by forcing range contractions in many species during the glacial advance and allowing expansion following glacial retreat ('expansion-contraction' model). Evidence for such range dynamics and refugia in the unglaciated Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain stems largely from terrestrial species, and aquatic species Pleistocene responses remain relatively uninvestigated. Heterandria formosa, a wide-ranging regional endemic, presents an ideal system to test the expansion-contraction model within this biota. By integrating ecological niche modeling and phylogeography, we infer the Pleistocene history of this livebearing fish (Poeciliidae) and test for several predicted distributional and genetic effects of the last glaciation. Paleoclimatic models predicted range contraction to a single southwest Florida peninsula refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by northward expansion. We inferred spatial-population subdivision into four groups that reflect genetic barriers outside this refuge. Several other features of the genetic data were consistent with predictions derived from an expansion-contraction model: limited intraspecific divergence (e.g. mean mtDNA p-distance = 0.66%); a pattern of mtDNA diversity (mean Hd = 0.934; mean π = 0.007) consistent with rapid, recent population expansion; a lack of mtDNA isolation-by-distance; and clinal variation in allozyme diversity with higher diversity at lower latitudes near the predicted refugium. Statistical tests of mismatch distributions and coalescent simulations of the gene tree lent greater support to a scenario of post-glacial expansion and diversification from a single refugium than to any other model examined (e.g. multiple-refugia scenarios). Congruent results from diverse data indicate H. formosa fits the classic Pleistocene

  14. Middle Atlantic neutron therapy trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.

    1975-01-01

    A consortium of therapeutic radiologists in the Middle Atlantic States and physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory has been established to investigate the use of fast neutron beams in the control of some tumors. Many radiobiology experiments have indicated that neutron beams may have an advantage in the control of local tumors over that of conventional forms of radiotherapy. In preparation for clinical radiotherapy trials, extensive measurements have quantified the various physical characteristics of the NRL cyclotron-produced neutron beam. Techniques have been developed for the absolute determination of delivered dose at depth in tissue for this beam, accounting for the relatively small component of dose delivered by gamma rays, as well as that by the neutrons. A collimator system has been designed to allow the precise field definition necessary for optimum therapy treatment planning. A dose control and monitor unit has been engineered and has demonstrated a reproducibility of 0.2 percent. The relative biological effectiveness of this neutron bean has been studied with several biological systems to aid in determining proper radiotherapeutic dose levels. The objective of these studies is a full-scale clinical radiotherapy trial to test neutron effectiveness as compared to that of conventional radiotherapy, after a pilot study in man

  15. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  16. 76 FR 30921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a joint meeting of its Executive/Finance... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Assessment and Review (SEDAR) Committee; Law Enforcement [[Page 30922

  17. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  18. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak...... between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due...... to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics...

  19. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  20. 75 FR 74004 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Atlantic Regional Fishery Management Councils, each of the 18 constituent states, both the U.S. Virgin... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA059 Atlantic... nominations for the Advisory Panel (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment...

  1. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  2. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  3. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    .... 100513223-0289-02] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine...-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery that were implemented in May 2010...

  4. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... 100105009-0053-01] RIN 0648-AY51 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including...

  5. 77 FR 15721 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC... Biological Catch (ABC) values for managed stocks including the effect of revised recreational catch estimates...

  6. 76 FR 2640 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Assistant Administrator has determined that this proposed rule is consistent with the Atlantic Bluefish FMP... D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries... mortality; stock status; recent estimates of recruitment; virtual population analysis results; levels of...

  7. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... these shark stocks and end overfishing, as necessary. The notice provided an incorrect date for a...' intent to undertake rulemaking to rebuild and/or end overfishing of these Atlantic shark stocks and to...

  8. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  9. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  10. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... recreational fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... http://www.iccat.int/en/ . One swordfish measure adopted at the 2010 meeting, and one swordfish measure...

  11. The subpolar North Atlantic - Response to North Atlantic oscillation like forcing and Influence on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Katja; Drange, Helge; Jungclaus, Johann

    2010-05-01

    The extent and strength of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) changed rapidly in the mid-1990s, going from large and strong in 1995 to substantially weakened in the following years. The abrupt change in the intensity of the SPG is commonly linked to the reversal of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, changing from strong positive to negative values, in the winter 1995/96. In this study we investigate the impact of the initial SPG state on its subsequent behavior by means of an ocean general circulation model driven by NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields. Our sensitivity integrations suggest that the weakening of the SPG cannot be explained by the change in the atmospheric forcing alone. Rather, for the time period around 1995, the SPG was about to weaken, irrespective of the actual atmospheric forcing, due to the ocean state governed by the persistently strong positive NAO during the preceding seven years (1989 to 1995). Our analysis indicates that it was this preconditioning of the ocean, in combination with the sudden drop in the NAO in 1995/96, that lead to the strong and rapid weakening of the SPG in the second half of the 1990s. In the second part, the sensitivity of the low-frequency variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to changes in the subpolar North Atlantic is investigated using a 2000 year long control integration as well as sensitivity experiments with the MPI-M Earth System Model. Two 1000 year long sensitivity experiments will be performed, in which the low-frequency variability in the overflow transports from the Nordic Seas and in the subpolar deep water formation rates is suppressed respectively. This is achieved by nudging temperature and salinity in the GIN Sea or in the subpolar North Atlantic (up to about 1500m depth) towards a monthly climatology obtained from the last 1000 years of the control integration.

  12. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    with each other. In general, the living coccolithophores in the surface and subsurface waters show considerable variation in cell numbers and distribution patterns. Cell densities reached a maximum of up to 300 x 10 coccospheres/l in the upwelling area of the equatorial Atlantic. Here, Emiliania huxleyi...

  13. Turbidity distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eittreim, S.; Thorndike, E.M.; Sullivan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The regional coverage of Lamont nephelometer data in the North and South Atlantic can be used to map seawater turbidity at all depths. At the level of the clearest water, in the mid-depth regions, the turbidity distribution primarily reflects the pattern of productivity in the surface waters. This suggests that the 'background' turbidity level in the oceans is largely a function of biogenic fallout. The bottom waters of the western Atlantic generally exhibit large increases in turbidity. The most intense benthic nepheloid layers are in the southwestern Argentine basin and northern North American basin; the lowest bottom water turbidity in the western Atlantic is in the equatorial regions. Both the Argentine and North American basin bottom waters appear to derive their high turbidity largely from local resuspension of terrigenous input in these basins. In contrast to the west, the eastern Atlantic basins show very low turbidities with the exception of three regions: the Mediterranean outflow area, the Cape basin, and the West European basin. ?? 1976.

  14. Climate Prediction Center - Atlantic Hurricane Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News ; Seasonal Climate Summary Archive The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season outlook is an official product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The outlook is

  15. Ocean array alters view of Atlantic conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornei, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Oceanographers have put a stethoscope on the coursing circulatory system of the Atlantic Ocean, and they have found a skittish pulse that's surprisingly strong in the waters east of Greenland—discoveries that should improve climate models. The powerful currents known as the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are an engine in Earth's climate. The AMOC's shallower limbs—which include the Gulf Stream—move warm water from the tropics northward, warming Western Europe. In the north, the waters cool and sink, forming deeper limbs that transport the cold water back south—and sequester anthropogenic carbon in the process. Last week, at the American Geophysical Union's Ocean Sciences meeting, scientists presented the first data from an array of instruments moored in the subpolar North Atlantic, a $35 million, seven-nation project known as the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP). Since 2004, researchers have gathered data from another array, at 26°N, stretching from Florida to Africa. But OSNAP is the first to monitor the circulation farther north, where a critical aspect of the overturning occurs. The observations reveal unexpected eddies and strong variability in the AMOC currents. They also show that the currents east of Greenland contribute the most to the total AMOC flow. Climate models, on the other hand, have emphasized the currents west of Greenland in the Labrador Sea.

  16. Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance tsunami warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive tsunami models, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original model; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast model products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast models. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave propagation and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water tsunami dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known tsunami sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many tsunami source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of model pre

  17. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  18. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  19. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  20. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James; Harish, Srinivasan; Saifuddin, Asif

    2005-01-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  1. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  2. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  3. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste in the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An operation to dispose of low-level radioactive waste in the North Atlantic deeps is undertaken each year. This leaflet seeks to answer questions which are sometimes asked about the operation. It deals with origin, composition, quantity, reason for sea- rather than land-disposal, packaging, transport (rail, road), route of transport, safety precautions, radiation protection, personnel, contamination, site of dump, international regulations, neutral observers, safety standards of containers and control of level of radioactivity of wastes. (U.K.)

  5. North Atlantic observations sharpen meridional overturning projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R.; An, S.-I.; Fan, Y.; Evans, J. P.; Caesar, L.

    2018-06-01

    Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) projections are uncertain due to both model errors, as well as internal climate variability. An AMOC slowdown projected by many climate models is likely to have considerable effects on many aspects of global and North Atlantic climate. Previous studies to make probabilistic AMOC projections have broken new ground. However, they do not drift-correct or cross-validate the projections, and do not fully account for internal variability. Furthermore, they consider a limited subset of models, and ignore the skill of models at representing the temporal North Atlantic dynamics. We improve on previous work by applying Bayesian Model Averaging to weight 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 models by their skill at modeling the AMOC strength, and its temporal dynamics, as approximated by the northern North-Atlantic temperature-based AMOC Index. We make drift-corrected projections accounting for structural model errors, and for the internal variability. Cross-validation experiments give approximately correct empirical coverage probabilities, which validates our method. Our results present more evidence that AMOC likely already started slowing down. While weighting considerably moderates and sharpens our projections, our results are at low end of previously published estimates. We project mean AMOC changes between periods 1960-1999 and 2060-2099 of -4.0 Sv and -6.8 Sv for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios respectively. The corresponding average 90% credible intervals for our weighted experiments are [-7.2, -1.2] and [-10.5, -3.7] Sv respectively for the two scenarios.

  6. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  7. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. - Highlights: • We analysed P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus muscle from Mid-Atlantic. • We determined stable isotopes, trophic ecology and heavy metal content. • Results reflect bioaccumulation for As and Hg. • Oxyrinchus already presented Hg values above regulatory limits. • Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs appear to be effective metal bioindicators.

  8. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  9. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  10. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  11. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  12. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  13. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  14. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  15. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. Evaluation of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Impact on Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation in the Atlantic Region in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. A.; Cherenkova, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic region in summer for the period of 1950-2015 is investigated. It is shown that the intensification of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with significant changes in sea level pressure anomalies in the main centers of action (over Greenland and the British Isles) occurred while the North Atlantic was cooler. Sea surface temperature anomalies, which are linked to the AMO in the summer season, affect both the NAO index and fluctuations of the Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia (EAWR) centers of action. The positive (negative) phase of the AMO is characterized by a combination of negative (positive) values of the NAO and EAWR indices. The dominance of the opposite phases of the teleconnection indices in summer during the warm North Atlantic and in its colder period resulted in differences in the regional climate in Europe.

  5. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... recreational landings for the 2010 fishing year by using simple linear regression of the recent (2001-2008... specifications document, including the Environmental Assessment and Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (EA...-Atlantic RSA Program was published on January 2, 2009 (74 FR 72). For analysis of impacts for each TAL...

  6. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... the non-sandbar large coastal shark quotas and retention limits in 2013 and asked for the reasoning... geographical distribution of non-sandbar large coastal shark landings in the Atlantic throughout the season... the 2006 Consolidated HMS FMP on EFH, we reviewed the geographical range of all HMS and analyzed the...

  7. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... active member of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the United States implements binding ICCAT recommendations to comply with this international treaty. ATCA authorizes...

  8. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... public. Those interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR. See FOR FURTHER... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; (843) 571- 4366; kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic...

  9. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... species of sharks, including basking, great hammerhead, scalloped hammerhead, white, dusky, tiger, sand... Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with...

  10. 75 FR 1753 - Fisheries of the Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Atlantic croaker and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; international... Conservation and Management Act, provided the public has been notified of the Council's intent to take final...

  11. 76 FR 70064 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Update to Information on the Effective Date of Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... provisions, and only after ESA Section 7 consultation is completed. Notice of the effective date will be.... 110912579-1627-01] RIN 0648-BB43 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Update to Information on the Effective.... SUMMARY: NMFS is updating the anticipated effective date of smoothhound shark management measures...

  12. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  13. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Essential Fish Habitat Policy Statements and receive training on the use of the Regional Habitat and... meeting of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat... of its Habitat AP in St. Petersburg, FL. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The meeting will...

  14. 78 FR 23224 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Agenda, Tuesday, May 7, 2013, 8:30 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. 1. Review draft Essential Fish Habitat (EFH... of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat & Environmental Protection Advisory Panel (AP); Coral AP; Joint Meeting of the Habitat & Environmental Protection AP and Coral AP; and Deepwater...

  15. 75 FR 65298 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... five-year Essential Fish Habitat review, the Governor's South Atlantic Alliance Action Plan, a status... its Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel in North Charleston, SC. DATES: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Habitat Advisory Panel will meet from 9 a.m.-5 p.m...

  16. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this

  17. Geophysical and geodynamic studies of the North Atlantic Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The geology of the North Atlantic Realm (NAR), including the North Atlantic, Greenland, the Arctic, Iceland, Scandinavia, Northern Europe and Northeast America has been studied for more than a century and inspired some of the most fundamental theories in geoscience, such as plate tectonics, the s...

  18. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  19. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Adkins, J.F.; Curry, W.B.; Dokken, T.; Hall, I.R.; Herguera, J.C.; Hirschi, J.J.-M.; Ivanova, E.V.; Kissel, C.; Marchal, O.; Marchitto, T.M.; McCave, I.N.; McManus, J.F.; Mulitza, S.; Ninnemann, U.; Peeters, F.J.C.; Yu, E.-F.; Zahn, R.

    2007-01-01

    The circulation of the deep Atlantic Ocean during the height of the last ice age appears to have been quite different from today. We review observations implying that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum was neither extremely sluggish nor an enhanced version of

  20. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  1. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  2. North Atlantic octocorals: Distribution, Ecology and Phylogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Kirsty Janet

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of deep-sea benthic fauna have concentrated on soft sediments with little sampling in rocky areas and even less on non-vent mid-ocean ridges and within submarine canyons, mainly as a result of difficulty accessing them. To assess the distribution and abundance of cold-water corals along an Axial Volcanic Ridges along the Mid-Atlantic ridge at 45oN 27oW, and within the Whittard Canyon along the Irish Margin video footage from the ROV Isis taken during a three scientific cruises wa...

  3. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  4. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    .... 100513223-0254-01] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine... deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea...

  5. A Latitudinal Metabolome of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Kido Soule, M. C.; Longnecker, K.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial consortia function via the exchange and transformation of small organic molecules or metabolites. These metabolites make up a pool of rapidly cycling organic matter in the ocean that is challenging to characterize due to its low concentrations. We seek to determine the distribution of these molecules and the factors that shape their abundance and flux. Through measurements of the abundance of a core set of metabolites, including nucleic acids, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and signaling molecules, we gain a real-time snapshot of microbial activity. We used a targeted metabolomics technique to profile metabolite abundance in particulate and dissolved organic matter extracts collected from a 14,000 km transect running from 38˚S to 55˚N in the Western Atlantic Ocean. This extensive dataset is the first of its kind in the Atlantic Ocean and allows us to explore connections among metabolites as well as latitudinal trends in metabolite abundance. We found changes in the intracellular abundance of certain metabolites between low and high nutrient regions and a wide distribution of certain dissolved vitamins in the surface ocean. These measurements give us baseline data on the distribution of these metabolites and allow us to extend our understanding of microbial community activity in different regions of the ocean.

  6. Otolaryngology in Atlantic Canada: practitioners' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelausa, E O

    1999-02-01

    A survey was conducted to assess practice conditions in Atlantic Canada for 1996. Otolaryngologists in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland/Labrador with at least 1 year of practice experience in the area were canvassed regarding general work concerns, office and OR waiting lists, income, support services, job satisfaction, future plans and personal recommendations for improvement. Nineteen of 40 surveyed responded (47.5%). The results revealed that Atlantic Canadians had to wait considerably longer than average Canadians for ENT services. This was particularly true for Nova Scotians who had to wait often more than double the national average. Forty-seven and a half percent of practitioners were dissatisfied with the practice climate, with many merely trying to maintain status quo. Increasing government constraints and budget cuts have led to practice protectionism and the loss of collegiality. There is little optimism for the future, with 42% predicting continued deterioration in the next 5 years. As a result, up to 58% are considering relocating elsewhere. Despite diminishing returns, these specialists continue to provide the best possible care for their patient patients--hoping for a better tomorrow.

  7. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  8. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  9. An Anatomy of the 1960s Atlantic Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan

    2014-05-01

    North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North Atlantic SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North Atlantic display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North Atlantic warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and Atlantic Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s Atlantic cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s Atlantic cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling period in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the Atlantic Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical Atlantic. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North Atlantic. This period also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North Atlantic during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes

  10. 77 FR 50470 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., West Atlantic sailfish, or North Atlantic swordfish in states (and the United States Virgin Islands and... Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational Landings Reports AGENCY: National... provides important data used to monitor catches of Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) and supplements...

  11. Dispersion in North Atlantic Deep Water transfer between the northern source region and the South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Oliver; Roether, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) represents the Atlantic part of the deep, southward return arm of the oceanic 'conveyor belt', which moderates Europe's climate and effects most of the water transfer from the ocean surface into the deep waters globally. The transfer starts from the NADW formation regions, which in the case of upper NADW (approx. 1500-2000 m depth) is the Labrador Sea (far NW Atlantic). NADW is found concentrated toward the continental slope of the Americas, but subject to meandering, and to recirculation into, and mixing with, the waters of the interior Atlantic. Individual water parcels thus follow a complex ensemble of trajectories. We have obtained characteristics of that ensemble by fitting the free parameters of a suitable function using extensive observations of the transient tracers CFC-11, CFC-12, CCl{sub 4}, and tritium. A tracer transfer function of ocean-surface concentrations to those in newly formed NADW was derived as a precursory step. In the upper NADW we obtain RMS transfer-time dispersions on the way from the Labrador Sea of 31 years at 6 N rising to 53 years at 20 S, compared to mean transfer times ranging 46 to 79 years ({+-}20 %); furthermore, approximately 10 % to 40 % of the water is old, tracer-free water admixed on the way. Similar results have been obtained for lower NADW (approx. 2500-4000 m). The combination of tritium and CFC observations is particularly suited to constrain the dispersion, since it acts on the concentrations of these tracers in an opposite way. The tracer-adjusted transfer functions allow quantification of the NADW transport of pollutants and other compounds delivered to the NADW formation region. The results can furthermore check mean transfer times and large-scale dispersion of the NADW part of dynamic ocean circulation models.

  12. Forest productivity in southwestern Europe is controlled by coupled North Atlantic and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal Gonzalez, Jaime; Ballesteros Canovas, Juan Antonio; Herrero, Asier; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Stoffel, Markus; Lucas-Borja, Manuel E.; Andivia, Enrique; Sancho-García, Cesar; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) depicts annual and decadal oscillatory modes of variability responsible for dry spells over the European continent. The NAO therefore holds a great potential to evaluate the role, as carbon sinks, of water-limited forests under climate change. However, uncertainties related to inconsistent responses of long-term forest productivity to NAO have so far hampered firm conclusions on its impacts. We hypothesize that, in part, such inconsistencies might have the...

  13. Atlante project; Progetto atlante. Quadro di riferimento, analisi degli strumenti esistenti, implementazione metodologica e applicazione prototipale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, R.; Del Cellio, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the Atlante project a joint program of Emilia Romagna region and Italian ENEA based on the concept of substantiality and the most important methods and models used in the territorial planning. [Italian] La redazione del presente volume e' stata articolata in modo da bilanciare, da un lato l'esigenza di rispettare il programma di attivita' previsto nell'ambito della Convenzione fra Regione Emilia Romagna ed ENEA.

  14. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  15. Forest productivity in southwestern Europe is controlled by coupled North Atlantic and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-González, Jaime; Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A; Herrero, Asier; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Stoffel, Markus; Lucas-Borja, Manuel E; Andivia, Enrique; Sancho-García, Cesar; Zavala, Miguel A

    2017-12-20

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) depicts annual and decadal oscillatory modes of variability responsible for dry spells over the European continent. The NAO therefore holds a great potential to evaluate the role, as carbon sinks, of water-limited forests under climate change. However, uncertainties related to inconsistent responses of long-term forest productivity to NAO have so far hampered firm conclusions on its impacts. We hypothesize that, in part, such inconsistencies might have their origin in periodical sea surface temperature anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean (i.e., Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO). Here we show strong empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis using 120 years of periodical inventory data from Iberian pine forests. Our results point to AMO + NAO + and AMO - NAO - phases as being critical for forest productivity, likely due to decreased winter water balance and abnormally low winter temperatures, respectively. Our findings could be essential for the evaluation of ecosystem functioning vulnerabilities associated with increased climatic anomalies under unprecedented warming conditions in the Mediterranean.

  16. An electrical analogy relating the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E Kurtz

    Full Text Available The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a period of 60-80 years, creating a regular variation in North Atlantic sea surface temperature known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO. This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its period. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation period are in good agreement with measured values.

  17. Proceedings of the 2009 Atlantic reclamation conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for industry leaders of reclamation and restoration to advance knowledge, raise awareness and examine problems and solutions in the areas of land and waterway reclamation, restoration and rehabilitation. With a history of resource and industrial development, many communities in Atlantic Canada are faced with the challenge of restoring contaminated sites and abandoned mines sites, including both underground and surface coal mines. The topics discussed at this conference ranged from mine site reclamation, in-situ and ex-situ remediation, contaminated site restoration, erosion and sediment control planning, revegetation planning, wetland and soil quality research, landuse planning, regulation, and environmental risk. One of the 25 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  18. Proceedings of the 2008 Atlantic Reclamation conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual event served as a forum to share information, advance knowledge, raise awareness and examine problems and solutions in the many areas of land and waterway reclamation, restoration and rehabilitation. Given the long history of resource and industrial development in Atlantic Canada, many communities are faced with the challenge of restoring contaminated sites, brownfields, and abandoned mines sites, including both underground and surface coal mines. The topics discussed at this conference ranged from mine site reclamation, brownfield redevelopment, contaminated site restoration, erosion and sediment control planning, revegetation planning, wetland and soil quality research, landuse planning, landscape design, policy, regulation and fiscal planning, environmental risk and liability insurance policies. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  19. The Atlantic Seaduck Project: Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Perry, M.C.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Some populations of seaducks, especially scoters along the Atlantic Coast, have been declining over recent decades. A joint US-Canadian tearn has been working to capture and surgically implant satellite radio transmitters in these ducks. Black scoters (Melanitta nigra) captured on the Restigouche River in New Brunswick, Canada and surf scoters (M. perspicilata) captured on Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA have been tracked by the use of Argos/NOAA polar orbiting operational environmental satellites to their breeding and molting areas and back south to their wintering ranges. Successful capture techniques included night-lighting and a capture net gun. A captive colony of seaducks has been maintained for feeding habits and nutritional studies. Veterinary medicine has played a key role in the surgical implantation of the satellite transmitters and in developing heath procedures for the captive seaduck colony.

  20. Historic Storminess Changes in North Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. G.; Elliott, L.; Noone, S.; Hickey, K.; Foster, I.; Wadhams, P.; Mayewski, P.

    2001-05-01

    Reconstructed patterns of historic storminess (1870-1990 AD) for North Atlantic region as indicated by measurements from selected stations in Iceland, Faeroes, Scotland and Ireland show clear links with the climate "seesaw" winters first described by Van Loon and Rogers. The stormiest winters appear to have occurred during periods when measured Greenland air temperatures at Jacobshavn and reconstructed air temperatures from the Summit ice core site have been exceptionally low and when air temperature across northern Europe have been well above average. Maxima and minima of recorded winter storms for the various stations are also in agreement with the Sodium chronology from GISP2 that points to increased sea salt precipitation on Greenland ice at Summit during Greenland "below" periods of the climate seesaw.

  1. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of North Atlantic windiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanem, E.; Breivik, O. N.

    2013-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions represent serious natural hazards to ship operations and may be the direct cause or contributing factor to maritime accidents. Such severe environmental conditions can be taken into account in ship design and operational windows can be defined that limits hazardous operations to less extreme conditions. Nevertheless, possible changes in the statistics of extreme weather conditions, possibly due to anthropogenic climate change, represent an additional hazard to ship operations that is less straightforward to account for in a consistent way. Obviously, there are large uncertainties as to how future climate change will affect the extreme weather conditions at sea and there is a need for stochastic models that can describe the variability in both space and time at various scales of the environmental conditions. Previously, Bayesian hierarchical space-time models have been developed to describe the variability and complex dependence structures of significant wave height in space and time. These models were found to perform reasonably well and provided some interesting results, in particular, pertaining to long-term trends in the wave climate. In this paper, a similar framework is applied to oceanic windiness and the spatial and temporal variability of the 10-m wind speed over an area in the North Atlantic ocean is investigated. When the results from the model for North Atlantic windiness is compared to the results for significant wave height over the same area, it is interesting to observe that whereas an increasing trend in significant wave height was identified, no statistically significant long-term trend was estimated in windiness. This may indicate that the increase in significant wave height is not due to an increase in locally generated wind waves, but rather to increased swell. This observation is also consistent with studies that have suggested a poleward shift of the main storm tracks.

  2. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of North Atlantic windiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vanem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions represent serious natural hazards to ship operations and may be the direct cause or contributing factor to maritime accidents. Such severe environmental conditions can be taken into account in ship design and operational windows can be defined that limits hazardous operations to less extreme conditions. Nevertheless, possible changes in the statistics of extreme weather conditions, possibly due to anthropogenic climate change, represent an additional hazard to ship operations that is less straightforward to account for in a consistent way. Obviously, there are large uncertainties as to how future climate change will affect the extreme weather conditions at sea and there is a need for stochastic models that can describe the variability in both space and time at various scales of the environmental conditions. Previously, Bayesian hierarchical space-time models have been developed to describe the variability and complex dependence structures of significant wave height in space and time. These models were found to perform reasonably well and provided some interesting results, in particular, pertaining to long-term trends in the wave climate. In this paper, a similar framework is applied to oceanic windiness and the spatial and temporal variability of the 10-m wind speed over an area in the North Atlantic ocean is investigated. When the results from the model for North Atlantic windiness is compared to the results for significant wave height over the same area, it is interesting to observe that whereas an increasing trend in significant wave height was identified, no statistically significant long-term trend was estimated in windiness. This may indicate that the increase in significant wave height is not due to an increase in locally generated wind waves, but rather to increased swell. This observation is also consistent with studies that have suggested a poleward shift of the main storm tracks.

  3. Stalling Tropical Cyclones over the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Emanuel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey produced massive amounts of rain over southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Average storm total rainfall amounts over a 10,000 square mile (26,000 square km) area exceeded 30 inches (750 mm). An important aspect of the storm that contributed to the large rainfall totals was its unusual motion. The storm stalled shortly after making landfall, then moved back offshore before once again making landfall five days later. This storm motion permitted heavy rainfall to occur in the same general area for an extended period of time. The unusual nature of this event motivates an investigation into the characteristics and potential climate change influences on stalled tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin using the HURDAT 2 storm track database for 1866-2016 and downscaled tropical cyclones driven by simulations of present and future climate. The motion of cyclones is quantified as the size of a circle circumscribing all storm locations during a given length of time. For a three-day period, Harvey remained inside a circle with a radius of 123 km. This ranks within the top 0.6% of slowest-moving historical storm instances. Among the 2% of slowest-moving storm instances prior to Harvey, only 13 involved storms that stalled near the continental United States coast, where they may have produced substantial rainfall onshore while tapping into marine moisture. Only two such storms stalled in the month of September, in contrast to 20 September stalls out of the 36 storms that stalled over the nearby open Atlantic. Just four of the stalled coastal storms were hurricanes, implying a return frequency for such storms of much less than once per decade. The synoptic setting of these storms is examined for common features, and historical and projected trends in occurrences of stalled storms near the coast and farther offshore are investigated.

  4. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  5. Assessing the role of North Atlantic freshwater forcing in millennial scale climate variability: a tropical Atlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Kristina A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Broccoli, Anthony J [Rutgers University, Department of Environmental Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Stouffer, Ronald J [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2005-03-01

    This study analyzes a three-member ensemble of experiments, in which 0.1 Sv of freshwater was applied to the North Atlantic for 100 years in order to address the potential for large freshwater inputs in the North Atlantic to drive abrupt climate change. The model used is the GFDL R30 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. We focus in particular on the effects of this forcing on the tropical Atlantic region, which has been studied extensively by paleoclimatologists. In response to the freshwater forcing, North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is reduced to roughly 40% by the end of the 100 year freshwater pulse. Consequently, the North Atlantic region cools by up to 8 C. The extreme cooling of the North Atlantic increases the pole-to-equator temperature gradient and requires more heat be provided to the high latitude Atlantic from the tropical Atlantic. To accommodate the increased heat requirement, the ITCZ shifts southward to allow for greater heat transport across the equator. Accompanying this southward ITCZ shift, the Northeast trade winds strengthen and precipitation patterns throughout the tropical Atlantic are altered. Specifically, precipitation in Northeast Brazil increases, and precipitation in Africa decreases slightly. In addition, we find that surface air temperatures warm over the tropical Atlantic and over Africa, but cool over northern South America. Sea-surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic warm slightly with larger warm anomalies developing in the thermocline. These responses are robust for each member of the ensemble, and have now been identified by a number of freshwater forcing studies using coupled OAGCMs. The model responses to freshwater forcing are generally smaller in magnitude, but have the same direction, as paleoclimate data from the Younger Dryas suggest. In certain cases, however, the model responses and the paleoclimate data directly contradict one another. Discrepancies between the model simulations

  6. Atlantic City, New Jersey Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic City, New Jersey Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  8. Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Fishermen' s Atlantic City Windfarm, LLC, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm final report under US DOE Advanced Technology Demonstration project documents achievements developing a demonstration scale offshore wind project off the coast of New Jersey.

  9. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  10. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  11. Atlantic Sharpnose and Blacknose Shark Congressional Supplemental Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Life history data were collected from Atlantic sharpnose and blacknose sharks during the Congressional Supplemental Program during 2011. Data collected include...

  12. ON THE INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ATLANTIC HURRICANE FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Hosseini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the possible connection between the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes to the climate change, mainly the variation in the Atlantic Ocean surface temperature has been investigated. The correlation between the observed hurricane frequency for different categories of hurricane’s intensity and Sea Surface Temperature (SST has been examined over the Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis Regions (ACR. The results suggest that in general, the frequency of hurricanes have a high correlation with SST. In particular, the frequency of extreme hurricanes with Category 5 intensity has the highest correlation coefficient (R = 0.82. In overall, the analyses in this work demonstrates the influence of the climate change condition on the Atlantic hurricanes and suggest a strong correlation between the frequency of extreme hurricanes and SST in the ACR.

  13. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridgestock, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M.; Paul, P.; Middag, R.; Milne, A.; Lohan, M.C.; Baker, A.; Chance, R.; Khondoker, R.; Strekopytov, S.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources duringthe past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotopemeasurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to thetropical North Atlantic following the

  14. On the Influence of Global Warming on Atlantic Hurricane Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. R.; Scaioni, M.; Marani, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the possible connection between the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes to the climate change, mainly the variation in the Atlantic Ocean surface temperature has been investigated. The correlation between the observed hurricane frequency for different categories of hurricane's intensity and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has been examined over the Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis Regions (ACR). The results suggest that in general, the frequency of hurricanes have a high correlation with SST. In particular, the frequency of extreme hurricanes with Category 5 intensity has the highest correlation coefficient (R = 0.82). In overall, the analyses in this work demonstrates the influence of the climate change condition on the Atlantic hurricanes and suggest a strong correlation between the frequency of extreme hurricanes and SST in the ACR.

  15. The distribution of 226Ra in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Goddard, J.; Sarmiento, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Based on results obtained during the GEOSECS program the primary features of the distribution of 226 Ra in the Atlantic Ocean can be defined. Outside the Antarctic no significant variation has been found in the 226 Ra content of surface waters. Eighty samples yield an average of 7.4 dpm/100 kg (normalized to a salinity of 35.00%). Deep waters in the central Atlantic have 226 Ra contents several dpm/100 kg higher than expected from the mixing of Antarctic Bottom Water (21.3 dpm/100 kg) and basal North Atlantic Deep Water (10.3 dpm/100 kg). These excesses correlate well with deficiencies in O 2 and excesses in SiO 2 . The intermediate water 226 Ra maximum in the South Atlantic is associated with the inflow of low-oxygen Circumpolar Intermediate Water beneath the Antarctic Intermediate Water. (Auth.)

  16. Photographic atlas of fish otoliths of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campana, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    This photographic atlas presents light and (or) scanning electron micrographs of 580 pairs of sagittal otoliths representing 288 species, 97 families, and 27 orders of fish from the northwest Atlantic...

  17. 76 FR 53413 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...; fax: (843) 769-4520; e-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Meeting Dates 1. Joint... terms of reference (TOR) and appointments for the SEDAR 28 stock assessment for Atlantic and Gulf...

  18. 76 FR 16730 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... migratory groups of king mackerel, Spanish mackerel and cobia. The amendment addresses establishment of... separate migratory groups of cobia (between the Gulf and South Atlantic), sector allocations, and possible...

  19. 78 FR 30866 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... catches versus ACLs for Atlantic group King Mackerel, Spanish Mackerel and Cobia. 2. Receive and discuss an SSC report on SEDAR 28, pertaining to Spanish Mackerel and Cobia, and take action as necessary. 3...

  20. Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... Salt finger convection is generally observed in mid-latitude regions, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, between the hase of the mixed layer and the top of the intermediate water...

  1. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  2. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NODC Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  3. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  4. Do the Atlantic climate modes impact the ventilation of the eastern tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) exist in the upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific at intermediate depth. They are a consequence of high biological productivity in combination with weak ventilation. The flow fields in the tropical Atlantic is characterized by Latitudinally Alternating Zonal Jets (LAZJs) with a large vertical scale. It has been suggested that LAZJs play an important role for the ventilation of the OMZ as eastward currents advect oxygen-rich waters from the western boundary towards the OMZ. In the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA), the eastward flowing North Equatorial Undercurrent and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) provide the main oxygen supply into the OMZ. Variability in the strength and location of the LAZJs is associated with oxygen variability in the ETNA OMZ. We here want to address the question whether the variability in the zonal current field can be partly attributed to the large-scale climate modes of the tropical Atlantic, namely the Atlantic zonal and meridional mode. An influence of these modes on the NECC has been found in previous studies. For the analysis we are using the output of a global ocean circulation model, in which a 1/10° nest covering the tropical Atlantic is embedded into a global 1/2° model, as well as reanalysis products and satellite data. The zonal current field and oxygen distribution from the high resolution model is compared to observational data. The location and intensity of the current bands during positive and negative phases of the Atlantic climate modes are compared by focusing on individual events and via composite analysis. Based on the results, the potential impact of the Atlantic climate modes on the ventilation of the ETNA OMZ is discussed.

  5. ATLANTIC BATS: a data set of bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Renata D L; Stevens, Richard D; Esbérard, Carlos E L; Mello, Marco A R; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Faria, Deborah; Weber, Marcelo D M; Kerches Rogeri, Patricia; Regolin, André L; Oliveira, Hernani F M D; Costa, Luciana D M; Barros, Marília A S; Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Crepaldi de Morais, Mara Ariane; Kavagutti, Vinicius S; Passos, Fernando C; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Maia, Felipe G M; Ribeiro, Milton C; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that is highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. The ATLANTIC BATS data set comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest. The data set includes information on more than 90,000 captures of 98 bat species of eight families. Species richness averaged 12.1 per site, with a median value of 10 species (ranging from 1 to 53 species). Six species occurred in more than 50% of the communities: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Glossophaga soricina, and Platyrrhinus lineatus. The number of captures divided by sampling effort, a proxy for abundance, varied from 0.000001 to 0.77 individuals·h -1 ·m -2 (0.04 ± 0.007 individuals·h -1 ·m -2 ). Our data set reveals a hyper-dominance of eight species that together that comprise 80% of all captures: Platyrrhinus lineatus (2.3%), Molossus molossus (2.8%), Artibeus obscurus (3.4%), Artibeus planirostris (5.2%), Artibeus fimbriatus (7%), Sturnira lilium (14.5%), Carollia perspicillata (15.6%), and Artibeus lituratus (29.2%). © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, van, C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this survey. Numbers of mackerel eggs in the samples were low, lower compared to previous surveys. Most mackerel eggs were found along the 200m depth contour of the continental slope. Most of the adult mack...

  7. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  8. Trans Atlantic Infrasound Payload (TAIP) Operation Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lees, Jonathan M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Carolina Infrasound package, added as a piggyback to the 2016 ULDB ight, recorded unique acoustic signals such as the ocean microbarom and a large meteor. These data both yielded unique insights into the acoustic energy transfer from the lower to the upper atmosphere as well as highlighted the vast array of signals whose origins remain unknown. Now, the opportunity to y a payload across the north Atlantic offers an opportunity to sample one of the most active ocean microbarom sources on Earth. Improvements in payload capabilities should result in characterization of the higher frequency range of the stratospheric infrasound spectrum as well. Finally, numerous large mining and munitions disposal explosions in the region may provide \\ground truth" events for assessing the detection capability of infrasound microphones in the stratosphere. The flight will include three different types of infrasound sensors. One type is a pair of polarity reversed InfraBSU microphones (standard for high altitude flights since 2016), another is a highly sensitive Chaparral 60 modified for a very low corner period, and the final sensor is a lightweight, low power Gem infrasound package. By evaluating these configurations against each other on the same flight, we will be able to optimize future campaigns with different sensitivity and mass constraints.

  9. Proceedings of the 2008 Atlantic bioenergy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A number of new technologies are now being developed to ensure the economic viability of using renewable resources to generate electricity and heat. This conference examined ways of increasing the use of bioenergy resources in the Maritimes region. It provided a forum for industry representatives, researchers, and policy-makers to discuss methods of ensuring the sustainable development of biomass and waste residue resources. The current state of the industry in Atlantic Canada was reviewed on a provincial basis, and government policies related to the use of renewable fuels were outlined. North America's bioenergy resources were assessed and new bio-energy, bio-chemicals, and pyrolysis techniques were reviewed along with newly developed co-products at small-scale ethanol plants. New closed loop biofuels projects and their benefits to rural communities were discussed with reference to air quality issues. New forest bioproducts research was also presented, including highlights from the Canadian Biomass Innovation Network (CBIN). These included innovations in commercial biogas, and new biorefinery and biomass co-firing models. A total of 23 papers were presented at the conference. tabs., figs

  10. Fish movement in an Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Given the importance of fish movement to the dynamics and maintenance of stream dwelling fish communities from the Atlantic Forest, we analysed patterns of fish movement in a coastal stream from Southeastern Brazil, using mark-recapture technique. Displacement distance of each species were presented and discussed considering seasonal (rainy and dry and body size patterns. We marked 10 species along the stream and recaptured 440 (34.6% of the 1,270 marked fishes. The species with significant number of upstream moving individuals were Astyanax janeiroensis, Characidium interruptum, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Awaous tajasica. Only Pimelodella lateristriga presented significant differences between resident and moving individuals. Characidium interruptum and A. tajasica demonstrated greater downstream and upstream movement, respectively, moving up to 2,100 m. Even after controlling for species identity we found no significant correlation between fish length and individual displacement distance. Fishes moved longer distances during the rainy season, in accordance to the breeding season. Patterns of fish movement were in agreement to life-history traits of many of the studied species and can be reflecting specific behaviour and morphologies.

  11. The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Emily C H; Silberg, Judy L

    2013-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR) is a population-based registry of more than 56,000 twins primarily born or living in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The MATR employs several methods of ascertaining twins, and devotes considerable resources to tracking and maintaining communication with MATR participants. Researchers may utilize the MATR for administration of research services including study recruitment, collection of DNA, archival data set creation, as well as data collection through mailed, phone, or online surveys. In addition, the MATR houses the MATR Repository, with over 1,200 blood samples available for researchers interested in DNA genotyping. For over 35 years MATR twins have participated in research studies with investigators from diverse scientific disciplines and various institutions. These studies, which have resulted in numerous publications, have covered a range of topics, including the human microbiome, developmental psychopathology, depression, anxiety, substance use, epigenetics of aging, children of twins, pre-term birth, social attitudes, seizures, eating disorders, as well as sleep homeostasis. Researchers interested in utilizing twins are encouraged to contact the MATR to discuss potential research opportunities.

  12. Geographic variation in host fish use and larval metamorphosis for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barbara (St. John); Ferreri, C. Paola; Lellis, William A.; Wicklow, Barry J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Host fishes play a crucial role in survival and dispersal of freshwater mussels (Unionoida), particularly rare unionids at conservation risk. Intraspecific variation in host use is not well understood for many mussels, including the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the USA.Host suitability of 33 fish species for dwarf wedgemussel glochidia (larvae) from the Delaware and Connecticut river basins was tested in laboratory experiments over 9 years. Relative suitability of three different populations of a single host fish, the tessellated darter (Etheostoma olmstedi), from locations in the Connecticut, Delaware, and Susquehanna river basins, was also tested.Connecticut River basin A. heterodon metamorphosed into juvenile mussels on tessellated darter, slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Delaware River basin mussels metamorphosed using these three species, as well as brown trout (Salmo trutta), banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and shield darter (Percina peltata). Atlantic salmon, striped bass, and sculpins were highly effective hosts, frequently generating 5+ juveniles per fish (JPF) and metamorphosis success (MS; proportion of attaching larvae that successfully metamorphose) ≥ 0.4, and producing juveniles in repeated trials.In experiments on tessellated darters, mean JPF and MS values decreased as isolation between the mussel source (Connecticut River) and each fish source increased; mean JPF = 10.45, 6.85, 4.14, and mean MS = 0.50, 0.41, and 0.34 in Connecticut, Delaware, and Susquehanna river darters, respectively. Host suitability of individual darters was highly variable (JPF = 2–11; MS = 0.20–1.0).The results show that mussel–host fish compatibility in A. heterodon differs among Atlantic coastal rivers, and suggest that hosts including anadromous Atlantic salmon and striped bass may help sustain A. heterodon in parts of

  13. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  14. Nine co-localized cytochrome P450 genes of the CYP2N, CYP2AD, and CYP2P gene families in the mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus genome: Identification and expression in response to B[α]P, BPA, OP, and NP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-06-01

    The CYP2 genes are the largest and most diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily in vertebrates. We have identified nine co-localized CYP2 genes (∼55kb) in a new cluster in the genome of the highly resilient ecotoxicological fish model Kryptolebias marmoratus. Molecular characterization, temporal and tissue-specific expression pattern, and response to xenobiotics of these genes were examined. The CYP2 gene clusters were characterized and designated CYP2N22-23, CYP2AD12, and CYP2P16-20. Gene synteny analysis confirmed that the cluster in K. marmoratus is similar to that found in other teleost fishes, including zebrafish. A gene duplication event with diverged catalytic function was observed in CYP2AD12. Moreover, a high level of divergence in expression was observed among the co-localized genes. Phylogeny of the cluster suggested an orthologous relationship with similar genes in zebrafish and Japanese medaka. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP2P19 and CYP2N20 were consecutively expressed throughout embryonic development, whereas CYP2P18 was expressed in all adult tissues, suggesting that members of each CYP2 gene family have different physiological roles even though they are located in the same cluster. Among endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) induced expression of CYP2N23, bisphenol A (BPA) induced CYP2P18 and CYP2P19, and 4-octylphenol (OP) induced CYP2AD12, but there was no significant response to 4-nonylphenol (NP), implying differential catalytic roles of the enzyme. In this paper, we identify and characterize a CYP2 gene cluster in the mangrove killifish K. marmoratus with differing catalytic roles toward EDCs. Our findings provide insights on the roles of nine co-localized CYP2 genes and their catalytic functions for better understanding of chemical-biological interactions in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progress Since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-03

    Band (dB re 1 uPa (%lm) 5-m Zodiac inflatable boat0 6,300 152 Bell 212 helicopter6 16 159 Large tanker 100+125 177 Icebreaker 100 183 ATOC 75 195...coastline during two days (May 12 and 13, 1996) in the Kyparissiakos Gulf in Greece. There was no external sign of injury or disease in any of these...in two fish species, sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) and killifish (Fundulus similis), were significantly lower in aquariums exposed to

  16. Role of tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans variability on ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhomme, Chloé; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sebastien; Boschat, Ghyslaine

    2014-05-01

    There are strong evidences of an interaction between tropical Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nevertheless, these interactions remain deeply controversial. While some authors claim the tropical Indian and Atlantic oceans only play a passive role with respect to ENSO, others suggest a driving role for these two basins on ENSO. The mecanisms underlying these relations are not fully understood and, in the Indian Ocean, the possible role of both modes of tropical variability (the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Indian Ocean Basin mode (IOB)) remain unclear. To better quantify and understand how the variability of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans impact ENSO variability, we performed two sensitivity experiments using the SINTEX-F2 coupled model. For each experiment, we suppressed the variability of SST and the air-sea coupling in either the tropical Indian Ocean or tropical Atlantic Ocean by applying a strong nudging of the SST to the observed SST climatology. In both experiments, the ENSO periodicity increases. In the Atlantic experiment, our understanding of this increased periodicity is drastically limited by the strongly biased mean state in this region. Conversely, in the Indian Ocean experiment, the increase of ENSO periodicity is related to the absence of the IOB following the El Niño peak, which leads to a decrease of westerly winds in the western Pacific during late winter and spring after the peak. These weaker westerlies hinders the transition to a La Niña phase and thus increase the duration and periodicity of the event.

  17. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  18. Marine ecosystem response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Edwards

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.

  19. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  20. Deterioration of atlantic soft water macrophyte communities by acidification, eutrophication and alkalinisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.

    2002-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the most important succession patterns and underlying processes associated with the deterioration of soft water macrophyte communities in atlantic and boreo-atlantic regions. As acidification, eutrophication and alkalinisation are the dominant processes, this

  1. 75 FR 51242 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions; and NOAA... representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils...

  2. 76 FR 34061 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with... Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and...; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and...

  3. EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, S.; Carranza, M.L.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredune habitats of European interest, focusing on floristic, structural and ecological features. We selected two representative sites of Atlantic (The Netherlands) and Mediterranean (Italy) coastal dunes. From a georeferenced vegetation

  4. 75 FR 8673 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will conduct an educational workshop on catch shares in cooperation with the Fisheries Leadership and Sustainability Forum (FLSF), the Atlantic States...

  5. Compilation of woody species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Da Silva Duarte, Leandro; Marcilio-Silva, Vinicius; Dos Santos Seger, Guilherme Dubal; Liebsch, Dieter; Marques, Márcia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation because of its high levels of endemism and threatened areas. Three main forest types, differentiated by their floras, compose the Atlantic Forest: ‘Atlantic Forest’ sensu strictu, ‘Araucaria Mixed Forest’ and ‘Seasonal Forest’. The flora comprises taxa from the Amazon forest, Cerrado gallery forests and the Andean region, which makes the Atlantic Forest a relevant study system for ecologists and biogeographers. Here, we present da...

  6. Experimental and natural warming elevates mercury concentrations in estuarine fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Marine food webs are the most important link between the global contaminant, methylmercury (MeHg, and human exposure through consumption of seafood. Warming temperatures may increase human exposure to MeHg, a potent neurotoxin, by increasing MeHg production as well as bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through marine food webs. Studies of the effects of temperature on MeHg bioaccumulation are rare and no study has specifically related temperature to MeHg fate by linking laboratory experiments with natural field manipulations in coastal ecosystems. We performed laboratory and field experiments on MeHg accumulation under varying temperature regimes using the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Temperature treatments were established in salt pools on a coastal salt marsh using a natural temperature gradient where killifish fed on natural food sources. Temperatures were manipulated across a wider range in laboratory experiments with killifish exposed to MeHg enriched food. In both laboratory microcosms and field mesocosms, MeHg concentrations in killifish significantly increased at elevated temperatures. Moreover, in field experiments, other ancillary variables (salinity, MeHg in sediment, etc. did not relate to MeHg bioaccumulation. Modeling of laboratory experimental results suggested increases in metabolic rate as a driving factor. The elevated temperatures we tested are consistent with predicted trends in climate warming, and indicate that in the absence of confounding factors, warmer sea surface temperatures could result in greater in bioaccumulation of MeHg in fish, and consequently, increased human exposure.

  7. Monitoring the South Atlantic Anomaly Using ATSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Stefano; Arino, Olivier; Serpe, Danilo

    2010-12-01

    Space mission planning needs to quantify the risks arising from exposure to high doses of radiation, as to both the effects on human health and the impact on instrumental efficiency. Constant monitoring of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is therefore required as it is a major cause of radiation flux increase. In order to address this need, the time evolution of the particle induced noise of the SWIR channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) instrument series is analysed in the 1991-2009 time window. The data considered in this work are the night-time SWIR hot spots generated by energetic particles hitting the ATSR detectors when satellites pass through the SAA region. To avoid misinterpretation of results, hot spots due to wildfires (individuated from the ATSR World Fire Atlas products) have been removed. The location and area of the SAA are inferred by fitting a two-dimensional, elliptical Gaussian equation to the SWIR (1.6 μm) night- time hot spots detected over the SAA region. The location of the SAA is found to drift westwards with an average drift rate of about 0.35 deg/yr and northward with an average drift rate of about 0.12 deg/yr. These results are in very good agreement with latest works. Irregularities are found where the speed of the drift changes and the SAA moves eastward and southward, especially in the late 1991 and 2002-2003 time windows. These drift anomalies are attributed to geomagnetic jerks. Results indicate that, as expected, the strength and the area of the SAA are anti-correlated with the sun-spot numbers (SSN) and the 11.7 cm Solar Flux (SF).

  8. The Recent Atlantic Cold Anomaly: Causes, Consequences, and Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joel J.-M.; Sinha, Bablu; Duchez, Aurélie; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context. We also discuss the potential impacts of surface temperature anomalies for the atmosphere, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and European heat waves; contrast the behavior of the Atlantic with the extreme warm surface event that occurred in the North Pacific over a similar timescale; and consider the possibility that these events represent a response to a change in atmospheric planetary wave forcing.

  9. Environmental Factors and Natural Resource Stock: Atlantic Herring case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea); John, M. Gate [University of Rhode Island, Kingston (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Atlantic herrings have held the important position as fish-baits in the marine ecosystem such as major baits in fishing lobsters. The Atlantic herring is sensitively influenced by the environmental factors of the marine ecosystem, such as the temperature of seawater, the amount of planktons, and the submarine deposit of the habitat. In the immature phase of herrings, especially, they are very sensitive of the low temperature of seawater. This study analyzes the correlation between two-year-old imported herring resources and the temperature of seawater, measured by a satellite. The area of measuring temperature is limited to the spawning ground of Atlantic herrings. As results of the analysis, the coefficient is 0.69, which means that the environmental factors should be very seriously considered in explaining the change of fishing resources. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  11. Influence of North Atlantic modes on European climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemmel, K.; Cubasch, U.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the North Atlantic strongly influences European climate. Only few studies exist that focus on its impact on climate extremes. We are interested in these extremes and the processes and mechanisms behind it. For the analysis of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) we use simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The NAO has a strong impact especially on European winter and the changes in minimum temperature are even larger than in maximum temperature. The impact of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability (AMV) on climate extremes is analyzed in ECHAM6 simulations forced with AMV warm and AMV cold sea surface temperature patterns. We analyze different extreme indices and try to understand the processes.

  12. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  13. Genetic diversity of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y; Cunha-Machado, A S; Gontijo, A B P L; Favoreto, F C; Soares, T B C; Miranda, F D

    2017-04-20

    The Bromeliaceae family includes a range of species used for many purposes, including ornamental use and use as food, medicine, feed, and fiber. The state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is a center of diversity for this family in the Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the genetic diversity of five populations of the Bromeliaceae family, including specimens of the genera Aechmea, Billbergia (subfamily Bromelioideae), and Pitcairnia (subfamily Pitcairnioidea), all found in the Atlantic Forest and distributed in the state of Espírito Santo. The number of alleles per locus in populations ranged from two to six and the fixation index (F), estimated for some simple sequence repeats in bromeliad populations, was less than zero in all populations. All markers in the Pitcairnia flammea population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P Atlantic Forest remnants in the south of Espírito Santo state.

  14. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  15. 75 FR 71187 - Atlantic Coast Financial Corporation, Waycross, GA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-56 OTS No. H-4438] Atlantic Coast... November 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Atlantic Coast Federal, MHC and Atlantic Coast Bank, Waycross, Georgia, to convert to the stock form of organization. Copies of...

  16. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY... temporary special local regulation on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will feature...

  17. 50 CFR 229.32 - Atlantic large whale take reduction plan regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic large whale take reduction plan... Regulations § 229.32 Atlantic large whale take reduction plan regulations. (a)(1) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to implement the Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan to reduce incidental...

  18. Bird Habitat Conservation at Various Scales in the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Milliken; Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture is a partnership focused on the conservation of habitats for migratory birds within the Atlantic Flyway/Atlantic Coast Region from Maine south to Puerto Rico. In order to be effective in planning and implementing conservation in this large and diverse area, the joint venture must work at multiple spatial scales, from the largest ?...

  19. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5... antidumping order on fresh and chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic...

  20. 77 FR 59842 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels permitted in the Atlantic tunas General category in Puerto Rico and 10 in the U.S. Virgin Islands... [Docket No. 080603729-2454-02] RIN 0648-AW83 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly... management plan (FMP) amendment addresses Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) fishery management measures...

  1. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... requirements, South Atlantic, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 12, 2013. Samuel D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant... Mexico, and South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Mexico, and South Atlantic: Caribbean coral, Caribbean reef fish, Caribbean spiny lobster, Caribbean...

  2. Fast northward energy transfer in the Atlantic due to Agulhas Rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, Erik; van Leeuwen, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The adiabatic transit time of wave energy radiated by an Agulhas ring released in the South Atlantic Ocean to the North Atlantic Ocean is investigated in a two-layer ocean model. Of particular interest is the arrival time of baroclinic energy in the northern part of the Atlantic, because it is

  3. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The EFP would allow for an exemption from the Reserve. Regulations under the Atlantic Coastal Act require publication of this...

  4. 77 FR 57063 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North...

  5. 77 FR 64906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North...

  6. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone is... Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety...

  7. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. An evaluation of management strategies for Atlantic tuna stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Kell

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available International agreements for the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT convention area imply that Atlantic tuna stocks should be managed by strategies based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY; however, there is concern whether this will actually ensure sustainability with sufficiently high probability consistent with the principals of the precautionary approach. Therefore, the performance of MSY management strategies based on current assessment procedures was evaluated using a computer simulation framework. The framework includes the data collection, assessment, prediction, and management processes, as well as the implementation of management regulations. It therefore provides an integrated way to evaluate the relative importance of and the interactions between each component of the system with regard to the overall success of the management strategy. The study elucidates guidelines about assessment and management that are general enough to be applied to all tunas in the Atlantic Ocean. It does so by comparing different hypotheses about management and assessment for three stocks (North Atlantic albacore, Atlantic bigeye and East Atlantic skipjack, which are representative of the variety encountered (i.e. from data rich to poor and tropical to temperate waters in ICCAT stocks. Management performance was especially sensitive to the carrying capacity of the stock. The type of proxy used for MSY was more important to the success of the procedure than the frequency of assessment or the number of indices used in the assessment. Whilst the procedure was successful at achieving the management objectives for albacore, it was only partially successful for bigeye and was too conservative for skipjack.

  9. CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wanninkhof

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures so as to improve the quality and consistency of the data as much as possible. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been tentatively corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "Atlantic" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2 data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the Atlantic. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional oceanic carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.

  10. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  11. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in the arctic Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Wiig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the management of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus past and present in the four range states—Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia—which have permanent populations of Atlantic walruses. Populations in all four countries have been depleted, although the extent of depletion is not well known. Inuit in Arctic Canada and Greenland hunt Atlantic walruses for subsistence while they have been protected at Svalbard (Norway since 1952 and in the western Russian Arctic since 1956. Since the second half of the 20th Century Canada and Greenland have increased protection of their walrus. Generally the number of walruses landed in Canada is governed by the number of hunters and/or people in the settlement and not by stock-specific quotas. Although quotas have been set in few communities, it is not known if they are adequate to prevent overhunting. A quota system for walrus hunting in Greenland began in 2006. The current control system is largely effective in ensuring the quotas are applied and that reporting is correct. Greenland currently sets quotas based on recommendations from scientific assessments using recent population estimates to allow population growth from a depleted population.  A challenge with respect to managing walrus hunting remains the variable and sometimes high rates of lost animals. Since the 1960s changes in socio-economics in hunting areas of Arctic Canada and Greenland (and the use of snowmobiles instead of dog sleds in Canada have led to a general decrease in interest in hunting of walruses and reduced harvest on walrus stocks in these countries. Although there is an active ongoing cooperation between Canada and Greenland scientists regarding assessments of shared populations of walruses currently there is no formal agreement between the two range states on co-management of shared stocks. Protection of walrus from other anthropogenic impacts generally focusses on large-scale industrial activity. The level

  12. Atlantic frugivory: a plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Montan, Denise; Pizo, Marco A; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Culot, Laurence; Bufalo, Felipe; Labecca, Fabio; Pedrosa, Felipe; Constantini, Rafaela; Emer, Carine; Silva, Wesley R; da Silva, Fernanda R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    The data set provided here includes 8,320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The data set includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, 5 fishes, 1 amphibian, and 3 reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive data set available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76, and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3,883) followed by mammals (1,315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates, and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our data set is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  14. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection. PMID:26838053

  15. Unraveling biocomplexity of Northeast Atlantic herring stocks using SNP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Limborg, Morten; Helyar, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) exhibit biocomplexity, with widespread, geographically explicit populations that perform long‐range migration to common feeding and wintering areas, where they are exploited by fisheries. This means that exploited stocks do not describe discrete units, thereby c...... and spatial dynamics applicable to stock assessment methods, as well as presenting a traceability tool for certification of herring and herring products...

  16. Anthropogenic signatures of lead in the Northeast Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Annett, A.L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J.M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced lead (Pb) emissions to the environment over the past century, mainly through the combustion of leaded gasoline. Here we present the first combined dissolved (DPb), labile (LpPb), and particulate (PPb) Pb data set from the Northeast Atlantic (Celtic

  17. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Tropical East Atlantic Surface Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, E. de

    1999-01-01

    Variability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) is discussed for tropical East Atlantic surface waters in October–November 1993 and May–June 1994. High precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, river input and equatorial upwelling

  18. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ...: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is requesting peer reviewed information that would be useful in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is... information by electronic mail to: [email protected] . Please include your name and contact information in...

  19. Liver lipids of Indian and Atlantic Ocean spinner Carcharhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shark liver oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the n3 moieties. Data on the liver fatty acids of sharks from African waters, however, are limited. Liver samples from sharks from the western Indian Ocean off the east coast of South Africa and those from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico were examined.

  20. Drift pumice in the Indian and South Atlantic oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, C.; Kent, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-three samples of drift pumice, collected at the coasts of South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Cocos Islands, Australia, Indonesia, Brazil, Marion Island and Bouvet Island, were investigated petrographically and geochemically with a view to establishing the possible source areas. Geochemically five distinct groups could be distinguished and some could be liked to specific eruptions in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Group A pumice originated from a submarine eruption off Zavodovski Island in the South Sandwich Island Group in 1962. The pumice in Group B occurs mainly on the beaches bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and was found on the west coast of South Africa, on the sea floor south-west of South Africa, and in Brazil. The source of this group is unknown, but all the evidence indicates that it must have been from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. The Group C pumice was found in the southern Indian Ocean, probably from the Mid-Indian Ridge. The fourth group originated from a submarine eruption along the Tonga Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Group E, which is by far the most homogeneous, includes samples from Australia, the Indian Ocean islands, East and South Africa and samples of the undisputed Krakatoan origin. Specimens from the Krakatoan eruption are still the most abundant type of drift pumice that can be found

  1. 75 FR 28783 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... event the red snapper benchmark stock assessment allows for modification to the proposed management... (SSCs) regarding Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of king mackerel and Spanish mackerel. The... snapper, including ending overfishing and rebuilding the stock. Management measures include a closure...

  2. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  3. Statistical Modelling of Fishing Activities in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, C.; Ley, E.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of modeling daily catches of fishing boats in the Grand Bank fishing grounds. We have data on catches per species for a number of vessels collected by the European Union in the context of the North Atlantic Fisheries Organization. Many variables can be thought to

  4. Locating the Isle of Orleans : Atlantic and American Historiographical Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This essay offers a review of American and Atlantic approaches to the history of New Orleans. It argues that most American historical writing about New Orleans employs a national perspective that views the city as ‘‘exceptional.’’ The essay highlights the limits of a USA-centered historiography and

  5. Encountered Wave Height Distributions for Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, C.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    About 20 000 observations of wave heights taken on board vessels sailing in the North Atlantic are presented. The data covers year 2002 and 2003 and stem from a variety of ship types. From the preliminary analysis of the data some conclusions are reached about the effect of weather routing whether...

  6. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  7. The Kane fracture zone in the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, G.M.; Rabinowitz, P.D.; Velterop, J.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Kane fracture zone has been traced as a distinct topographic trough from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 24°N to the 80-m.y. B.P. isochron (magnetic anomaly 34) on either side of the ridge axis for a total of approximately 2800 km. Major changes in trend of the fracture zone occur at approximately

  8. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  9. North Atlantic-Fennoscandian Holocene climate trends and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sejrup, H.P.; Seppä, H.; McKay, N.; Kaufman, D.S.; Geirsdottir, A.; de Vernal, A.; Renssen, H.; Husum, K.; Jennings, A.; Andrews, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms behind Holocene regional climate trends from north of 58°N in the North Atlantic-Fennoscandian region Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed and a temperature anomaly stack produced from 81 proxy derived summer temperature time series from 74 sites. The PC

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  11. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  12. 77 FR 64318 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, sharks, and billfish... membership in the HMS AP (note that there are no Environmental/NGO terms expiring, so no nominations for that...: Jenni Wallace, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring...

  13. Latitudinal variation in Atlantic Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1972-01-01

    The existence of clinal variation in some morphological characters of Atlantic Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, is reported. The number of muscle fibres of both aggregate and solitary individuals is subjected to a decrease from higher to lower latitudes. Size and reproduction also seem to vary

  14. (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Osmundea is a strongly supported monophyletic group within the Laurencia complex and shows a disjunct distribution occurring in the North-East and South-West Pacific, the Indian and Atlantic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Its phenotypic plasticity on the Canary Islands may be the result of the high ...

  15. 76 FR 56742 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA700 Mid-Atlantic... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a workshop. SUMMARY: The Eight..., economic and social perspectives. DATES: The workshop will be held Tuesday, October 4 through Thursday...

  16. Atlantic and Mediterranean synoptic drivers of central Spanish juniper growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esper, J.; Großjean, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Garcia-Cervigón, A. I.; Olano, J. M.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Dominiguez-Castro, F.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 121, 3-4 (2015), s. 571-579 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : rogation ceremonies * Nort-atlantic * temporal patterns * climate * Spain * variability * reconstruction Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.433, year: 2015

  17. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  18. President Ilves at the Atlantic Council / Ago Ambre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ambre, Ago

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest 19. märtsil 2010 Washingtonis transatlantilisi suhteid arendavas rahvusvahelises välis- ja julgeolekupoliitilises mõttekojas ja poliitikakeskuses Atlantic Council. Kohtumisest Atantic Council'i Ameerika Ühendriikide poolsete juhtidega. Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 17.-23.03.2010

  19. Low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D. S.; Löscher, C. R.; Krahmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations in th...

  20. Distribution, behaviour and photo-identification of Atlantic humpback ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa teuszii are a priority for research due to their restricted geographic range, narrow ecological niche and the paucity of existing information. The distribution and behaviour of S. teuszii off Flamingos, southern Angola, was investigated during summer and winter 2008 using boat- and ...

  1. HLA genes in Atlantic Celtic populations: are Celts Iberians? | Arnaiz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atlantic Europe populations were analyzed with HLA genes in order to establish their relationship among themselves and with other populations. Standard genetic and statistical software analyses were used. Celtic populations (British Isles and French Bretons) have genetically been found close together: Irish, Welsh, ...

  2. Tropical Atlantic-Korea teleconnection pattern during boreal summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Kug, Jong-Seong; Kimoto, Masahide; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    The remote impact of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) variability on Korean summer precipitation is examined based on observational data analysis along with the idealized and hindcast model experiments. Observations show a significant correlation (i.e. 0.64) between Korean precipitation anomalies (averaged over 120-130°E, 35-40°N) and the tropical Atlantic SST index (averaged over 60°W-20°E, 30°S-30°N) during the June-July-August (JJA) season for the 1979-2010 period. Our observational analysis and partial-data assimilation experiments using the coupled general circulation model demonstrate that tropical Atlantic SST warming induces the equatorial low-level easterly over the western Pacific through a reorganization of the global Walker Circulation, causing a decreased precipitation over the off-equatorial western Pacific. As a Gill-type response to this diabatic forcing, an anomalous low-level anticyclonic circulation appears over the Philippine Sea, which transports wet air from the tropics to East Asia through low-level southerly, resulting an enhanced precipitation in the Korean peninsula. Multi-model hindcast experiments also show that predictive skills of Korean summer precipitation are improved by utilizing predictions of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies as a predictor for Korean precipitation anomalies.

  3. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Marin, Enrique; Ortiz, Mauricio; Ortiz de Urbina, José María; Quelle, Pablo; Walter, John; Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  4. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an

  5. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  6. 78 FR 79673 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Joint Coastal Migratory Pelagics Framework Amendment for 2014; [email protected] for... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP; [email protected] for Joint Amendment 26 to the Coastal...

  7. State of mid-atlantic region forests in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Stolte; Barbara L. Conkling; Stephanie Fulton; M. Patricia Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Wet and warm climate, mountainous topography, and deep rich soils produced one of the most magnificent and diverse temperate forests in the world. In 1650 the Mid-Atlantic forests covered 95 percent of the region, but were greatly reduced in 1900 by extensive tree harvesting, and conversion to farms and pastures. Settlement of forests also led to severe wildfires, soil...

  8. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  9. Forests and People in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie Fulton; Evan Mercer; M. Patricia Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Human populations in the Mid-Atlantic region over the last 250 years have increased nearly 100-fold, from an estimated few hundred thousand people to over 30 million people (Mercer and Murthy 2000). Increased population growth usually results in the conversion of forestland to nonforest uses, particularly agriculture, pastureland, and urban development. Not only is the...

  10. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar ((Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) has been a highly prized species since Colonial times because of the durability and high quality of its wood. The wood has been used for many purposes: boat boards, shingles and lath, framing, house and boat finish, pails and tanks, cabin logs, posts, and poles. Good white-cedar has always...

  11. The spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of North Atlantic cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Gray, S.

    2009-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones play a large role in determining the day-to-day weather conditions in western Europe through their associated wind and precipitation patterns. Thus, their typical spatial and evolution characteristics are of great interest to meteorologists, insurance and risk management companies. In this study a feature tracking algorithm is applied to a cyclone database produced using the Hewson-method of cyclone identification, based on low-level gradients of wet-bulb potential temperature, to produce a climatology of mid-latitude cyclones. The aim of this work is to compare the cyclone track and density statistics found in this study with previous climatologies and to determine reasons for any differences. This method is found to compare well with other cyclone identification methods; the north Atlantic storm track is reproduced along with the major regions of genesis. Differences are attributed to cyclone lifetime and strength thresholds, dataset resolution and cyclone identification and tracking methods. Previous work on cyclone development has been largely limited to case studies as opposed to analysis of climatological data, and does not distinguish between the different stages of cyclone evolution. The cyclone database used in this study allows cyclone characteristics to be tracked throughout the cyclone lifecycle. This enables the evaluation of the characteristics of cyclone evolution for systems forming in different genesis regions and a calculation of the spatial distribution and evolution of these characteristics in composite cyclones. It was found that most of the cyclones that cross western Europe originate in the east Atlantic where the baroclinicity and sea surface temperature gradients are weak compared to the west Atlantic. East Atlantic cyclones also have higher low-level relative vorticity and lower mean sea level pressure at their genesis point than west Atlantic cyclones. This is consistent with the hypothesis that they are secondary

  12. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  13. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... recreational ACL overage. This action is necessary to reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass... (AMs) be implemented to end overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management... overfishing, including black sea bass, and AMs if these ACLs are reached or exceeded. The recreational ACL for...

  14. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    .... Whereas a limited market has been responsible for the shortfall in landings compared to the target TAC... final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery, including a target total... specify the target TAC and other management measures in order to manage the red crab resource for fishing...

  15. The Security of the South Atlantic: Is It a Case for ’SATO’--South Atlantic Treaty Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-10

    p. 704. 21Ibid. 2 2 Ibid. 2 3A.R.A. Nicolas Piccaluga, Control Del Trafico Maritimo en el Atlantic Sud. Politics para la Defensa v Seguridad de las...1981. Piccaluga, A. R. A, Nicolis. Control Del Trafico Maritimo En El Atlantico Sud. Politicar, Para La Defensa Y Seguridad De Las Rutas Maritimas En

  16. 75 FR 12507 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... analysis. Members will develop fishing level recommendations for black and red grouper, and ABC and OFL... recommendations for black and red grouper, discuss Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) Control Rules, and recommend ABC values for South Atlantic managed species. The meeting will be held in North Charleston, SC. DATES...

  17. 76 FR 57958 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XA708 Fisheries...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC...-pane reviews social and economic information and reports its findings to the SSC. The SEP will discuss...

  18. North Atlantic explosive cyclones and large scale atmospheric variability modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the extratropics, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the last decades Europe witnessed major damage from winter storms such as Lothar (December 1999), Kyrill (January 2007), Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010), Gong (January 2013) and Stephanie (February 2014) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. In fact, most of these storms crossed the Atlantic in direction of Europe experiencing an explosive development at unusual lower latitudes along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track and reaching Iberia with an uncommon intensity (Liberato et al., 2011; 2013; Liberato 2014). Results show that the explosive cyclogenesis process of most of these storms at such low latitudes is driven by: (i) the southerly displacement of a very strong polar jet stream; and (ii) the presence of an atmospheric river (AR), that is, by a (sub)tropical moisture export over the western and central (sub)tropical Atlantic which converges into the cyclogenesis region and then moves along with the storm towards Iberia. Previous studies have pointed to a link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and intense European windstorms. On the other hand, the NAO exerts a decisive control on the average latitudinal location of the jet stream over the North Atlantic basin (Woollings et al. 2010). In this work the link between North Atlantic explosive cyclogenesis, atmospheric rivers and large scale atmospheric variability modes is reviewed and discussed. Liberato MLR (2014) The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the north Atlantic: Large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 5-6, 16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.wace.2014.06.002 Liberato MRL, Pinto JG, Trigo IF, Trigo RM. (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66:330-334. doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato

  19. Linking The Atlantic Gyres: Warm, Saline Intrusions From Subtropical Atlantic to the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean state estimates from SODA assimilation are analyzed to understand how major shifts in the North Atlantic Current path relate to AMOC, and how these shifts are related to large scale ocean circulation and surface forcing. These complement surface-drifter and altimetry data showing the same events. SODA data indicate that the warm water limb of AMOC, reaching to at least 600m depth, expanded in density/salinity space greatly after 1995, and that Similar events occurred in the late 1960s and around 1980. While there were large changes in the upper limb, there was no immediate response in the dense return flow, at least not in SODA, however one would expect a delayed response of increasing AMOC due to the positive feedback from increased salt transport. These upper limb changes are winddriven, involving changes in the eastern subpolar gyre, visible in the subduction of low potential vorticity waters. The subtropical gyre has been weak during the times of the northward intrusions of the highly saline subtropical waters, while the NAO index has been neutral or in a negative phase. The image of subtropical/subpolar gyre exchange through teleconnections within the AMOC overturning cell will be described.

  20. Simulated variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, M.; Drange, H.; Furevik, T.; Zhou, T.

    To examine the multi-annual to decadal scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) we conducted a four-member ensemble with a daily reanalysis forced, medium-resolution global version of the isopycnic coordinate ocean model MICOM, and a 300-years integration with the fully coupled Bergen Climate Model (BCM). The simulations of the AMOC with both model systems yield a long-term mean value of 18 Sv and decadal variability with an amplitude of 1-3 Sv. The power spectrum of the inter-annual to decadal scale variability of the AMOC in BCM generally follows the theoretical red noise spectrum, with indications of increased power near the 20-years period. Comparison with observational proxy indices for the AMOC, e.g. the thickness of the Labrador Sea Water, the strength of the baroclinic gyre circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean, and the surface temperature anomalies along the mean path of the Gulf Stream, shows similar trends and phasing of the variability, indicating that the simulated AMOC variability is robust and real. Mixing indices have been constructed for the Labrador, the Irminger and the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN) seas. While convective mixing in the Labrador and the GIN seas are in opposite phase, and linked to the NAO as observations suggest, the convective mixing in the Irminger Sea is in phase with or leads the Labrador Sea. Newly formed deep water is seen as a slow, anomalous cold and fresh, plume flowing southward along the western continental slope of the Atlantic Ocean, with a return flow of warm and saline water on the surface. In addition, fast-travelling topographically trapped waves propagate southward along the continental slope towards equator, where they go east and continue along the eastern rim of the Atlantic. For both types of experiments, the Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure and 2 m temperature anomaly patterns computed based on the difference between climate states with strong and weak AMOC

  1. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean. The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example

  2. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic end-member of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over glacial-interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Seguí, M. J.; Knudson, K. P.; Yehudai, M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L. D.; Basak, C.; Ferretti, P.

    2017-12-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) represents the major water mass that drives the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), which undergoes substantial reorganization with changing climate. In order to understand its impact on ocean circulation and climate through time, it is necessary to constrain its composition. We report Nd isotope ratios of Fe-Mn oxide encrusted foraminifera and fish debris from DSDP Site 607 (41.00N 32.96W, 3427m), in the present-day core of NADW, and ODP 1063 (33.68N 57.62W, 4585m), on the deep abyssal plain at the interface between NADW and Antarctic Bottom Water. We provide a new North Atlantic paleocirculation record covering 2 Ma. At Site 607 interglacial ɛNd-values are consistently similar to present-day NADW (ɛNd -13.5), with median ɛNd-values of -14.3 in the Early Pleistocene and -13.8 in the Late Pleistocene. Glacial ɛNd-values are higher by 1 ɛNd-unit in the Early Pleistocene, and 1.5-2 ɛNd-units in the Late Pleistocene. Site 1063 shows much greater variability, with ɛNd ranging from -10 to -26. We interpret the North Atlantic AMOC source as represented by the Site 607 interglacial ɛNd-values, which has remained nearly stable throughout the entire period. The higher glacial ɛNd-values reflect incursions of some southern-sourced waters to Site 607, which is supported by coeval shifts to lower benthic foraminiferal d13C. In contrast, the Site 1063 ɛNd-values do not appear to reflect the AMOC end-member, and likely reflects local effects from a bottom source. A period of greatly disrupted ocean circulation marks 950-850 Ma, which may have been triggered by enhanced ice growth in the Northern Hemisphere that began around 1.2 Ma, as suggested by possible input events of Nd from the surrounding cratons into the North Atlantic observed in Site 607. Interglacial AMOC only recovers to the previously observed vigor over 200 ka following the disruption, whereas further intensified SSW incursion into the deep North Atlantic come to

  3. Climate, fishery and society interactions: Observations from the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.

    2007-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies comparing fisheries-dependent regions across the North Atlantic find a number of broad patterns. Large ecological shifts, disastrous to historical fisheries, have resulted when unfavorable climatic events occur atop overfishing. The "teleconnections" linking fisheries crises across long distances include human technology and markets, as well as climate or migratory fish species. Overfishing and climate-driven changes have led to a shift downwards in trophic levels of fisheries takes in some ecosystems, from dominance by bony fish to crustaceans. Fishing societies adapt to new ecological conditions through social reorganization that have benefited some people and places, while leaving others behind. Characteristic patterns of demographic change are among the symptoms of such reorganization. These general observations emerge from a review of recent case studies of individual fishing communities, such as those conducted for the North Atlantic Arc research project.

  4. Europe and the Atlantic world. A historiographic summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Carmagnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the importance and meaning of the role played by Europe in its new interactions with Africa and the Americas between the 15th Century and first third of the 19th Century. The interconnection of the Atlantic world strengthened the mercantile economic system, allowing Europe to compete with Asia and giving life to a colonial world that created new rules in the relationship between European metropoli. Multi-ethnic feudal societies developed in Latin America and segmental societies developed in Africa and Anglo-Saxon and French America. The difference between the metropoli and their American colonies led to the Atlantic revolution that provoked the fall of the old regimes in America and Europe between the last third of the 18th Century and the first third of the 19th Century.

  5. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  6. Antibodies recognizing both IgM isotypes in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedfors, Ida Aagård; Bakke, Hege; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    these molecules. The present study aimed at identifying tools to separate IgM positive (IgM(+)) B cells from IgM negative (IgM(-)) non-B cell populations using flow cytometry. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and one polyclonal antibody (pAb) to both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon...... (Salmo salar) IgM, either commercially available or locally produced were tested for their recognition of Atlantic salmon IgM(+) cells. Leukocytes were isolated from peripheral blood (PB), spleen (S) and head kidney (HK) and stained with all mAbs and the pAb, to possibly verify the approximate number...... of IgM(+) cells in the respective tissues in salmon. To our surprise, this seemingly simple task did not reveal similar staining patterns for all antibodies as expected, but rather large differences in the number of positively stained cells were discovered. In short, positively stained cells by each...

  7. Changing statistics of storms in the North Atlantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Guddal, J.; Iden, K.A.; Jonsson, T.; Perlwitz, J.; Reistad, M.; Ronde, J. de; Schmidt, H.; Zorita, E.

    1993-01-01

    Problems in the present discussion about increasing storminess in the North Atlantic area are discusesd. Observational data so far available do not indicate a change in the storm statistics. Output from climate models points to an itensified storm track in the North Atlantic, but because of the limited skill of present-day climate models in simulating high-frequency variability and regional details any such 'forecast' has to be considered with caution. A downscaling procedure which relates large-scale time-mean aspects of the state of the atmosphere and ocean to the local statistics of storms is proposed to reconstruct past variations of high-frequency variability in the atmosphere (storminess) and in the sea state (wave statistics). First results are presented. (orig.)

  8. Longwave emission trends over Africa and implications for Atlantic hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Rechtman, Thomas; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Li, Laifang; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kossin, James P.

    2017-09-01

    The latitudinal gradient of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over Africa is a skillful and physically based predictor of seasonal Atlantic hurricane activity. The African OLR gradient is observed to have strengthened during the satellite era, as predicted by state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Prior to the satellite era and the U.S. and European clean air acts, the African OLR gradient weakened due to aerosol forcing of the opposite sign. GCMs predict a continuation of the increasing OLR gradient in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Assuming a steady linear relationship between African easterly waves and tropical cyclogenesis, this result suggests a future increase in Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency by 10% (20%) at the end of the 21st century under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) forcing scenario.

  9. Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuidema, P [University of Miami; Chiu, C [University of Reading; Fairall, CW [NOAA - Environmental Technology Laboratory; Ghan, SJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Kollias, P [Stony Brook University; McFarguhar, GM; Mechem, DB [University of Kansas; Romps, DM [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Wong, H; Yuter, SE [North Carolina State University; Alvarado, MJ [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.; DeSzoeke, SP; Feingold, G [NOAA - Earth System Research Laboratory; Haywood, JM; Lewis, ER [Brookhaven National Laboratory; McComiskey, A [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Redemann, J [NASA - Ames Research Center; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wood, R [University of Washington; Zhu, P [Florida International University

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa is the world’s largest emitter of biomass-burning (BB) aerosols. Their westward transport over the remote southeast Atlantic Ocean colocates some of the largest atmospheric loadings of absorbing aerosol with the least examined of the Earth’s major subtropical stratocumulus decks. Global aerosol model results highlight that the largest positive top-of-atmosphere forcing in the world occurs in the southeast Atlantic, but this region exhibits large differences in magnitude and sign between reputable models, in part because of high variability in the underlying model cloud distributions. Many uncertainties contribute to the highly variable model radiation fields: the aging of shortwave-absorbing aerosol during transport, how much of the aerosol mixes into the cloudy boundary layer, and how the low clouds adjust to smoke-radiation and smoke-cloud interactions. In addition, the ability of the BB aerosol to absorb shortwave radiation is known to vary seasonally as the fuel type on land changes.

  10. A seasonal diary of phytoplankton in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Christian; St. John, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years new biological and physical controls have been suggested to drive phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the North Atlantic. A better understanding of the mechanisms driving primary production has potentially important implications for the understanding of the biological carbon pump...... are not mutually exclusive, but rather complementary. Thus, moving beyond the “single mechanism” point of view, here we present an integrated conceptual model of the physical and biological controls on phytoplankton dynamics in the North Atlantic. Further we believe that the acclimation of physiological rates can...... play an important role in mediating phytoplankton dynamics. Thus, this view emphasizes the occurrence of multiple controls and relates their variations in impact to climate change...

  11. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  12. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisz, Mary; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, Peter

    2015-01-01

    the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we...... projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter......Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating...

  13. SPREADING OF ANTARCTIC BOTTOM WATER IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Morozov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the transport of bottom water from its source region in the Weddell Sea through the abyssal channels of the Atlantic Ocean. The research brings together the recent observations and historical data. A strong flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Vema Channel is analyzed. The mean speed of the flow is 30 cm/s. A temperature increase was found in the deep Vema Channel, which has been observed for 30 years already. The flow of bottom water in the northern part of the Brazil Basin splits. Part of the water flows through the Romanche and Chain fracture zones. The other part flows to the North American Basin. Part of the latter flow propagates through the Vema Fracture Zone into the Northeast Atlantic. The properties of bottom water in the Kane Gap and Discovery Gap are also analyzed.

  14. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-03-20

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The 'charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and 'discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.

  15. A millennium of north-east Atlantic cod juvenile growth trajectories inferred from archaeological otoliths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories. The most significant variation in growth patterns was consistent with those that have been observed in recent times, for example, reduced early juvenile growth during periods of colder ocean temperature. The current results represent a high resolution chronological record of north-east Atlantic cod growth, greatly increasing the prior temporal range of such data, thereby providing a valuable baseline for a broad range of studies on Atlantic cod growth.

  16. Pronounced centennial-scale Atlantic Ocean climate variability correlated with Western Hemisphere hydroclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Quinn, Terrence M.; Okumura, Yuko; Richey, Julie; Partin, Judson W.; Poore, Richard Z.; Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Surface-ocean circulation in the northern Atlantic Ocean influences Northern Hemisphere climate. Century-scale circulation variability in the Atlantic Ocean, however, is poorly constrained due to insufficiently-resolved paleoceanographic records. Here we present a replicated reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity from a site sensitive to North Atlantic circulation in the Gulf of Mexico which reveals pronounced centennial-scale variability over the late Holocene. We find significant correlations on these timescales between salinity changes in the Atlantic, a diagnostic parameter of circulation, and widespread precipitation anomalies using three approaches: multiproxy synthesis, observational datasets, and a transient simulation. Our results demonstrate links between centennial changes in northern Atlantic surface-circulation and hydroclimate changes in the adjacent continents over the late Holocene. Notably, our findings reveal that weakened surface-circulation in the Atlantic Ocean was concomitant with well-documented rainfall anomalies in the Western Hemisphere during the Little Ice Age.

  17. Pronounced centennial-scale Atlantic Ocean climate variability correlated with Western Hemisphere hydroclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Quinn, Terrence M; Okumura, Yuko; Richey, Julie N; Partin, Judson W; Poore, Richard Z; Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo

    2018-01-26

    Surface-ocean circulation in the northern Atlantic Ocean influences Northern Hemisphere climate. Century-scale circulation variability in the Atlantic Ocean, however, is poorly constrained due to insufficiently-resolved paleoceanographic records. Here we present a replicated reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity from a site sensitive to North Atlantic circulation in the Gulf of Mexico which reveals pronounced centennial-scale variability over the late Holocene. We find significant correlations on these timescales between salinity changes in the Atlantic, a diagnostic parameter of circulation, and widespread precipitation anomalies using three approaches: multiproxy synthesis, observational datasets, and a transient simulation. Our results demonstrate links between centennial changes in northern Atlantic surface-circulation and hydroclimate changes in the adjacent continents over the late Holocene. Notably, our findings reveal that weakened surface-circulation in the Atlantic Ocean was concomitant with well-documented rainfall anomalies in the Western Hemisphere during the Little Ice Age.

  18. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  19. Interannual variability of north Atlantic Sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, U.S.; Battisiti, D.S.; Alexander, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the midlatitude north Atlantic Ocean the pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies (ssta) is characterized by a north-south dipole. Bjerknes was the first to propose that the banded structure was associated with the interannual variability. Recently, these patterns have been studied more extensively. In this study the quantitative aspects of these patterns are examined through the use of a mixed-layer model (MLM)

  20. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  1. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present a list of squamate reptiles of the northern Atlantic forest of Bahia, Brazil, comprising a total of 29 municipalities. The study area was sampled opportunistically over more than 20 years resulting in a total of 482 specimens deposited in various herpetological collections. Of these, 314 were snakes belonging to 62 species and seven families, 42 were amphisbaenas belonging to five species in a single family and 125 specimens were lizards, grouped in 36 species and 12 families.

  2. Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off the Light House Beach, Lagos, Nigeria. ... (28.37±1.88), pH (7.85±0.17), conductivity (44738.75±6262.76 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (29236.71±4273.30 mg/L), salinity (27.11±3.91 ‰), alkalinity (126.99±42.81 mg/L) and chloride (15056.

  3. Invasive Lionfish Drive Atlantic Coral Reef Fish Declines

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Stephanie; Akins, John; Maljković, Aleksandra; Cote, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Isl...

  4. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  5. Wetland forest statistics for the South Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Greg M. Smith; Joseph McCollum

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one percent, or 17.6 million acres, of the timberland in the South Atlantic States was classified as wetland timberland. Sixty percent of the region’s wetland timberland was under nonindustrial private forest ownership. Forty-eight percent of the region’s wetland timberland was classified as sawtimber-sized stands. Lowland hardwood types made up 62 percent of...

  6. External forcing as a metronome for Atlantic multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterå, Odd Helge; Bentsen, Mats; Drange, Helge; Suo, Lingling

    2010-10-01

    Instrumental records, proxy data and climate modelling show that multidecadal variability is a dominant feature of North Atlantic sea-surface temperature variations, with potential impacts on regional climate. To understand the observed variability and to gauge any potential for climate predictions it is essential to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to this variability, and to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of multidecadal variability modes. Here we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to show that the phasing of the multidecadal fluctuations in the North Atlantic during the past 600 years is, to a large degree, governed by changes in the external solar and volcanic forcings. We find that volcanoes play a particularly important part in the phasing of the multidecadal variability through their direct influence on tropical sea-surface temperatures, on the leading mode of northern-hemisphere atmosphere circulation and on the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. We suggest that the implications of our findings for decadal climate prediction are twofold: because volcanic eruptions cannot be predicted a decade in advance, longer-term climate predictability may prove challenging, whereas the systematic post-eruption changes in ocean and atmosphere may hold promise for shorter-term climate prediction.

  7. Landslide monitoring in the Atlantic Highlands area, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Ashland, Francis X.; Fiore, Alex R.

    2017-08-25

    Shallow and deep-seated landslides have occurred episodically on the steep coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands area (Boroughs of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands) in New Jersey. The oldest documented deep-seated landslide occurred in April 1782 and significantly changed the morphology of the bluff. However, recent landslides have been mostly shallow in nature and have occurred during large storms with exceptionally heavy rainfall. These shallow landslides have resulted in considerable damage to residential property and local infrastructure and threatened human safety.The recent shallow landslides in the area (locations modified from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection) consist primarily of slumps and flows of earth and debris within areas of historical landslides or on slopes modified by human activities. Such landslides are typically triggered by increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure caused by sustained and intense rainfall associated with spring nor’easters and late summer–fall tropical cyclones. However, the critical relation between rainfall, soil-moisture conditions, and landslide movement has not been fully defined. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently monitoring hillslopes within the Atlantic Highlands area to better understand the hydrologic and meteorological conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation.

  8. Aerosol interactions with African/Atlantic climate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinpour, F; Wilcox, E M

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic relationships exist between variability of dust in the oceanic Saharan air layer (OSAL) and transient changes in the dynamics of Western Africa and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. This study provides evidence of possible interactions between dust in the OSAL region and African easterly jet–African easterly wave (AEJ–AEW) system in the climatology of boreal summer, when easterly wave activity peaks. Synoptic-scale changes in instability and precipitation in the African/Atlantic intertropical convergence zone are correlated with enhanced aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the OSAL region in response to anomalous 3D overturning circulations and upstream/downstream thermal anomalies at above and below the mean-AEJ level. Upstream and downstream anomalies are referred to the daily thermal/dynamical changes over the West African monsoon region and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Our hypothesis is that AOD in the OSAL is positively correlated with the downstream AEWs and negatively correlated with the upstream waves from climatological perspective. The similarity between the 3D pattern of thermal/dynamical anomalies correlated with dust outbreaks and those of AEWs provides a mechanism for dust radiative heating in the atmosphere to reinforce AEW activity. We proposed that the interactions of OSAL dust with regional climate mainly occur through coupling of dust with the AEWs. (paper)

  9. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Green

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  10. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouteux, B. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Muir, D.C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: Derek.Muir@ec.gc.ca; Backus, S. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Born, E.W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Dietz, R. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Haug, T. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 6404, N-9294 Tromso (Norway); Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C. [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Oien, N. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2008-05-15

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and {sigma}CHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 {+-} 110 and 41 {+-} 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 {+-} 4100 and 1100 {+-} 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters.

  11. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteux, B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Backus, S.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N.

    2008-01-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and ΣCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 ± 110 and 41 ± 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 ± 4100 and 1100 ± 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters

  12. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation footprint on global high cloud cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaideanu, Petru; Dima, Mihai; Voiculescu, Mirela

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complexity of the physical processes responsible for cloud formation and to the relatively short satellite database of continuous data records, cloud behavior in a warming climate remains uncertain. Identifying physical links between climate modes and clouds would contribute not only to a better understanding of the physical processes governing their formation and dynamics, but also to an improved representation of the clouds in climate models. Here, we identify the global footprint of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on high cloud cover, with focus on the tropical and North Atlantic, tropical Pacific and on the circum-Antarctic sector. In the tropical band, the sea surface temperature (SST) and high cloud cover (HCC) anomalies are positively correlated, indicating a dominant role played by convection in mediating the influence of the AMO-related SST anomalies on the HCC field. The negative SST-HCC correlation observed in North Atlantic could be explained by the reduced meridional temperature gradient induced by the AMO positive phase, which would be reflected in less storms and negative HCC anomalies. A similar negative SST-HCC correlation is observed around Antarctica. The corresponding negative correlation around Antarctica could be generated dynamically, as a response to the intensified upward motion in the Ferrel cell. Despite the inherent imperfection of the observed and reanalysis data sets, the AMO footprint on HCC is found to be robust to the choice of dataset, statistical method, and specific time period considered.

  13. 2014 Mid-Atlantic Telehealth Resource Center Annual Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hsu Wibberly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Resource Center (MATRC; http://www.matrc.org/ advances the adoption and utilization of telehealth within the MATRC region and works collaboratively with the other federally funded Telehealth Resource Centers to accomplish the same nationally. MATRC offers technical assistance and other resources within the following mid-Atlantic states: Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia.   The 2014 MATRC Summit “Adding Value through Sustainable Telehealth” will be held March 30-April 1, 2014, at the Fredericksburg Expo & Conference Center, Fredericksburg, VA. The Summit will explore how telehealth adds value to patients, practitioners, hospitals, health systems, and other facilities. Participants will experience a highly interactive program built around the case history of “Mr. Doe” as he progresses through the primary care, inpatient hospitalization, and post-discharge environments. The Summit will conclude with a session on financial and business models for providing sustainable telehealth services.   For further information and registration, visit: http://matrc.org/component/content/article/2-uncategorised/80-mid-atlantic-telehealth-resource-summit-2014    

  14. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie J; Akins, John L; Maljković, Aleksandra; Côté, Isabelle M

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  15. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P.; Krasnov, Aleksei; Helland, Ståle; Takle, Harald Rune

    2013-01-01

    Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming per...

  16. The Future of the South Atlantic Anomaly and Implications for Radiation Damage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    South Atlantic Anomaly of the geomagnetic field plays a dominant role in where radiation damage occurs in near Earth orbits. The historic and recent variations of the geomagnetic field in the South Atlantic are used to estimate the extent of the South Atlantic Anomaly until the year 2000. This projection indicates that radiation damage to spacecraft and humans in space will greatly increase and cover a much larger geographic area than present.

  17. Atlantic Environmental Resource Directory, 1989: A directory of non-profit environmental and development organizations in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthbertson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This directory lists 161 non-profit groups in the Atlantic region, along with contacts for the environmental networks across the country and in New England and appropriate federal and provincial offices in Atlantic Canada. The directory was compiled from questionnaires sent out to a list of contacts that were on an original mailing list of groups known to have taken stands on environmental issues in the past. Follow-up mailouts and phone calls were also made. As well, some contacts were discovered through word-of-mouth. Groups are listed alphabetically by province and are classified by subjects. Information includes address and phone number, contact, date formed, number of members, scope, language and objectives. Groups and resources are indexed by subject area and groups are listed by resources available, environmental networks, Eastern states-United States citizen groups, labour unions, federal and provincial government.

  18. Chemical residues in Dolphins from the US Atlantic coast including atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, D.W.; Haebler, R.; Potter, C.

    1991-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for anthropogenic chemical contaminants. Average contaminant concentrations in adult males were higher than the average concentrations measured in adult females. Females could be divided into two groups by contaminant concentrations, one with low concentrations, and another with concentrations 4.4 times (PCBs) to 8.9 times (p,p'-DDE) greater. Contaminant concentrations in bottlenose were generally greater than the concentrations measured in either common (Delphinus delphis) or white-sided (Lagernorhynchus acutus) dolphins from the western North Atlantic Ocean. A subset of animals screened for unusual chemical contaminants showed that numerous polybrominated chemicals were present, including polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers not previously found in marine mammals from U.S. coastal waters.

  19. Abstracts of the Atlantic Geoscience Society's 2007 colloquium and annual general meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Parkhill, M.; Wilson, R.; Desrosiers, M.; Lentz, D.; Pitre, C.; Pronk, T.; Spooner, I.; Toole, R.; Wallace, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic Geoscience Society (AGS) hosts annual meetings, workshops and field trips to promote a better understanding of the geology of Atlantic Canada. This colloquium highlighted current research in the Atlantic provinces with special sessions devoted to patterns and geohazards in the North Atlantic; late and post-glacial climate change events in eastern Canada; salt matters; tectonic, thermal and resource aspects of Paleozoic to Mesozoic evaporite basins; mineral resources research by students of the Society of Economic Geologists; dendrochronology; a physical volcanology workshop; and, a North American soil geochemical landscape project orientation session. One of the 74 papers presented at this colloquium has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  20. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden Tilefish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden...

  1. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of snowy...

  2. 78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden Tilefish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden...

  3. Abstracts of the Atlantic Geoscience Society's 2007 colloquium and annual general meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.; Parkhill, M.; Wilson, R.; Desrosiers, M.; Lentz, D.; Pitre, C.; Pronk, T.; Spooner, I.; Toole, R.; Wallace, P. (comps.)

    2007-07-01

    The Atlantic Geoscience Society (AGS) hosts annual meetings, workshops and field trips to promote a better understanding of the geology of Atlantic Canada. This colloquium highlighted current research in the Atlantic provinces with special sessions devoted to patterns and geohazards in the North Atlantic; late and post-glacial climate change events in eastern Canada; salt matters; tectonic, thermal and resource aspects of Paleozoic to Mesozoic evaporite basins; mineral resources research by students of the Society of Economic Geologists; dendrochronology; a physical volcanology workshop; and, a North American soil geochemical landscape project orientation session. One of the 74 papers presented at this colloquium has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  4. North Atlantic IFR Route Planning Chart GEO-TIFF - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — North Atlantic Route Chart is designed for FAA Controllers to monitor transatlantic flights, this 5-color chart shows oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids,...

  5. North Atlantic IFR Route Planning Chart PDF File - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — North Atlantic Route Chart is designed for FAA Controllers to monitor transatlantic flights, this 5-color chart shows oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids,...

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  8. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. England

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean exchange of

  9. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  10. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  11. Impact of the Atlantic Warm Pool on precipitation and temperature in Florida during North Atlantic cold spells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donders, Timme H. [Utrecht University, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boer, Hugo Jan de; Dekker, Stefan C. [Utrecht University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80115, Utrecht (Netherlands); Finsinger, Walter; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike [Utrecht University, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Grimm, Eric C. [Research and Collections Center, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States); Reichart, Gert Jan [Utrecht University, Geochemistry, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80021, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Recurrent phases of increased pine at Lake Tulane, Florida have previously been related to strong stadials terminated by so-called Heinrich events. The climatic significance of these pine phases has been interpreted in different ways. Using a pollen-climate inference model, we quantified the climate changes and consistently found that mean summer precipitation (P{sub JJA}) increased (0.5-0.9 mm/day) and mean November temperature increased (2.0-3.0 C) during pine phases coeval with Heinrich events and the Younger Dryas. Marine sea surface temperature records indicate that potential sources for these moisture and heat anomalies are in the Gulf of Mexico and the western tropical Atlantic. We explain this low latitude warming by an increased Loop Current facilitated by persistence of the Atlantic Warm Pool during summer. This hypothesis is supported by a climate model sensitivity analysis. A positive heat anomaly in the Gulf of Mexico and equatorial Atlantic best approximates the pollen-inferred climate reconstructions from Lake Tulane during the (stadials around) Heinrich events and the Younger Dryas. (orig.)

  12. Profile and bottle data collected on the RV Melville (cruise Vancouver 06) from the Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Transport Experiment (ASTTEX) in the Atlantic Ocean from 20030102 to 20030115 (NODC Accession 0074001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Introduction: The Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Experiment (ASTTEX) examined the fluxes of heat, salt and mass entering the South Atlantic ocean via the...

  13. Ocean station data collected using bottle casts from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From Northwest Atlantic and Southwest Atlantic Ocean from 1980-10-30 to 1982-08-21 (NODC Accession 9000164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean station data were collected using seechi disk, meteorological sensors, and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Southwest Atlantic...

  14. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Spanish catches of albacore, Thunnus alalunga, and yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in the North–east Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, C.J.; MacIas, D.; Camiñas, J.A.; Fernandez, I.L.; Baez, J.C.

    2016-07-01

    Tuna are highly migratory pelagic species (HMPS) with great importance in commercial fishing. Several authors have highlighted the effect of climatic oscillations such as the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) on HMPS. This paper analyzes the effects of the NAO on two HMPS: albacore, Thunnus alalunga, and yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. Fishing data from the Spanish fleet operating in the North Atlantic area were obtained from the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) database. The results show a positive correlation between the NAO index and the Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) for both albacore and yellowfin tuna, depicting a potential effect on their capturability. (Author)

  15. Support of ASTP/KOSMOS fundulus embryo development experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, P. M.; Keefe, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Results from the Kosmos Biosatellite 782 flight are presented. Experiments with fish hatchlings are discussed along with postflight observation and testing. The preparation of fertilized eggs for the experiments is described.

  16. 75 FR 39917 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the Southern Atlantic... regulations implementing the Fishery Management Plan for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of... Cancer Institute (http:// [[Page 39918

  17. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  18. 75 FR 20985 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....net SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  19. 75 FR 23676 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States... of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  20. 75 FR 39638 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the South Atlantic Region; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the South Atlantic region that published in the Federal Register...

  1. 77 FR 30506 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic; Comprehensive Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Golden Crab Fishery of the Atlantic (Golden Crab FMP); the Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region... ``search.'' Comments received through means not specified in this rule will not be considered. FOR FURTHER..., dolphin and wahoo, golden crab, shrimp and spiny lobster fisheries in the exclusive economic zone are...

  2. Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Pierce, G.J.; Valavanis, V.D.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, a phytoplankton spring bloom starts just north of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and then expands northwards across the entire North Atlantic. Here, we investigate whether the timing of the spring migration of baleen whales is related to the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom,

  3. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  4. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H.; Myers, Paul G.; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; Van Den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW),

  5. 76 FR 35086 - Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, SC... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, South...

  6. 77 FR 5398 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC... zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW) adjacent to Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune..., Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC in the Federal Register (77 FR 1431). We received no...

  7. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY... offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The... Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed power boat race event will include...

  8. 75 FR 61094 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Beaufort, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... Highway 21, Sea Island Parkway Bridge at mile marker 536 over the Beaufort River (Atlantic Intracoastal... Bridge, which is across the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at mile 539.0 in Port Royal, South Carolina... Bridge, across the Beaufort River, Mile 536.0 at Beaufort. The draw shall operate as follows: (1) On...

  9. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO Patriotic Festival Air Show. This action... Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  10. 75 FR 57240 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 Commercial Fishing Season and Adaptive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... sharks (other than porbeagle and blue sharks) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of... the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. NMFS has split the non-sandbar LCS quota... Horizon oil spill) or small scale issues (e.g., inclement weather or slight shifts in migratory patterns...

  11. 78 FR 17358 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Organizational Reports, the New England and South Atlantic Liaison Reports, the Executive Director's Report, the... December 2012 and February 2013 minutes, receive Organizational Reports, the New England and South Atlantic... recommendation on the workshop results to include control dates, roll-over provisions, GRAs, port meetings, etc...

  12. 78 FR 23223 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... SUMMARY: The Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) of the Mid- Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (410) 522-7377. Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite...

  13. 75 FR 2488 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... 21240; telephone: (410) 859-3300. Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 300 S. New...

  14. 76 FR 3878 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... ADDRESSES: The webinar will be held at Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite...

  15. 78 FR 13867 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold a... Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 North State Street, Suite 201, Dover, DE 19901...

  16. 78 FR 21915 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... SUMMARY: The Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) of the Mid- Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...://www.mafmc.org . Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 North State Street...

  17. 75 FR 56994 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... ADDRESSES: The webinar will be held at Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite...

  18. 77 FR 55192 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    .... SUMMARY: The Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) of the Mid- Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite 201, Dover, DE 19901...

  19. 77 FR 51968 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National....mafmc.org . Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 North State Street, Suite 201...

  20. Sinking of Dense North Atlantic Waters in a Global Ocean Model : Location and Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsman, C.A.; Drijfhout, SS; Dijkstra, H. A.; Spall, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the characteristics of the sinking of dense waters in the North Atlantic Ocean that constitute the downwelling limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as simulated by two global ocean models: an eddy-permitting model at 1/4° resolution and its coarser 1°

  1. 78 FR 73500 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., February, and March of 2014. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  2. 78 FR 54456 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., November, and December of 2013. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to...

  3. 77 FR 32950 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., August, and September of 2012. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to...

  4. 75 FR 10217 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and Identification... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: NMFS announces free Atlantic Shark... April, May, and June of 2010. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to...

  5. 75 FR 8304 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and Identification... gear, and have also been issued shark or swordfish limited access permits. Additional free workshops... Coastal Highway, Ocean City, MD 21842. Atlantic Shark Identification Workshop Since January 1, 2007, shark...

  6. 77 FR 12574 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., May, and June of 2012. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  7. 77 FR 55464 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., November, and December of 2012. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to...

  8. 77 FR 73451 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., February, and March of 2013. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  9. 78 FR 15709 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., May, and June of 2013. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  10. 75 FR 74693 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., February, and March of 2011. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  11. 76 FR 34209 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., August, and September of 2011. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to...

  12. 76 FR 77214 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., February, and March of 2012. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  13. 75 FR 29991 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and Identification... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., August, and September of 2010. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to...

  14. 76 FR 11762 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling, Release, and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: Free Atlantic Shark Identification..., May, and June of 2011. Certain fishermen and shark dealers are required to attend a workshop to meet...

  15. 77 FR 23662 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB170 Mid-Atlantic... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Social and Economic Sub-Committee of the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific...

  16. 76 FR 9553 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA226 Mid-Atlantic... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Social and Economic Sub-Committee of the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific...

  17. 76 FR 16620 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA316 Mid-Atlantic... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Social and Economic Sub-Committee of the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific...

  18. 76 FR 68719 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National....org . Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 North State Street, Suite 201...

  19. 75 FR 55743 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite 201, Dover, DE 19901...

  20. 78 FR 53731 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...: The Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) of the Mid- Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., MD 21231, telephone: (410) 522-7380. Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N...

  1. A microsatellite baseline for genetic stock identification of European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbey, John; Coughlan, Jamie; Wennevik, Vidar

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations from different river origins mix in the North Atlantic during the marine life stage. To facilitate marine stock identification, we developed a genetic baseline covering the European component of the species' range excluding the Baltic Sea, from the Rus...

  2. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  3. 77 FR 19164 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... RIN 0648-XB121 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery..., United States Virgin Islands (USVI) St. Thomas, USVI, San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), Ponce, PR, and Mayaguez... INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Fairclough or Randy Blankinship at 727-824-5399. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic...

  4. North atlantic multidecadal climate variability: An investigation of dominant time scales and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829838; von der Heydt, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245567526; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2010-01-01

    The issue of multidecadal variability in the North Atlantic has been an important topic of late. It is clear that there are multidecadal variations in several climate variables in the North Atlantic, such as sea surface temperature and sea level height. The details of this variability, in particular

  5. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  6. 77 FR 35903 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. [[Page 35904

  7. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  8. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .... 100204079-0199-02] RIN 0648-XA084 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery... the Commonwealth of Virginia is transferring commercial bluefish quota to the State of North Carolina... INFORMATION: Regulations governing the Atlantic bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations...

  9. 78 FR 48419 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Bluefish Advisory Panel (AP) will meet to develop a Fishery Performance Report for the Bluefish fishery in preparation for the Council and the... Council address below. Webinar link: http://mafmc.adobeconnect.com/bluefish/ Council address: Mid-Atlantic...

  10. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  11. Allometric equations for estimating tree biomass in restored mixed-species Atlantic Forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira; Vera Lex Engel; John A. Parrotta; Antonio Carlos Galvão de Melo; Danilo Scorzoni Ré

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Forests is receiving increasing attention because of its role in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration for global climate change mitigation. This study was carried out in an Atlantic Forest restoration project in the south-central region of São Paulo State – Brazil to develop allometric equations to estimate tree biomass of...

  12. Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M.G. Price (Polypodiopsida: Polypodiaceae): distribution extension in Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Augusto César; Xavier, Sergio; Pietrobom, Marcio Roberto; Barros, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M. G. Price has been recorded in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil (Atlantic Forest). Our work further extends the distribution of P. recurvata to northeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, in state of Pernambuco, representing a range extension of ca. 880 Km north.

  13. Modulation of Atlantic Aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much like the better-known EI Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a global-scale atmospheric phenomenon. The MJO involves periodic, systematic changes in the distribution of clouds and precipitation over the western Pacific and Indian oceans, along with differences in wind intensity over even more extensive areas, including the north and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The lead authors of this paper developed a sophisticated mathematical technique for mapping the spatial and temporal behavior of changes in the atmosphere produced by the MJO. In a previous paper, we applied this technique to search for modulation of airborne particle amount in the eastern hemisphere associated with the "wet" (cloudy) vs. "dry" phases of the MJO. The study used primarily AVHRR, MODIS, and TOMS satellite-retrieved aerosol amount, but concluded that other factors, such as cloud contamination of the satellite signals, probably dominated the observed variations. The current paper looks at MJO modulation of desert dust transport eastward across the Atlantic from northern Africa, a region much less subject to systematic cloud contamination than the eastern hemisphere areas studied previously. In this case, a distinct aerosol signal appears, showing that dust is transported westward much more effectively during the MJO phase that favors westward-flowing wind, and such transport is suppressed when the MJO reduces these winds. Aside form the significant achievement in identifying such an effect, the result implies that an important component of global dust transport can be predicted based on the phase of the MJO. As a consequence, the impact of airborne dust on storm development in the Atlantic, and on dust deposition downwind of the desert sources, can also be predicted and more accurately modeled.

  14. Atlantic leatherback migratory paths and temporary residence areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Fossette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea turtles are long-distance migrants with considerable behavioural plasticity in terms of migratory patterns, habitat use and foraging sites within and among populations. However, for the most widely migrating turtle, the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, studies combining data from individuals of different populations are uncommon. Such studies are however critical to better understand intra- and inter-population variability and take it into account in the implementation of conservation strategies of this critically endangered species. Here, we investigated the movements and diving behaviour of 16 Atlantic leatherback turtles from three different nesting sites and one foraging site during their post-breeding migration to assess the potential determinants of intra- and inter-population variability in migratory patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using satellite-derived behavioural and oceanographic data, we show that turtles used Temporary Residence Areas (TRAs distributed all around the Atlantic Ocean: 9 in the neritic domain and 13 in the oceanic domain. These TRAs did not share a common oceanographic determinant but on the contrary were associated with mesoscale surface oceanographic features of different types (i.e., altimetric features and/or surface chlorophyll a concentration. Conversely, turtles exhibited relatively similar horizontal and vertical behaviours when in TRAs (i.e., slow swimming velocity/sinuous path/shallow dives suggesting foraging activity in these productive regions. Migratory paths and TRAs distribution showed interesting similarities with the trajectories of passive satellite-tracked drifters, suggesting that the general dispersion pattern of adults from the nesting sites may reflect the extent of passive dispersion initially experienced by hatchlings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intra- and inter-population behavioural variability may therefore be linked with initial hatchling drift scenarios

  15. AtlanticCanyons2011: Exploration and Research of Mid-Atlantic Deepwater hard Bottom Habitats and Shipwrecks with Emphasis on Canyons and Coral Communities between 20110604 and 20110617

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an interagency study that focuses on the exploration and investigation of deepwater hard bottom biological communities located in the northwest Atlantic...

  16. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  17. Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1851-2005, Geographic NAD83, NOAA (2006) [atlantic_hurricane_tracks_1851_2005_NOAA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks file contains the 6-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and intensities for all subtropical...

  18. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...... autolysis sites, cod variant B only contains a single autolysis site. The three-dimensional structures of the A- and B-variants of cod has been modelled on the known crystal structure of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin showing almost superimposable structures....

  19. Field hearing measurements of the Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, B M; Mann, D A

    2009-12-01

    Field measurements of hearing thresholds were obtained from the Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae using the auditory evoked potential method (AEP). The fish had most sensitive hearing at 20 Hz, the lowest frequency tested, with decreasing sensitivity at higher frequencies. Hearing thresholds were lower than AEP thresholds previously measured for the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum and yellow stingray Urobatis jamaicensis at frequencies sharks which have been observed in acoustic field attraction experiments. The sound pressure levels that would be equivalent to the particle acceleration thresholds of R. terraenovae were much higher than the sound levels which attracted closely related sharks suggesting a discrepancy between the hearing threshold experiments and the field attraction experiments.

  20. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between 1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  1. Initializing decadal climate predictions over the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Daniela Mihaela; Pohlmann, Holger; Jungclaus, Johann; Müller, Wolfgang; Haak, Helmuth; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    Decadal climate prediction aims to predict the internally-generated decadal climate variability in addition to externally-forced climate change signal. In order to achieve this it is necessary to start the predictions from the current climate state. In this study we investigate the forecast skill of the North Atlantic decadal climate predictions using two different ocean initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer, 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Hindcast experiments are then performed over the period 1952-2001. An alternative approach is one in which the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are diagnosed from an ensemble of ocean model runs forced by the NCEP-NCAR atmospheric reanalyzes for the period 1948-2007, then nudge into the coupled model to produce initial conditions for the hindcast experiments. An anomaly coupling scheme is used in both approaches to avoid the hindcast drift and the associated initial shock. Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes. We asses the skill of the initialized decadal hindcast experiments against the prediction skill of the non-initialized hindcasts simulation. We obtain an overview of the regions with the highest predictability from the regional distribution of the anomaly correlation coefficients and RMSE for the SAT. For the first year the hindcast skill is increased over almost all ocean regions in the NCEP-forced approach. This increase in the hindcast skill for the 1 year lead time is somewhat reduced in the GECCO approach. At lead time 5yr and 10yr, the skill enhancement is still found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions. We also consider the potential predictability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Nordic Seas Overflow by comparing the predicted values to

  2. Atlantic Canada's gas industry overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, G. [Emera Energy Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Emera Energy is a vertically integrated energy company with 4 billion dollars in assets, and one billion dollars in revenue. The ownership structure of Emera Energy was reviewed. The major issues facing Emera Energy all imply a balancing act, between end users and producers, government and industry, infrastructure owners and customers, and Canada versus exports. A brief overview of the regulatory environment in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia was presented. Some of the other issues addressed in this presentation were: project Think, Maritime fragmentation and parochialism, federal/provincial equalization payments, fishing/petroleum industry clash, sovereign risk higher than need be, immature energy industry in Atlantic Canada, and offshore exploration and production industry different than that of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). National Energy Board (NEB) gas export hearing into the appropriateness of the market oriented export liberalization rules implemented in 1987 for exports of Atlantic Canada gas production is being challenged by the government of New Brunswick. Figures depicting the Canadian gas resource and Nova Scotia offshore gas development were presented, followed by a table providing East Coast offshore costs. The Sable Offshore Energy Project was described, as well as the Deep Panuke gas field. An update on offshore exploration was provided, including comments on onshore activity concerning coal bed methane. A status report of the natural gas supply contracts was discussed. Conventional gas was the next topic discussed, beginning with an overview of onshore activity. The midstream sector was reviewed, with a brief discussion about the existing pipeline system. The mainline expansion plans were reviewed. Some of the gas transmission issues facing the industry in Atlantic Canada are high transport rates, postage stamp toll that is anti-Canadian, gate keeper role for producers, and onerous rules and poor customer service. The Cartier pipeline

  3. Numbers for the Innumerate: Everyday Arithmetic and Atlantic Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Caitlin

    In nineteenth-century America and the Atlantic world, the "rule of three" was usually regarded as the endpoint of a basic mathematics education. This essay considers the importance of the rule as a technology that enabled broader access to the calculations necessary to participate in the increasingly global market economy. Used by workmen, women, and even the enslaved, the rule and related tools translated basic literacy into practical numeracy. By doing so, it offered a diverse range of people the ability to negotiate more effectively. At the same time, however, the rule's spread helped to legitimate particular types of exchange and commensuration, and with them the emerging capitalist economy.

  4. Islam, Vodou, and the Making of the Afro-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how representations of Islam and Vodou have shaped the ways we understand Atlantic history, relations of power, and the symbolic importance of religion as an interpretive category. It emphasizes the Caribbean region’s trope of cosmopolitanism as a key organizing principle in historiography and theory building, arguing that although cosmopolitanism can be a valuable discursive strategy in self-reflexive constructions of identity, the concept marginalizes or elides Islam and leaves ambivalent space for Africa. The paper calls for re-examining how Muslims and Islam are conceptualized as world historical and Caribbean regional phenomena, and how implicit assumptions inform our analytical vocabulary.

  5. Energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, J S; Brainard, J P

    1977-08-01

    This report presents a review of the energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic Region. It describes the patterns of energy production, supply and demand by state and compares these to national and regional averages. It presents a picture of existing energy and environmental interactions and a view of potential energy and environmental conflicts. A review of the major issues by energy sector is included as is a description of the existing energy actors and major energy programs for Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Washington, DC.

  6. Properties and pathways of Mediterranean water eddies in the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Calheiros, T.; Carton, X.

    2015-09-01

    Data from ship vertical casts (NODC data-set), ARGO profiling floats (Coriolis data-set) and RAFOS-type neutral density floats (WOCE data-set) are used to study characteristics of meddies in the Northeast Atlantic. In total 241 Mediterranean water eddies (meddies) and 236 parts of float trajectories within meddies are selected for detailed analysis. The results suggest that the meddy generation rate at the southern and southwestern Iberian Peninsula (Portimao Canyon, cap St. Vincent, Estremadura Promontory, Gorringe Bank) is 3 times that at the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Porto-Aveiro Canyons, Cape Finisterre and Galicia Bank). Meddies generated south of Estremadura Promontory (the southern meddies), as compared to those generated north of it (the northern meddies), have smaller radii, smaller vertical extension, higher aspect ratio, higher Rossby number and higher stability (stronger potential vorticity anomaly). These latter properties result from the southern meddies higher relative vorticity and stronger buoyancy frequency anomaly. Away from the generation regions, meddy drift concentrates along four main paths: three quasi-zonal paths (Northern, Central, Southern) and a path following the African coast (Coastal). The quasi-zonal paths are aligned to the isolines of the ambient potential vorticity field. Several cross-path exchanges, identified in this work, are aligned to topographic rises. Northward translation of the northern meddies within the North Atlantic Current to the subpolar gyre is detected. Within the first 600 km from the coast, meddy merger is proved to be a common event. This explains the observed difference in radii between the newly generated meddies and those away from the Iberian margin. The decay of the southern meddies proceeds mainly via the loss of their skirts and does not affect meddy cores until the latest stages. The decay of the northern meddies goes in parallel with the decay of their cores. In average meddy decay is achieved

  7. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  8. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    and the surrounding areas. (2) A regional increase in subsidence in the offshore marginal areas of Norway, the northern North Sea, the northern British Isles and west Greenland took place in the Eocene (ca 57-35 Ma). (3) The Oligocene and Miocene (35-5 Ma) were characterized by regional tectonic quiescence, with only...... localised uplift, probably related to changes in plate dynamics. (4) The second major phase of regional uplift that affected all marginal areas of the North Atlantic occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene (5-0 Ma). Its amplitude was enhanced by erosion-driven glacio-isostatic compensation. Despite inconclusive...

  9. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  10. Sound Speed Structure of the Western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    note possible, and there are many involved. First of all, special thanks must be given to Louis P. Solomon, Robert F. Gardner, and Jones Hicks Ford...March 1981 that have been published by Georgi, Amos, Draganovic, and Raymer (1979). 0 Austral winter T-5 XBT profiles collected in Marsden square 339 by R...and M. Raymer (1979). STD Observations in the Southwest Atlantic from Cruise 16, Leg 9 of the R/V CONRAD and Cruise 7-75 of the ISLAS ORCADAS. Woods

  11. Property Changes of Abyssal Waters in the Western Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrford, Josefine; Brandt, Peter; Zenk, Walter

    2017-04-01

    Flowing northward towards the equator, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) encounters the lighter overlying North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), both water masses creating an abyssal stratification and gradually mixing across their interface. Changes in the associated water mass formation and/or along-path transformation, observable in the evolution of water mass volume and characteristics, might impact the deep oceans uptake of anthropogenic CO2 or its contribution to global sea level rise. We compile historic and recent shipboard measurements of hydrography and velocity to provide a comprehensive view on water mass distribution, pathways, along-path transformation and long-term temperature changes of abyssal waters in the western South and Equatorial Atlantic. We are able to confirm previous results showing that the northwest corner of the Brazil Basin represents a splitting point for the southward/northward flow of NADW/AABW. The available measurements sample water mass transformation along the two major routes for deep and bottom waters in the tropical to South Atlantic - along the deep western boundary and eastward, parallel to the equator - as well as the hot spots of extensive mixing. We find lower NADW and lighter AABW to form a highly interactive transition layer in the northern Brazil Basin. The AABW north of 5°S is relatively homogeneous with only lighter AABW being able to pass through the Equatorial Channel (EQCH) into the North Atlantic. Spanning a period of 26 years, our data also allow an estimation of long-term temperature trends in abyssal waters. We find a warming of 2.5 ± 0.7•10-3 °C yr-1 of the waters in the northern Brazil Basin being colder than 0.6 °C throughout the period 1989-2014 and can relate that warming to a thinning of the dense AABW layer. While isopycnal heave is the dominant effect defining the vertical distribution of temperature trends on isobars, we also find temperature changes on isopycnals in the transition layer the lower NADW

  12. Spreading of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, E.; Tarakanov, R. Y.; Zenk, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the transport of bottom water from its source region in the Weddell Sea through the abyssal channels of the Atlantic Ocean. The research brings together the recent observations and historical data. A strong flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Vema Channel is analyzed. The mean speed of the flow is 30 cm/s. A temperature increase was found in the deep Vema Channel, which has been observed for 30 years already. The flow of bottom water in the northern part of the Bra...

  13. Radon levels and transport parameters in Atlantic Forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, E.E.G. de; Silva Neto, P.C. da; Souza, E.M. de; De Franca, E.J.; Hazin, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    In natural forest soils, the radon transport processes can be significantly intensified due to the contribution of living organism activities to soil porosity. In this paper, the first results of the radon concentrations were obtained for soil gas from the Atlantic Forest, particularly in the Refugio Ecologico Charles Darwin, Brazil. The estimation of permeability and radon exhalation rate were carried out in this conservation unit. For forested soils, radon concentrations as high as 40 kBq m -3 were found. Based on the radon concentrations and on the permeability parameter, the results indicated considerable radon hazard for human occupation in the neighborhood. (author)

  14. Atlantic Forest. A natural reservoir of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Franca, E.J.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Elias, C.

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of chemical elements in biological compartments is one of the strategies of tropical species to adapt to a low-nutrient soil. This study focuses on the Atlantic Forest because of its eco-environmental importance as a natural reservoir of chemical elements. About 20 elements were determined by INAA in leaf, soil, litter and epiphyte compartments. There was no seasonality for chemical element concentrations in leaves, which probably indicated the maintenance of chemical elements in this compartment. Considering the estimated quantities, past deforestation events could have released large amounts of chemical elements to the environment. (author)

  15. 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting, American Chemical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society held May 21-23, 1984, include information about the meeting, e.g. area map and list of exhibitors, and abstracts for most of the 397 papers. A few papers are only title listed. The papers are arranged into sections dealing with analytical chemistry, biochemistry, chemical education, environmental chemistry, fuel chemistry, history of chemistry, industrial and engineering chemistry, inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, and polymeric materials. Sections are also included to highlight undergraduate research and papers by chemical technicians and younger chemists. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 36 papers

  16. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second... Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats will be participating...

  17. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... proposes to establish special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach... waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high- speed power boats are...

  18. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during... event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30...

  19. 76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as... implemented, this rule would revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit...

  20. 76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as prepared and... the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; establishes an annual catch limit...